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THE BELOVED EGO

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1 THE BELOVED EGO FOUNDATIONS OF THE NEW STUDY OF THE PSYCHE BY WILHELM STEKEL. TRUBNER & CO. New York: MOFFAT YARD & COMPANY 192 . TRENCH.. LTD. 3.D. 53 LONDON KEGAN PAUL. 53. Neurologist M. and Psycho-therapist^ Vienna AUTHORIZED TRANSLATION BY ROSALIE GABLER Member of the British Psychological Society^ ^or the and of the Society Study of Orthopsychics 179005.

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To to wear an English I have been longing for many years to speak to English readers. the foreboded. envy. the brilliant light and the darkening shadow. the secret mysteries of human Unconsciousness. the virtues and what lies behind them. . might the word be said that might speak Thee. You can all the riddles of the find there the unspoken.DR. All stars are angels but the sun is God. I will give this : . Few men axe thankful. I am proud to say I have conquered the two most mean of human qualities. teacher's name : Shakespeare." In case all of my future readers may not have been readers of Swinburne. whom Swinburne. the creator of " The Ballad of Dreamland " addresses " Not if men's tongues and angels' all in one spake. now in the Heaven of Immortals. only guessed. and ingratitude. You can find in his works beloved Ego. If it be true that every genius of a nation (like .. the hidden crimes and their concealed origins. my beloved Swinburne. I feel very thankful. the only the unforeseen.. STEKEUS PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH EDITION at : My dress first attempt I begin with ! am happy an English preface. To continue in : One of my first and best teachers Psychology was an Englishman. I have overcome both the envy of ingratitude and the ingratitude of envy. He knows the depths and the heights.

I know that many English readers will laugh at my mistakes and at my German English. I hope they are only very little Shakespeares and so will not be too severe with his humble Austrian pupil. last but not — : my warm love for mankind and my pity for the sufferings and writhings of tortured and oppressed souls. WiLHELM StEKEL. Translations are very rarely new creations Every translated book is like a masked lady. the power of healing knowledge and. every English reader is a little Shakespeare. But I hope one thing will remain unchanged and undestroyable the truth of eternal thoughts. clothed in a strange dress for a masquerade. and will understand I am striving to comprehend my beloved authors in their own language. least.! viii PREFACE every criminal !) represents the collective soul of his people. I am afraid they may either over-value the worth and the beauty of the true face or they may think the nice costume covers an ugly figure beneath. But I hope they will also feel the warmth of my heart for their culture. . Vknna.

and eventually it ia humanity. On the shoulders of a giant. they investigate his attitude towards the world . they correct his wrong views and they try to draw him away from the harmful twilight of his fantasies and bring him into harmony with reality. This does not indicate that I wish to minimize the pioneer work of the great Viennese master. father-confessor. the soul " Psycho. which opened up a new world Freud called his method of investigating to me. They interest themselves in the experiences and the milieu of the patient . I began as a " wild " explorer of the Psyche till I met with the much-discussed teachings of Freud. To have been one of the my . Most nervespecialists are becoming doctors of the soul.. even a dwarf can see farther than the giant can.Analysis. I have retained the best of this teaching." He attaches the greatest importance to the discovery of the deeply buried childish impressions of a sexual nature. The doctor has become educator. teacher and of first to foresee and investigate these connecting links is humble merit. and from it have evolved a new one. Now a great change is taking place. AUTHOR'S PREFACE It has taken a long time to realize that the socalled nervous diseases are diseases of the Psyche. The exposure of these repressions should bring with it healing.

there After recognition — — . and indicating the necessary re-adjustment of his morbid attitude towards his immediate surroundings and towards the whole world. We certainly do not wish to undervalue the importance of sexuality in the psychic life of But we must also guard ourselves civilized man. Into this world It holds the doctor of the soul has to penetrate. and this little book will show that there are also many The treatment aims at the reconciliation others. To glance into the past is necessary. he takes the confessions to himself. and is well on his guard against showing the patient by suggestive questions some path of soulinvestigation which might easily prove misleading. The danger of every science is routine. of the patient with reality. The doctor must analyze his patient if he wants to help him. Sexuality is only one of against over-estimation. showing to him those of his fantasies which are incapable of fulfilment. Every neurotic lives in a second world of his own. The real analyst does not inquire. far beyond human powers. But not according to pre-conceived opinions and definite schemes. the questions which are of importance.Analysis as being a step towards a new psycho-therapy. all his past.X PREFACE the fate of every pupil to outstrip the master if he wishes to become master himself. and understanding. Every new soul must mean a new problem for the soul-investigator. it builds up his present and directs his aims into the future. Thus I regard Freud's Psycho. People erroneously believe as can be seen from the way in which opponents treat the matter that Psycho-Analysis consists of a painful inquiry into sexual experiences.

and a practicable outlook in life. How would this be possible. which will bear witness to my endeavour to fulfil this difficult task. and I hope they will be of use to teach the healthy. must be followed by a recombining and reconstructive building process. The doctor must give his patient an aim and purpose in life. the dilapidated ruins of neurosis. and the physician were united in one ? Unless the whole of his powers were made use of This in the high calling of a priest and leader? little book deals with all these questions by giving the first outlines of many problems with which the author is dealing more extensively in larger scientific works. to set free the sick. Analysis. It contains foundations for a new dietetic of the soul. The doctor must also become the educator of the patient. destructive process. Analysis dismantles the old fortress-walls.PREFACE XI follow teaching and expansion. leading and guiding. In the following sketches I have drawn some small studies. and also the substance of a synthesis of a new and sounder conception of life. They contain much analytical material. which is really only a disintegrating. almost caricatured world of fantasy bizarre. I have used the title . the poet. and cheerful edifices built up by the soul. press themselves upon him. obscure problems from a the soul. habitable. demanding solution. These must be replaced by new. the gloomy strongholds. unless the thinker. As a whole they show clearly the difficulties of the calling of a doctor of Intricate.

*The German title of the book ig Da» Liehe Ich: OmndzUge einer neuen Diet&tik der Seele. out of the conclusions I have arrived at from my own experience. how much more so should this be the case with a doctor of souls. I have always aimed at presenting my thoughts in an attractive style. For it is the doctor who heals. avoiding the dry form of the man of science. April. The time is past when it was considered inevitable that scientific language should produce boredom. 191S.xii PREFACE Grundziige * because on this I intend to build. These essays are in an artistic form. Vienna. and therefore different results are obtained by the different methods of different doctors. and not the method. It is not every doctor who is suitable for this difficult vocation. . It is a generally accepted fact that a doctor must be an artist. WiLHELM StEKEL.

Yet one which is wholesome and brave. W. It is time for the English public to have an opportunity to appreciate the value of Dr. All his writings show exceptional literary skill and firsthand knowledge of the great World Literature. The present book. and this in no figurative sense. and he has also written plays which clothe in living form his experiences as a thinker in contact with the minds and lives of his patients. laying special stress on the necessity for joy in life. with all this culture. view of life. has published a volume of poems full of insight. if slightly disillusioned. teacher and writer. nevertheless contains some of the central ideas of the author ideas which have been developed and worked out at great length. Stekel is very much himself an independent and individual mind. Yet. in a long series of learned and technical volumes. though so simple and delightful in form." by Dr. and with great skill. its author to the English literary interest of the The quantity and works of this distinguished Viennese Psychotherapist.TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE Clothed in popular form '^ The Beloved Ego. will serve as the best general introduction of public. In all this he is a physician of the soul. Stekel 's work. Stekel. have made him well known throughout the continents of Europe and America. In translating I have endeavoured to retain as — — . But he He is also a poet. Stekel presents to us a clear.

and to those friends who have so willingly and generously of task. . Coxeter. H. In conclusion I wish to tender grateful thanks to co-worker. helped me in my my my my Rosalie Gabler. But it must necessarily lose much in translation owing to the impossibility of transcribing the intimate idiom of the original into a foreign language.xiv PREFACE far as possible the author's mdividual style and grace in the original.

Mali-Mali V.. XVI. XVII. . XVIII. Half-Men Doubt Psychic Opium VI.. 141 The Unlucky Dog Impatience - - - - 152 XIV. Aims in Life 39 42 55 IV.. Degenerate Children Excitements . IX. . 69 VIII.. - 81 g^ 102 115 X. - - - - 166 176 189 201 XV.CONTENTS CHAy.. Poena Talionis . XIII. The Fear of Joy We and Our Money Envy Artists in Life - - - - - XI. XII. Aphorisms 230 . I. VII. The Beloved Ego The Fight of the Sexes PAC« . - - - - - - - The King's Spectacles - Holidays 217 XIX. - 13 III. - 128 . i II.

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Every last one and especially the suitors. when a plain-looking man came along deep in thought. and watched the people passing by the alluring glass. looking-glass. who this could be proved least and that he only should kingdom. and had his just been thinking about one of poems. tells of who so detested vanity that he declared that he would only give his daughter in marriage to be the inherit his to the man vain. The old king had just begun to give up all hope of the success of this test. and was greatly surprised when he was led in triumph to the king. He passed the looking-glass without noticing it. a king full of deep meaning. Thus he had gained the king's daughter his silent song. and throne through . to reassure themselves for the time as to the impression they would create. The lucky man was a poet. looked For into end he put up a large it.THE BELOVED EGO CHAPTER I THE BELOVED EGO There which is an old fairy story.

may it. but only help to increase that others estimation. but as —one always be astonished at the vanity he produces Is not all immense amount result of a vanity of for the admiration of his Ego. The kings in fairy tales generally have a better knowledge of human nature than this.2 THE BELOVED EGO So much for the fah-y tale. he would not have passed it so lessly. his creation the which tries to force his fellow beings? Where shall one find Ego on his a poet who is writes only for himself. he might have been the vainest of the vain. Perhaps had noticed it. and self- love always craves for the approbation and appreci- . which over-estimates the man. our own self- Vanity needs a sounding-board in order to emphasize Vanity is but the expression of self-love. If artist one has had the opportunity of knowing an he really is —not will as he pretends to be. Our poet if had not even seen the looking-glass. a mirror to We adorn ourselves for others. and ignores recognition and fame when the certainty of its attainment assured ? So-called vanity disappears without reflect it. he care- Even it if he had noticed the glass and yet still passed by. because he saw himself reflected meanwhile in the mirror of his soul —vanity such as this is much worse outer than the former.

8 We want to be admired by admire ourselves others. and everything by which we are rounded is only of importance to us in so far as illuminated by our Ego-rays. even more — *' We own are all in love with ourselves." An myth tells us the how Narcissus saw his image reflected in water. our Ego is to us the centre surit is of the world. Modem psychiatrists describe extreme degrees of self-love as Narcissism. The first period of our . but only so as to be able to the more. we selves more than we guess old : yes.THE BELOVED EGO ation of one's fellows. stretches is A continuous line of development it from the normal to the pathological. is nor can he have a^ffect. We are all Narcissists . because his judgement clouded by the and yet just because this quality hides itself so all modestly love our! from the world and from the Ego. immense power of self-love. and was thereupon seized with a strong passion for himself. and difficult to decide where the normal ends and the pathological begins. What ^* a splendid word was the commandment Love thy neighbour as thyself!" What mortal self- could ever rise to this god-like height without deception ? No human being has any perception of the it.

how sweet. how enchanting. This also accounts for the differences in Narcissism. And even those who may not be openly . and loves only those command. mind is thus always focussed on an over-estimaeasily breaks tion of his own Ego. thousand times how beautiful. and so on. as he is taught to accept the parents* this There a greater danger in form of as the education than the educationalist child foresees. His fantasies conquer for him immense kingdoms in which he is always the ruler. and why one human it being has a greater tendency towards than another. and down when life hard necessity dissolves the fantastic pictures. how dear. it.4 life is THE BELOVED EGO obviously a time of boundless self-love. He is gradually educated in love from Egoism to Altruism The egoist must love this person and little is told that he that. Narcissistic. how lovely he is is —and is compelled to believe decree. At persons who are at his . is The child absolutely egoistic. because they are good to him. This over-estimation of the Ego is tremendously increased by the blind The child is told a admiration of the parents. and they create for him boundless possibilities. ! this period the child feels himself the centre of the universe. and changes the (a Kingdom of Youth into thraldom of main cause of child suicide).

to Ego is (themselves). in we have found ourselves in him. The outer self. Perhaps a few definite examples can better explain the phenomenon of Narcissism. is often surprised that older married couples look so alike. influence of the environment and the results of continually seeing ..THE BELOVED EGO certainly their S i. much and one talks of adaptation. which means. We selves. a poem. In the same way we like a play in the theatre if it meets "our " views. come to know a person and we suit are enthusiastic because that person holds the same views as we our- We *' " each other. All phenomena of life present themselves thus in a different aspect. a picture when seen with " our " eyes. that which has called forth against our teaching : Let us begin with the gravest objection ! with love Is it not true then that one falls in love with another being so passion- ately that one if may even throw away one's ? own life one cannot reach the object of this love Where It is is there self-love in this ? Where Egoism ? well worth while to study the condition of such a love. And that girl pleases us who has our own traits. One other words. world only a projection of our inner for we only perceive what our Ego-rays can touch. when it gives expression to " our " mood.e. pay due tribute to their secret god.

