You are on page 1of 46

Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Science University Technology Mara

Project Proposal

Ali Zainal Abidin Bin Mohd Roslan 2007286554 Bachelor of Computer Science (Hons) (Multimedia Computing) October 2010

Learning Good and Bad Habit Using Digital Storytelling

Final Year Project Proposal

A 4th Year Student

Project proposal submitted in part fulfilment of the degree of BCS (Hons.) ( Multimedia Computing) with the supervision of Dr. Marina Ismail and co-ordinated by Mr.Mohd.Yunus Mohd Yusof and Mdm. Suzana Baharuddin

Faculty Computer and Mathematical Science Universiti Teknologi MARA


28 July 2013

ii

Abstract
It is found that children have difficulties in learn history in classroom. There have many problem in learning history especially battle in Islam. The proper technique and tools might help student in learning history better than traditional method. Thus this study is focus on interactive digital storytelling that can help children in learning history in the better condition. This study is to determine whether storytelling module can really enhances student performances in learning history so that their results of history became good. The storytelling will give a clear information besides using suitable animation for children. It is to attract children in learning history.

Keywords: Storytelling, Traditional Method, Animation

iii

Approval

This proposal is accepted to be pursued under my supervision.

_______________________________________

Marina Ismail Supervisor Faculty Computer and Mathematical Science Universiti Teknologi MARA

28 July 2013

vi

Acknowledgements
Alhamdulillah thanks to Allah because i successfully complete my project within the specified time. I would express my biggest appreciation to my supervisor, Mdm Marina Ismail for her determination in giving me continous guidances, ideas, and advise throughout the preparation of this proposal. Special thanks to my coordinators, Mr Mohd . Yunus Mohd Yusof, and Mdm Suzana Baharuddin for their commitment in helping and give recommendation in lining the project proposal properly. Thanks to my lecturer and colleagues for sharing ideas and aid me in completing this project proposal, and finally thanks to everyone who involved directly or indirectly in the completion of this project proposal.

Thank You.

vi

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.0 Introduction
Learns good and bad habit is the important thing in human life because this habit can create good human habit. Moreover in Islam, our prophet, Nabi Muhammad SAW teaches us what the good habits are and what the bad habits are and how important the moral values are. Good habit are the good habit that everyone have and Bad habit are the bad habit that should be avoid from everyone. Well of course this habit should deeply being emphasized as Islam religion want and must be practiced in human daily life. This learning should be taught in early year of human life that is children because this type of ages where the form of a good human need to be emphasize. But when it comes to learning process, there is some problem use to happen with traditional learning tools that is the use of textbook as the learning tools. So with the use of digital storytelling as a modern learning tool, it can help children better in learning process. The digital storytelling are widely being used in other learning environment and has been successful achieve their goal and objective. So to teach good and bad habits or moral values using digital storytelling is a way to create new demand as teaching method to teach children mostly at the school environment. The educator should use this method in order to enhance good human characteristic that are benefit to world. With the use of proper methodology and techniques to develop the storytelling for this project, the final product will be the best of the other teaching method that will help student to receive the information clear and efficiently especially learning good and bad habit as referred from Islamic book.

vi

1.1 Problem Statement


The conventional textbooks that have a story in it mostly are presented in a linear and not provided as the users need. Storytelling engages students on a level that many teaching methods do not (Rossiter, 2002). History has shown that storytelling is the successful way to enhances children performances during class. Sometimes the digital storytelling less being use because of not all teacher have experience in making the digital storytelling. (M. Banaszewski T, 2005) as a Master of Science in Information Design and Technology states that, teaching the actual story process within digital storytelling presents several challenges for teachers as it need the combination of creative writing, basic film conventions, visual and media literacy, and also as the technical facility with the technology. When the students are in process of learning of the current textbook, they make revision page by page, which is full of text only and sometimes few image were embedded in the page, students might forget the previous page and it also can make the student feel bored. It happens because of too much data that need to be remembered and without any effective ways that can help the student capable to remember things. The research has been done by J Cullen A, et al. (2008) shows that in a traditional lecture setting, 33 minutes after a lecture is completed, attendees only retain 58% of the material presented. By the second day, only 33% is retained, and three weeks after the course is completed, only 15% is remembered (Jones 2002). While in E-Learning lecture setting material can be accessed several times and at any time if something is forgotten which allows students to remember most of the information delivered that they are required to learn in particular course.

vi

1.2 Objective
The objectives for this project are:
1. To develop courseware that can describe the meaning of good and bad habit. 2. To teach the student about Good and Bad habit. 3. To conduct the usability test of the courseware to know children understanding.

1.3 Project Limitation


1. Children (7-12 years old). 2. 7 Good and 7 Bad habit. 3. Muslim student. 4. 2D Animation. 5. Storytelling. 6. Language.

1.4 Research Question


Below are the research questions for the study. Does this prototype can really assist children in learning good and bad habit?

Does storytelling module can really motivate children in good and bad habit?

