Linguistic Society of America

Catellus, Caniculus. A Case of Semantic Interchange Author(s): A. H. Schutz Reviewed work(s): Source: Language, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Mar., 1927), pp. 6-8 Published by: Linguistic Society of America Stable URL: . Accessed: 29/12/2011 05:07
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Probi. At least as early as the third century A. chiau. gives both. Within each group. both forms: 'ut est cista cistula cistella et canis VWe catulus catellus' cit. catellus seems to have won its battle. LL 9. Du Cange) of an exorcism: 'et quod in modum parvuli Cati discurreret Francigena lingua dicentibus.CATELLUS. ch6.2 Judging by the subsequent fortunes of both. cit. de Paris 14. chael. chiau. 4 A1moires de la Soc. See below for association of canis and catulus. chaillon for the Old French examples. if indeed it did not threaten the existence of the latter. ille contra. to such a degree that they come to be used interchangeably for 'kitten' and 'puppy. for the -ulus variant seems to have left no descendants. Baehrens says: "Unberichtigt ist die Zurtickweisungvon catellus" (SprachlicherKomment. 74. A CASE OF SEMANTIC INTERCHANGE A. de Ling. 3 As to the form in -ellus being the less classical. 2 A curious juxtaposition of the two is found in the following account (Osbertus de Miraculis Sancti Dunstani. chaon.4 We may add a few forms that occur in the South of France: 1 The problem of the single or double t in cat(t)us is discussed by Garcia de Diego. cha6. among the patois of the northern regions. certainly in the territory we are considering. CANICULUS. The Thesaurus Ling. ?111.z.' have in Varro. with catellus marked 'a catulus deminutive. Lat. SCHUTZ UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI Of special interest in the Romance of Gaul and Spain are the descendants of catellus and caniculus.3 On the other hand. 211 (Sain6an). as we shall see. App. subridens. LANGUAGE 2. catellus1 was a serious rival of catulus.' Of this state of affairs. Probus records catulus non catellus. the grammarians and lexicographers seem to be unaware. chiaule. though Baehrens at one point rather curiously puts both in brackets in his edition of the Appendix. to list all the forms of catellus would require not a little space. a certain number of specimens are here cited: cael. 121). H. as the sources referred to will readily show. p. Contribuci6n al diccionario hispdnico etimol6gico.D. quiaule. 6. sed ut catellus'. 187 (Kent). keel. eadem lingua similiter verbo diminutivo consonanter respondebat dicens: Non ut catulus. qui linguae ipsius omnimodis inscius erat.. there is considerable fluidity of sense. 6 .

Whether so great a diversity of meanings has been carried forward into modern dialects is difficult to say with our present facilities. 1789. see also Roman.550 (Gatz). alios in ventre habere reperiuntur.' Canis (aside from numerous metaphoric values" that it may have. cadillo as 'flor de olivo'. op. being applied to 'pocketbook'. speaking of (Roman. cit. de la Real Acad. 7 Garcia de Diego. Etym. but many things lead one to believe that it has indeed been the case. 5. ipsi turpiores procreabant' (J. Garcia de Diego (?109) defines Catalan cadell 'flores de algunos Arboles' and Arag. Wbch.6 In Spain we find Old Cast.) speaks not only of the cayeau du lion and the chael of the fox (see also Renart 896-7. 1925). . but refers in this manner to children: Par la bataille ez vos poignant Borrel O lui estoient si XIII chael. rabbits and their prolific reproduction says: 'etenim cum habent catulos recentes. Wbch.A CASE OF SEMANTIC INTERCHANGE 7 chadel. Sain6an's list of terms derived from the idea 'dog' and applied to machinery (loc.4. Frgs. 'iron hook'. related to these forms). (Aleschans 6256) as also La Curne de Ste. Martin). In Old Provengal. Palaye: 'De cibis delicatis pascebant catulos suos quos de turpibus concubinis. ed. Catulaster is defined in the Codex Cassinensis' as 'Iuvenis duodecim annorum'. 11E. extension of this idea even permitted application of the term to the young of the rabbit. Tuit chevalier adoub6 de novel.kadio (Cantal). cit.). 1763. Espahiola. ?1586). 6 Atlas Linguistique Dict.1" cadelet means 'young dog' but also 'young lion cub'. lion or similar animal.). Supplement-Wbrterbuch.5kdddl (in Pyr6n. des idiomes mWridionaux. 10 Levy. 6 Boucoiran.. Orient. for it could signify the young of the wolf. de Vitri). ?109: 'significa un animal fantistico que la gente supersticiosa se representa como un enorme perro negro'. tchddel (in Lozbre). In Spanish gato similarly takes on a number of meanings. kbddl. Catalan cadell (and Spanish America has cadejo. Godefroy (Dict.g. kiddu (in Bouches du Rh6ne).' but the meaning of catellus and catulus as far back as classical Latin was much wider in scope. Mistral (Tresor) renders cadelas as 'jeune et gros chien' and 'grand jeune homme qui fait l'enfant' and gives cadeliero as 'vache portiere qui porte chaque annie commeles chiennes.8 These numerous interpretations lived on. Lat. Etym. just as caneja<canic(u)la 8 Varro. RR 3. cadiello.' 9 Corpus Gloss. 'block and tackle' (Dicc. Aragonese cadillo.7 All these are listed under the general sense 'little dog. Cadejo<*catic(u)- lu(m). Anc.