T. du weisst es nicht. and what taking ways he possessed and in a short time there will When show spring next they meet they will both endeavour to their best side. Wtatt Smith. up a flaming passion. From we want other. THE BELOVED EGO But why does one blind oneself to the show a certain likeness to I believe also that love at first sight is fact that lovers very often one another ? only self-love. We see a being who is as we would thus wish to be ourselves. The poet expresses it Was ist dein und was ist mein? Ach.— — : ! 6 each other. . The driving force in . What Nor In is — thine? or what is mine? in grief or mirth Do'st thou know each word of thin© my heart had birth? Translated by B. of old the is power which makes two people that of self-love. what an impression she the young tell man—^that made on he is quite off his head. fall love each other to Let us imagine in love with each make Max and Anne First we tell her how the enchanted Max talked about her. Wie aus dir in Lust und Pein Meine Seele spricht. We Max the same sort of thing she thought him the nicest of all.

return the more people can sit for resplendent. and know only one interest. The Don Juan really only seeking himself. have a strong inclination to be photographed or painted they want to see themselves in different positions and costumes. ? being Where can they find Every new acquaintance is a also is human disap- fresh pointment. will These are the people who can never for truly find themselves. gilded over The loved object sent out only to by the Ego-rays. kindles to a burning glow. Thus we can reflection. Narcissistic stir The into up powerful emotions action —and were projected towards that object which occupies which itself is with the admiration of the Ego. They observe and ponder over themselves. their own Ego. powers love is Self-love. his belief in his and each new conquest confirms own . they axe searching some one who feel understand them completely and can this as they do. And others again are like the poet in in their vanity they reflect themselves in the mirror of their own soul. the fairy tale . at the appreci- ation of the other. also understand how hours in front of the looking-glass and gaze at their They are their own lovers and can never They also get their fill of looking at themselves.. THE BELOVED EGO this case 7 was the Ego-rays.

to an open-air bath. But matters leads to serious when over-estimation reckless actions and brings people into conflict with The newspapers described recently a scene which they called "Eve before the Judges. and he will find people who are only really for selves hours to their fellow-men happy when they can show themand women. and there is also the legend of the beautiful . . This simple woman still had a dim memory from ancient when the belief in the enchanting power of the body led to strange customs. but how many sun baths are baths of self-love all if —and would never be taken at ? the bathers were isolated from each other it is As here only a harmless outlet of the impulses.8 THE BELOVED EGO This it irresistibility. of these very popular Indeed the beloved sun has much to be responsible for. in Venice. or in Vienna to the Gaensehaeufel. this we can regard become the law. Whoever wants to see such individuals need only go to the seaside. with equanimity." (a peasant The accused woman) suddenly flung off all her clothes without apparent motive. and stood her for this naked before the judges peasant times. is a belief which to behave many people possess. and leads them in a strange manner. There were forms of bewitchment in which one was compelled to un- dress. who condemned to a heavy sentence of imprisonment.

changes into opposite because all life appears in a double form If (the law of bi-polarity). suffer Such people from a pathological modesty and shyness. care. Wie hatt'er doch unter alien Mich Arme erhoht und begluckt. the Ego-rays the can sur- magnify their own Ego and minimize roundings. dreamy sense has beguil'd. have a torturing sense of their own They do not trust themselves with any cannot command. It is incredible to them that they can please Es hat ein Traum mich beriickt. Translated by Lady Macfarren. dare not believe it. This boundless over-estimation of the Ego has another unfortunate aspect. and without support they are feeble. a poor ignorant child. I cannot. or other physical causes. They inferiority. A Everything that they do themselves seems insigni- . Ich kann es nicht fassen. Through the disappointit ments of its life . organize and command them. are only happy if work. They others They for. they are also capable of magnifying the surroundings and minimizing the Ego. nicht glauben. others. How could he from all our maidens Choose me. difficult task. waving reeds in the wind.— — — — 9 THE BELOVED EGO witch-devil who appeared before the solitary hermit in dazzling nakedness.

for whole nations. are Megalomania lurks within them and they consumed dreams are They all have runs one point at which they can touch greatness. He therefore have an inward mental image of each All dark must of his visions. in They riot. This law not only holds good for the but also for large communities. It is only by reason of this law that long aeons . There are not a few poets amongst these timid ones. spirits of demons of Hell and all good Heaven must wrestle in his breast. part of our soul. He must be able to hate and it is violently and to love intensely always a portion of his own Ego which he loves —or which he hates. others do appears immense. any one when he personifies an unpleasant individual. THE BELOVED EGO to them imd with what envy. is The whole world rays. like so seek who feel themselves so small and would much to be great.— 10 ficant . and the whole world is admiring them. have which fly. megalomania They able to and they raise themselves proudly above the gazing crowd. All the poet's Ego feelings an outlet and urgently demand release. Or they have done some great work. interpenetrated with our Ego- We find a person unsympathetic if he brings before our eyes our We hate own bad qualities in caricature.

let existence are rendered comprehensible Why tion does the American hate the Negro? Just us think out of what material the American populaof to-day has been moulded.THE BELOVED EGO of 11 to us. on the contrary they rage more powerfully than he all his breast It is the endeavour of human beings to project unpleasant endopsychic observations outwardly. American hates and despises himself. in whom the business man has to yield unwillingly to the demands of ethics. and eager for great wealth. and to climb to pure heights. that which is evil The Negro stands as a representative of in the American in the Negro the . psychopaths with strongly instincts marked criminal repressed. The American has not freed himself instincts any more than we in the old in will confess to himself. . were criminals. We would to rise above ourselves. the flotsam and jetsam These ne'er-do- wells. In short. is in glaring contrast mental What had been repression had ! to take place before this accomplished from world his evil . that which we find unpleasant in ourselves we project on to others. were and a people developed with high morals whose practical sense with its and ethics. all We are greedy for money. of There life. of acquisition ideals. We could also find a similar foundation for Anti-semitism. We like are idealists. aimless wanderers. instincts.

this From we can is see the tremendous importance of vanity. and he who fact that he least vain still prides himself on the not vain. Without a scapegoat of we cannot one needs magnanimity soul to be one's own scapegoat. Who has not conceived the dream of being the only survivor of the downfall of the world ? If only people would know If that they are of all "unique " and that a com! munity human beings can never produce a unity we look a little more closely we see nothing but ego-rays which are at war with each other —an eternal chaos out of which will eventually be born the eagerly desired world of altruism. In his innermost soul there reigns a self- conceit which will endure no comparisons.12 THE BELOVED EGO disagreeable in us but we can only do that when we separate that which is and transfer it to another. Each person creates a is world for himself. live. Thus we hate whole nations because they represent one of those components of our Ego which has been doomed to repression. There is is no human being without vanity. Who knows man if the poet in the fairy tale did not pose as the without vanity in order to represent himself as the only being of a different type to the ordinary mortal ? That is the great secret of the ego-rays. and is proud of it because it his own world. .

and sustains beginning to of by moods stands of unsatisfied longing. Happiness interests.CHAPTER II THE FIGHT OF THE SEXES Love is the poetry of those who are not poets. That mood which we call " poetic " is very readily created whenever there People in an undercurrent of erotic emotion. because dream create The true poet can being in love. Love one's at the is a happy marriage. enchanted in the rosy twilight of a land of dreams. but Love itself no problems. make outside interests own Only lovers (not merely the . these moods out of the for life. them far away and them reality. for all reality appears to is impossible. smallest happenings of everyday without himself Everywhere he where other sees is able to see problems see and conflicts mortals only grey monotony. love are always " poetic " they wander is .

How does that come about? is One might for love. For to love means —and where slave. is if it is founded on some common be only the erotic relationship. and even more so does the whole problem What we a strange schematic conception of love have hitherto had ! There has always been something it. and for love the best guide. It strikes man of like a flash of lightning (light it makes him blind to the to every voice to feel of experience. while the merely "loving" preserved a remnant of his Ego. feelings rule. " loving has still The lover identifies himself with the object of his love. inexpressible about . One need not everyday There are many more riddles in than we imagine. Many observers have been struck marriages of love are not the most happy ones. of love. believe that instinct it is the surest guide Yes. or only in the rarest cases. enigmatic and . and deaf \reason. thing. Every marriage interest. love and marriage are not the first same We life But must smile. and his own interests remain. the intellect become a hopeless .14 THE BELOVED EGO ") can do this. explain the riddle of love. challenges the Already the theme of love's choice keen penetration of the psychologists. for this certainly an interest in common —and not the least by the fact that important.

and bring our thoughts to bear upon our feelings. an opposite emotion. who have just been speaking ? Is there. and kept in equilibrium by. " rationalization.THE FIGHT OF THE SEXES Now we human beings are so formed that 15 not we will admit to ourselves that we are driven to this or that action merely by an obscure and incomprehensible feeling. by an opposite impulse. then. by an example Our health is assured by a excretes a substance which system of glands. illness invariably arises in con- sequence of the excessive excretion from the other . qualities. We always seek intellectual grounds. I speak of hate. Now of love. and hate. several of which play the role of The one gland if would become poison it were not made harmless If by the glands excretions of another gland. discovers in his Beloved all So the lover possible and impossible good qualities. These good of cards. magnifies the faults that had hitherto been so easily and so willingly overlooked. This phenomenon is best explained from the organic world. is one of these removed. when the emotion made keen by love disappears. nor impulse. antagonists. is a love that can also hate There in human life no emotion which is not conjoined with." for our emotional life. in order to excuse his love to himself. collapse like a house of the eye then. however.

be that a third gland comes to the role of the antagonist. and we * I have thoroughly explained this book Die Sprache de» Traximea Wiesbaden. the opposite of feeling can only be the absence of feeling. and the people is we love most we hate also. ** face the phe- Law of Bi-polarity " in J. my (Verlag F. will never show itself openly. Every desire is opposed by another desire. human life is "bi-polar. It is an eternal ebb and flow. pour forth first dreams. until it accumulate. and protecting oneself against an in Love and hate must go hand hand . this hate Of course we have to consider one thing. 1911). which is coloured by ing feeling. whereby sometimes the one. because hate grounded viaitresse. sometimes Everything the in other desire gets the upper hand. in the nature of love. There is no love without hate and there is is no hate without love. Bergmann. The opposite of love not hate. unless help. its existence will in work imderground. Disinclination.^* says La Rochefocauld. .16 THE BELOVED EGO it gland. openly breaks out at the opportunity. often only serves the purpose of concealinclination. immense and overpowering. so with our impulses. It is and takes over the Our various desires act upon one another Hke clockwork. but indifference. which holds it in check. " Plus on aime une plus on est prhs de la hair."* .

" Every human bowed clearly being wants to rule." I remember specially one case where a mother-in-law and her daughter-in-law hated to do the housekeeping together. will be more easily under- stood when I assert that exists a ceaseless confiict. between the sexes there which I call " the strife of love. every one wants to be king. as to who should give the orders to the servant (A very banal and common example. but B it better illustrates my asser- . at least in his youth. He who cannot home tries his luck outside in the world.THE FIGHT OF THE SEXES nomenon overwhelmed and After this explanation it 17 helpless. but eventually is himself deposed through the " will to power " of his becomes the leader of friends. A most bitter feud insignificant causes ! I arose between the two women girl. is This mania in people for ruling never shown more Just let than in a small bitter circle. us watch place in what a rule at and ridiculous fight takes small circles for the ruling power. and a society. as Nietzsche his "will to power." The strongest tendency of so very aptly expressed it. before relentless time has his back and accustomed him to servitude. have seen family tragedies which have had their And through what roots in this " will to power. man is. owing to the elemental and irresistible power of the emotion.

Both orders rained down on the head of the servant.18 THE BELOVED EGO find. Without struggle the opportunity for fight impossible. The young one died band in of these trivialities." as she ceased to discuss . and and spaghetti. and decided for Friday instead. and the son (and husband) had to play the part of judge. Self-control the most difficult thing for man to learn. and struggles noble hearts small affects have often caused the greatest events. then begins the against our own on self. existence strife is sacrifice their best But we need is strife. But let us return to our theme. it She " bled with her hus- inwardly. the elder one saw in that a decline of her rights of ascendency. The '* will to . when. on the other hand. for she did not want to vex him. then the young one rebelled. To such powers. Why do we always seek for great heroic motives for the tragedies life ? Often great motives lead to small deeds. be tempted to smile over these little One would if comedies. the elder woman for to- had arranged to have veal and potato soup tried to get beef morrow's dinner.) tions than the noblest that I could If the younger woman had arranged for the washing to be done on Tuesday. The " will to power " is generally wrecked is this hard-hearted Ego. they did not so frequently change into tragedies. When lacking.

all so deeply in the other's faults and magnifies the good qualities. education I under the pretext of a good " Good education " is often enough only travelled from love right way. little another carries in itself itself Hatred nourishes expands until upon the suggestions of faults observed in the other. I was on the ? Never- wanted to show how a person when he love that he grows blind to falls in love." The '* lover subjects himself to his beloved object. and love of him. Hate. or her. use will it 19 If he cannot in great circumstances in the outer world. The will to power. Every one must have Alas. then recognizes this ruler other as his conqueror. children must so often be sacrificed to this inveterate desire for mastership. that something to exercise mastership over. it and grows stronger and its threatens to burst the locks of . I only an excuse to show power.THE FIGHT OF THE SEXES power " never leaves the individual. has not been broken. will of This subjection to the the germs of revolt. as the unquestioned for over his feelings. is thrust below the threshold of consciousness and kept far from the light of day." however. which follows this suppression of individuality. he it employ in a smaller way. renounces the " will to power. even though it be only a dog or an errand-boy. But how far have I theless. but only repressed.

It unites itself with the " and carries on a silent and thereto power It seeks " will fore all the more bitter fight against love. the impulse for independence. hatred finds the new food. And is so begins in love the silent fight of the sexes for mastership. for Personal freedom It is and remains. of freedom. sion of merely the exprescall is an impulse which one might depths nature. THE BELOVED EGO an outlet. We need much as we require the heights. must follow intoxication. This is the reason why this pathological condition of being in love has to come to an end. his '* the strongest inclination in will to power." is is actually the will to independence." Hammer or anvil an only There is — the great question of every marriage. There is no compromising. its An eternal see-saw the game the soul and powers play. in Really every one his an anarchist is the of every being to himself the " unique.20 prison. " either or. because human being. our greatest ideal. We are not able to roam always on the heights the depths just as Disillusion of ecstasy. that people talk so great sacrifices It not without reason much it. and new intoxiis cation must follow disillusion. and make such is. the giving up of the . In marriage." civilization And all the submission which demands from us.

a kind of equation. In no marriage is this struggle entirely at The most peaceful of marriages are like the modern '' World Peace ". at least we think so . rest. its against this sacrificing of the personof hatred. but within man. We sacrifice willingly. and thus a compromise is created. the fitting in with community — all this is sacrifice. So also is marriage a sacrifice. it begins to make use way through dark secret and forces channels towards the surface. We sacrifice our polygamous instincts for the glory and welfare of one being. This enigma of many explains the love struggle . against which dissatisfied opposing elements continually rebel. perhaps even the truly primaeval instincts of man ?) a secret some- thing revolts ality. A happy marriage is that where is ended by the total submission of one Or the sphere of rule for each is fixed after many weary struggles between both parties. it is an armed peace. Thus every marriage is a secret struggle between is man and wife. the fight party.THE FIGHT OF THE SEXES the 21 personality and of independence. in small affairs which stand as symbols for more im- portant matters. a fight which never fought out to It is these victories the point where extremes meet. where the bad instincts sleep (or shall we not rather call them the most ancient.

