The Deadly Streets of San Francisco Urban Public Policy Brief Abstract Deserving a failing grade for pedestrian

safety, San Francisco and the University of San Francisco should implement proven safety initiatives from other cities and universities. This urban public policy brief analyzes the current status of pedestrian safety in San Francisco and at the University of San Francisco. Discussing several approaches to pedestrian safety, this policy brief digs deeper discovering what efforts are effective and ineffective in San Francisco. Furthermore, this policy brief reviews pedestrian safety initiatives of the SFMTA, seven other cities, and three other universities. In addition, this policy brief highlights what local San Francisco leaders are currently discussing. Lastly, this policy brief concludes with ten recommendations how to improve pedestrian safety at the University of San Francisco. Introduction Five days after graduating from the University of San Francisco majoring in international studies, Zander Urban, 22, lost his life when a car struck him on Lombard Street in San Francisco. Described as bright, intellectually engaged, conscientious, and thoughtful, Zander enjoyed playing in a band and skateboarding. During the summer of 2010, Zander was a USF Fellow at the California State Capitol through the Leo T. McCarthy Center for Public Service and the Common Good.[1] “Zander was an outstanding young man with unlimited potential who touched the lives of those around him. With a zest for life and wide-ranging interests, Zander aspired to a career of public service and inspired others with his wit, intelligence, and commitment to justice.”[2] Reminding us that even one preventable pedestrian fatality is one too many, Zander’s terribly sad death demands answers to questions like how often similar pedestrian accidents occur and what precautions can be taken to prevent similar tragedies. Current Status in San Francisco The facts are alarming, devastating, and indefensible. San Francisco is the most deadly city in California for pedestrians (with populations over 250k).[3] Shockingly, a car hits between two and three

pedestrians every day in San Francisco.[4] Ranking as the fourth deadliest city nationwide, San Francisco tolerates a pedestrian fatality rate of 52% compared to the 12% national rate. In addition, the rate of pedestrian fatalities nationwide is 1.53 per 100,000 residents compared to a rate 70 percent higher of 2.60 in San Francisco.[5] Averaging over 800 pedestrian deaths annually, San Francisco ranks nationally as the third worst ‘large’ metro area for pedestrian safety.[6] To put it simply, the status quo is deadly, inexcusable, and unacceptable. According to the Transit First Policy of the San Francisco City Charter, “Pedestrian areas shall be enhanced wherever possible to improve the safety and comfort of pedestrians and to encourage travel by foot.”[7] Walkscore ranks San Francisco as the second most walkable city in America. However, “being walkable doesn’t always mean that it is safe.”[8] According to San Francisco Examiner columnist Rob Morse, San Francisco is “a city where walkers are in a free-fire zone every time they step off a curb.”[9] The University of San Francisco Pedestrian safety is a serious concern across the nation “at busy intersections and pedestrian campuses.”[10] Failing to address pedestrian safety, the University of San Francisco campus is located in an active urban environment. Referencing pedestrian safety only once on their website, USF is inadequately protecting their student’s lives. According to The Foghorn, the USF Politics Society and ASUSF met with Eric Mar to discuss students concerns over the complete lack of pedestrian safety measures on Turk St. Turk St. is a major problem because young students living in Lone Mountain dormitories or Loyola Village must cross the busy street to get to the main campus. The primary concerns voiced by students were speeding cars failing to yield to pedestrians in crosswalks on Turk St. between the main campus and Lone Mountain. Specifically, the Turk St. and Masonic Ave. intersection has a reputation as a pedestrian danger-zone. Walking down Masonic Ave. between Turk St. and Golden Gate Ave., a pedestrian was struck and killed by a car on May 6, 2011. In addition, the Masonic Ave. and Fell St. intersection is considered the second most dangerous intersection in San Francisco.[11] In response, the Safety Network drafted a petition signed by 500 Masonic Ave. residents advocating for more traffic-calming measures due to a