Does learner satisfied with the prototype?

vi

1.5

Significant

When the student using the application they should be able understand the topic of good and bad habit better after the learning of the courseware. The students also can apply their understanding of learning into their daily life because they should be able to convince themselves about to making decision to choose what is right or wrong on depending situation. The students should able to express the real Muslim characteristic because this habit is taking from Islamic book but also can be apply in student who are from other religion.

vi

Chapter 2: Literature review


2.0 Introduction
This chapter discuss about the storytelling as a teaching method as refer to the past research. The existences of digital storytelling help to deliver information in virtual mode or in the computer. The information need to be delivered is the moral values.

2.1 Storytelling
Storytelling is the art in which a teller conveys a message, truths, information, knowledge, or wisdom to an audience often subliminally in an entertaining way, using whatever skills, (musical, artistic, creative) or props he chooses, to enhance the audience's enjoyment, retention and understanding of the message conveyed. Stories are sometimes told purely for joy and delight. In Prepublication version of Boje, D. M. 2008 define the word storytelling as a criterion initially developed by the Greek philosopher Aristotle. By such a definition, narrative proper stories must be linear plot sequence, whole coherence of beginning, middle, and ending, and recited by a solitary narrator. The stories can be constructing into non-linear, fragmented, distributed, and collective partial telling. (Weaver, 2001) also define the storytelling is the root historical context of human cultures. For many of us, it plays a significant and important role in youth as they listen to their family stories or histories from their parents or grandparents. These stories can connect people to a past, a collective presence of either family and social experience or moral values. Storytelling is useful in multi cultural education, it can assist in creating classroom communities, improving students' emotional health, enhancing childrens' grasp of the social and environmental responsibilities.

vi

2.1.1 Digital Storytelling


The digital storytellings are rarely being use in learning as a learning tool. This happens due to lack of experience from teachers to make the digital storytelling comes alive and attractive. (M. Banaszewski T, 2005) as a Master of Science in Information Design and Technology states that, teaching the actual story process within digital storytelling presents several challenges for teachers as it need the combination of creative writing, basic film conventions, visual and media literacy, and also as the technical facility with the technology. All the challenges needs as the Digital storytelling presents a unique opportunity for students to acquire much more information of the learning. It enables them to represent their voices in a manner rarely addressed by state and district curriculum while practicing the digital literacy skills that will be important to their 21st century futures. Storytelling and multimedia production have rarely been taught, if at all, while the development of students narrative skills has rested on the shoulders of English teachers. Thats why the teachers need to improve their skills on making the digital storytelling for now and future use.

There appears to be little research on teaching methodology for the subject of landscape. Landscape has become increasingly significant as a cultural reference [predominantly metaphorical and visual], but there is little discussion of this development within education. (Thwaites, 2003) describes Experiential Landscape Place as a theoretical approach to teaching landscape, but this is located within the discipline of Landscape Architecture. There is little recognition within pedagogy of how landscape as an inter-disciplinary subject is approached from different perspectives; crossing disciplines from geography to art, through soil structure to metaphor. Built environment courses often approach landscape as the physical environment and may reduce the potential of the subject by compartmentalizing it into elements which can be managed, measured and visualized. Can we utilize the transdisciplinary knowledge held within landscape if we approach it as a subject we can learn from rather than a subject we teach? (Walker A, 2005).

vi

The exists of digital storytelling as the modern teaching tools nowadays open new types of instruction method to be develop and uses in school environment. As mention from (Tsou W, 2006) from Department of Languages and Literature Education, National University of Tainan states in his study that storytelling is a practical and powerful teaching tool, especially for language learning. Teachers in language classrooms, however, may hesitate to incorporate storytelling into language instruction because of an already overloaded curriculum. For his research, the English foreign language (EFL) teachers in Taiwan report additional problems such as having little prior experience with integrating storytelling into language teaching, locating appropriate stories, and lacking the cultural and language abilities to handle storytelling in English. On the other hand, researchers have demonstrated successful usages of computer and network-assisted English learning. The researchers in this study have developed a multimedia Storytelling Website to study how web based technology can assist overcoming the obstacles mentioned above. The website contains an accounts administration module, multimedia story composing module, and story re-playing module. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of this Website in significantly facilitating teachers storytelling and childrens story recall processes in EFL classrooms, it was implemented in one elementary school to test its. effectiveness in instruction and in resultant student learning. The results of the study support the significance and the education value of the multimedia Storytelling Website on EFL teaching and learning. If such a Website can be applied within elementary EFL classrooms, the quality of teaching and learning can be improved and students enjoyment and success in EFL learning may increase (Tsou W, 2006).

vi

2.1.2

Storytelling Benefit

Students at school are commonly with the writing skill, with the teacher use written form of storytelling to convey their students with the story. Storytelling is not only used for communication purposes, but storytelling has been used to teach literacy skills, cooperative learning skills, critical thinking, and to build knowledge of different contexts (Mello, 2001). Much of the traditional literature used in schools has evolved from folk tales and oral stories that were edited and published to teach and convey messages about a culture (Mello, 2001). Students use these stories to construct their own meaning and knowledge about different topics. They may also use these stories as a model for their own composition of stories. As they write, students automatically improve their literacy skills that they have seen modeled in stories they have read or heard.

