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VOL. 3, NO.

3, March 2012

Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences
©2009-2012 CIS Journal. All rights reserved. http://www.cisjournal.org

ISSN 2079-8407

Performance Evaluation of an OFDM System under Rayleigh Fading Environment
1

Gurpreet Kaur, 2 Partha Pratim Bhattacharya

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology Mody Institute of Technology & Science (Deemed University), Lakshmangarh , Dist. Sikar, Rajasthan, Pin – 332311, India
1

gur1487preet@gmail.com, 2 hereispartha@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The performance of an OFDM system is affected by parameters such as carrier frequency offset and phase noise. In the presence of such parameters the performance of OFDM system degrades. Under Rayleigh fading environment the performance fluctuates depending on the signal strength. In this paper the performance of an OFDM system is studied in the presence of Rayleigh fading channel. Results show that the SINR of the overall system fluctuates due to the effect of Rayleigh fading channel.
Keywords: OFDM Wireless communication system, carrier frequency offset (CFO), Phase noise, signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR), Rayleigh fading channel.

1. ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLEXING (OFDM)
OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) has been developed to combat multipath effects and make better use of the system. An important parameter that should be carefully considered while dealing with OFDM system is phase noise because an accurate prediction of the tolerable phase noise can allow the system to relax specifications. The consideration of phase noise in OFDM systems is important with frequencies above 25 GHz, as suggested in some European ACTS projects dealing with LMDS (LocalMultipoint Distribution Systems) [1]. The effect of phase noise in OFDM and the degradation caused by it have been analyzed by several authors [2]–[5]. Carrier frequency offset (CFO) exist between user terminals and the base station. OFDM systems are very sensitive to CFO, which leads to performance degradation by introducing inter-carrier-interference (ICI) [6]. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the performance of an OFDM wireless communication system in the combined effect of carrier frequency offset and phase noise in Rayleigh fading environment. OFDM is a block modulation scheme where a block of N information symbols is transmitted on N subcarriers in parallel. The time duration of an OFDM symbol is N times larger than that of a single-carrier system. An OFDM modulator can be implemented as an inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT) on a block of N information symbols which is then followed by an analogto-digital converter (ADC). In order to mitigate the effects of

inter symbol interference (ISI) caused by channel time spread, each block of N IDFT coefficients is typically preceded by a cyclic prefix (CP) or a guard interval consisting of G samples, such that the channel length is at least equal to the length of CP. In this condition, a linear convolution of the transmitted sequence and the channel is converted to a circular convolution. As a result, the effects of the ISI are easily and completely eliminated. This approach enables the receiver to use fast signal processing transforms such as a fast Fourier transform (FFT) for OFDM implementation [7]. Similar techniques can be employed in single-carrier systems as well, by preceding each transmitted data block of length N by a CP of length G, while using frequency domain equalization at the receiver. One of the best ways to mitigate the effect of multipath is to use OFDM communication systems. A combination of OFDM and coding associated with interleaving in the frequency domain (COFDM) can take advantage from the diversity associated to multipath [8]. The following equation gives the N point complex modulation sequence transmitted by OFDM signal for the 𝑚𝑚𝑡𝑡ℎ symbol: 𝑥𝑥𝑚𝑚 (𝑛𝑛) = � 𝑋𝑋𝑚𝑚 (𝑘𝑘)𝑒𝑒 𝑗𝑗 𝑁𝑁 𝑛𝑛𝑛𝑛 𝑘𝑘
=0 𝑁𝑁 −1
2 𝜋𝜋

where n ranges from 0 to 𝑁𝑁 + 𝑁𝑁𝑔𝑔 − 1.

(1)

