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Filters
This page does not relate directly to darkroom work, but I have had so many questions regarding filters for SLR cameras, that I have decided to include a section on them. If you are using a single lenses reflex camera (SLR), then you can attach colored filters to the front of your lens. When used with black and white film, these filters can greatly enhance your photographs. These colored filters can be used in a variety of situations, such as minimizing haze in scenes or to increase the contrast of your images. Since most filters absorb some light, your exposure must be adjusted when using them. If you have an automatic SLR with through the lenses metering, simply screw the filter onto the front of the lens and take your picture. The loss of light coming in through the lens will be detected by the internal light meter and the camera will adjust its setting in order to get a correct exposure. If your SLR is manual, or an automatic with a manual setting, first take a light meter reading through the lens and make a mental note of the reading. Screw your desired filter to the front of your lens and using the Filter factors listed below, either adjust the f-stop (most common method) or adjust the shutter speed, by the amount indicated. To make an object appear darker on film than it does to the eye, select a filter that has a color which is complementary to the color of the object. For example, a yellow, orange or red filter will darken a blue sky. You can lighten the grey-tone rendering of an object, by using a filter that is similar in color to the object. If you use filters of complementary colors, you can make objects in your picture stand out from each other, rather than all being potentially the same shade of grey. A dark red filter on a bright day with a partly cloudy sky, will very much enhance and define the clouds. An orange filter will do the same to a lesser degree and yellow to an even lesser degree.

(example from f16 to f8) Factor of 8 (Red Filter) open aperture by 3 f-stops .from 1/1000 to 1/250 seconds). Miscellaneous Filters .from 1/000 to 1/500 of a second). A red or orange filter will lighten red clothing. ƒ ƒ ƒ Factor of 2 (yellow) open aperture by 1 f-stop .from 1/1000 to 1/125 of a second).we are still talking about black and white photography).(example .(example .from f16 to f11) Factor of 4 (Orange Filter) open aperture by 2 f-stops .A yellowish green filter is very good for portraiture in soft sunlight or with multicolored flowers (remember . Filter Factors: .6) Or Rather than adjust the aperture of the lens (f-stop). Filter factors: .Shutter Speed Adjustment. Factor of 4 (Orange Filter) means you have to quadruple your exposure time (example . ƒ ƒ ƒ Factor of 2 (yellow) means you have to double your exposure time (example .Aperture Adjustment.from f16 to f5. you can adjust the length of exposure (shutter speed). Factor of 8 (Red Filter) means you have to adjust your exposure 8 times (example .

With color films. will reduce bluish mist to a minimum. It will also eliminate atmospheric haze and allows you to control the brightness of the sky. Home . depending on the angle of the sun. this filter will virtually eliminate reflections from non-metallic surfaces such as water. etc. Polarizing Filter Factor of 3 to 4 (1 1/2 . Although expensive. It produces a dramatic cross flare effect when photographing bright lights or reflections.2 f-stops) On a sunny day.UltraViolet (Skylight) Filter Factor of 1 (1/2 f-stop) Eliminates foggy appearance in black and white pictures. I consider this filter to be essential! Cross Screen Filter Factor of 1 (1/2 f-stop) This is a clear filter with fine cross lines across the surface. This filter is also excellent with color film and makes a great general purpose filter. show room windows.