complete lack of pedestrian safety measures. A group called Fix Masonic argues, “Each person in this neighborhood could give you a dozen different concerns about safety on this street.” San Francisco Rather than explain every pedestrian safety tool or initiative, this urban public policy brief answers the question of which approaches are working and not working in San Francisco. Four notable pedestrian safety initiatives have proven effective in San Francisco including traffic calming and Sunday Streets initiatives run by Livable City.[12] Recognizing that speed kills, traffic calming is the first effective initiative in San Francisco. Traffic calming takes numerous forms including planting trees, lowering speed limits, installing signs, and introducing physical measures like speed bumps to force cars to slow down. Livable City considers traffic-calming essential because “just a small reduction in vehicle speed makes the difference between life and death.”[13] In fact, a pedestrian hit by a car traveling 40 mph or faster has a 70 percent chance of death compared to an 80 percent chance of living at 30 mph.[14] Traffic calming efforts are only effective in San Francisco when complemented by law enforcement and educational outreach. Even though the SFMTA accepts traffic-calming requests, Rincon Hill resident Jamie Whitaker has made numerous requests and nothing has changed in over five years.[15] “We’ve heard plenty of talk about traffic-calming in the neighborhood, but we’ve never seen any action.”[16] According to the San Francisco Examiner, “A lack of coordination and funding has prevented much-needed traffic-calming measures from being implemented”[17] across San Francisco. The second safety initiative, Sunday Streets, is the most effective approach used by Livable City and the city of San Francisco. Sunday Streets creates “miles of car-free roads for people to get out and get active in diverse San Francisco neighborhoods.”[18] Attracting over 20,000 residents last year, Sunday Streets is a series of free events promoting walking and public health.[19] The third effective initiative is San Francisco’s use of cutting-edge cameras and computers detecting pedestrians in crosswalks and delaying “traffic lights if needed to ensure safe passage for pedestrians.”[20] The fourth effective pedestrian safety initiative is from a group called San Francisco SAFE, which provides three free printable color brochures entitled SAFE’s Guide to Walking, Pedestrian Safety Tips, and Pedestrian Right-Of-Way Rules.

Numerous approaches to pedestrian safety are being used in San Francisco ineffectively including brighter warning signs, better signage, wider sidewalks, traffic signal countdown lights, extending crossing times, red visibility curbs[21], audible pedestrian signals, priority signal timing, median island improvements, enhanced crosswalks with flashing beacons, pedestrian barriers, segregated underpasses, speed traps and cameras, crossing guards, and public education efforts. San Francisco needs to adopt a comprehensive pedestrian safety and action plan similar to the New York City model, which evaluates current conditions and ongoing initiatives. In addition, San Francisco should take proactive steps to secure a funding source, work on implementation, and develop methods how to properly determine the effectiveness of safety initiatives. The San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency (SFMTA) Established by Proposition E in 1999,[22] the San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency (SFMTA) is San Francisco’s mobility manager. The SFMTA Pedestrian Master Plan (PMP) includes a Better Streets Plan detailing a vision for a walkable San Francisco, goals, an advisory committee, and informational resources. Coordinating a Livable Streets initiative, the SFMTA oversees numerous programs involving pedestrians, traffic calming, and school safety areas.[23] “Livable Streets’ mission is to promote walking as a sustainable and healthy mode of transportation and to reduce pedestrian collisions in San Francisco.”[24] Livable Streets also has a pedestrian counting project and a 5-year prioritization plan. Lastly, the SFMTA provides safety tips for pedestrians on their website like be alert, slow down, and teach by example.[25] The SFMTA is ineffective leading pedestrian safety efforts in San Francisco for the following six reasons. The first reason the SFMTA is ineffective is because the agency spends outrageous amounts of money on pedestrian safety improvements like $10,000 per crosswalk, $350,000 for each signalized intersection, and $1 million to reconfigure one block.[26] The second reason the SFMTA is ineffective is because implementing pedestrian safety tools in San Francisco takes an extraordinarily long time and often requires lengthy environmental impact reports. For example, a new crosswalk takes 2-3 months, a signalized intersection takes 30-36 months, and reconfiguring one block takes approximately 36-48 months to implement.[27] In fact, it takes longer to build a stoplight in San Francisco than it took to build AT&T Park.[28] “In the time it takes to build a stoplight, 2,400 pedestrians will have been hit.”[29]