The vivid images stimulated by storytelling promote character identification thus engaging the student as an active participant in the learning process. When learners are engaged in this way, research reveals improved understanding and ability of the learner to apply what they have learned. Character identification means the information that is view can be guest by the student. So the student will be more active because all component of body is used like brain, hand and so on (Rose, 1997).

Storytelling is the primary way that people access, express, and retain information and knowledge and people will interest using storytelling (Caine, 2005). So, storytelling will have the opportunity to be used by all range of people especially children in primary school. Storytelling can give chance to people to express their feeling and so on. Storytelling also can investigate level of people knowledge and their performance in study especially in history subject and what are the problem and weakness in student performance.

vi

2.2.2 Human Computer Interaction in Digital Storytelling


The presence of HCI in digital storytelling can bring it more attractive to the student who will be the one whether they are enjoy or not. (Spierling, 2005) states in his research aspects of both disciplines within the community of computer graphics and interactive systems, a concept of interactive storytelling was constructed that basically viewed human -computer interactions as an entertaining conversation between agents. He also states that there is a parallel between the principles of drama from Aristotles Poetics and principles of, and presents the Aristotelian definition of an agent as: An agent is one who initiates and performs actions. In the conclusion, computer-based agency is present in all human-computer activities, regardless of whether the representation of agents on the stage has human-like (anthropomorphic) features.

Digital Storytelling is a new topic of interest for a growing number of people from a diversity of disciplines and origins of expertise. Human-computer interaction is a discipline concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use and with the study of major phenomena surrounding them. (Hewett, 2004). As to design the storytelling with include of HCI for children, its important to study children attractiveness of the interface of the application.

Recognizing the importance of HCI, human-computer interaction involves examining design, implementation, and evaluation as a continual, integrated, and iterative process. In other words, there is a cycle to designing specifications, some type of implementation of the design, either prototype or full, and then an evaluative process that examines if requirements have been satisfied (Greenberg, 1996). So with HCI the storytelling can be design to suitable level such as children. HCI is design to make a proper work to choose what the element should be put and are the element should be rejected so that children can use it and interested with that application.

vi

2.2 Fundamental Design of Digital Storytelling


2.2.1 Element of Storytelling
The element that has been identified by (Banaszewski, 2005) in his research that divided into seven tasks that is: 1. Point of View 2. Dramatic Question 3. Emotional Content 4. Gift of Your Voice 5. Power of Soundtrack 6. Economy 7. Pacing

2.1.2.1 Point of View Stories need to make a point. The point should be clear as the student responds to it encounter with the teacher and demonstrates awareness of the audience in selecting an experience common to students.

2.1.2.2 Dramatic Question The dramatic question sets up the tension and goal of the story. The question will be asked at the end of the storytelling. So that the student recall back the memory of what the answer of the question should be.

vi

2.1.2.3 Emotional Content Each story should carry an emotional content that will be present in digital storytelling as emotion in environment or in character itself. Stories that speak to fundamental paradigms of death and our sense of loss, of love and loneliness, of confidence and vulnerability; of acceptance and rejection will emotionally engage us (Lambert 2001).

2.1.2.4 Gift of Your Voice This is a more technical element that expects the teller to recognize the power behind her individual voice. A digital story with a voice-over that sounds like it was read off a page will sometimes reduce the quality of a digital story. The students were comfortable with their voices, sounding as if they were telling a story rather than reading off a paper.

2.1.2.5 Power of Soundtrack Not surprisingly, students have a very developed sense of music and are always very eager to include it in their story. Used appropriately music and sound effects can add depth to a story. The include of soundtrack, ambience and sound effect can help the information to be deliver even better. Sometimes silence is just as powerful depending on situation of course.

2.1.2.6 Economy To create effective digital story must be design with the use of a small number of images or video clips, and a short two to three minute script. For students, economy relates more to selecting visuals that are not literally connected to the script. This is perfectly acceptable for a fourth grader without any instruction in image selection or manipulation because they simply understand it.

vi

2.1.2.7 Pacing The designer should be aware of the audience. In each students story, they effectively use the two to three minute window expected in a digital story. The designer must take concern in developing a good storytelling to the audience.

vi

2.3 Developing Process of a Digital Storytelling


This section discuss about how the digital storytelling process being develop based on successful theory that has been tested. Each of the step of the process will guide the designer to better design as the demand is on the good storytelling development.

2.3.1 Seven Steps of Digital Storytelling


There are needs for the successful step in order to develop a good and attractive digital storytelling so that it can deliver the information efficiently. Joe Lambert (2010) came up with seven elements that outlined the fundamentals of digital storytelling and discovered that formally presenting them at the beginning of workshops greatly improved the process and the stories told.

