FPGAs : An Overview

Sanjiv Malik

October 18, 2007


What is Programmable Logic?
¾ Can be defined as an IC whose functionality can be modified “On-the fly”

October 18, 2007


Field Programmable Gate Arrays ¾ FPGA is an IC with ability to reconfigure its circuitry for a desired application or function at any time after manufacturing ¾ Adaptive hardware that continuously changes in response to the input data or processing environment ¾ Combination of general-purpose processors and ASICs (Application Specific IC). 2007 3 . ¾ Quick reconfiguration time. in order of 100 µS to 1 mS October 18.

with different functionalities every time if you want. on its silicon die. just fix your "logic function".FPGA Facts • You can download FPGAs as many time as you want no limit . solder or component to change. 2007 4 . re-compile and re-download it. If you make a mistake in your design. since everything runs within the FPGA. • FPGAs loose their functionality when the power goes away (like RAM in a computer that looses its content). You have to re-download them when power goes back up to restore the functionality. October 18. • The designs can run much faster than if you were to design a board with discrete components. No PCB.

Lucent. PLDs.. reprogrammability.) • FPGAs Evolved from PALs. IBM. Atmel. density. relatively easy to use – FPGA Weaknesses: cost.FPGA Facts (Cont. Cypress. Actel. Altera. QuickLogic. 2007 5 . Complex PLDs • FPGAs comparison to other options Technology Custom VLSI Gate array FPGA Gates <10M <2M <100K Speed <500 MHz <200 MHz <100 MHz NRE Cost $20K-$100M $10K-$1M $100-$100K Part Cost $1-up $1-up $10-$1K Spin time weeks days/weeks minutes/hours – FPGA Strengths: quick prototyping and time-to-market. speed • FPGA Vendors: Xilinx. Motorola October 18.

• CPLDs are "coarse-grain" devices.. That means that they contain a lot (up to 100000) of tiny blocks of logic with flip-flops. They contain relatively few (a few 100's max) large blocks of logic with flip-flops. FPGAs are RAM based. as long as they've been programmed at least once CPLDs can contain small designs only.).e. They need to be "downloaded" (configured) at each power-up. CPLDs are EEPROM based. CPLDs do not have • • • • • • October 18. 2007 6 . They are active at power-up (i.. FPGAs can contain very large digital designs FPGAs have special routing resources to implement efficiently binary counters and arithmetic functions (adders. comparators.FPGAs vs CPLDs • FPGAs are "fine-grain" devices.

2007 7 .An Example FPGA Chip October 18.

image processing: filters. music ¾ Graphics. UART and other device controllers ¾ Military: target dependent correlation/recognition ¾ Cryptography: DES search ¾ “Hardware” genetic algorithms October 18.Where are FPGAs used? Some of the examples of FPGA usage are: ¾ Fast prototypes of large designs for simulation/ verification later to be implemented in ICs ¾ Signal. 2007 8 . warping.

meaning that each chip comprises a twodimensional array of logic blocks that can be interconnected via horizontal and vertical routing channels. 2007 9 . IOB and programmable interconnects • CLB : Configurable Logic Block • IOB : Input/output block October 18.FPGA internal design • The basic structure of FPGAs is array-based. • FPGAs consists of an array of CLB.

.) October 18. 2007 10 .FPGA Internal design(Cont.

Control Logic Block October 18. 2007 11 .

2007 12 .Example Control Logic Block October 18.

Input/Output Block October 18. 2007 13 .

2007 14 .FPGA Development tools • • • • • Design tools Pin Assignment tools Design Entry tools Simulation tools Synthesis tools October 18.

You might draw a schematic.FPGA Programming Steps 1. using a software provided by the FPGA vendor. October 18. doesn't matter. 2007 . or create a text file describing the function. 3. 4. Compile the "logic function" on your computer. That creates a binary file that can be downloaded into the FPGA. Use a computer to describe the "logic function" that you want. 15 2. That's it! Your FPGA behaves according to your "logic function". and download the binary file to the FPGA. Connect a cable from your computer to the FPGA.

Our Sample Board October 18. 2007 16 .

October 18. 2007 17 .

Step 1: Creating the logic[VHDL) October 18. 2007 18 .

advance FPGAs are available. 2007 19 . • These contains gates of the order of TODO • Xilings and vendors provide system design wizards to create complex systems.Advance FPFA based system designs • For designing microprocessor-based complex embedded systems. October 18.

2007 20 .Xilings FPGA based Advance system design October 18.

Xilings FPGA based Advance system design(Cont…) October 18. 2007 21 .

Xilings FPGA based Advance system design(Cont…) October 18. 2007 22 .

2007 23 . makes them attractive to small firms and small parts of large companies. • The fast manufacturing turn-around they provide is an essential element of success in the market.Conclusion • Over time FPGAs will become the dominant form of digital logic design and implementation. • Their ease of access. principally through the low cost of the devices. October 18.

2007 24 .October 18.

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