The third reason the SFMTA is ineffective is due to a lack of funding. The SFMTA only has $1 million available in revenue each year for pedestrian projects. Pedestrian safety accounts for an average of 1.5 percent of federal transportation funding, and San Francisco only spends 0.5 percent of its federal transportation dollars on safeguarding pedestrians.[30] Bridget Smith of SFMTA’s Sustainable Streets explains, “It’s literally about the funding, (and) many projects like 15 mph school zone pilots are waiting on grants to do study and implementation.” Unfortunately, the SFMTA’s “time-consuming analysis and funding procedures encumber many of the agency’s most important projects.”[31] The fourth reason the SFMTA is ineffective is that implementing “necessary improvements – such as intersection bulb outs, countdown signals and reduced speed limits – can be difficult because no single city agency is responsible for pedestrians.”[32] A lack of coordination exists amongst dozens of local agencies, which are all partially responsible for safeguarding pedestrians. The fifth reason the SFMTA is ineffective and walks away from their responsibility to protect pedestrians is because of pushback from traffic engineers. The SFMTA Sustainable Streets Division “is responsible for designing, directing and managing all traffic engineering functions within San Francisco, including placement of signs, signals, traffic striping, and curb markings.”[33] Unfortunately, San Francisco city planners and road engineers often consider pedestrians as obstacles to speedy traffic.[34] The sixth and last reason why the SFMTA is ineffective is that city planning, transportation, and public health professionals do not have the practical tools necessary to properly evaluate the effectiveness of pedestrian safety initiatives.[35] Unfortunately, “Few validated measures exist for assessing…pedestrian safety behaviors.”[36] Atlanta, Georgia Demonstrating significant effectiveness in Atlanta, the advocacy group Pedestrians Educating Drivers in Safety (PEDS) installed flexible in-street crosswalk signage reminding drivers to stop for pedestrians.[37] The signs were positioned along the street centerline complemented by pavement markings and additional signage. In addition, PEDS supplies local Atlanta residents with free “Slow Down” yard signs, which are now placed in over 3,500 locations.[38] PEDS also runs the Atlanta Pace Car Program.[39] The unique, interesting, and effective program asks residents to simply drive the speed limit turning their cars into “mobile speed bumps.” Furthermore, PEDS publishes a brochure entitled What Pedestrians Should Know about their

Rights and Responsibilities and runs an effective media campaign running on 200 cinema screens in 18 counties.[40] Lastly, PEDS and Atlanta encourage residents to use the streets for parking and socialize on sidewalks and in front yards.[41] PEDS traffic-calming safety efforts are effective and proven initiatives. Seattle, Washington Former Seattle Mayor Greg Nickels introduced a 10-point plan for pedestrian safety, which helped win Seattle the rank of fifth best walking city in the nation according to Prevention Magazine.[42] Nickels also created a Safe Crossings initiative to rehabilitate sidewalks, crosswalks, signals, and promote safety education. In addition, Nickels implemented a red light camera enforcement campaign and much tougher “enforcement on drivers who fail to yield to pedestrians in crosswalks.”[43] Lastly, Nickels and the city of Seattle developed a creative radio and television advertisement campaign entitled “Think of the Impact You Could Make.”[44] New York City, New York Making tremendous accomplishments by driving down pedestrian fatality rates to record lows, Mayor Bloomberg is proud that “New York’s streets are far safer than any other big city in this country.”[45] Overall, New York City’s pedestrian efforts are successful, comprehensive, and impressive. “New York City has become a traffic safety model over the past nine years through engineering, enforcement, and education. Annual traffic fatalities are down 35 percent, and 2009 was the “safest year on record since (New York) began collecting data in 1910.”[46] Examining over 7,000 pedestrian crashes, The New York City Pedestrian Safety Study and Action Plan lists 15 key findings and recommends an action plan. Two of the key findings are that Manhattan is the most dangerous borough for pedestrians and the fact that traffic crashes cost New York’s economy $4.29 billion annually. The action plan recommendations include re-engineering and launching pilot programs like 20 mph neighborhood zones.[47] Looking to the future, New York City sets itself a goal of reducing traffic fatalities by 50% by 2030. Santa Rosa, California In response to community uproar following the death of a teenager walking