Our emphasis over the years has been to help designers find the story they want or need to tell, and then help them clearly define that story in the form of solidly written script. For many designers, this process of clarification has proven to be a transformative experience, and for us, a truly rewarding journey. We now look forward to further refining this process and evolving the genre. And as we hold onto our original commitment to help designers sculpt a focused piece of personal writing, we will discuss what makes a story a digital story, and what makes a digital story a good digital story.

To that end, this rewrite of the elements reflects where we stand in this journey. It is not only a renaming and reordering of the elements, but a complete rethinking of the approach to digital storytelling. And because we view the storytelling process as a journey, we feel that framing our approach around the metaphor of Steps, rather than Elements, will more practically guide designers along the path of creating a meaningful digital story.(Lambert J, 2010)

vi

The steps are: 1. Owning Your Insights 2. Owning Your Emotions 3. Finding The Moment 4. Seeing Your Story 5. Hearing Your Story 6. Assembling Your Story 7. Sharing Your Story

2.3.1.1 Owning Your Insights


This step is to find and clarify what their stories are about. It often start with the question: Whats the story you want to tell? and then as a follow-up, What do you think your story means? It is to hear not just what the story is about in the obvious sense: Its about moral values, But what its really about: the designer, as the person who live through the story. And what its about between the lines.

Finding and clarifying what a story is really about isnt easy. Its a journey in which a storytellers insight or wisdom can evolve, even revealing an unexpected outcome. This process can take time to unfold through check-ins and downtime during the duration of a multi-day workshop. Finding and clarifying stories helps designers to understand the context of their lives.

Sometimes the designer need to ask themselves, but it difficult to answer: Why this story? Why now? What makes it todays version of the story? What makes it your version of the story? Whos it for? Whos it to? How does this story show who you are? How does this story show why you are who you are?

vi

2.3.1.2 Owning Your Emotions


As this step help designers find and clarify what their stories are about and ask them to consider the meaning contained within their stories, this step also want to help them become aware of the emotional resonance of their story. By identifying the emotions in the story, they can then decide which emotions they would like to include in their story and how they would like to convey them to their audience.

To help designers identify the emotions in their story, the series of questions regarding their process will be ask: As you shared your story, or story idea, what emotions did you experience? Can you identify at what points in sharing your story you felt certain emotions? If you experienced more than one emotion, were they contrasting? And as the designers gains awareness of their emotional connection to the story, they can begin to think about how others might connect on an emotional level. To help designers decide how to convey emotional content, the follow question will be ask: Which emotions will best help the audience understand the journey contained within the story? Is there an overall tone that captures a central theme? Can you convey your emotions without directly using feeling words or relying on clichs to describe them? For example, how can you imply the idea of happiness without saying, I felt happy?

Taking ownership of the emotions contained within a story will also help the audience connect on a deeper level. But the inclusion of emotions doesnt mean that your audience will meaningfully connect to it, so emotion alone is not the goal. When we, as an audience, hear a story that has an exaggerated tug to emotion, we read it as dishonesty.

vi

In story work, as a storyteller reflects on their sense of what the story is about and becomes aware of its emotional content, they must also choose the just-so voice that suits it. And rather than using language constructed for a society that can be judgmental and threatening, the storyteller instead peels back the protective layers and finds the voice that conveys their emotional honesty, as if speaking to a trusted friend.

2.3.1.3 Finding the Moment


Finding and clarifying the insight and emotions of the story can be the most challenging and rewarding part of the storytelling process. As the designers become clear about the meaning of their story, we want to help them tell their story as a story by identifying a single moment that they can use to illustrate their insight. To help designers find this moment, they will be ask a series of questions: What was the moment when things changed? Were you aware of it at the time? If not, what was the moment you became aware that things had changed? Is there more than one possible moment to choose from? If so, do they convey different meanings? Which most accurately conveys the meaning in your story? Can you describe the moment in detail? Once this moment of change is identified, this step will help designers determine how it will be used to shape the story.

To find the moment, the designers need to understand deeply the story because those moments are loaded with more meaning than others. The moment of change that need to be identified might be the most memorable or dramatic moment that can be captured by the audience clearly. This step want to help designers find the moment of change that best represents the insight that they wish to convey. And depending on the story, they may choose from any number of moments as an entry point into their insight.

vi

Reflecting on your personal insights and emotions allows you to find the moments of change that have occurred in your life. As mentioned in above discussions, audiences like to hear about change because theyre looking for answers about change in their own lives. However, rather than listening to someone share their wisdom and insights with us through a report or an essay on the morals or lessons learned, we prefer when it is told to us as a story.

2.3.1.4 Seeing Your Story


To viewing or seeing the story in this step will look at how the use of visuals and sound bring things to life for the audience. There are many choices that come along with designing how the audience will see and hear the digital story. With the proper choice of those elements, the information receives to audience clearly.

First look at visuals. This step discusses visual choices early in the story conception process so that designers consider how the use of images and graphic will shape their story. In order to see or view their story, designers must describe the images that come to mind, understand what those images convey, find or create those images, and then determine how best to use them to convey their intended meaning inside the developed story.