How all the male world revolted when women claimed for themselves ! that holy symbol of manhood. We find who are men who never and their most seVere consider their wives beautiful. also that marriages are We see wrecked because people love each other too much. never recognize the greatness of critics. and to-day more violent than ever.! 22 THE BELOVED EGO of life. This fight of the sexes extends into social is life. We do not know yet what the future will bring. phenomena their We often meet wives of men of importance who husbands. Woman has been too long suppressed. The power which now smashes window pane. the strength accumulated from the inglorius past. trousers bitter fight did the suffragettes What them a put up in London for that scrap of power which suffrage gives to The fight of the sexes has it assumed grotesque propor- tions since has been carried over from the love region into the social region. or pulls a policeman from his horse. and in the course of thousands of years such hate has been stored up as must break forth with explosive force and destroy everything its which bars a is way. although they may be admired by the whole world. . because they are their own. and yet neither wants to sub- mit to the other. and has been forced to obey.

in which there really neither . " I hate you because I love you from the and I love you because I hate you so. knowledge wrestling with the impulses. for in this struggle there can is neither be victor nor vanquished. ence his " twilight of the gods.— THE FIGHT OF THE SEXES from which only 23 a fairy tale of an Amazon kingdom has been handed down to us. and struggle in good time against one's own fighting to Ego ? —in order reduce one's demands to an is honourable peace. which garlands the every victory is defeated with red roses. at the Every defeat same time a victory. It is however great great. would appear then to be to approach a condition for happiness in marriage it with a certain kind of resignation." Every an end. has the sign of greatness in that. How grand must these women be in their love when they can hate thus ! And how far are they from the knowreflections ! ledge which we have gained from our so. Or should one prepare oneself more thoroughly for this conflict. paid This is the ancient fairy tale It is of the fight between the Gods and the Giants. and for with bitter tears. nately every one has his hour Unfortuexperi- when he must love. people when they acknowledge It and let feelings die in beauty." It is clear Law of Bi-polarity that this fight will never end.

hauled bed. I know many people it their love because who evade would mean the fulfilment of the entire submis- sion and giving up of their individuality. f ^is secret fight of the sexes plays an especially great part in sexual relationship. which for reasons easily to be understood I cannot explain. who Holofemes Mirza ". and unsurpassed psychologist. when revenge myself for that brutal blow at my indi- viduality —now. do you not blush for shame to . The the more strongly the stronger also is power is in evidence. the part plays in marriage. defiling kisses scorch my oh. Hebbel. It is now almost also is a commonplace that the erotic union needs agreeing of the erotic tendencies. the . much as she hated him. as . have payment for the I annihilation that I tasted in his arms —now. forced very soul I will me to his shameful stifled my when — all that you And will now. but this easily forgotten an still when marriage erotic it is in question. . loved to has expressed this most excellently in his drama Judith. when I will wash that off in his heart's still blood lips .24 THE BELOVED EGO So victory nor defeat? many incidents play an im- portant part in this question. and the more easily it leads to that destructive fight which I have tried to describe. me off with him. of poets. most genial Judith. . says That he suffered.

but his embraces leave *I am indebted his to Mr. intellectual know a woman who feel all '' belongs to two men. . making her feel well for weeks after. till and sees herself become " smaller and smaller she disappears into nothing. because they are afraid of the domination of one outside themselves — ^the deepest cause of ! . One makes her In his the joys and glories of sexuality. flees his presence. to lose one's self. . artist On the other hand. many hindrances in the capacity to love . She feels render as a defeat of her personality she thinks only about herself. But she hates this man is because his every embrace a defeat for her. Bertram Lloyd for thig paisage from forthcoming translation of Hebbel's Judith.THE FIGHT OF THE SEXES urge 25 me hence ?" * She must kill Holof ernes in order her sexual sur. arms she becomes nothing " and melts it. to extinguish her shame. We shall understand that there are every love as neurotics who shrink from from one which might put them in bonds." We shall be able to understand one of the diseases of our time. And she bathes herself in according to her own and like expression. as in a rejuvenating spring. To give oneself entirely to another I means to give highly refined oneself up. away. she loves an enthusiastically.

can feel only the ecstasies of ruling. and of the third grade an intermixing This third stage entiated of is sensuality and spiritualized love. may cease and hatred retire for ever. of the second as purely spiritual love. One can understand dying their of love. It is but a very rare chance when marriage also means this fulfilment. is a disease of the time. being the her entirely cold. .26 THE BELOVED EGO In this example she. the fight Where it is so. to be satisfied the sexual fulfilment Sexuality or or with the intellectual bond. Amiel Lucka talks ** in his fine spirited work first of the Three Grades of Erotic- ism ". One can understand the love tragedies of those unhappy people who have found this ideal but cannot realize it. ! person would have to sustain his love through an endless series of disappointments for the fulfilment of this longing. when cruel life denies love its highest fulfilment. demands to either with They have eroticism. This fight between eroticism and sexuality. ruler. all more highly differBut how few are the chosen ones who reach this ideal The cultured the goal of civilized people. purely sensual love. that is the end of our wanderings in search of the third stage of love. between the sexual craving and psychic penetration. of the grade. Most people have to reduce moderation.

upon the world at One must not estimate one's demand everything from love. the time of heroes is past. We all are choked by as in a sea of sand. when the possible to revolts against the body. Great aims produce great people. and when the body refuses obedience to the mind ? How is it achieve in such compromised marriages a state of peace where the struggle of the sexes will be at least apparently appeased ? In rich such field a case of only self- knowledge interests and the great mutual trifles can help. and lose thereby the capacity to rejoice in big things and to grasp them in The happiness their full greatness. still Small people have small feelings —but can be happy with small feelings if one contents oneself with them. even though one mountains. may believe that is it could remove Such a love very rare. of marriage rests on the capability of persistently overlooking trifling objects. We are no one longer capable of heroic feelings. Love cannot do everything. Many marriage soups cannot get fire. warm But because one puts too big pots on a small to those fortunate ones who have found their . and of focussing one's lust of fighting large.THE FIGHT OF THE SEXES But how to fight the difficulties in 27 such a case. how mind to steer round the dangerous cliffs. one must not overown love. We suffer through trivialities.

and from two beings have become one dual being. which holds every possibility of the future. to win and to be defeated.28 bodily and its THE BELOVED EGO mental colours. They have achieved the great miracle. . complement life blossoms in richest They do not know the humilinor the triumphs of ruling. to obey and to command. ation of submission.

a going backwards . Now let hand. the fruits of his labour? All actions are co-ordinated into a complete imity trolled mind and . us look. they believe they have discovered and to-morrow they are already tortured by doubt. and who. serene sent after a fight for an unchangeable goal. life is a continual wavering. in his innermost soul.CHAPTER in AIMS IN LIFE Who does not. every energy is is by a well-concentred upon one idea. and the thing really worth striving for in the far distance. that which they have accomplished seems valueless and not worth the trouble spent upon Their it. how powerless their actions their To-day vocation. having attained his aim. on the other ! and the whole aim clearly reflected in every little part. distinctly. at people who have no aim is How ! vacillating their will. and satisfied. steps towards whose and endeavours repreenjoys. envy the unfaltering strivings man a who journeys with definite aim.

The goal changes. want to make observations about the life aims Children all dream of great aims. We must occupy ourselves with the children if we of all people. at others enveloped in far distant mist like a Fata Morgana. a will-o'-the-wisp which lures to death and destruction. disappears.80 THE BELOVED EGO and forwards. and to rule. that no reality can ever reach The able secret of the whole art of life is . Everybody has somewhat far.. and a yielding and a rushing on. attainable. which allures him so im- mensely and entices him so is a measure which distance. and so uplifting it. sometimes gigantic and within reach. Every one. ." erects before life. and sacrifice his childish lose dream by bit to a cruel reality. And endeavour the different aims of different people disclose one — ^to uplift oneself above others. This strongest power the " will to power. to be to to renounce." the belief in his " great historical Every person counts himself as quite exceptional. to enforce one's personality. reappears. in our soul. He must diminish the bit and shift the goal nearer the attainable. in his innermost in soul.. . . strongly fights against being submerged the great crowd and . to reduce his childish aim. He must mission. our eyes such a powerful and sublime aim in far over-towering the so common world.

Thus the secret false belief of the facts. justified by actual and the aim of life so immensely elevated that the attainable reality is can the never be accomplished. endeavours to rise 81 Every one envy of in the up. to the child child is itself. never be able in their want to conquer death will attain to children and so gain immortality.AIMS IN LIFE becoming one stone amongst many. Every suicide of a young person of his "great historical mission. For a long time there has been no agreement as to . and. to strive to the heights. to visitors. to shine. and feel himself as the of life. cause This psychic root countless suicides is among others of among a failure children. moving power Education Parents will 'whirring this belief machine in fosters a great mission. acquire wealth." and at the same time a more or less justified protest against the over- weening pride and incapacity of the educator who failed to instil attainable and reasonable aims of life in the young soul. gain fame. so frequently in children only a sign of uneven mental development. who have realized that they themselves to attain their ideals. what is worse." Every mother has something " very Early signs of talent. kindle the others. to are pointed out as prophecies of future greatness the whole family. dreams that her child exceptional.

Bergmann. and they seem to be gifted with supernatural powers. God appears to them as to the Sometimes His voice He threatens in the shape of a into the soul. The dreams of all were especially valuable to me. because they manifested the wrestling ambition and the secret beUef in a great aim of life. urging and calling to great deeds. Neurosis the dirge of a broken-down ambition. poets my book. have already with penetrated neurosis. We know the hell of hate and envy which boils in the soul of one who ** is disap- pointed and deceived in his aim in is life. deeper into connexions and we have unravelled the secret inter- play of the impulses. of envy." In their dreams the poets converse with kings and important personages. The poet has set up for himself a definite aim in . Christ preaches to them. illuminated only by the pale in moon 1912). and miracles take place under their influence. Die Trdume der Dichter F." as I defined neurosis (Verlag J. elect.82 THE BELOVED EGO Now we physic the nature of nervousness. Napoleon rides through their dreams. at cloud. They converse dreams with gods. and that they can themselves in high their above common mortals. or shines like a firebrand others sounds in warning. " All poets dream that they can raise fly.

because they cannot keep in check the inward onward-urging power. c The beautiful custom . cliques. the ! life aim of the neurotic in life. ill-luck. to educate them. The lawyer envies the doctor. they beg in order to get nearer and humble themselves only to their aims in fellow beings. the business the professor the business that if man the student. They believe in themselves. and to become an apostle of beauty. but the powers give out. soul sick. This enables us to get some understanding of The aim in life is the same. All those people have dissatisfaction with no definite aim is and the their work common knowledge. All his productions manifest this aim in life. immortality. which old That the favourite no one takes seriously. and no critic can persuade them that they do not belong They suspect everywhere ill-favour. declares man. each one work he could live his hfe in the world again he would not choose break stones ! his present is —rather would he phrase. We have arrived then at our theme. to which but few attain though many strive. He wants to instruct people. the would-be poets. the doctor the lawyer. to the elect. Slaves to an impotent ambition.AIMS IN LIFE life. 88 He is seeking fame. and thus to triumph over thus are their Those who act mostly neurotic. life. they strive for protection.

34

THE BELOVED EGO
is

that the son should take over the vocation of the
father, his business, his practice,

quite the exceppoets,

tion to-day.

The sons

of business

men become

the sons of painters become photographers, and the
sons of poets become
are
all

officers.

That proves that they
find at the present time

disappointed, and that their vocation and their

aim

in life

do not agree.

We

more people who change
before.

their vocation
first

than ever

Young people who study
musicians, poets

the law and

then medicine, to end finally in journalism; doctors

who become
turers,

who become manufacon
the stage.

and manufacturers who go
It

Some change
any work at

so often that finally they are without
all.

seems as

if

a secret power would

urge them to excel and to
mediocrity of everyday
life.

lift

themselves above the

Let us not forget those
themselves
to
art.

unhappy
Anaemic
songs
legions

ones
girls

who
shaky

devote

go trembling on the stage and sing
a
voice
pianists,

with
of

to

attain
violinists,

notoriety;
reciters,

touring
so on.

painters

and

I do not

speak of the really

exceptional ones, of

whom

there are so few.

But

to-

day an endless
stage, with

proletariate of art throws itself

on the

an army of kind acquaintances willing to

applaud each favourite.

The

critics are

dragged by

hook or by crook to the concert-hall

for the sake of a

AIMS IN LIFE
dream
of

85

fame, which usually ends up with the
.
.
.

honourable career of a teacher
withered
splendidly
laurel

with a few
a

leaves,

and

generally

most

bound book which contains the
amongst which the

collected
flattering

criticisms of the Press,
critic

of one obscure provincial paper confirms the

pride of the family.
All those

who watch with
the smallest
of

seeing eyes this bitter
smallest
rising

struggle for
step, will

step, the

mark the power
all

human
is

ambition.

The
All

driving force in
their

these people

the secret belief in
elect.

Ego, the

belief that

they are of the

art proletariates are neurotics, but a healthy, sane

man

can never so entirely lose his power of

self-

criticism.

Neurosis exhibits
forces

besides

these

openly apparent

some

secret
It

tendencies which are veiled to

consciousness.
it

shows a very subtle construction;

shows a bewildering interplay of the impulses for
life.

the sake of a secret aim in
ledge of this aim do

Only through knowunravelled.

we

get the key to the neurosis,

and the tangle
Perhaps I

of

psychic

powers

is

had better give again an example to make

myself understood.