home from a new high school alongside traffic where there was no sidewalk, the city of Santa Rosa took action to improve pedestrian safety around schools.[48] Local government officials enacted a rule mandating every school construct walking routes along their perimeters. Santa Rosa also reset their traffic lights giving pedestrians more time to cross active streets and installed elaborate flashing signs and lights near crosswalks.[49] In addition, Santa Rosa set aside over $5 million for new crosswalks, sidewalk improvements, and other safety projects. Enforcement is another tool used by Santa Rosa where undercover officers act as decoys crossing streets in efforts to catch careless drivers.[50] Following the completion of pedestrian improvements around seven schools, Marin County saw a 65% rise in the number of children walking to school.[51] Benicia, California Using undercover police decoys, the Benicia police department strong enforces pedestrian safety by conducting stings on speeding drivers. Advertising enforcement stings in the local newspaper, the city of Benicia takes pedestrian safety seriously. Phoenix, Arizona The City of Phoenix leads by example committing to reduce pedestrian fatalities by 10% by 2016.[52] Objectives like engineering, education, enforcement, and encouragement are reached through pedestrian safety action steps like data collection, infrastructure development, and educational outreach. Reducing pedestrian fatality rates, Phoenix partially attributes their success to their intersection geometry initiative. Profoundly effecting pedestrian safety, intersection geometry significantly impacts “whether or not drivers will perceive pedestrians, the length of crosswalks, and the speed”[53] of approaching vehicles. Phoenix secures funding for their pedestrian safety initiatives from “a mixture of Departmental, Governmental, and private funding paths.”[54] University Heights, Iowa “University Heights is an incorporated town surrounded by Iowa City and the University of Iowa.”[55] University Heights employs its own police force, which strictly enforces traffic laws. Simply enforcing existing speed limits goes a long way towards making the city a safer place to walk.[56] “At the town line traffic slows perceptibly. Unfortunately, as traffic exits…into the University of Iowa it resumes speed into the campus” (the priority of enforcement changes instead of the speed limit).[57]

Brown University Focusing on education, awareness, and on-campus enforcement, Brown boasts a pedestrian safety review committee originally stemming from a faculty meeting. The pedestrian safety committee determined that 14 pedestrian accidents occurred on the Brown campus during a three-year span. In response, Brown implemented “a pedestrian safety initiative on and around our campus including more visible crosswalks.”[58] In addition, Brown added dozens of new crosswalks around campus, improved road signs, and installed signals for drivers to slow down at busy crosswalks. Enacting an orientation program on campus, Brown also decided to post flyers around campus with safety slogans like “Make eye contact.” Deciding to boost enforcement, the Brown University Department of Public Safety works in conjunction with the local police department to regulate intersections “during high-traffic times for students, such as the 10 minutes in between classes.” A student at Brown remarks, “I’ve seen (the Department of Public Safety) wearing nylon green vests late at night (and) it makes me feel…quite secure.”[59] Lastly, Brown promises ongoing assessment of their safety initiatives. Boise State University Boise State maintains a pedestrian safety master plan based on field observations and staff, faculty, and student feedback. This comprehensive plan outlines major pedestrian routes, displays numerous detailed campus maps, and examines existing conditions.[60] Designating their campus and immediate surrounding area as a Pedestrian Priority Zone,[61] Boise State seeks to improve the pedestrian experience around their urban campus. Two town hall meetings were hosted by Boise State’s Transportation Department sharing information with students and neighbors about Boise State’s newly adopted pedestrian safety policies.[62] The University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign Established in 1867, the University of Illinois classifies pedestrian safety a “major priority”[63] because the university “has a major pedestrian population.”[64] The Division of Public Safety posts pedestrian safety tips on their University website, which urges the campus community to be alert, not dart suddenly into traffic, utilize crosswalks at all times, obey signals, and make eye contact.[65] According to recent planning documents, 25% of streets in the city of Champaign lack sidewalks.[66]