The questions that need the designers to answer: What images come to mind when recalling the moment of change in the story? What images come to mind for other parts of the story? At this point in the process, we want designers to simply call these images to mind, whatever they are, without being concerned about whether or not they exist as actual photos. Next, we want designers to explore the meaning that these images convey, and so we ask them: Why this image? What is it conveying to you? Is the meaning explicit or implicit? Does it have more than one meaning? If so, can you describe the multiple meanings?

vi

Once the designers are clear about the meaning they want to convey with their visuals, next is to decide how they will find or create these images, and how they will use them. The questions are: Do you already have these images or will you need to find or create them? How could you use the images that you already have to convey your meaning?

2.3.1.5 Hearing Your Story


This step is concern about sound. The recorded voice of the designers telling their story is what makes what we call a digital story is a digital story, not a music video or narrated slideshow. In this process, the emotional tone of the story has been identified, and sound is one of the best ways to convey that tone through the way the voiceover is performed, the words that are spoken, and the ambient sound and background music that work along through the story. When considering the use of particular sound, the designers will be asking: Beyond the recorded voiceover, would the story and the scenes within it be enhanced by the use of additional layers of sound? Would the use of ambient sound or music highlight the turning point in your story?

In digital stories, voice not only tells a vital narrative but it also captures the essence of the narrator, their unique character, and their connection to the lived experience. This has to be concern because in a story, we are listening for the shape of an organic, rhythmic quality that allows us to drift into reverie. So the right choice has to be done so that it will not turn the origin point of the story. If an image acts as the hand that leads us into the river, the voice is the riverbed below our feet.

vi

2.3.1.6 Assembling Your Story


After finish finding and clarifying insight and emotion, finding the moment and choosing the better one of visual and sound, yet we need to combine it accordingly. A complete telling of every bit of detail is never really complete, and in the process we begin editing, choosing which element and details we feel are the most necessary to include in order constructing the meaning of the story. In this real time editing process, we are absorbing our listeners experience and making many choices about where their interest is pointed, where they seem lost, and where they are with us on the designing process.

The joy of storytelling comes in determining how much to tell them and at what point. As the audience, we are less likely to look for intended morals and spelled-out meanings, and will instead draw from it what we find important during or after the playback of the story. But presenting the conflicts, problems, or unanswered questions with detail requires not only identifying the right conflict but the right amount of conflict. In ot her words, dont give away too much information all at once. Allow audience to enjoy the story so they end up by catching all the information. However, to do this the designers need to pay special attention to their audiences experience.

The next step is scripting and storyboarding, or in other words, laying out how the visual and audio narratives will complement each other over the duration of the piece to best tell the story. The most common approach that designers take to planning their story in our workshops is to write notes in the margins of their script in order to reference where certain images or sounds will occur. When including visuals and effects and the sound, the designers should ask themselves, Do I want them to be redundant, complementary, juxtaposing, or disjunctive?

vi

2.3.1.7 Sharing Your Story


At this step in the process, all the layers of the story should be assembled. Finding and clarifying the insight, and creating the digital story have taken the designer on a thought of selfunderstanding. The story and the insight it conveys may have evolved throughout the process depend on situation of the designer, audience and environment. Therefore, it is important to take time now to revisit the context in which the story was initially described in order to determine the relevant information to include when the story is being shared. Then the questions need to be answered: Who is the audience? What was the purpose in creating the story? Has the purpose shifted during the process of creating the piece? In what presentation will the digital story be viewed? And what life will the story have after its completed?

Before the final version is exported, consider the audience once more, but this time in terms of how you will present the digital story. You may be planning to show it to one individual, one time, for a specific reason. Or you may be planning to share it online with as many people as possible. But for most storytellers their plans fall somewhere in between, or they may not yet know the full extent that they will eventually share their story. But in any event, its important to consider the contextualizing information you want to convey to your audience, both as part of the digital story and alongside it.

vi

2.3.2 Technique to Apply in Digital Storytelling


Below shows four techniques that have been classified in the research study by ( Banaszewski, 2005) that differ how the digital storytelling will be construct. The technique as follow:

Non-linear
Storytelling can be non-linear, a telling can begin in the middle, leave out the beginning or at the ending, leaving students to reconstruct the beginning, to find the storyline in their own imagination and experience. The students the one who will decide which way the story should be end.

Fragmented
Storytelling, in contrast to narrative, can be highly terse and fragmented among social participants. Each designer creates a fragment of a story, whose wholeness had yet to be realized, or expressed by any solitary narrator. The study should be handle so that it clearly forces distortions in the way that stories naturally occur. Naturally occurring stories can be located into the way the digital storytelling will be constructed.