2. PHASE NOISE FREQUENCY OFFSET

AND

CARRIER

Phase noise must be carefully considered when

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statistically independent of the input signal. 3. e. is: 𝑥𝑥(𝑛𝑛) = � 𝑠𝑠𝑘𝑘 . or the sum of them. (2). Assuming that the channel is flat. 𝑘𝑘𝛿𝛿 = 𝑘𝑘 + 𝛿𝛿 𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 𝑁𝑁 − 1. phase noise. 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆 = 10. 𝜎𝜎𝑢𝑢 noise. (10) 3.cisjournal. the de multiplexed signal is given as: 2 𝜋𝜋 𝑗𝑗 ( ) 𝑦𝑦(𝑘𝑘) ≈ 𝑠𝑠𝑘𝑘 + � 𝑠𝑠𝑟𝑟 � 𝛷𝛷(𝑛𝑛). |ɛ| ≤ 0. the envelope |𝑐𝑐 (𝜏𝜏. sampled with sampling frequency 𝑓𝑓𝑠𝑠 = 𝐵𝐵. As the ICI effect is focused. with zero mean and variance 𝜎𝜎ɛ2 . let us assume that Φ(n) is small. If 𝑓𝑓ɛ is normalized to the subcarrier spacing △ 𝑓𝑓 . ‘c’ stands for carrier) between the single-side-band noise power in a 1 Hz bandwidth at a distance 𝑓𝑓𝑚𝑚 from the carrier and the carrier power. In the event that δ ≠0 and ε=0. which represents the ratio (in dBc. log �1 + 𝜎𝜎 2 𝑠𝑠 � 𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑. All rights reserved. its variance can be found as [10]: 𝜎𝜎 2 = � ( 0 𝑏𝑏 where n=0. so that: 𝑒𝑒 𝑗𝑗𝑗𝑗 (𝑛𝑛 ) ≈ 1 + 𝑗𝑗𝑗𝑗(𝑛𝑛). given that phase noise variance is small (𝜎𝜎 2 ≪ 1) it follows the expression [9] : In this equation 𝐸𝐸𝑠𝑠 represents the symbol energy and 𝑁𝑁0 is the power spectral density of additive white Gaussian noise. In the event that 345 . March 2012 Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences ©2009-2012 CIS Journal. The signal to noise ratio degradation (𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑆𝑆𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁 ) caused by phase noise is the same in OFDM and signal carrier systems. 𝑒𝑒 𝑗𝑗 � 𝑁𝑁 � 𝑟𝑟 −𝑘𝑘 𝑛𝑛 𝑁𝑁 (5) (6) Thus we have an error term 𝑒𝑒𝑘𝑘 for each sub-carrier and which results from some combination of all of them and is added to the useful signal. 𝛼𝛼 ) 𝐸𝐸 (7) 1 + 𝛾𝛾𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝛼𝛼 2 (1 − 𝜉𝜉 )[0.5. 𝑁𝑁 0 𝑦𝑦(𝑘𝑘) ≈ 𝑠𝑠𝑘𝑘 + 𝑒𝑒𝑘𝑘 Since no ICI is caused by an integer CFO. 𝑁𝑁−1 𝑟𝑟 =0 𝑁𝑁 −1 𝑛𝑛 =0 (4) where δ is an integer and |є| ≤ 0. 𝑒𝑒 𝑘𝑘 =0 𝑁𝑁−1 2 𝜋𝜋 𝑗𝑗 𝑘𝑘𝑘𝑘 𝑁𝑁 using a spectrum analyzer which provides the power spectral density of the equipment’s phase noise ( 𝑁𝑁0𝑝𝑝 ) in relation to the carrier power (C). NO. 1.VOL.g. In this case the channel is said to be Rayleigh fading channel. normalized CFO is considered as given below.org ISSN 2079-8407 dealing with any of these communication systems since an accurate prediction of the tolerable phase noise can allow the system and RF designers to relax specifications. 3. ɛ= 𝑓𝑓ɛ = є △ 𝑓𝑓 (9) In this case. 𝑒𝑒 𝑗𝑗𝑗𝑗 (𝑛𝑛 ) (3) The absolute value of the actual CFO 𝑓𝑓ɛ . will shift to another subcarrier 𝑘𝑘𝛿𝛿 . then the resulting normalized CFO of the channel can be generally expressed as: ɛ= 𝑓𝑓ɛ = 𝛿𝛿 + є △ 𝑓𝑓 2𝑁𝑁0𝑝𝑝 )𝑑𝑑𝑑𝑑. The complex envelope of the transmitted OFDM signal for a given OFDM symbol. Given that the phase noise has a zero mean and that extends up to a frequency b (either because phase noise is band-limited or due to the presence of filtering in the receiver). This symbol is actually extended with a Time Guard in order to cope with multipath delay spread.5947(sin 𝜋𝜋ɛ) 2 + { 𝛾𝛾𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝛼𝛼 2 (1 − 𝜉𝜉 ){𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 2 (𝜋𝜋ɛ)} 2 𝑁𝑁 2 𝜎𝜎𝑢𝑢 2 is the variance of phase where ɛ is the normalized CFO. timing jitter and Rayleigh fading the OFDM system performance can be expressed by the following SINR expression [10]: ≥ 2 𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆 (ɛ.. subcarrier k.5. The impact of an integer CFO on OFDM system is different from the influence of a fractional CFO. . 𝑡𝑡) is modeled as a zero mean complex valued guassian process. is either an integer multiple or a fraction of △ 𝑓𝑓 . relative CFO (ε) to assumed to be a Gaussian process. symbols transmitted on a certain subcarrier. 1 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 2 (𝜋𝜋ɛ) ∑𝑁𝑁− 𝑟𝑟 =1 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 2 ( 1 𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋 ) 𝑁𝑁 }] + 𝛾𝛾𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝛼𝛼 2 𝜉𝜉 (11) This characterization is normally performed by When the impulse response 𝑐𝑐 (𝜏𝜏. One way to characterize oscillator’s phase noise is the single-side-band phase noise power density function 𝐿𝐿(𝑓𝑓𝑚𝑚 ). A theoretical analysis of phase noise effects in OFDM signals is carried out by many authors. the signal is only affected by phase noise at the receiver: 𝑟𝑟(𝑛𝑛) = 𝑥𝑥 (𝑛𝑛). 𝐶𝐶 (8) The received signal is an Orthogonal Frequency Division De-multiplexed (OFDD) signal by means of a Discrete Fourier Transform. FORMULATION OF SINR In the presence of CFO. 𝛾𝛾𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 is the input SNR. 𝑡𝑡 )| at any instant is Rayleigh distributed. 𝜉𝜉 denotes timing jitter and 𝛼𝛼 corresponds to the channel attenuation/gain parameter in Rayleigh fading environment. N is the number of sub-carriers in the channel. …. N-1. 𝜉𝜉. http://www. 𝜎𝜎𝑢𝑢 . |𝜉𝜉 | ≤ 1. For the purpose of separating the signal and noise terms.