Recommendations for the University of San Francisco USF must invest in proactive measures to save pedestrian lives through education, engineering, and enforcement. Numerous effective initiatives used by other cities and Universities should be adopted by USF. The following ten recommendations should be immediately implemented by USF to improve pedestrian safety and save lives. 1) Failing to respond to my inquiries about pedestrian safety, the USF Department of Public Safety ought to promptly reply to all concerns about student safety. 2) Develop the school website to include student safety tips similar to the SFMTA and University of Illinois websites. 3) Create a “University Pedestrian Safety Initiative” and post informational flyers about pedestrian safety on or around campus. 4) Educate students about pedestrian safety during freshman orientation and distribute safety handbooks or brochures. 5) Implement safety improvements around campus like enhanced crosswalks with flashing beacons, speed bumps, segregated pathways, and better signage. 6) Construction plans for USF’s campus should include pedestrianfriendly buildings. 7) Enforce existing traffic laws by working in conjunction with the SFPD.

8) Create a university crossing guard program where USF police and volunteers act as crossing guards during high-traffic school hours. 9) Create a fund dedicated to pedestrian safety improvements and programs. 10) Develop a comprehensive plan to properly evaluate pedestrian safety initiative efforts through tools like safety audits. Conclusion Sadly, more than a million people are killed on the world’s roads each year.[67] In conclusion, San Francisco and the University of San Francisco should

implement proven safety initiatives from other cities and universities. Reviewing the current status of pedestrian safety in San Francisco and at the University of San Francisco, this urban public policy brief evaluates numerous effective and ineffective initiatives. In addition, this brief analyzes pedestrian safety efforts in Atlanta, Seattle, New York, Santa Rosa, Benicia, Phoenix, University Heights, and at Brown, Boise State, and the University of Illinois. Lastly, this brief reviews what local leaders are discussing and provides ten recommendations how the University of San Francisco can improve pedestrian safety. In remembrance of Zander Urban and the countless lives lost senselessly on the deadly streets of San Francisco, the University of San Francisco should adopt effective precautionary safety initiatives used by other cities and universities. In memory of my best friend Benny who was killed by a speeding car in San Francisco Endnotes

[1] “Alexander (Zander) Urban Endowed Fund,” The University of San Francisco <http://www.usfca.edu/templates/as_bais_home.aspx?id=6442454317>. [2] “Alexander (Zander) Urban Endowed Fund,” The University of San Francisco <http://www.usfca.edu/templates/as_bais_home.aspx?id=6442454317>. [3] “Pedestrian Safety,” San Francisco Bay Window <http://www.sfbaywindow.com /articles/3/92/133.html>. [4] Aaron Bialick, “City’s Pedestrian Crash Toll Dwarfs Preventative Safety Costs,” SF Streets Blog 12 Apr. 2011 <http://sf.streetsblog.org/2011/04/12/citys-pedestrian-crash-toll-dwarfspreventative-safety-costs/>. [5] “Dangerous by Design 2011,” Transportation for America <http://t4america.org/ resources/dangerousbydesign2011/>.

[6] “Dangerous by Design 2011,” Transportation for America <http://t4america.org/ resources/dangerousbydesign2011/>. [7] “Walk,” SFMTA <http://www.sfmta.com/cms/whome/homepeds.htm>. [8] “Dangerous by Design 2011,” Transportation for America <http://t4america.org/ resources/dangerousbydesign2011/>. [9] Mike Tharp, “Killer cars by the bay,” U.S. News & World Report 17 Aug. 2011, Academic Search Premier. [10] Brian Crowley-Koch, Ron van Houren, and Lim Eunyoung, “Effects of Pedestrian Prompts on Motorist Yielding at Crosswalks,” Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis 17 Aug. 2011, Academic Search Premier. [11] “Drivers Are Running the Red Light at Fell/Masonic,” SF Streetsblog 21 Jan. 2009 < http://sf.streetsblog.org/2009/01/21/drivers-are-running-thered-light-at-fellmasonic-imperiling-cyclists/>. [12] “Complete Streets,” Livable City <http://livablecity.org/campaigns/ completestreets.html>. [13] “Elizabeth Stampe,” Walk SF <http://www.walksf.org/>. [14] “Not Just a San Francisco Problem,” 12 May 2011. [15] Will Relsman, “Momentum builds for pedestrian safety in San Francisco,” The San Francisco Examiner 23 March 2011. [16] Will Relsman, “Momentum builds for pedestrian safety in San Francisco,” The San Francisco Examiner 23 March 2011. [17] Will Relsman, “Momentum builds for pedestrian safety in San Francisco,” The San Francisco Examiner 23 March 2011. [18] This is Sunday Streets <http://www.sundaystreetssf.com/>. [19] “About Us,” This is Sunday Streets <http://www.sundaystreetssf.com/aboutus>.