Distributed
Storytelling can be distributed across the times and places. Banaszewski states in his research that the research being done to examine simultaneous storytelling performances in Disney film archives. This study approached storytelling as a distributive and non-coherent framework of fragments. Non-linear processes dominated the organizations story telling system as the counter-tellers and audience fragmented and enacted multiple counterstories. The storytelling was distributed across a storytelling landscape where official storytelling was countered by captured by dynamics of the simultaneous, distributed, on-going telling being networked.

vi

Collective
Storytelling can be combining between non-linear, fragmented, and socially distributed. It constitutes the collective systemicity of what can be defined as the storytelling organizations. A storytelling organization is a collective system in which the performance of stories is a key part of members' sensemaking and a means to allow them to supplement individual memories with institutional memory.

vi

2.4 Traditional Learning


The old type of learning that is based on textbooks as the learning tools. When it comes to the part of the story in a textbook, the student need more time to understand the situation that is told by author in the story such as how the student imagine and visualize the situation and also to conclude the whole story. So the better way must be use in order to make the story become more interest. By doing so, the use digital storytelling can help for better imagination and visualization. As (David Jakes 2005), said, We can, and we can do so by combining story telling with a set of powerful digital tools. This process, known as digital storytelling, merges a personal story with video; still frame imagery, music, and voice to create a personal multimedia story. Students begin by composing their narrative story, and from that, strip the narrative to its essence to develop a script. The script is then rebuilt into a digital story by the inclusion of multimedia in a highly engaging process that merges composition and creativity to extend the story and make it come alive.

When the students are in process of learning of the current textbook, they make revision page by page, which is full of text only and sometimes few image were embedded in the page, students might forget the previous page and it also can make the student feel bored. It happens because of too much data that need to be remembered and without any effective ways that can help the student capable to remember things. The research has been done by J Cullen A, et al. (2008) shows that in a traditional lecture setting, 33 minutes after a lecture is completed, attendees only retain 58% of the material presented. By the second day, only 33% is retained, and three weeks after the course is completed, only 15% is remembered (Jones 2002). While in E-Learning lecture setting material can be accessed several times and at any time if something is forgotten which allows students to remember most of the information delivered that they are required to learn in particular course.

vi

2.5 Morals Value Learning


Nowadays students are becoming tomorrows citizens and leaders, inheriting a world same or very different from the one their parents know. In the changing global interest and increasing problems, there are needs for students to learn about new cultures, policy concern and communication capabilities. (Stover, 2006) from Santa Clara University states in his research that the students come to school are ready for change. Whenever they are in process of separating from their parent, different living circumstances, they are seeking for their own identities. The identities are from school environment, other the people around and the teachers being adapt into the student thought and perception that may vary with their existing moral values in themselves. He mentions the effect of religious studies courses on female student attitudes about religion. That student taking the courses showed a significant increase in their willingness to question their religious convictions while maintaining their basic faith. By studying the results of a moral values class taken by freshmen in college, (Keljo, 1996) reports changes in the students values, detecting a weak correlation, however, between cheating behavior and character or religious beliefs and practices.

When it comes to moral values, our minds always think "what is right and wrong" in certain thing. This makes it particularly challenging for young people to construct a sense of self and to identify their most cherished values. On the one hand, in todays fast paced world, most young people do not reserve spaces or times for self-reflection. On the other word, there is a lot of pressure in schools and society to create learning environments to explore issues of identity and values (Bers, 2006). So there are need for student to learn moral values, as well as they always learn academic subject. There are should be something that capable to support young people in learning about different aspects of the self, in particular personal and moral values. In her research study, she comes up with two questions: What kind of learning environment will afford opportunities for young people to naturally engage in reflection and discussion about issues of identity, in particular personal and moral values? And, how can technologies have an impact on character and moral education?
vi

2.6 Childrens Learning


The researcher (Vosniadou, 2001) from International Academy of Education (IAE) states in her research how children learn, classified of twelve principles of how the children learns: 1. Active involvement Learning requires the active, constructive involvement of the learner 2. Social participation Learning is primarily a social activity and participation in the social life of the school is central for learning to occur. 3. Meaningful activities People learn best when they participate in activities that are perceived to be useful in real life and are culturally relevant. 4. Relating new information to prior knowledge New knowledge is constructed on the basis of what is already understood and believed. 5. Being strategic People learn by employing effective and flexible strategies that help them to understand reason, memorize and solve problem. 6. Engaging in self-regulation and being reflective Learners must know how to plan and monitor their learning, how to set their own learning goals and how to correct errors. 7. Restructuring prior knowledge Sometimes prior knowledge can stand in the way learning something new. Student must learn how to solve internal inconsistencies and restructure existing conception when necessary. 8. Aiming towards understanding rather than memorization

vi

Learning is better when material is organized around general principles and explanations, rather than when it is based on the memorization of isolated facts and procedures. 9. Helping students learn to transfer Learning becomes more meaningful when the lessons are applied to real-life situation. 10. Taking time to practice Learning is a complex cognitive activity that cannot be rushed. It requires considerable time and periods of practice to start building expertise in an area. 11. Developmental and individual differences Children learn best when their individual differences are taken into consideration. 12. Creating motivated learners Learning is critically influenced by learner motivation. Teachers can helps students become more motivated learners by their behavior and the statement the make.