A
is

lady suffered for thirty years

from the well-known phenomenon which
"agoraphobia.'*
It

we

call

impossible for her to go out

36
alone,

THE BELOVED EGO
and on her bad days she cannot even go
Neither can she go
she wants to go to
:

accompanied by several people.
in

any underground
in front

place.

When

a theatre, the steps must lead upwards

she stood in

Vienna

of

the Coliseum for half

an hour,

and could not go
She liked the

in because the steps led

downwards.

Burg Theatre because she could mount
investigation of the cause of the phobia

up to

it.

On

one discovered a wish to protect herself from the
dangers of the bad world.
safest at

This lady

felt

herself

home. But

this does not explain the strange
;

phenomenon

of fear of the deeper lying localities

for

she could not go into any cellar, and no

amount

of

money would ever have induced her to visit a mine. Her neurosis showed a distinct ascetic tendency. She
had been
and had
for

many

years a vegetarian, was abstinent,

also given

up the smoking

of cigarettes.

Previously, she

had

liked to read books, but she also

had to renounce
ance of

this pleasure.

A

hysterical disturb-

sight hindered her from reading.

Psycho-analysis

gave

the

explanation

of

these

strange phenomena.

She held the secret

belief that

she would gain a good place in heaven
renunciation.

by

all

this

Of what value to her were

all

the

successes and joys of this world
in her

when

she could hear

dreams the hosannas of the angels, when she

AIMS IN LIFE
by the splendour
resolved
itself

87

could converse with the samts, and was surrounded
of

heaven?
fear
of

The
hell,

fear of cellars
is

into

which

placed

below in people's imagination.
that
she

In spite of the fact

read

Nietzsche

daily,

and

worshipped

Haeckel, one can hardly believe that this patient

was unaware

of her secret piety.

Innumerable are

those pious people

who

believe

in their hearts,

and
life.

are outwardly freethinkers.

This patient had also found a secret aim in

She was

first

driven by a burning ambition to become

something
**

very
in

remarkable.
this

Her
seemed

belief

in

her

mission "

world
fell

unshakable.

Then the proud hopes
the prince
age,

to the ground with crip-

pled wings, one after the other; the rich marriage,

who was

to fetch her in his golden carri-

her great talents, which failed of fruition in
life,

her

the child

who was

to be a wonder.

.

.

.

There remained only hope in the other world, which she called the " eternal " one. She built castles in
the
air

where her dreams should find fulfilment.
for the bliss of

Her longing

heaven corresponded to

her fear of the horrors of

hell.

We know
until

to-day that

we cannot

heal a neurotic
life.

we have
definite

discovered his hidden aim in

Cer-

tain

ways lead to

this aim,

which Alfred

88

THE BELOVED EGO
These
to
lines

Adler has called very aptly " guiding lines."
guiding
lead,

according

to this author,

" godlikeness "

—as I would
*'

call it, to

heaven.

And

the artful construction which the neurotics have built

themselves in order to gain their great aim, one

might

call

with Adler the

neurotic fiction."

As a
is

protection against the crushing feeling of inferiority

they build themselves edifices
this reason that the

of neurosis.

It

for

neurotics are so unwilling to

give
as
is

up

their disease.
its

They

feel

they are safe in

it,

a snail in

house.

To

retire into oneself, to

live

only for oneself, to give a wide berth to the
is

defeats of the outside world, that
all

the endeavour of
this

patients.

Most neurotics belong to
of getting

type

;

they

all

had a time when they strove
on well

for the highest aims, in the world.

and dreamt
wanted to

They

uplift themselves high

above the average

mortal, and their flight went to the highest stars.

Then came the great bankruptcy, and
dissolved.
after death.

their great

fantasies, all the beautiful plans of a great future,

There remained There were
the
.

finally

only one hope,

life

still all

the possibilities open
life

to

them
,

if
.

remaining

part of

was well

used.

In addition, there
enon.

is

a second very strange phenom-

All neurotics suffer from

an agonizing

feeling

AIMS IN LIFE F' S9 of guilt. Being pious inwardly. where that every fear God. the Last Judg- ment. the only result of which is to make the fear of joy in life the most important life principle. a professor. sufferings : rosis is thus a preparation for the great All ascetic strivings. The whole neuexamination. they are afraid of I punishment from heaven. life He has pushed his aim in far out into another world. are dragged to light by the searching anxiety of conscience. or one of the other figures of youthful fear behind which is hidden. Every a pleasure just is counted as a sin and every affliction as punishment. . all this of nervous people. God. or a severe. all tortures. to punish themselves in this earthly Harmless mis- deeds in youth. have only one meaning life. tinually They con- dream of examinations for which they are not properly prepared. These is exams are exams a symbol for before God. Some dream that they have to pass an exam the examiner is in religion a kind. to all Of course the neurotic remains unconscious these psychic impressions. It is have explained else- is fear of the punishment of the final great examination. and Matriculation the passing of the Judgement Day Examination. of which the neurotics are afraid.. old gentleman. the well-known childish errings.

aim in life as if he were dominated by a fixed Here a wide tion. and conceptions us fill their souls with which can be difficult fulfilled. young people is vanity. With a certain arbitrariness. They will not be devoured by futile envy. and the crushing feeling of their own inferiority. May life every one who despairs of attaining his aim in read them very carefully. which I have taken from the book called Gedanken. I would like to conclude these deductions with a few by Otto Ludwig. his vanity. Let us teach them the most renunciation. by bitter impotence. and take them to heart of " The idealism about everything. which are only the expression of our own Let us educate them to be modest ! presumption and satisfied Let us show them aims which their let ambition can reach. published splendid sentences after his death.! : 40 and is THE BELOVED EGO striving towards this idea. and most important thing Then the wondrous flower of Joy-in-Life will blossom for them. youth can if become enthusiastic it he only brings is in relation to his vanity is And what more gratifying to than the sublime scorn with which he looking . field is all opened for educational applicaexaggerated demands upon our Away ! with children.

others without knowing will he himself could do that he it now do without demanding to from others. if it comes an after enthusiasm.^^ . and the condition necessary for development.— AIMS IN LIFE down on thing actualities 41 affairs and human from the from height of a flattering self-deception. What himself a person previously if demanded from it. now he has raised hima greater height —to live for something without fame. is the growing pains of our inner being." " Scepticism. We must despair of our imagined value in order to become conscious of our real one. bom out of it as opposite." *' The highest aim which he could reach was to die for self to something gloriously. not because he himself doing them —no and is but because he thinks himself capable of doing them. as being some- vulgar ? He demands is great deeds others.

so-called social A new is medicine." an illness of the poor." Mali-Mali " is the illness of poor people. It is a disturbance of the psychic in a life. occupied with the investigation of these conditions. So *' Mali-Mali.CHAPTER IV MALI-MALI There illness is found in the Philippine Islands a peculiar is which called by the natives "Mali-Mali. medicine. is a special called wrongly— " nervous " form of those disturbances which we have hitherto disturbances. We know that every country has its own of illnesses." Whilst the rich in our country often suffer from a form *' nervous irritability which we call " tic. We recognize nowadays the significance of the social influence of the surroundings in the origin of disease. to express ourselves : more modern and it precise '* called very suitably way the French have psychasthenia " " soul — . that every vocation produces some typical branch diseases (occupation disorders). There is of nothing strange in that.

their Ideal does. deprived of are incapable of self-determination. the mimic will do the same. fulfilled. they will quickly choose another one. "mimics " he will also look up at the sky.MALI-MALI 48 weakness. They will follow him like a shadow. and forbids them to copy every" Ideal " will have a joke with the it poor they will jump to unhesitatingly. except with an example to copy from. bends down to pick up something from the ground. / . moment. sufferer they should lose their model. and will imitate If slavishly what he performs. spell. any kind of work. cannot exist without an ideal One can They easily imagine what a all pitiful existence these people lead. for the " Mali-Mali " and model. They have to imitate everything that is done by the person (there may be several in one day)." Such poor men or women as suffer from " Mali-Mali " show the following most peculiar symptoms. They can only their eat when but and even involuntary functions are not according to own need. If the sufferer. the If under whose influence they happen to be at a given If their " pattern " looks up at the sky. If he then " says indignantly Thou art a fool." then the mimic repeats " Thou art a fool !" These people will go on doing this until the model they have chosen relieves them from the thing.

and that the rich people whom they select for their adulation. Poor people with us also ape the dresses. manners and all One might even remark that our servants suffer from small wages to adorn They use their themselves for their few hours of leisure in order to . which unknown in this unmitigated degree in any other part of the world. Echolaly sts also repeat every word one them. rich.44 THE BELOVED EGO We are at this peculiar type of psychic disturbis according to the example of their Ideal. We remember that show the symptoms of echolaly. astonished ance. This of fact itself gives us this some insight into the meaning form of Mali-Mali. their customs. We might even prove that " Malichildren sometimes Mali " exists in a very marked form in Europe. how such a strange illness can What is the power which can deprive the all psychic machinery of impulse of its own ? it is We get an important indication from the fact that the is illness confined to poor people. and adopt MaU-Mali. already familiar to us in our own country. of We do know of the some similar phenomena. such as echolaly the tells insane and of hysterical. and that a tendency to " Mali-Mali " is not rare in children's games. and that little we could with good cause occupy ourselves more thoroughly with this mental epidemic. first a Let us consider arise.

if possible. in accordance with Mali-Mali's demands. A poor Malay in this condition grows up with the tremendous respect which the poor have for the rich. fixed by means of countless hat-pins and ribbons. 45 large. and. The wish in him to become a rich person . ridiculous They wear coats. and patent leather shoes in imitation of her.: MALI-MALI look like their mistress. hats. and do not Let us be imder no mention that our bourgeois classes also irrevocably from Mali-Mali ? illusion the difference between rich people and the middle class is to-day entirely wiped out. Why suffer do I speak only of servants. weaknesses so free will of the Philippines exhibit a in a specially deceptive common human phenomenon We cultured people can hide our attribute to much more cleverly. and the absurd monster which wobbles on the head. The wife of the to rustle small official must have her streets. exactly similar to those of their mistress. silk petticoat The cheap hat is a fable from times long gone by. fashionable gloves. and much which is in reality only the effect of Mali-Mah. The primitive people and naive form. devours the fourth part of a month's salary (unless Mali-Mali has had the effect of the mad luxury being paid for by a " third party " through the at a sacrifice of all good principles).

We little believe we choose freely and decide according to our own judgeclosely ment. and went into raptures when they saw grass-green. let us admit openly we men are just What as much subject to Mali-Mali as are women. " One wears Aesthetic sense and comfort are subordin- now only this or that. Nothing more difficult than to go one's own way and to be an independent personality. pulsion of fashion. and compels him to betrays the lack seek an ideal for himself.46 THE BELOVED EGO in and to bear himself individuality a distinguished it manner at length grows so strong that destroys such little as he possesses. Are we any better or more This illness reasonable than he of self-reliance of is ? so many people. grey-violet daubs." the women have the courage to defy And how few lords of creation ? Yes. ! Woe to the person oppose this tyrant ated to the dictum. and insanities of the cubists and futurists. How ridiculous leaps Art performed when first seeking emancipation ! What shall we say of those incredible who have also And were there produced their ape-like imitators lost their own thousands who and not thousands reason and their own taste. few Mali-Mali fashion? . ! . which is We who are under the com- only Mali-Mali in another tries to form. But when we look into it a more we is find that we are actuated by Mali-Mali.

a sign of poverty. decisive word. ? 47 Grinning the which were intended to enhance picturesqueness of our town. and means in the eyes of some people. and the few get a sensible people were shouted down. has always been a privilege of the rich to let other people work for .MALI-MALI spoke ecstatically of a new era in Art gargoyles. Suddenly. had some exercise. Mali-Mali had spoken the fashionable. Aristocrats and heads of affairs accustomed every fine morning to their ride in the open. is no longer considered the vogue of the upper It so to say. The motor-car has is. We most striking example of the great power There of Mali-Mali in the development of cycling. threatened us from the facades of our houses ! Mali-Mali was diligently at work." a an occupation which necessitates It good deal of exertion. It is '' I am too poor to buy myself a car. and went with renewed vigour to their sedentary work. cycling went out of fashion. They spent two hours in the clean air. was a time when cycling was exclusive to the upper classes. because no longer considered killed the bicycle. Cycling classes. even in that. it is We do not cycle any more. healthy that offices ! How in was for all the different people They got up early and went to bed early.

revision. otherwise people would not try to create the appearance of being rich." says an old proverb. as if everybody had only one anxiety and one care is that no one should know If Man judged in our day. but also to be deprived of means and to have a small income. ! And these are supposed to be democratic times These Mali-Mali outgrowths reveal to us the whole misery of our psychic is constitution I nothing in us which really our own. disgrace. by his exterior his behaviour. They are continually repeated. they had wealth at their disposal. their question is. seems to be a and act as if shameful thing. But proverbs sometimes need with them. "Is the tries place frequented by is high-class people ?" Each to hob-nob with the better class in order to give the impression that he also one of them. They only do it in order that the conductor may not think that they are unable to spare a few coppers. ** THE BELOVED EGO Poverty is no crime. or on a holiday. but no one acts in accordance We generally act as if poverty were a Not only poverty. And are not those few coppers very often a great It is : sacrifice for them? their poverty. We have We get our . I have often noticed on trams that poor workmen and simple women give the largest tips. more than ever.48 them. and by people go to pleasure first resorts.

civilization is illness. going . going out. a caricature of weakness free of will. of their People never learn to obey the commands own soul and of . ! make in his mouth. and our hobbies are by the fashion of the times. . an over-emphasis of a human There is a symptom which we call " weakness of will " (aboulia). Is neurosis ? the caricature of anything other than a caricature of our weaknesses We can demonstrate this in all the symptoms is of a condition which we call neurotic. Mali-Mali of the Malays shows us a common human phenomenon under neurosis. and almost put the food cannot the decision to leave his bed. troublesome task nurse has to tell him to do it. ! to bed again and so on difficult tasks. cannot get up in the morning because he Then he The has to eat. our tastes pre- dictated by foreign people. . In extreme degrees the patient.MALI-MALI scribed for us 49 views from books and newspapers. What a hard. insuffi- Nervousness ency. for example. And then dressing. What remains ? then of our free will In short. All our education tends to suppress will and to give us commands. All tremendously which the patient despairs of being This is able to carry through. with which all permeated. The patient is incapable of making any decision.

