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The -tt- in Latin Quattuor Author(s): Roland G. Kent Reviewed work(s): Source: Language, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Mar., 1927), pp. 12-14 Published by: Linguistic Society of America Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/409641 . Accessed: 29/12/2011 05:08
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vv.5 in I.3 The only circumstance in which. Lat. 6tym. cit. F.. Lautu. the consonant. 203. and in the Italian febbre.18. in Latin. from the fact that the words :are in use so closely associated with one another that they affect one -another's forms. and is immediately followed by the vowel of that syllable. The inference is unescapable. Miuller's Hdb. Formenlehre2 291-5 (1926). Wtb.587. that quattuor represents an older *quatuor. and older litera became littera. at the same time that it. by its use in Pseudolus 1303. Hbd. Spr. belongs to the following syllable. Thus older Ilipiter regularly became luppiter. (1914). aqua.THE -TT. in which the -u. Can a long vowel in the initial syllable of this word be explained on any reasonable basis. an inscription of 81 B. Brugmann.. and yet among the names of the digits we find more exceptions to the principle of regular phonetic development.d. Walde. v. probably. Sommer.IN LATIN QUATTUOR ROLAND G. vv. 2 Leumann-Stolz. cit. lat. KENT UNIVERSITYOF PENNSYLVANIA Numerals share with pronouns the honor of being the best criteria of linguistic relationship. Gram.2. Gdr. d. ?152. op. Dict. acqua from Latin febris..ii. is found in CIL 12. revised by M. s. de la langue grecque. 12 . ?of the consonant at the junction between two syllables. it is regular and not sporadic.' One such puzzling exception is the -tt. Lehmann. Stolz. of inscriptions. Gram. in the main. and the spelling quattuor. solluit. a single consonant became doubled. with two t's. etc. etym.F. s. The conventional theory is that it is a doubling. is that of its standing after a long vowel of the accented syllable. Lat. vergl. 22. Boisacq. 2. op. as in the occasional Iusstus. d. K. For the length of the initial syllable of quattuoris assured in the time of Plautus. than anywhere else in an equal group of unquestioned cognates. The exceptions arise.had already become vocalic.II.in Latin quattuor. 21. indog.2 But in quattuor the doubling is admittedly much earlier than that in the Italian words. citing here collectively A.C. and as compared with the Latin examples. 3 Sommer. E. or more strictly a lengthening. Altertumsw. d. in the face of the short vowed attested by all other languages? I give a minimum of references.1-82 (1911).

one must accept a hiatus after the next word. So I incline to think that the long vowels of oinos du5 tres quinque infected *qudtuor and remade it to *qudtuor. though here the prior vowel is long before the contraction occurs. with an unexplainable -d. Ter. editors are obliged to emend the manuscript reading quadruplari. 22.4959. as was recognized long ago. Thurneysen.in early Latin. 6 By R. I attribute the lengthening of the first vowel of *qudtuor.after the vowel. 472. quadrupes. to quadrupulator. and in later verse the consonants may make a closed syllable. The surest warranty for a short vowel seems to be in quadrupedem. iii. substitutions of long syllable for short and of two shorts for a long are freely made. P1. the differences in the consonantal groups may have been the decisive factor in preventing the spread of the long vowel from quatuor. 1.94. in which the characteristic vowel-if we may grant that the characteristic vowel of du5 is the 5 rather than the u.THE -TT.P1. The length of the vowel in quinque also is not original. Aul. 1. Persa 62. librem. instead of an elision.411. There is the objection that quater 'four times' and words beginning with quadr. But another form may have contributed to the long vowel in qudtuor: the pre-Latin word for 'fourth' seems to have been *kwatwortos. Anc.501-2. 2. Aen. If the initial syllable of quadri4 Mon. The length of the vowel in qudrtus is assured by inscriptional writings with the apex. quadrTgae. And. quadringenti. and the other words have a peculiar -dr.4 and there is the parallel instance of Mdvors Mars.IN LATIN QUATTUOR 13 Perhaps the point of connection may be found in the series. Note further that the next five cardinals agree in having a short vowel in the corresponding position: sex septem oct5 novemdecem. . 809.the evidence is more difficult to locate. 70. and quadruplator. Ge. CIL 3. see Vergil.5 But quater goes back to an adverb ending in -trus. for while in Plautus and in Terence a stop plus a liquid does not make position.which made possible thereafter the doubling of the consonant with a conincident shortening of the vowel. cit. KZ 30. op. 865. For quadr.before -r-. be short. and quartus by contraction. etc. ib. put in the pre-Plautine values. that of the long vowels in the other cardinals of the series and that of the long vowel in the ordinal qudrtus. to quadrupulari.399. as a doublet form *dv5 may have been used in rapid speech-is without exception either a diphthong or a long vowel.whence *kwawortoswith dissimilative loss of one t.cited by Sommer. To these two influences. But to keep the shortness of the initial syllable. for short vowels were lengthened before -nct. then.6 but came back from the ordinal qutnctus into the cardinal.) are proved by the meters of poetry to have a short a in the initial syllable.(quadrdgintd. oinos du5 tr8s qudtuor quinque. 6 For quater.

Formenlehred. it must be recognized as very early. KENT And yet the -c. and therefore increases the likelihood of the explanation of quattuor which has been offered here.1 2. cf. 254 M. where the words for '4' and '5' were petora and *pompe. quod postea levius visum est.'" Converging evidence indicates that the length in *qudtuorand in quinquebecame established at not far from the same time. since the group -nct. Fest. pronuntiari. 8 Ap.14 ROLAND G.tended to become -nt.: Quincentum et producta prima syllaba et per c litteram usurpant antiqui. . Neue-Wagener. At the same time.in early Latin. 7 For citations of spelling with -c-.of quinctus itself remained only by the reciprocal influence of quinque. amply attested by glosses and by derivatives.' No parallel to this association of the first five digits in their vocalic length can be found in Oscan and Umbrian. tat. Spr.310. ita ut nunc dicimus. and therefore the phenomenon which we have examined is distinctly a Latin phenomenon. = 338 Th. since Verrius Flaccus remarks on the long vowel in old Latin quincentum '500.