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J.A. Herbst & Associates, LLC PO Box 2568 Kealakekua, HI 96750-2568 MinOOcad@jah-net.

com

Dynamic Simulation of Size Reduction Operations from Mine-to-Mill

by J.A. Herbst and W.T. Pate

Outline
✦ Introduction ✦ A General Flowsheet Simulator ✦ Comminution Objects ✦ Simulation Case Study ✦ Future Capabilities ✦ Conclusions

California Mexico Hilo Maui Hawaii Molokai Oahu Honolulu Kauai J.A. Herbst & Associates Kona Tahiti Australia .

6 x 1010 US$/year = 5 billion US$/year Energy Efficiency 100% Wear Parts Consumed Worldwide 50% 0 Product Size .The Cost of Comminution Worldwide Energy Consumed Worldwide ≅2.

Typical Breakdown of Comminution Costs Explosive Fracturing Coarse Crushing Fine Crushing Grinding 1% 2% 20% 77% .

Mine-to-Mill Simulation Real World Model Object Flowsheet Simulator .

Benefits of Object Oriented Programming A software object contains code and data which simulate the pertinent characteristics of a physical device or stream Object Oriented Traditional PROGRAM MAIN CALL MINE ( ) CALL TRUCK ( ) CALL CRUSH(FEED.MILLPROD) SUBROUTINE STORAGE ( ) SUBROUTINE CRUSH(FEED.CRUSHPROD) CALL STORAGE ( ) CALL SCREEN(FEED.MILLPROD) SUBROUTINE MINE ( ) SUBROUTINE TRUCK ( ) SUBROUTINE MILL(FEED.SCREENPROD) CALL MILL(FEED.SCREENPROD) When process objects are connected by streams they are linked for computation .CRUSHPROD) SUBROUTINE SCREEN(FEED.

Conceptual Design of MinOOcad Object Menu Object Properties Object Display Process Object #1 Process Object #2 Process Object #3 Process Object #N Stream Object #1 Stream Object #M I (t ) Stream Object Process Object O2 (t + ∆t ) Stream Object O1 (t + ∆t ) Container .

Implementation of MinOOcad .

Models of Flowsheet Elements Response SLOW Coarse Ore Storage INTERMEDIATE FAST 0 1 10 t/τ Longest Dwell Time .

i.Output + Generation T ε Screen Stream P80 dMi.j .j • • = MIn.Dynamic/Multi-Components Accumulation = Input .MOut.ij + f (Mij ’s) dt AB P A B Particle Size Decreasing .

Comminution Objects .The Ball Mill Computation Knowledge Manager Procedures Base Input and Output User Interface Ball Mill Object Feature 1 Visualization Feature 2 Dynamic Performance Control Feature 3 Scale-up/ Design Feature 4 Capital/ Operating Cost $ .

Pebble Mill SAG .Comminution Objects Mine Truck Storage Crushers Conveyors Screens Ball Mill .AG Mills Sumps Hydrocyclones .

Simulation Case Study Mine Primary Crusher Coarse Ore Storage SAG MILL Secondary Mills Ball Mill SAG MILL Primary Mills .

MinOOcad Flowsheet .

Tool Bar and Property Page .

Property Pages .

Zoom on Property Page .