THE BELOVED EGO They are always taught to copy the example of others. hides our greatest original sin— ticular copy an example than to form Behind Mali-Mali It will is ^laziness. and I cannot repeat too frequently. arranged according to samples. is valueless if we cannot make a proper use of over the Independence alone can help us difficulties of life.50 duty. by very carefully thought out educational principles. tory. cannot renounce this weak habit of imitating? It is much easier. a par- of laziness : laziness of and of form thought. Is it to be wondered at if they. are often samples without value I ! Unfortunately they have often emphasized the it fact. and much more convenient. to educate our children up to Mali-Mali. They frequently leave those places which should . when grown up. We endeavour. to create. All material possessions are transi- Even our culture it. that education in independ- ence is the most valuable gift with which to endow our children. Undoubtedly any other. it is just as dangerous a of laziness as What disaster this laziness of will circles ! and thought spirits produces in political of the nation retire The noblest political from the battlefield. They are trained in childhood to imitate Our life is everything that is done before them.

a conviction. of a '' opinion. We need a great deal of authority in order to hold the animal in check. Suggestion Somebody affect. and collapse before every is exhibition of authority.MALI-MALI really belong to 51 them to adventurous and profesthose strife- sional makers of strife. do one could." learn to rid himself of the despotism of the soul. false gods. gives us an order. because we are brought to a stand-still by any extraneous Mali." says Lichtenberg. And would if mongers have such an easy game bring them followers Mali-Mali did not by the thousand? We talk in is such cases of the power of suggestion. and we follow it We are quite incapable of of life coming to an independent apprehension all its and events. we must first destroy the idols of the But now we are confronted with the : vexed question What fact its is real and what is false ? What The is the true God. in and the what are idols? of deplorable phenomenon Mali-Mali consists in being a necessary product of the conditions of our time. for ten away with the Ten Commandments!" . our In order to serve the God in own soul. All that caused by Malifirst. nothing else but a form of Mali-Mali. an blindly. like if " what London would look minutes. an opinion. Whoever wants to be free must by way psychic anarchy. *'I should like to man in know.

which can be traced through the whole psychic life.52 THE BELOVED EGO need the Commandments urgently is We —because un- fortunately psychic anarchy the beginning of social its anarchy. of all the collections for a of common cause. and at they become masters. phenomenon. Think of the big deeds of charity. The Beautiful and Good are thus spread abroad much more rapidly than by the more roundabout way of conviction. of the rich all gifts. which are imitated by the great masses. to So Mali-Mali also proves be a power which must produce all good." Bi-polarity is also a phenomenon of Mali- Mali. of the noble endeavours a really great personality. These disorders are the negative of the Obedience and fulfilment of duty are advantages. its Every period produces institutions and disorders. What virtue it is there which does not have a limit. So we not laugh any more about the Yellow Malays on the Philippine Islands after people greater when they run all than themselves and imitate . the highest virtues of the citizen. often people for their And how come last to love good and beautiful things own merit? will First they are only apes. after which be- comes a vice have called ? It seems to be the case that in its human I nature good cannot exist without this opposite. then pupils. the " Law of Bipolarity.

In this vacillation between the . people an inversion into the Mali-Mali gives us let who copy their ideal by opposite. originality. mother admired may become great. is but a variation of the is There also an anti-Mali-Mali. From this kind of ! us guard ourselves most carefully sense of It a delusive independence and a dazzling appearance of originality. and to discover the secret model There is whom we is have copied in our convictions. which only a camou- flaged form of Mali-Mali. should learn to ourselves tions : when we defend our and our convicis it " Are they our possessions. The in discovering a form which deviates to some Everything new is extent from the pattern. or only Mali- Mali ?" And I am afraid that only too often we have to think of the poor Malay.MALI-MALI their 53 end they movements. really no such thing as secret lies little All life Mali-Mali. because a great man? We. Fashion is really an eternal vacillation between Mali and anti-Mali. distin- and brave. who be modest and to ask ideas have insight. sublime. There are people whose consists in independence and originality always doing the opposite. old. Who knows if not become really great themselves knows that the woman not bear a guished his suffering may And who from Mali-Mali may in the ? child who. powerful.

and we imagine that we produce change. propelling. and there remains leavening a fermenting. Vain endeavour carried The stream rushes on. we are driven while we think we . Mine and Thine merge into each other. Fashion tries to ! hinder the change for a time. expanding. Mali-Mali is eternal.54 opposites THE BELOVED EGO lies perhaps the secret of all progress. out of which the Powers of the Future are forming themselves. and we are away by it. and mocks The boundaries between all efforts at dethronement. are driving we become changed. mass. .

may be sure of the appreciation of his Just remember the joy with which ! contemporaries. be traced back to psychic principle it is —the name does not matter much. steering a gigantic its without wavering towards goal. psychasthenia. of course. We stood amazed of and admiring before the phenomena will. tempted to judge the problem of the diseases of our time in re- . But one is but sound and smoke." deeds The Their of whole world applauded them. Bleriot and Amundsen were received agreement in acclaiming them "Whole-Men.CHAPTER V HALF-MEN There is at the present time a great longing for "Whole-Men. not neurasthenia." Any individual who proves himself to be such. Nansen. an every one was in were to all of us as the fulfilment one of our own secret longings. The prevailing disease of our time should be called. hysteria or sensitiveness —but weakness of will. Every nervous the same disease can.

and half-philistine. deed may.: 56 THE BELOVED EGO the will power. will lationship to and to measure the weakness of the power of the individual by the here standards of his period. Each tries many none of them. Some one might remark that the present period has produced great men of strong will power. only there were none less than " Half-Men!" divided into There are countthemselves up in less characters "thirds. is second is half-official. It is But extremes do not which counts." "quarters. they different endeavours. a fourth half-pious —half-atheist. half-liberal. a and succeeds a third in One is half-artist —half-business-man. merely proves the exception and confirms the rule. the average That the longing to do a great individual cases. the We first German the Psychiatrist. and bring nothing to com- pletion. the dissociation of commimications about . are different occupations. the whole evil of our be described by the term " Half-Men." split and even "tenths". half-socialist. half-explorer. result in a great deed being done." to Wernicke. in prove anything. And if a fifth half-Don-Juan. Any one who knows our ** period must agree with me Whole-Men " are the exception —and " Half-Men " in unfortunately to be found " Half-Men " abound everywhere. any number. time may owe Broadly speaking.

" A man in the prime contrast with life how these life. this question to himself.HALF-MEN personality. differently and each naturally time. A lover need not put feels he knows and that he loves." as the he does not want and he very apt saying goes. at the beginning of the forties. Our doubter tortures himself with these questions. temptations. When he is convinced that he . they may appear in different and express different views. well-to-do. I will it has to express itself show in the '* following practical examples from in of Half-Men " behave themselves " Whole-Men. sion on different occasions. girl who fulfils now he had resisted all and although he had met many beautiful Up women. makes the acquaintance of a all his expectations. He is now if at the critical feels age. and yet. a part only itself of the Ego. But his passion for the girl his doubt. be perfectly sincere. which expresses at one period. in a good position. none had become dangerous for him. is continually held in check by He I questions himself over and over again: "Do love her?" Doubt he is already permeating this question. 57 different impres- Such persons create a forms. It is always a partial Ego. with a good to income. that he must come to a decision " to miss the connexion. in spite of contradictions. Like Proteus.

etc. As soon as he arrives at her house. and decides to break with the he becomes of restless. had spoken nonsense. he cannot break and should lose her for ever? with her. ? How could he have been so brutal He immediately take his writes an urgent letter telling her not to words seriously. to talk with her Thus it can go on for a long while. : and he cannot come to a Just recall the classical example ! Grillparzer This is the way of Katharina Frohlich Men!" Now how does the " Whole-Man" behave? He also has his scruples and doubts.." One half urges only a he is mind that him towards the woman. the other half is afraid of . and would again. her. he will go and ask her to marry him. '' " doubter when we bear in only understand our " Half-Man. and will soon reach a condition But what if he really loves her No. he discovers that her feet are too large. that he was beside like himself. she does not comply with his ideal of woman- hood. But he can and " Half- We can overcome them and arrive at a decision. utmost despair.58 THE BELOVED EGO girl. He feet ponders continually about the (they large unwomanly and tells may not be large in reality. etc. decision. On driving home. but he has arbitrarily chosen to see them the girl that he could never love thus). he is consumed by remorse. does not love her.

" Do what are only for those sufferer want. 59 binding himself. in spite of knowing that he be condemned for this very change. It needs courage and " an adequate training to listen to the urging of one's will. Getting up seems to her an insurmountably gigantic Then she must wash herself and comb her . extreme degree it This weakness of will can attain an in neurotics. of energy. Therefore. Nothing is more ridiculous than the continual talk of weak and strong characters.HALF-MEN or bonds. is and as being unreliable. and from a kind of childish obstinacy. many nervous people are taken for weak characters. The who know what they from weak will does not know Let us again illustrate lying lazily in bed and what he wants. Their weakness of will taken by the world as weakness of character. keeps to his point of view from cowardice. : The thou words of the world.wise Rabelais will'st. : by an example A lady is bemoaning her want task. are spoken of as weak characters. courage to see his error. and will hear nothing of marriage Such people with dissociations of their psyche. Many a one who is taken for a weak character because he changes his views is really very strong. She cannot get up. and figures as a strong character. to learn from and to take Another up a will fresh point of view. because he has the it.

At last. That awful ques- . case. She could find no way out of this dilemma. She could not summon the strength of mind to take such an important step. on investigating the origin the illness. valid in this but not in all cases of " Aboulia. all tremendous tasks. she cannot of will-power. with much grumbling But with every new call upon her energy she has to face a new problem. Or she has to go to a theatre The effort of will required to do this seems to her an extremely great and imposing thing. fraught with so much excitement. She should go out. she is able to finish.. do these things. who was ill. which troubled her at (Of course. and who was specially proud of nately she was the choice of this son-in-law. She knew that this would grieve her old mother. this is one time very much. a suppressed wish. and would have liked to leave her husband and to return to her parents. She needs an immense amount of time to get ready.! 60 THE BELOVED EGO She has to be forced to all hair.") Unfortu- unhappy in her marriage. faced by something really great ? ! Perhaps to find a Other people have such an act new house or to change servants to do that for her. What if she is and groaning. and cannot make up her mind to do so. summon We we cannot arrive at the psycho- logical significance of this condition of extreme weakof ness of will till find.

half became the first stronger and suppressed the while the all took revenge and made her will powerless for is time. Our patient lacked a overpowering will in the decisive question of her life. and this idea cannot do !" And this everything she did and terrible undone reflected all : sentence. about theatres and a country house. all which contained her life's her tragedy. She forced down her and consequently she lost her will-power. ** 61 ?" prevented her will. What will people say to it from taking the step. Wien). The second first." I my booklet. " To own up to one's self the . so all other actions be- came valueless to her. the only question of her life ? Her was left : soul ''I was obsessed it by one idea only. and wrecked happiness " I cannot do it!" She was only a "Half-Person. compared with the one great question. and laughed at philistine views. As she could not accomplish this one step. The problem life. of the will the central problem of central." One half was free its and independent. She lacked wrote once (Paul is " the courage towards one's in self.HALF-MEN tion. the the world and : olher half clung to the moral prejudices which she had received in her parental » I home. Ursachen der Nervositdt Knepler. which would have given her freedom and happiness. What did she care about getting up and lying down.

or. more correctly speaking. We carry in us the life of our forefathers. and its owner is likely to bring all conflicts of life to a dicision by a coup d^etat. had the splendid sich idea of calling his great work " (Des Seelenleben der Nervosen und Berlin: Verlag Otto Salle. themselves." the well-known German selhst psychologist.62 THE BELOVED EGO And : beginning and end of a cure." but fundamentally separate souls. He contends that weakness of will a "loosening : of the unity of the central Ego." and holds that is "it need not surprise us that our being extremely complicated. whose we may so call them. Its constitution is somewhat despotic. as a heritage." Marcinowski gives a very apt comparison : " The power which we must presume to exist makes the organism appear to be a quite definite constitution. . many if Happy he. 1912). The more strongly this ruling power manifests itself. Marcinowski. and shows a tendency to split up into parts. urge chiefly in one direction. us not only those traditional souls. the more firmly and completely will the personality act when it enters the field of action. He will be able to remain healthy with a smaller expenditure of power. and therefore we have within " two souls. is " Der Mut zu seine Heilung. In the end we are nothing other than the direct continuation of their life.

with internal tattered condition.HALF-MEN rather 63 The nervous person. . be equal to the demands of this In disharmony with himself. simile its compromises and intrigues. piness and success is to find the middle path amongst flict of life. with strong and weak This governments. so far as of a purely functional nature. all the contradictory influences of ethics. on the other hand. plete personality." then complete. would then be revolution and is anarchy. different its with its between egoisms. he actually arrives at this settlement will he life. resembles a state with a struggles parliamentary constitution. and the We therefore see that the " similar Half-Man " is in a to condition to all some states. with its elements of opposition and obstruction. and his external lack of a it is com- Madness. he has no energy available for the con- The " Half-Man " must therefore strive to become a *' Whole-Man. indi- vidualities and party groups. He has endeavour under circumstances to reach a settleif ment by agreement Only if he wishes to live in peace." But how? That is a The great secret of hapdifficult question to answer. religion. That his is how a nervous person appears. the dissociation State falls to pieces. with his tendency towards a multiplicity of dissociations. still might be elaborated further.