normalized CFO being 0. Figure 1 and 2 shows the plot of SINR versus variance of 2 ) for various values of attenuation/gain phase noise (𝜎𝜎𝑢𝑢 parameter. |ɛ| ≤ 0.02 0.5947(sin 𝜋𝜋ɛ) 2 + {2𝑁𝑁 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 2 (𝜋𝜋ɛ) ∑𝑁𝑁− 𝑟𝑟 =1 𝛾𝛾𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝛼𝛼 2 {𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠2 (𝜋𝜋ɛ)} 2 𝜎𝜎𝑢𝑢 .014 0.33 Figure 2: SINR versus variance of phase noise as a function of attenuation/gain parameter (CFO=0. 1.05.1.8 SINR (in dB) 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 0 0.05) Figure 3 and 4 show the variation of SINR versus normalized CFO.2 variance of phase noise 0.2.2 -1. SINR (in dB) SINR expression in the presence of phase noise and CFO without timing jitter and considering a Rayleigh fading environment can be expressed as: 2 .8 0.6 0.1.4 attenuation/gain parameter=0.33) SINR versus normalized CFO(variance of phase noise=0.06 0.15 0.6.12 0.4 -0. Variance of phase noise and input SNR (𝛾𝛾𝑖𝑖 ) are considered to be 0.45 0.02 0.3 0. SINR versus variance of phase noise (CFO=0.8 8 6 4 2 0 ≥ 1 1 + 𝛾𝛾𝑖𝑖𝑖𝑖 𝛼𝛼 2 [0.024 0.8 6 attenuation/gain parameter=1 4 -6 -8 0. 3.08 0.022 0.026 0. NO. March 2012 Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences ©2009-2012 CIS Journal.2 attenuation/gain parameter=1.4 attenuation/gain parameter=1.33 and attenuation/gain parameter>=1) -0.cisjournal.05 0.2.45 0.VOL.0.05 and attenuation/gain parameter<=1) 10 attenuation/gain parameter=0.33 and attenuation/gain parameter<=1) 2 attenuation/gain parameter=0.0.2 0. 𝜎𝜎𝑢𝑢 SINR versus variance of phase noise (CFO=0.4 0.8 -1 -1.1.1 0.4 -1. for various values of attenuation/gain parameter.4. 0. 𝛼𝛼 ) 𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆𝑆(ɛ. All rights reserved. 3.05 0.018 0.5 Table 1: System and channel parameters for simulation Number of sub carriers (N) Channel type Input SNR values Channel attenuation/gain parameter(α) Normalized CFO Variance of phase noise 64 Rayleigh fading channel 10 dB. RESULT AND DISCUSSION Simulation has been carried out using MATLAB.2 attenuation/gain parameter=1.6.15 0.4 10 attenuation/gain parameter=1.5 SINR (in dB) 2 -0.25 0.03 0.05 and attenuation/gain parameter>=1) 14 attenuation/gain parameter=1 12 attenuation/gain parameter=1.016 0.org ISSN 2079-8407 there are fixed scatterers or signal reflectors in the medium in addition to randomly moving scatterers 𝑐𝑐 (𝜏𝜏.0.6 attenuation/gain parameter=1.032 Normalized CFO Figure 1: SINR versus variance of phase noise as a function of attenuation/gain parameter (CFO=0.14 Figure 3: SINR versus normalized CFO as a function of attenuation/gain parameter (variance of phase noise=0.028 0.33 and 10 dB respectively.2 8 attenuation/gain parameter=0.4 0.6 attenuation/gain parameter=0.1 Normalized CFO 0. Results are plotted for input SNR (𝛾𝛾𝑖𝑖 ) of 10 dB.05) Figure 4: SINR versus normalized CFO as a function of attenuation/gain parameter (variance of phase noise=0. SINR versus normalized CFO (variance of phase noise=0.1 0.4.5 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 2 ( 1 (12) 𝜋𝜋𝜋𝜋 ) 𝑁𝑁 }] -2 -4 -6 0 0.8 attenuation/gain parameter=1 0 SINR (in dB) -2 -4 4.8.25 0.012 0.2 attenuation/gain parameter=0.1.35 0.6 attenuation/gain parameter=1 attenuation/gain parameter=1.6 attenuation/gain parameter=1.6 attenuation/gain parameter=0.05 0.4 attenuation/gain parameter=0.04 0.33) 346 .2 -0. 𝑡𝑡 ) can no longer be modeled to have zero mean.3 0. http://www.35 variance of phase noise 0.