8 10.01 0.1 675.7 10.1 74.7 10.5 74.01 0.23333 2096.26667 2116.1 682.9 677.36667 2095.01 0.01 0.8 10.8 74.01 0.10000 2051.9 10.00000 2037.9 10.8 10.5 673.06667 2021.0 687.16667 2059.8 10.01 0.4 75.5 74.01 0.7 10. hr Feedrate Feed waterJetwater Mill rpm 0.20000 2076.13333 2080.01 0.8 10.5 74.7 10.01 0.3 675.9 10.0 74.Outputs Spreadsheet Date 6/14/98 18:00 6/14/98 18:02 6/14/98 18:04 6/14/98 18:06 6/14/98 18:08 6/14/98 18:10 6/14/98 18:12 6/14/98 18:14 6/14/98 18:16 6/14/98 18:18 6/14/98 18:20 6/14/98 18:22 6/14/98 18:24 6/14/98 18:26 6/14/98 18:28 6/14/98 18:30 Time.01 0.9 673.4 74.6 74.9 10.0 10.01 0.2 679.0 10.2 678.7 672.01 0.33333 2099.30000 2112.01 0.01 0.5 74.6 74.9 10.8 74.0 665.43333 2090.6 665.01 0.03333 2010.40000 2093.3 75.2 74.8 690.9 684.46667 1507.50000 1663.2 666.8 74.01 Graphic .0 74.2 673.

Base Case . microns .10 Mine % L =0 Operating Data Predicted 0.01 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000 Particle Size.At Steady State Ball Mill %L=70 1.00 Fraction Passing SAG Mill %L=12 Gyratory % L =0 0.

Dynamic Situations Simulated ✦ Increase in Powder Factor at Mine ✦ Increase in Truck Haul Time ✦ Decrease in Stockpile Inventory .

hr 8 10 12 10 S A G and B all M ill P 80. m ic rons . Crus her and S tock pile P 80.Increase in Powder Factor 1000000 1000 SAG Mill S A G M ill M ine. m icrons Mine M ine Ball Mill B all M ill 100000 Stockpile S tock pile Crusher Crusher 100 P owder factor inc reas ed by 150% 10000 0 2 4 6 Tim e.

% 70 400 Truck Haul Increased Truc k haul Time tim e inc reas ed by 25% by 25% 0 0 2 4 6 Tim e. hr 8 10 12 14 10 0 . 80 M agnetite Liberation.Increase in Truck Haul Time 1000 B all m Mill ill m agnetite liberation Liberation Ball Magnetite 800 60 Tonnage. tph SAG m ill tonnage SAG Mill Tonnage 600 Truc k tonnage S tock pile tonnage Stockpile Tonnage Truc Haul k haul tim e Truck Time 20 200 50 40 30 Haul Tim e. m in.

m tph P 80.Decrease in Stockpile Inventory 1000000 M ine PP80 80 Mine Crus her P 80 Crusher P80 400 Tonnage. hr 6 8 100 . m ic rons S toc k pile tph Stockpile tph 10000 SAG m ill SAG Mill tph tph 500 100000 300 1000 SAG m ill P 80 SAG Mill P80 B all Mill m ill P 80 Ball P80 200 100 10 2 4 Tim e.

tph 4000 5000 P ower. kw 600 3000 S toc kpile tonnage 400 S A G m ill tonnage 200 S A G m ill rock tons 1000 2000 B egin stockpile inventory change 0 2 4 Tim e. hr 6 8 0 175 32 150 B all m ill m agnetite liberated P 80.Downstream Impacts 1000 S A G m ill power 800 Holdup. t or Tonange. m icrons 125 30 % of M agnetite Liberated 28 100 B all m ill P 80 26 75 B egin change in stoc kpile inventory 50 2 4 Tim e. hr 6 8 24 22 .

Future Possibilities ✦ Operating costs calculated on a minute-to-minute basis over the entire flowsheet ✦ Enterprise-wide control system capability integrated into simulator ✦ Incorporating the impact of maintenance using realistic wear and replacement models ✦ Embedding into control system software for on-line decision making .

✦ Potential uses for MinOOcad are broad and exciting. ✦ A Windows based generic flowsheet simulator. MinOOcad. ✦ Opportunities exist to improve "enterprise-wide financial performance" through understanding and exploiting dynamic/steady state interactions between comminution operations. has been developed to allow dynamic simulation for any number of elements ✦ Advanced comminution models embedded in well designed software objects can provide realistic simulations off all flowsheet elements. .Conclusions ✦ Comminution comprises the most energy intensive and costly set of unit operations at a mine/mill site.