then your actions will be undistorted. to form them into . without losing oneself and without transgressing the eternal laws." If I tell understand us : my colleague correctly. and the outwaxd will come of itself. which nature reveals as the Will to Live. ! demands knowledge. We ought to stand high enough to be our own judges. These problems are really a matter for those to for the educationists. too.The criminal judges himself with too much It is leniency. he would Courage towards oneself means the courage know oneself. it does not demand renunciations performed out tions. Strive earnestly that your thinking may agree with that Will. Therefore strive for the innermost. and knowing. . whom young lives are entrusted. The right way lies between the two. and renunciation with open eyes. not the deed. stands in that position.64 THE BELOVED EGO boundaries "It is duty and the ego impulses. but his severity is relentless. of cowardly considera- We should be absolutely indifferent to what people say. On the other hand. of the Marcinowski says : the intention. The neurotic. which shows the value in our actions. and fully in agreement with each other. to renounce many What would become of humanity if courage towards oneself should mean the courage to indulge Courage towards oneself all one's impulses ? No to things.

we must come to know the real man. mixture of truthful- Our education ness and lies. able to educate the Noble-Man. and Let us return our examples. that the girl possesses is every virtue. the decision. There we have the girl. however. And our suitor is an he is a Inwardly who pretends to despise money. 65 But it seems to me some- times that the art of education is still in its infancy. mind only to marry a poor but he always found faults with . morality and indechild hears: pendence. and who cannot come to a We hear. life. so that we may be the future. and does not love. He lies to himself and seeks other pretexts for his avarice. the man of We are building on is unsound foundations.HALF-MEN " whole " First personalities. and to be courageous. but idealist poor. but motors. etc. great miser who wants to accumulate huge sums. to warned mind the to trams. Or the child told not to is be frightened. The to the " Thou shalt not lie!" and the next moment Mother sends a message by the maid at unwelcome visitor to say that she is is not home. He revolted against such a banal perception of but he could never his overcome s it. He has learnt this over-estimation of money in his parental home. repeatedly to beware of catching cold. a strange courage and fear. man who loves. He had made up girl.

his considera- He was He simply a Half-Man. from weak will has She ought to have been brought up of the world learnt that an atmosphere where the opinion was everything. she would have acted heartlessly towards the child child. if the hesitating bridegroom had owned up to his lust for money instead of choosing the poor girl at he would not have been an ideal personality. and perhaps . And all. that selves." He should have been brought up in riches. * She would then have become a 'Whole-Personality. but he would at least have been mentally sound.66 THE BELOVED EGO who came under ** just those poor girls tion. heart. grief She would have caused them illness less than by the severe which darkened the declining days of the careworn old people. although a child might have had to swing backwards and forwards between two marriages. we should only listen to the voice of our we should do what seems good to ourand then we should not mind anybody. but the would have had a healthy mother. Or if the woman had formed a new marriage with the man she loved. his youth to despise earthly that should have learned happiness is quite independent of the treasures And the woman who in suffers we accumulate." She would have found the courage to make her beloved parents understand that she could not live with her husband.

HALF-MEN
have been much happier.
*'

67

At anyrate, the two would courage to oneself." They would have shown the have shown themselves as " Whole-Persons." But The woman's the possibilities are not exhausted. lot would have been better had she had full recogKnowledge is never nition of her own condition.
harmful.
for

We

must give our thoughts
will

full

freedom

development, they

then function as they
us
of

ought.

Marcinowski

reminds
:

a

splendid
free-

sentence of Else

Vamhagen

" Only complete

dom

is

really

binding!"

Let us keep this before our eyes.

Freedom

of

thought and courage towards oneself shall teach us
to

do good, not from fear of punishment, either

earthly or heavenly, but from love of the good, from
one's

own

free

choice
*'

—without

being

forced

or

Whole Man " is only afraid of the judge in his own soul, and bows only before the The *' Whole-Man " is only afraid of commanded.
commanded.

The

the future.

Such books as the before-mentioned
Oneself
are

Courage
with
life,

to

produced to reconcile us
belief in this future.

and to give us

For

one might despair at the unnecessary anguish and

backwardness of humanity which

still

defends

itself
still

against enemies instead of seeking friends, which
divides

instead of

uniting,

which

still

dreams ol

68
battles

THE BELOVED EGO
and streams
of blood, instead of fetes of joy

and

fraternization.
!

One
It
is

is

almost ashamed of the

word human being

a consolation to

remember

then that most human beings are only " one-third *' at the best " Half-Men." And who could expect a

" Whole "

civilization

from " Half " Men?

CHAPTER
DOUBT

VI

The

general character of the neurotic

is

dominated

by two psychic phenomena; anxiety and doubt.
While the former dwells
sciousness,
in every event, the latter,
in

the foreground of con-

and occupies the most important position
on the contrary, withdraws
is

into the

innermost recesses of the soul, and
its

so

deeply hidden that
of
it.

possessor

is is

scarcely conscious
infinite,

The number

of doubters

but the

number of those who recognize their doubt, and, more important still, admit the fact, is very small. Ibsen draws a distinction between healthy and morbid doubt, and says that he who doubts his own Hereby he draws a doubt is a morbid doubter.
dividing line in the psychology of doubt which
in
is

not

accord

with the

facts.

The doubter doubts
also

everything, therefore he

must

doubt

his

own

doubt.

We

see

a

similar

phenomenon

in the

case of

70
anxiety.

THE BELOVED EGO
People suffering from any form of anxiety,

for example, agoraphobia, eventually reach in

a state

which they

suffer

keenly from anxiety of anxiety;

they fear
critical

they

may

be attacked by

anxiety at

moments.

The layman can

scarcely credit

the diversity of these states of anxiety; and one

cannot make an exact analysis of a neurotic without
touching upon some of them.

Anxiety appears in

many
about

different

forms and masks
health,
;

—now
it is

it

is

anxiety

one's

own

now

anxiety about the
anxiety about
it

health of those dear to one

again

the uncertainty of the future, and, in serious cases,

amounts to " Pantaphobia," that
all

is,

anxiety about

and everything.
thorough investigation always shows us that
is

A

every anxiety turns out to be fear of oneself, and

always exhibited by those people who are afraid of
themselves and of the evil impulses in their
breasts.

own
is

I

stated

once

*'
:

Every neurotic
crime.'*

a

criminal lacking the courage to commit
is

He

really afraid of his
fears lest

own

suppressed criminal nature,

and

he might come in conflict with the law.
evil instincts

He

compensates his

by a hyper-moral

character.

He

safeguards himself against his

own

criminal impulses.

For instance, he dare not go in

the street, and by this ensures his

own

safety; for

DOUBT
into
conflict

71

then he cannot do anything wrong, and cannot come with the law.

For example, a homothat

sexual

person,

who does not know

he

is

homosexual,

suffers

from agoraphobia and cannot

leave his house.

Anxiety serves as a guard for his
is

own

virtue.

He

the prisoner of his
is

own Ego.
of

A

similar
in
is

hand
doubt

phenomenon hand with fear.
doubt of

doubt, which always goes

The fundamental root

oneself.

A

person who believes in
This does
to be

himself will never be a victim to doubt.

not prevent there being doubters

who appear

very self-conscious,

and seem to be very

satisfied

with themselves and their good qualities.

They only

seem to be
themselves

so.

They sometimes play a part before and before others. They act selfand
superiority,
tells

consciousness,
souls

but deep

in

their

a secret voice
!

them

:

"

You
all

lie

!

You

are
?

acting a farce

Do you

believe

in

you

profess

You

are doubting!"

Is there

then anything in which the doubter could
It
is

believe

?

very striking that one cannot find a

genuine believer

who

is

a doubter at the same time.
is

One

of the causes of

doubt

the struggle between the

intellect

and the emotions, between understanding and feeling. To the true believer, feeling and understanding have become identical; and the one thing

neurotics people. It in curious to watch how strangely distorted and what grotesque disguises this belief returns. He always belies himself.he calls his belief — belief may be religion. so they long for the sweet. they are free of every form of and yet cling to some superstition which only represents a belief in a disguised form. they do not start any im- portant business on Monday. are really in their souls deeply religious Just as their heart continually longs for the spring of their childhood. and has erected an . and kills The doubter knows Either he while free-thinker. love.72 THE BELOVED EGO him strong and helps him over life it which keeps obstacles in in every form. . all is what. science. no true acts belief. and scorning day what he All held sacred yesterday. is happy and firm childhood beliefs. For example. . They are afraid to sit down thirteen to a meal. they take it as a good omen when they meet a chimney-sweep they are unhappy when they meet an old woman in the morning. and what he formerly venerated. the superior the atheist. altar before which he secretly offers his prayers or he may act the believer to- whilst inwardly deriding his belief. hidden away in a comer of his innermost soul he believes. the destructive germs of doubt. belief. politics or All strong belief disinfects the soul.

creates for himself Therefore the neurotic sort of substitute belief. or even whether he address write on the envelope. For in one corner of the soul there lurks the fear of the Devil. off the door open when just to see leaving his house.DOUBT and so on. Life has lost all value for those who have nothing in which they can believe. curse 78 the '* They are afraid of evil eye. I do not doubt every- thing. A fourth wonders whether he has locked ." of a and of disparagement. the high gods in order to idols. it itself in many different ways. mysticism. which serve one purpose." Doubt shows some people pathological. In appears to be so harmless. of belief is offered Such a metamorphosis to the apparent unbeliever by spiritualism. They have dethroned do homage to ridiculous it They want to believe. A third the doubts whether he has put a stamp on his has not forgotten to letter. even although were only belief in their unbelief. in some : order to say to himself in " There are still some things which I do firmly believe. monism and other moveall ments of the time. that hardly realized as left One imagines that he has this is really so. to satisfy our tremendous need for a belief. I might it is almost say so amiable. and he has to go back if Another thinks he has forgotten to turn the gas.

74
up the
safe,

THE BELOVED EGO
and other such
trifles.

All

these cases

deal with a simple form of doubt, which
sciously excuse
lessness,

we

con-

by

calling

it

absent-mindedness, careall

and exaggerated precaution;

people

feel

the need to ascribe to their weaknesses some foundation in reason.
illogical affects

They need a and actions.

logical

drapery for their

In other cases doubt
lady wanted to have a

becomes more apparent.
dress

A

made, and could not decide whether she should

choose a green or a blue material, whether she should

go to this or that dressmaker, or whether she should
choose this or that fashion.
This condition the

may

be-

come

so

unsatisfactory

that

afflicted

person

cannot come to a decision without an appeal to a
higher court.

A

friend, or the mother, has

then to

say the decisive word, and dispel the doubt.
conditions

Such

can become extremely painful, and deall

prive the poor doubter of
sufferer fears to

joy in

life,

so that the

make any

decisions,

and avoids them

most

carefully. But that is not always the case. With unconscious malice towards his own Ego, the

true doubter seeks out just those situations where his

doubt can have

know a man who always falls in love with two women at the same time, and then faces the question, ** Which one shall I
free

reign.

I

marry?" and who cannot come

to a decision

till

he

DOUBT
has given them both up.
If

75

he asks a friend for his

advice, and this friend expatiates on the virtues of

Miss A., he

is

ready to expose her shortcomings, and

thus particularly emphasize the virtues
qualities of Miss B.
If

and good

he finds the oracle to be

favourable to Miss B., he begins the same

game with

Miss A.

And

all

through

life

he

is

always seeking
the spiteful-

similar situations.

Should we

call this
?

ness of Fate, or the ruling of Destiny

ways be able to

find such situations.

He will alHe receives
is

two

excellent

offers

at the

same time, when he
vacillates for

looking out for a change of post, and he does not

know which

to decide

upon he
;

months

between two plans

for

travel,
Italy.

one for

going to

Norway, and the other to
living
is

His entire mode of
is

controlled

by doubt, and there
is

no phase
it.

of his existence

which

not influenced by

As

I

have said before, a real doubter doubts everything.

He doubts the human beings,
and

faithfulness of

women, the kindness

of

the sincerity of feelings in general,

finally also his

own

doubt.

I suggested to begin with, that this

doubt springs
himcleft

from inner sources.
self.

The doubter

really doubts

His nature

is

not evenly balanced.

A

deep

divides his soul, which consists, one might say, of

two psychic

criteria, of

" which the one says " Yes

76

THE BELOVED EGO
*'

and the other

No."

His

is

a

split personality,

and

he has every reason to mistrust himself.

Obviously

he doubts himself, and he knows that he dare not

have confidence
best

in himself.

Perhaps I can show

this

by a

little

example
of

:

A

medical student makes
lady
at

the acquaintance

a

young

a

social

gathering; he likes her, and they decide to corre-

spond with each other.

They become more intimate

through the correspondence; they have secret meet-

and eventually he confesses his love for her. Our student is a doubter, and only a few minutes
ings,

after his confession the thought

comes into his mind " Do you really love her ?" Love is just that which demands a strong, firm, unswerving belief. Yes,
:

perhaps love

is

nothing else than the firm belief in

another person.

Where doubt

begins,

love ends.

Let us return to our student.

After a week of serious

soul searching, he decides to break with the girl,

and

to explain to her that, owing to his pathological disposition,

he

cannot

think

of

a

serious

lasting
life.

relationship which will govern his

whole future

He

writes the letter,

and he has scarcely sent
him.

it off

when new doubts
himself properly?

beset

Has he expressed
girl
?

Could the

perhaps read the

opposite meaning into his letter

Perhaps take

it

as

a confession of his love and a concealed wooing?

DOUBT
And

77

then suddenly a thought comes to him, from

which henceforth he cannot free himself, and which develops into a torturing " obsession " If the girl
:

should hold the paper up towards the light, perhaps
the letters of both sides might overlap in such a

way

that this message of refusal might read as a loveletter.

There could be no example more calculated to
enable us to comprehend the psychic mechanism of

such an obsession. In this young

man

there are

two

Take the girl, you One urges are well suited, and she will make you happy." The other warns "Do not tie yourself to this girl, for who knows if you may not find a better one ? Who knows if there may not be a more beautiful one destined for you? Who knows whether you will make her
opposing impulses.
**
:

:

happy?" Two wishes fought
wanted to share

in his breast,

and both

in his letter.

His doubt and his

obsession were therefore justified.

The

girl

must have
an indicalest

been able to trace in this farewell
tion of his wish not to lose her.
letter

letter

His fear

the

might also betray the voice of
factor
finds its

the second

psychic

expression

in the

doubt

whether he has composed the
the letter might,

letter rightly.