An SINR expression is taken into consideration for evaluating the same. Alard. May 1998. CONCLUSION In this paper. It can also be seen from Figure 3. Figure 4 show that for an input SNR of 10 dB as attenuation/gain parameter increases from 1 to 1.” IEEE Trans. L. pp. Toulouse. Jr. July 1997. Moeneclaey.” IEEE Trans. “The effect of synchronization errors on the performance of orthogonal frequency[9] [2] [10] [3] 347 . G. M. Le Floch. 44. 2/3/4. IEEE. Feb. the SINR values decreases. that for an input SNR of 10 dB as attenuation/gain parameter decreases from 1 to 0. 191– 193. M. 1590-1598. 43. IEEE PES Technical Committee Meeting. Cimini. the SINR values increase and is highest for gain parameter of 1. no. 6.8. pp. and C. Pollet. March 2012 Journal of Emerging Trends in Computing and Information Sciences ©2009-2012 CIS Journal. pp. 46. B. Mathecken. Calvo. M.8 the SINR values increases. 1995. 1995. vol. [6] [7] [8] REFERENCES [1] IEEE PES HVDC & FACTS Subcommittee meeting (2006). vol. Figure 2 show that for an input SNR of 10 dB as attenuation/gain parameter increases from 1 to 1. pp. division multiplexed (OFDM) systems. “Carrier frequency acquisition and tracking f or OFDM systems. 2. 3. “Phase noise and subcarrier spacing effects on the performance of an OFDM communication system. “On the effect of Wiener phase noise in OFDM systems. http://www. van Bladel.8. M. “BER sensitivity of OFDM systems to carrier frequency offset and Wiener phase noise. vol. COM-33.org ISSN 2079-8407 It can be seen from Figure 1. the SINR values decreases and the gain parameter 1 indicates zero fading. Montreal.VOL. 5.cisjournal. Results show that as compared to an ideal channel (attenuation/gain parameter=1) the SINR is less for an OFDM system under Rayleigh fading environment when attenuation/gain parameter<1 whereas the SINR is more for an OFDM system under Rayleigh fading environment when attenuation/gain parameter>1. 59. France. no. 1. J. P.” IEEE Transactions Communication. vol. 2/3/4. M. June 1995./Apr. Moeneclaey. 580–583.” IEEE Transactions Communication. Communication. that for an input SNR of 10 dB as attenuation/gain parameter is decreased from 1 to 0. no. no.” in Proc. 982–996. pp./Mar. Issue 5. 665–675.2. Moeneclaey. 11–13. 43. pp. Communication./Apr. vol. 3./Mar. Tomba. COST 254 (Emergent Techniques for Communication Terminals). 191–193. vol. May 2011. 1998. and M.” Proc. “Analysis and simulation of a digital mobile channel using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing. 1996. no. 83. T. vol.. All rights reserved. S. Pollet. pp.” IEEE Trans. July 1985. vol. Reggiannini. Werner.2. Communication. Riihonen. “Coded orthogonal frequency division multiplex. pp. performance evaluation of an OFDM communication system is studied by taking normalized CFO and variance of phase noise under consideration in Rayleigh fading environment (α≠1). Berrou. T. Luise and R.” IEEE Communication Letter. L. “BER sensitivity of OFDM systems to carrier frequency offset and Wiener phase noise. [4] [5] 5. NO. A. van Bladel. Armada and M. Nov. Jan. T. and M. So the SINR value increases or decreases from its value when there is no fading depending on constructive or destructive interference of the signals from multipath. Wichman. Feb. “Performance Analysis of OFDM with Wiener Phase Noise and Frequency Selective Fading Channel. 1321-1331.” IEEE Transaction on Communication.