[20] David Gibson, “Detecting Pedestrians,” United States Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration Sept. 2009, <http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ publications/publicroads/09septoct/01.cfm>. [21] SFMTA <http://www.sfmta.com/cms/wproj/indxpdproj.htm>. [22] Wikipedia contributors, “San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia 15 Aug. 2011. [23] “Livable Streets,” SFMTA, <http://www.sfmta.com/cms/ohome/homelive.htm>. [24] “Walk,” SFMTA, <http://www.sfmta.com/cms/whome/homepeds.htm>. [25] “Safety Tips,” SFMTA <http://www.sfmta.com/cms/wsafe/pdsafetips.htm>. [26] Aaron Bialick, “City’s Pedestrian Crash Toll Dwarfs Preventative Safety Costs,” SF Streets Blog 12 Apr. 2011 <http://sf.streetsblog.org/2011/04/12/citys-pedestrian-crash-toll-dwarfspreventative-safety-costs/>. [27] Aaron Bialick, “City’s Pedestrian Crash Toll Dwarfs Preventative Safety Costs,” SF Streets Blog 12 Apr. 2011 <http://sf.streetsblog.org/2011/04/12/citys-pedestrian-crash-toll-dwarfspreventative-safety-costs/>. [28] Ben Shore, “Walking in San Francisco – Beautiful, But Look Both Ways,” Reset San Francisco <http://www.resetsanfrancisco.org/news/may16-11/walking-san-francisco-–-beautiful-look-both-ways>. [29] Ben Shore, “Walking in San Francisco – Beautiful, But Look Both Ways,” Reset San Francisco <http://www.resetsanfrancisco.org/news/may16-11/walking-san-francisco-–-beautiful-look-both-ways>. [30] “Dangerous by Design 2011,” Transportation for America <http://t4america.org/ resources/dangerousbydesign2011/>. [31] Aaron Bialick, “City’s Pedestrian Crash Toll Dwarfs Preventative Safety Costs,” SF Streets Blog 12 Apr. 2011

<http://sf.streetsblog.org/2011/04/12/citys-pedestrian-crash-toll-dwarfspreventative-safety-costs/>. [32] Will Relsman, “Momentum builds for pedestrian safety in San Francisco,” The San Francisco Examiner 23 March 2011. [33] SFMTA < http://www.sfmta.com/cms/vhome/hometraffic.htm>. [34] Paul Lewis, “The Basic Question: What Are Streets for?,” San Francisco Examiner < http://www.ppic.org/main/commentary.asp?i=198>. [35] Rajiv Bhatia, et al. “An area-level model of vehicle-pedestrian injury collisions with implications for land use and transportation planning,” Accident Analysis & Prevention 17 Aug. 2011, Academic Search Premier, 137-145. [36] Marcus J. Hanfling, et al. “Validity of instruments to Assess Students’ Travel and Pedestrian Safety,” BMC Public Health 17 Aug. 2011, Academic Search Premier, 257-264. [37] “What Other Cities Are Doing,” Pedestrians of Iowa City <http://onanov.com/pedzic /examples.htm>. [38] “What Other Cities Are Doing,” Pedestrians of Iowa City <http://onanov.com/pedzic /examples.htm>. [39] “What Other Cities Are Doing,” Pedestrians of Iowa City <http://onanov.com/pedzic /examples.htm>. [40] “What Other Cities Are Doing,” Pedestrians of Iowa City <http://onanov.com/pedzic /examples.htm>. [41] “What Other Cities Are Doing,” Pedestrians of Iowa City <http://onanov.com/pedzic