The

obsession also which persecuted

him

for days, that
light, re-

when held towards the

78

THE BELOVED EGO
thought,

present a love-letter, was only the expression of the
actual

perhaps

this
girl

breaking

off

is

too

"transparent" and the

"sees through" you,
her,

and

will

perceive
is

that

you love
over.

and that
over-

the affair

by no means

The man was

whelmed by doubts which appeared

in the shape of

I

many
I?

different questions; which, however, could all
;

be traced back to the basic theme
Shall

" Can

I

?

May
by
second

I?"

All doubters torment themselves

these

questions,

and

finally

they

need a

person to

make

the decision for them, that means
If

they long for an external Imperative.

they do not

find this second person, then the so-called compulsion

ideas arise; that

is

to say, they fix their doubt

and

their everlasting questioning

every compulsion

is

by a compulsion. For a command, an inexorable Thou

For example, an end is made of the ques" Can I, or may I, go too far?" by the tioning

Must

!

:

secret Imperative

" You can go only thus

far,

and no

farther."

There are neurotics who

literally

can only

go a certain limited distance from their house.
long as they

As
self-

move within

this radius

they are free

from anxiety and doubt.

If

they over-step their

imposed boundaries, then the anxiety which

until

then had been held in check awakes with imexpected
violence.

DOUBT relationship. 79 Thus doubt and anxiety show the most intimate They are always found together and can never be quite separated. of these articles beyond the province to explain in what a subtle manner the children are robbed of the feeling of independence. tion in the idea of fear is Educa- one of the characteristic pedagogic crimes of our time. Doubt and anxiety begin in childhood. On what foundations are these frightful demons of ? culture based I have often been able to prove that they can be traced right back to childhood. also afraid of demands himself He who believes in himself fit for the battle of existence. how could have arisen ? Fear and doubt are two im- portant levers in the structure of progress. We could All life not imagine a world devoid of fear and doubt. himself the feels is That man who doubts and he is afraid of himself. And culture yet. has a good side and a bad That which one man . and in what danger- ous ways one trains them to obey external Imperatives. for is And education making It doubt seems to me to be just as harmful. and everything in side. to be people with backbone and far-seeing eyes. without the existence of doubt. of life. The art of education consists in the training of human beings to have neither doubt nor fear. progress is based on doubt.

Many a doubter a benefactor to humanity nailed on the deep suffering others to salvation. forms which benefits humanity and advances the great is work in his of progress. and treads will those paths which lead t .80 suffers. cross of neurosis. THE BELOVED EGO and which means for him the consuming a part of the force torture of his existence.

The body becomes mind all becomes so unusually active as to be able to leap controlling barriers. Of what value to the opium-smoker its this poor world. jures up alluring The excited imagination conpictures of matchless beauty and tell of dazzling splendour before the intoxicated eyes of the smoker. the their eyes. speak tically of the enthusias- wonderful pictures which floated before light as air. Hasheesh-smokers similar marvels. the gates of paradise open to him ? Beautiful is dreams are naturally of more value to us than ugly reality. when. We can almost understand the mastery of the opium- passion over the individual and his permanent en- slavement to is it. .N CHAPTER VII PSYCHIC OPIUM Those who have smoked opium. with a few inhalations. with miserable enjoyments.

and those very rare moments of pleasure. where only to In life. renunciation. two kinds of psychic activity firstly the " pleasure-principle. places on pleasure. while reckoning with hindrances. secondly the principle. we must act according to the reality-principle. the foolish . and. all supreme. In that world." such as dominates children. and reality is very chary in of distribution of pleasure. of is realities and prepared to forgo pleasure for the sake an idea. forcing them to seek satisfaction by the shortest cut ''reality- and without hindrance. as Freud has : clearly shown. and the amusement columns the of every news^ paper testify to high value which humanity of fact. the pleasure-principle reigns In imagination's fantasies. Life consists work.82 There THE BELOVED EGO axe. flowery paths. duty." which pre-supposes a complicated psychic machinery. The imagination wanders pleasure is down found. for rare As a matter of we only live moments its pleasure. I say expressly act and not to think. pleasure these are who do not wish to renounce the day-dreamers who have the gift of living with open eyes in another self-created world. for the pleasure-principle refuses be sup- pressed. however. Now all there are people . Opium dreams are dominated solely by be the pleasure-principle. animals and savages.

and each to be the property of Mr. or at immeasurably Their fantasies. deeply in love with Mr. are fulfilled. X dreams which Magni- that he brings has in made a wonderful immense wealth. of the neurotic 88 which are denied by the ruthlessness and The boundless ambition its celebrates resurrection in such day-dreams. His friends are struck dumb his with admiration and envy. however. he is X and dediof her. Of course he has several motors. All the papers publish long about the "new star. of course. always take such a form as to include some concession to the reality-principle." and compare him with Schiller and Goethe. appear on is discovery. They would never have expected it of so modest a man ! How amazed . The public acclaims streets articles him rapturously he . etc. is carried through the in triumph. least The day-dreamers become rich. his own special Or he is a celebrated poet and experiences the delights of a triumphant success. the very latest type. ficent castles are to the loveliest spots of the earth. kings. train. his own aeroplane of a Zeppelin. who is. him He all then proceeds to put his long-cherished plans into execution. cated absolutely to him. In every castle shall dwell a beautiful maiden. Thus Mr. When off weary he packs his trunks and goes to another castle.PSYCHIC OPIUM wishes cruelty of hfe. X.

One prize might also term (those type " Haupttreffer Menschen " who confidently expect to draw the great in a lottery).84 immediate say to it? THE BELOVED EGO circle must be ! What will his professors critic And. They resemble this Nora. The how astonished he will be now have to pay a fabulous price for . Such a to offer to type is " Oblomow. This psychic opium renders the Whilst a consuming ambition activity. and visit the " cinema of in luxurious " when they want to indulge They their sit there and look on at the fanand await the fulfilment they child. — And is so it goes on deliriously. dreamer unfit urges for life. that " dull-witted " who returned him his first novel as too immature to ! be worth printing publishers will his little novel. miracle which shall bring them the '' long for. these day-dreamers ? Reality so poor. that they prefer to the pleasure of their souls pictures. They wait for the great prize." whom What is Gontscharow has so has real life delightfully portrayed. a man to restless the dreamer is usually content to sink back into inertia." the eternal always expecting the wonderful to happen. and. of own imagination. above all. and the way forgo to success so wearisome. . in . tasies all work. . until the day-dreamer little suddenly brought back to reality by some commonplace event.

rest if it is For the field of the to yield a rich harvest. or in day-dreams. building castles in the and yet can easily adapt themselves to reality. They know that they are air. with the Whereupon begins Their consciousness half-closed is that strange state of dreaming. divided between looking. for which latter need I make ample provision. in which they are half-awake. time because they always I hear the question *' : fritter it How often How on earth do you get the rarely. and that I always work unless I am not actually resting. They may awake early. he too late. . for these people are conscious of their day-dreaming. never punctual. with eyes. indulge time ?" I might reply that I never. invariably wastes to get out of bed. generously distribute the 85 money they have like.PSYCHIC OPIUM thought. But there are day-dreamers their dreaming. and always He never has any time to spare because he it. is mind also needs The day-dreamer is never has time. These are the who have no idea of people who never have away. half-asleep. This type of day-dreamers (Haupttreffer Menschen) easily recognisable. won among them is their poor relations and those they revenging themselves on those they dislike by passing over. Such people are very difficult best of intentions to go to work.

) to drag them of a out of their warm feel bed. upon and and gazing vacantly into space. dress and undress themselves over and over their tie ten again. away this or that. these dawdlers are the terror and constant worry of their parents and teachers. They have to arrange some means an hour or two. lecture. Then they complain until the influence of headache. They to up and go and always give the same stereotyped I answer '' : am just going to get up !" "I am just going to dress !" usually "I am just ready !" This "just " The same thing happens at night. urgent needs the force of compulsion. They in spend half an hour in looking for some putting article. arrange times. they turn hither and thither.86 THE BELOVED EGO a tangled confusion. or an duty (ofl&ce. and slack and good-for-nothing for the some considerable time. they only give half their mind to their work. they dawdle about for some hours and get to bed very late. All dawdlers are day-dreamers. . urged to get their work. psychic opium is dissipated. it In this manner several hours pass by. They ready because they are continually dawdling. are called in the morning. As a rule they spend an are never interminable time over their toilet. appointment. etc. As children. and are never finished because of the fact that they go on dreaming while they dawdle.

toilet. They are hyper-sensitive and suspect insults and humiliaeffect tions at every turn. is 87 brush their Neither do their hair. Their of dreams have had the boundless. finish their teeth. Similarly they burst in at a concert long after it has begun. and by bolically their they express sym- contempt for reality. miss their train and so keep the meals waiting for them. making their ambition so and their neurotio megalomania has reached such a pitch that semblance and reality are merged into one. to the intense annoyance of the punctual. for life. exhortations from their parents nor the making of of good resolutions and promises are any avail. which obviously does not understand them and treats them unjustly. Psychic opium has unfitted them quently they are social failures. conse- They are always too They appear at the theatre during the first act. it There no end to all. They are more or less at strife with the world. etc. the world of dreams illumines waking From the royal purple robes of his fantasy the day-dreamer saves a few scanty pieces . and they a victim over and over again to the enslaving power. and a dim their lustre from life. late.PSYCHIC OPIUM books. is The too power and attraction of this sweet fall dreaming strong to resist. Their dawdling propensities prevent them this from being punctual.

etc.88 in THE BELOVED EGO which he may proudly garb himself in waking the insignificant events life. failing to keep appointments. Only that teacher who plays upon their imagination can . and gainshis Sutjh end through unpunctuality. though All the resolu- very talented. tions of these children realities of instruction come to nothing because the do not interest them. despises of e very-day inations. great artists. They manifest in a marked phenomenon of " Vorbeihoren " are mostly very poor scholars. They Hence it happens that highly talented children may become very bad scholars and never fulfil their early promise. cannot be attentive. the whole of society. He therefore life. in short. in conversation. and from their answers one becomes aware of the fact that they have not been degree the so-called (deaf-hearing). While reading a book they notice suddenly themselves in their dreams. cutting people in the street. Teachers complain that the child. His secret megalomania produces a state of psychic anarchy which drives him to disregard the laws of society. They engage listening. excellent post. people are absent-minded to a degree. He delights in showing his secret contempt for society. brilliantly passed examlan a good marriage. that they have lost While listening to music of the flight of their they suddenly become aware imagination.

be educated more for reality. Children are spoilt. in which there are no disappointments. I have no doubt whatever that is this tendency to day-dreams time. far above the average. They should be taught modesty betimes. It me that music. to be prepared for the struggle of existence. Otherwise. and that is the end to to the last remain- ing bit of attention and the will to study. Every one wants are cruelly falls become great. petted and altogether his child to made these too much of. no hampering limitations. further are we enticed into the of labyrinth of our dreams. the disappointed person back on his day- dreams.PSYCHIC OPIUM captivate 89 on a parti- them and focus their interest cular subject. We must not leave out the account the harmful tendency of modern education.ith the general average. they should be taught to see life as it is. Children should. famous. when indulged excess. therefore. which acts entirely on pleasure-principle. day-dreams are liable to thrust themselves forward into the dry all resolutions. of our and the realization seems to is own insignificance in comin to parison w. especially calculated to fpster the growth of . steadily on the increase at the present life is The poorer our the in rich and stirring experiences. praised. When by ambitious hopes shattered reality. stuff.

Music stimulates the intellect. again later on. if only the notes could speak. able to with open eyes. plays. but in the language of music. strange we should be conflicts interpret dreams.90 day-dreams. or other forms of literature. compels us to follow a given train of thought. emotions at the expense of the I have found the best examples of day-dreamers Among music lovers. pleasure and reality would revealed whereby we might obtain a better understanding of . dream state attains a pitch of ecstasy worthy of music a detailed description. to Children with tendencies as I day-dreaming (such have described as if dawdlers) should only be allowed to take up music they show great talent. But in the case of music. They dream Yes. concerts at an early age. and be between to us. whether it has talent or not. They weave fantasies playing and into their compositions. gifted musicians that It is just among the highly axe to be into their many day-dreamers their found. as in the case of a novel. THE BELOVED EGO A drama forces our thoughts into a par- ticular channel. I shall refer to this subject I myself am a great lover of But excess of any Nowadays every child kind seems to me harmful. and is dragged to and an enthusiastic musician. each one can think and feel what he pleases. this In the case of Wagnerites especially.

His clumsy foot might tread on the delicate flowers. all life is a compromise. In this labyrinth grow the psychic the red poppies which contain is opium. Finally. a successful enterprise. in- dulged for life. . destroyed. . can harm us and unfit us secret we could but understand the ! language ! If . a charitable deed. The uninitiated may not enter there. an animated conversation. a duty fulfilled. their magic is their is day-dreams. Intoxication life means forgetting the world. in enthusiasm. an engrossing novel. dl if Music also in is a psychic opium. But very few people divulge Once put into words. whose poisonous odour is so sweetly be- numbing. the dying strains of a beautiful song. an interesting landscape. and helps us to forget the pains which brutal reality has caused us. seek it The secret of all pleasure intoxication. these are realities which can bring us great pleasure. which. to If excess. The door which leads to the magic garden of day-dreams carefully guarded. . So sad is for ! most people that forgetting implies happi- ness One it of the greatest advantages of culture is that life.PSYCHIC OPIUM life. and in day-dreams. in alcohol. and yet whose relationship with the airy realm of our imagination cannot be denied. We in love. teaches us to extract pleasure out of actual fine A poem.