vi

Chapter 3: Research Methodology 3.0 Introduction


This chapters state on the approach and project framework and methodology used for this project that are define in details. It explains how the used method can achieve the goal of project purpose. The activities used in each phase of method added more detail about the flow of the project will be done. The used of software and hardware requirement will smooth the process of producing it.

vi

3.1 Research Framework 3.1.1 Proposed Storytelling Framework


Input Textbook Stories

Process

Digital Storytelling Designers

Capture

Edit Integrate all Multimedia Element

Integrate

View

Use ID as learning theory approach

Use HCI to design interface

Output Final Product

vi

The application will be able to improve the learners in terms of:

ID and HCI Having more interaction with the include of Instructional Design (ID), so that it can improve student thinking and perception of the information to be delivered. Human Computer Interaction (HCI), act as the application interface design phase will give more attraction to the student who will use this application.

Emotional Development Students are enabling to express their feeling to positive self-esteem. Previously, they might said, I dont know which one is right and wrong, but after taking time to explore this application, they can overcome themselves to make the right decision.

Physical Development After using this application, the student will gain confidence to do what they have learn into their daily routine because they know which one is right and which one is wrong.

Creative Development Enable the students to fully use their thinking and perception to choose the right decision whenever it comes to a new problem.

vi

3.2 Research Activities


(Radack, 2009) in his research states that the system development life cycle is the overall process of developing, implementing, and retiring information systems through a multistep process from initiation, analysis, design, implementation, and maintenance to disposal. There are other type of SDLC models and methodologies being used, but each generally consists of a series of defined steps or phases. But the end, all are about to achieve the same goal.

The purpose of SDLC is to institute a standard practice, or methodology, which is both duplicatable and repeatable, leading high software quality. Robust software engineering and project management practices act in concert with a good SDLC model to make this happen.

Figure 3: System Development Life Cycle


vi

3.2.1 Initiation Phase


During the initiation phase, the need for a system and documents its purpose. The planning should begin in the initiation phase with the identification of key roles to be carried out in the development of the software. The information to be processed, transmitted, or stored is evaluated for software requirements, and all stakeholders should have a common understanding of the software considerations. Early planning and awareness will result in savings in costs and staff time through proper risk management planning. In this phase, the researcher clearly defines its project goals and highlevel information software requirements. Activity 1: Perform need assessment Researcher collected data and used both primary and secondary data in order to perform good need assessment. The secondary data collection is based on literature review, which is the data are from another researcher is taken to be use and integrate it for different purpose to the original. This is mainly for the purpose to support arguments made by researcher in the first and second chapter of the research. The use of primary data collection is the data collected at first hand to gain unique data according to the research area. The researcher does obtain the data from observation of the book, Pendidikan Islam textbook. In this textbook has the data with the same are that need to be covered. The data is also collected from different source: Paper-base sources. It include of journal, articles, abstract, magazine, newspaper and conferences paper. Electronic sources include of Internet video and broadcast.

vi

Activity 2: Perform front-end analysis to find out the feasibility After all the data completely gathered, front-end analysis should be conducted by the researcher in order to find out the feasibility of the study. This is to determine whether it is practicability to proceed with study concerned and develop the proposed prototype. Activity 3: Evaluate analysis result The result of the analysis being evaluated so that the researcher can make the decision what the next step should the researcher step on. If the project purposed id feasible, so the next step is to design the application. If not, the researcher needs to analyze back the collected data or change the scope. 3.2.2 Design and Development Phase. During this phase, the software is designed, edit, reedit, developed, or otherwise constructed. A key activity in this phase is conducting an assessment and using the results to supplement the baseline for the application. The developmental testing of the technical features and functions of the application ensure that they perform as intended, prior to launching the implementation and integration phase.

Design Phase Activity 1 (Design the framework)

This step is where the researcher design his/her framework. This is where the researcher need to determine the overall input and output in the application.

vi

Activity 2 (design the application content structure)

Start the Application

Select the story from menu

Provide the question after first part of the animation

False
Answer Checking Provide Hint

True

Continue the second part of animation until finish

Return Menu

Exit the application vi

Activity 3 (Evaluate all the design) The researcher should evaluate the design and define the feasibility of the design and make an adjustment or add the improvement.

Development Phase The three stage of development phase: Activity 1 (Assess the technicalities and functionality)

Identify the hardware and software requirements that required developing the prototype and implementing all the functionality as describe in the framework into the prototype development.

Activity 2 (Develop the prototype)

Develop the prototype of the application according to the application content structure and the design framework with the appropriate interfaces. At this activity, concern more about HCI for better interface.