/examples.htm>. [42] “What Other Cities Are Doing,” Pedestrians of Iowa City <http://onanov.com/pedzic /examples.htm>. [43] “What Other Cities Are Doing,” Pedestrians of Iowa City <http://onanov.com/pedzic /examples.htm>. [44] “What Other Cities Are Doing,” Pedestrians of Iowa City <http://onanov.com/pedzic /examples.htm>. [45] “Letter from the Commissioner,” The New York City Pedestrian Safety Study and Action Plan August 2010 <http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/downloads/pdf/nyc_ped_safety_study _action_plan.pdf>. [46] “Letter from the Commissioner,” The New York City Pedestrian Safety Study and Action Plan August 2010 <http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/downloads/pdf/nyc_ped_safety_study _action_plan.pdf>. [47] “Executive Summary,” The New York City Pedestrian Safety Study and Action Plan August 2010 <http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/downloads/pdf/nyc_ped_safety_study _action_plan.pdf>. [48] Cyndy Liedtke, “Cities Look for Ways to Improve Pedestrian Safety,” Nation’s Cities Weekly 17 Aug. 2011, Academic Search Premier. [49] Cyndy Liedtke, “Cities Look for Ways to Improve Pedestrian Safety,” Nation’s Cities Weekly 17 Aug. 2011, Academic Search Premier. [50] Cyndy Liedtke, “Cities Look for Ways to Improve Pedestrian Safety,” Nation’s Cities Weekly 17 Aug. 2011, Academic Search Premier. [51] “Sustainability – The Cost of Crashes,” The New York City Pedestrian

Safety Study and Action Plan August 2010 <http://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/downloads/pdf/nyc_ped_ safety_study_action_plan.pdf>. [52] “Introduction,” Phoenix Pedestrian Safety Action Plan. [53] “Intersection Geometry,” Phoenix Pedestrian Safety Action Plan. [54] “Specific Goals and Objectives,” Phoenix Pedestrian Safety Action Plan. [55] “What Other Cities Are Doing,” Pedestrians of Iowa City <http://onanov.com/pedzic /examples.htm>. [56] “What Other Cities Are Doing,” Pedestrians of Iowa City <http://onanov.com/pedzic /examples.htm>. [57] “What Other Cities Are Doing,” Pedestrians of Iowa City <http://onanov.com/pedzic /examples.htm>. [58] Shara Azad, The Brown Daily Herald 9 Sept. 2010 <http://www.browndaily herald.com/new-initiative-looks-to-pedestrian-safety-1.2323213>. [59] “What Other Cities Are Doing,” Pedestrians of Iowa City <http://onanov.com/pedzic /examples.htm>. [60] “Bicycle/Pedestrian Safety Master Plan,” Boise State University Sept. 2010 <http://transportation.boisestate.edu/docs/BicyclePedestrianMasterPlan20 10.pdf> [61] Boise State University <http://www.boisestate.edu/policy/policy_docs/9010_

PedestrianSaftey.pdf>. [62] Kathleen Tuck, “Meetings to Address New Policy on Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety,” Boise State University Update 14 Apr. 2011 <http://news.boisestate.edu/update/2011 /04/14/meetings-to-address-new-policy-on-pedestrian-and-bicycle-safety/>. [63] “Pedestrian Safety Tips,” The University of Illinois <http://publicsafety.illinois.edu/ universitypolice/pedestriansafetytips.html>. [64] “Admissions,” University of Illinois <http://admissions.illinois.edu/ campuslife/safety.html>. [65] “Pedestrian Safety Tips,” The University of Illinois <http://publicsafety.illinois.edu/ universitypolice/pedestriansafetytips.html>. [66] Dan Petrella, “Some Champaign Neighborhoods Leave Pedestrians Out in the Street,” CU – CitizenAccess 22 July 2011 <http://will.illinois.edu/news/spotstory/some-champaign-neighborhoodseave-pedestrians-out-in-the-street/>. [67] “World report on road traffic injury prevention,” The World Health Organization <http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/publications/road_traffic/wo rld_report/statistical_annex.pdf>