en rampant avec un air d'humilit6.8 A. OF chenel (Godefroy). 3.'14 Hence an expression like Mistral's La chino dou segnour a cadela 'the seigneur's dog has puppies' need not seem extraordinary. Many verbs are formed on this substantive. As in the case of catellus. e. canijo. Switzerland). have. Sp. 13 and. . (Mistral).' Was he aware that this is more the manner of a dog than of a cat? Certain it is that cat-de-maris given as 'chien de mer' without comment. e. c a n i s et c a t a et cetera animalia. Fr. possibly even to a more diverse extent.. That such interchange of meanings should have occurred is the almost inevitable consequence of semantic kinship aided by the lack of fixity within each group.).' Is there not more than one child who thinks of cat as the feminine of dog and even cow as the feminine of horse? Incidentally attention is called to the loose manner in which the passage from Virgilius was quoted. It is. 3.). more curious to find under the heading Petit Chat. the confusion may be of long standing. 14 Ibid. SCHUTZ resembling cattus in this respect) can be applied to other animals. 10. quidam simpliciter dixerunt quod masculinum hoc esse debuit quod secundum habitudinem corporis ostenderetur et ita femininum ut vir et mulier. chienetel (ibid. there exist a number of derivatives of canis in Romance. apropos of Mistral's translation of fa de-catetos 'en baissant la tete.13 A glance at Fr. in discussing gender. para identificar catta con canis feminina.g. French chenet. That Phaedrus uses it as 'wolf' is natural. 437. the formations on canis show a great variety of significance: Roman. for catulus. chenille shows that. chenil.15 12Riddle-Scheller's Lexicon totius Latinitatis. Map 1498. canilho.' Thus the two major groups. chnil. all obviously from canis. kidnle (id.). Prov. Lat. Etym.' In the last instance. 15Corpus Gloss. rendered 'Kinder' and Tyrolese kanai 'Knabe. mentions kanaya (in Tessin canton.431. the one based on canis and the other on cattus. referring to the lions that adorn them. the forms kdnilos (fem. dialect chienneton.318. 110. chenilho. taurus et vacca. because caniculus and catulus are both rendered 'piscis' by the Latin glossators. speaks as follows: '. 17. in the Atlas Linguistique.g. Wbch. ?111: 'Ignoro en qu6 se apoyaria el gramAtico Virgilio. One more remark. however. since early times.H. in this connection. a similar and at times common road. encanijarse. aries et ouis. considering the close relation of the species. like the derivatives of cattus. I. from the semantic point of view. Already the grammarian Virgilius. 13Garcia de Diego ?96.12 It is more curious to note the Spanish folk use of perra chica and perra gorda for five and ten c6ntimo coppers. followed. Epist. . encaniau.