Activity 3 ( Evaluate the development)

Evaluate the prototype within the development phase and do some adjustment or improvements within the development if necessary.

vi

3.2.3 Implementation Phase.

In the implementation phase, the researcher configures and enables software features, tests the functionality of these features, installs or implements the software, and obtains a formal authorization to operate the software. Design reviews and software tests should be performed before placing the software into operation to ensure that it meets all required specifications. In addition, if new controls are added to the application, additional acceptance tests of those new controls must be performed. Three stage of implementation which are:

Activity 1 (Finalize the design and development become final product)

Combine all the element of multimedia and designs of each element (i.e text, audio, graphics, video.etc.) into the final product to enhance good prototype.

Activity 2 (Implement application on users)

The implementation of the product is tested on children with from age of 7 to 12 years old. This is to let the children try that application and test the functionality of that application. It is also finding out whether student will satisfy with that product or not.

vi

Activity 3 (Demonstration)

Demonstration must be done by researcher to guide the children to use the product. It is to optimize the benefit the final product.

3.2.4 Operations/Maintenance Phase. At this phase, systems are in place and operating, enhancements and/or modifications to the system are developed and tested, and hardware and software components are added or replaced. The researcher should continuously monitor performance of the application to ensure that it is consistent with pre-established user and software requirements, and that needed system modifications are incorporated.

Activity 1: (Document any known needed enhancements) At this activity, the researcher indentified what is new information or requirement that needs to add to the application. The requirement change depends on user, hardware and software specification.

Activity 3: (Revisit and update the long term vision of the application.) After finish define what are the needed enhancement for the existing software, the researcher must revisit and update his/her application vision so that the application have clear definition what this application is all about.

vi

3.2.5 Disposal Phase. This phase shows systems normally evolve or transition to the next version because of changing requirements or improvements in technology. System software should continually evolve with the system development. Much of the environmental, management, and operational information for the original system should still be relevant and useful when the researcher develops the system plan for the follow-on software. The disposal activities ensure the orderly termination of the system and preserve the vital information about the system so that some or all of the information may be reactivated in the future, if necessary. Particular emphasis is given to proper preservation of the data processed by the system so that the data is effectively migrated to another system or archived in accordance with applicable records management regulations and policies for potential future access. The removal of information from a storage medium, such as a hard disk or tape, should be done in accordance with the organizations security requirements.

3.3 Techniques and Approach


Below shows the technique that has been studied in the research done by (Banaszewski, 2005) that differ how the digital storytelling will be construct. This technique will be use to develop the storytelling:

Non-linear
Storytelling can be non-linear, a telling can begin in the middle, leave out the beginning or at the ending, leaving students to reconstruct the beginning, to find the storyline in their own imagination and experience. The students the one who will decide which way the story should be end. The sample of non linear techniques figure:

vi

3.4 Hardware and Software Requirement


Having suitable requirements to play the application is very important so that the application may run smoothly. Therefore, in order to develop this application, some suitable software and hardware have been used.

3.4.1 Software Requirements

1) Microsoft Windows Seven Ultimate (Gamer Edition). 2) Adobe Flash CS3. 3) Adobe Photoshop CS5. 4) Adobe After Effect CS5. 5) Anime Studio Pro 7.0. 6) Audacity 1.3.

3.4.2 Hardware Requirements

1) RAM: 4GB. 2) Hard Disk: 500GB. 3) Internal Modem. 4) LAN Device. 5) 256MB Graphic accelerator. 6) High Definition Sound Card.

vi

Chapter 4
Project Planning

4.1 Introduction
In the planning stage, all the milestone and estimating time are listed and recorded. The detailed task and activity as in section 4.2 below.

4.2 Detailed Task and Activities


No 1. Task/Activities Planning - Identify information - Analyze information - Prioritize information according to need. - Arrange the information Analysis - Need assessment - Front-end Analysis Audience Technology Media Objective Situational Task Analysis Design and Development Design - Methodology - Framework - Content Structure Development - Prototype - Interfaces 16 August 2010 27 August 2010 1 September 2010 26 August 2010 31 August 2010 9 September 2010 41 days Begin 08 July 2010 10 July 2010 14 July 2010 17 July 2010 20 July End 09 July 2010 13 July 2010 16 July 2010 19 July 2010 15 August 2010 27 days Duration

12 days

2.

3.

10 September 2010 23 September 2010

22 September 2010 25 September 2010

vi

4.

5.

Implementation - Integrate all media - Conduct testing on target users - Determine improvement - Evaluating Maintenance - Testing - Record and documentation OVERALL

26 September 2010

1 October 2010

06 days

2 October 2010

7 October 2010

06 days

08 July 2010 Figure 4.2(a) Project Milestone

7 October 2010

92 days

vi

Chapter 5 Conclusion
As being discuss in previous chapter, the storytelling plays an important role to improve learning to children. The children will be able to study in an attractive ways using storytelling. Learning good and bad habit using storytelling is an opportunity to children to learn in very efficient ways. As we know reading the textbook most of it make the student bored, as the textbook full with plain text only, sometimes embedded with few image. By using storytelling approach, student can perform well in their daily routine especially on moral values because they can link and memorize all information from the application learning. The storytelling has a lot of benefits that all students should use it for improving their moral values and provide them as good human being.

vi