His dreams are of a full of realities.92 THE BELOVED EGO and the reality-principle can be Only he who knows how to combme the pleasureprinciple happy. fulfilled. and reality has the effect dream .

was replaced by other laws. that the memory and every the experience of the unconscious.CHAPTER Vra POENA TALIONIS Not even the most fleeting of impressions can be What man has collected in the course of years he bequeaths to his descendants. this also happened to the thief who had laid his hand on . his right hand was cut off. but nevertheless remains to-day still in force. In Roman Law there existed a law of retaliation ** which was called the Poena Talionis. later." If a person had sworn falsely. This fact can be proved by innumerable examples in Crowd Psychology. This is how it comes about that powers which in reality belong to the past remain active in the consciousness of people. Humanity possesses a secret memory of all past events and impressions. This law applies not only to humanity at large but also to individual. only one of them We will speak of now —of a law which was valid once. Instinct is lost.

is We case often bring relentless if it upon ourselves punishment which others. The lofty endeavours of Christian religion to leave revenge to heaven have unfortusuccess.94 other THE BELOVED EGO people's property. certain nervous symptoms can be only understood by taking into consideration law of retaliation. " An eye for an eye." Jus talionis shall it Or " With be meted out to in equal coin has never disappeared from the crowd consciousness. then the tongue was torn out. are very much mistaken. and a tooth for a tooth. They only appear in neurotics. If a case of blackmail required a severe punishment. Even the old Germans were governed by this principle of retaliation. this Those who are of opinion that Jus Talionis is only used against others. We can also find in the : Bible some passages which bear on this thus." what measure ye measure. is To pay back a universal law. and are the a sign of a deep consciousness of How symptoms have come about. you again. and I have " pointed out the characteristics of these " talionis I phenomena. we do not know." have spoken of nervous symptoms. guilt. They . nately met with very little Vengeance is still something personal —very often only too personal. of " Jus Talionis. more and severe than would have been the had been dealt out by this Now.

met him.POENA TALIONIS fear of 95 are generally unconscious psychic processes. for strictly religious. to break the Sixth Commandment. had taken a country house just before his illness. who did not wish. into The neurotic punishes himself and then imagines his supposed sins. The touch of the soft. He had arrived late in the evening. Enough of generalities. and On hand. punishment the direct con- sequence of an avenging Nemesis. in a form which we generally find only women. caressing hand. in which an avenging higher power. It was a case of genuine hysteria. The diagnosis was in not difficult. '* Let us observe a typical case of such Poena Talionis. hand paralysed some years. Nemesis. for her greeting and expressed the hope seemed very that they might become good neighbours. even in thought. The proprietress of the country house. for his is ally develops into anxiety. . a beautiful young woman. eventua retributive power. In the morning he went into the garden to walk round. And what was the cause of it ? The married man. The anaesthesia of this hand permitted one to stick needles quite deeply into the flesh without the patient stirring a muscle. bade him welcome shook hands with him." had his right A married man. the impulse of the pressed it moment he took thanked her her warmly.

raised in greeting became half Co-incident with these symptoms.96 THE BELOVED EGO A hot current had passed from wonderful to him. . Poena had been God had punished him In addition. in one and the same person. and the judge. tempting pictures. prietress He forgot the pro- and all about the whole of his affair entirely. It another strange thing occurred. He was the wrong-doer. He fought mind and will against the sin. He had Everything was buried in the obscurity of his unconscious mind. that hand through his arm and over in his whole body. the accuser. consciousness. was cut right out committed no sin. and his hand burned as all if with the strength of his a glowing fire. for he had atoned for it and punished himself severely. the in the part where he had sinned. arm which he had paralysed. against the successfully. And he The *' fought The hand became fulfilled. Another example shows us the Jus Talionis in an ethical conflict without the intermixture of religious principles. colder and colder —so cold that Talionis '' it lost its feeling entirely. A lady of about forty years of age gradually began to stop taking food. Her meals First she became smaller and smaller day by day. His imagination became excited to a fantasy. And perhaps he was more severe than God would have been.

This lady had lost her father. It scenes of disobedience in her was at the mid-day meal. Thus our patient punished herself for all that she had done in opposition to the spirit of her the greatest. Her father made a great point of it. course. and more important than any other In vain . she realized the wickedness of hex obstinacy. the hardest tyrants. all solid food. So much of what we do is only belated obedience. it is Do not let us imagine that us. At last she had become obedient. of her Everything she had done against the father came before her with first cruel clearness. only the living the dead who are have power over can be moved. when she did not want to take any soup. above everything offended. She remembered the childhood. living person . the obstinate child followed example of the boy in " Shockheaded Peter " will not eat — the '* I my soup.POENA TALIONIS gave up meat. her after so many years. —a father whom she had loved whom she had repeatedly will After his death remorse began to appear. Often it is who The The dead remains silent and immovable. and after the death of father. No ! No ! —I shall not eat my soup to-day !" Now. until finally 97 Later she gave up she could only take soup. He contended that the soup was nourishing. and then sweets.

she could eat nothing but soup. this pre- in the power of another authority all who soothes all pain and ends suffering —Time. so it is in neurosis. and bend the knee before that enigmatic power which drives us through the obscure paths of life towards a distant unknown goal. sink to the ground. Now in Of course this punishment would not have been accordance with her father's wishes. However he may ridicule and scorn the idea. One uses the letter of the law. slavish obedience. Thus the father of this punish- would have protested against the use ment his name and would have exercised his prerogative of mercy. And when he thinks himself to be most free and independent —in a moment he feels the sharp claws at his throat. rogative is Now that he is dead. conscience never lets him out of its grip. certainly have brushed He would away the cobwebs of nonexistent sins had he been alive. She placed under Poena Talionis and went to the other extreme of what she had done in her youth. and at the same time his greatest friend — ^his own Ego. his Every person possesses in himself greatest enemy. .98 father herself THE BELOVED EGO by a belated. As it is in real life. and must writhe with pain. but how in often one misses the spirit.

" She reproached ** gone too far " on one occasion. I offered me all the treasures in the could not It have will procured that lightit heartedness for her." A further punishment she visited upon her husband. Now she felt she dared not be left alone at side for and would not allow him away from her If she actually a moment. Whenever she was required to go anywhere she always made the " It is so far. went out on occasion. never appear where does not already exist. was obliged to take quite an escort with Thus . " Nothing is wrong with me.POENA TALIONIS Ibsen is 99 when he demands for the man of All neurotics suffer actions a "robust" conscience. He had jealously watched her when she was a young woman." But had she world. ** except little the lack of a light light-heartedness. Now she punished herself and left the house no more. Put a blood into striking ! How my veins and I shall be quite How true How candid ! ! well. right from too sensitive a conscience. all. she her. Her agoraphobia was a herself for having "Poena Talionis. and had forbidden her to go out alone. it seems to me such an same excuse : immense distance." once said to lady me a who was suffering little from agoraphobia.

about it what is the use of all the laws and penalties Why all this complicated parapher? nalia of judges. lied to her Why Now At that had she mother that evening? mother had shown then. . prosecutors and defendants Those who fall under the law are not those whose punishment is the most severe. They are mostly criminals. in nature. having the before mentioned "robust" conscience. but those around her had to participate Countless obscure complaints are really only "Poena Talionis. remedies. to whom punishment is no more than unpleasant. What anxiety her the pains poor little stabbed and bored through her head as though they would say —If ? only you hadn't done that then. and only more or less of a hindrance. whether internal seem powerless to which are hysterical alleviate her terrible sufferings. She once untruthfully pleaded a headache to her mother in order that she might stay at home. external. all if only you had told your mother I often ask myself.! 100 THE BELOVED EGO in the punishment. in a This event was the the first link chain of incidents herself." A or girl suffers from severe and All apparently incurable headaches. about which she severely reproached time her head was turned by a cousin. she punished not only herself.

the cheeky variety have long treat a scarecrow. set up to prevent hungry sparrows from damaging the cornfield. It frightens only the timid inexperienced birds. known how to and even how to avoid a living watcher. .POENA TALIONIS " Justitia 101 " seems to me like a scarecrow. no other shame than shame of " than " Poena Talionis punishment no other own breast. But what are lic justice. Thus humanity purchases of endless sacrifices. which one dictates oneself. its progress at the price We move towards a proud time when there will be no other judge on earth than that in one's oneself. feeling it No second passes without thousands of sins their duty to repent which either they have never committed or which are not sins at all. in all the anguish and penalties of pub- comparison with the limitless flood of sorrow and remorse which wells up from the soul of the penitent ? Every moment cold steel his trembling hand into his plunges the of reproach own quivering flesh.

of too great joy. To me the problem then seemed a little absurd. ended well. and hunt by lawful and unlawful ways ? It was only many years that I recognized that the poet had. however. all people seek joy. How for can one possibly conceive the thought of being ? afraid of joy it all Do after not their life long. was expected home. in this question. fear of the effect Every one trembled with upon the aged. and the author came to the comforting conclusion that joy cannot kill. dealt with an im- .CHAPTER rX THE FEAR OF JOY Many years ago I saw a very attractive theatrical play in which a son. was superfluous. weak mother. as she had not even yet heard the unexpected event ? Was it not possible that the extraordinary excitement caused by might bring about her sudden all death ? Eventually. How of the miracle could one best break to her the joyful news. who was believed to have been dead. All that fear of joy.

us of Till Eulenspiegel. 108 portant problem of the time although in an extreme A wise German saga tells hill. feel It is considered exceptionally wise not to too much joy about happiness." misfortune. think of the next There are more such Eulenspiegels abroad in the world than one might imagine. learnt to fear happiness and too great in one's Of what use against these exhortations . and was angry because he had to ascent. coming down a showed an unhappy face.THE FEAR OF JOY example. how easily " Happiness they both break !" " Happiness rule. prove this In the schoolroom one learns several uplifting quotations and and little stories to glass. how rarely And man lastly. where in the face of exceptionally good luck the guest turns away *' with horror. How is it possible then to enjoy one's happiness ? " After joy follows sorrow. is comes alone!" the very wise saying of Solomon " No either : to be accounted happy before his death." says the proverb. lest one should ** provoke weeping." Thus we have a joy. After laughter follows So we were told as children. and unhappiness." has been held up as the very height of wisdom. poets teach Even us restraint in joy. I am : especially thinking of the poem by Schiller called Der Ring des Poly crates. who.

about their business. little joys. Most them have some complaint to make about their health. "How eyes do you do?" with the honest answer: "Thank and their you. excellently " with sparkling whole being emanating satisfaction. but should our happiness be poisoned by the thought of inevitable end ? its One thing seems nearly all certain to arise " Weltschmerz " may " Joy The so-called because we have banned me.) There has always remained a bitter sediment in every joy.104 THE BELOVED EGO youth are the good teachings of Horace who has expressed himself by the splendid Carpe diem. timid. in Life " from our We have some past. the right form of teaching? Happiness should not make us reckless. / The whole mood of . wonderful " Joy in Life " soon be a thing of the the How few people answer conventional truthful. small. ! question. and that the contrast would make the inevitable misfortune appear Is this all the greater. lives. How of rarely will one finds these happy beings. so well translated into ist German by Baumbach is as Heut heut! (To-day to-day. or the political conditions. great. and so on. a secret fear that " the gods wished to destroy us. joys. will but the real. or those in authority over them. about their family." that happiness would be followed by misfortune.

which at the disappointment throws away ! like a valueless rag Unfortunately it is the real joy of life which is lacking. as well as the fear of joy. Out of its folds there peep Superstition tendencies of the time. The gloomy through spirit of the Middle Ages still wanders ! our modern streets. Savonarolas do not die out. Nowadays she wears a little ascetic mantle.! THE FEAR OF JOY humanity seems to 105 me to be. in modem Even Science herself can be affected only too easily by this tendency and attires herself in the latest fashion. calling " Woe woe woe !" over sinning humanity. to a large extent. life Repent and renounce. you desire a long life. Belief. and its father. trans- posed into the minor key. . and ! you must not shorten ! ! beware of stimulants sins against the of all kinds. that your may be long. of Stimulants are Holy Ghost Hygiene. Was there ever a time when one heard ? of so many life suicides of young people first How pitiful this Youth. difficulty the life- One can observe without much weariness. it If Always give careful consideration by indulgence and joy as to what is healthy and what is harmful. Renounce Renounce Renounce Avoid that which poisons the soul. which is so much too short for her that it is unable quite to cover up her bad conscience.

106 There is THE BELOVED EGO no doubt that this ascetism is in keeping with the Spirit of the Time. These patients evolve an ingenious system by which they deprive themselves of all joys in life. But the Spirit of the Time is only the sum total of the minds of indi- viduals. they maintain that in their experience invariably follow. There are those because unfortunates who are afraid of every joy. and which induces them to do exactly the opposite things to those which would give them . Only the knowledge of the psychology of the individual can give us an understanding of the psychology of the crowd. And the magnificafaults most clearly shows us the general which otherwise might have escaped unnoticed. The study of neurotics will be most valuable for this investigation. because neurosis shows us general or phenomenon tion which caricatured by magnification. which later on assumes quite grotesque forms. bad times and As soon they as a feeling of joy in life becomes apparent. but ever-increasing Do not rejoice too much. it is embellished by diminution. feel uncomfortable become possessed by a feeling of anxiety will : slight. things ! soon go badly for you This is the beginning of a very wide-spread disease. Amongst neurotics we find a whole group where fear of joy plays an important part.

but another. that They deny sometimes and In which is —success. not They do marry the scientific girl becomes to them a study is real they love. while they are con- sumed with longing themselves greater love.THE FEAR OF JOY joy. much taboo into as the exciting novel all and in the end they succeed in transforming the joys of this world Work and Duty. for a savoury roast. fact. They is as struggle with music (an alluring waltz !). They leave off drinking and smoking. They become vegetarians. 107 They plunge into all those present-day movements which demand self-control and renunciation. and gulp down huge quantities of badly prepared vegetables in defiance of possibly fatal results. who " punishment of God. although the reading of them is a torture (to read a novel dilBficult a deadly sin !). ment often If ! Man cannot be born only to is however we we are told that this so ! inquire further of these strange sufferers. . they do just those things which are in reality unpleasing to them. do they act thus? to it ? Why forces What inner necessity them Such a powerful psychic impulse itself cannot evolve of without some compelling motive ! Every creature longs for joy and enjoysuffer." They works. They become enthusiastic disciples of the different abstinence movements.

" comment And through all " You do : his joys he not deserve He kisses a sweet girl. " You do not deserve it." and think that they do not deserve the joys of life. They are ! In spite of a great talent. : Before a performance he would course they will laugh at you." and he tears himself. their joy. He loses . They subdue as a mute. You a bad and you cannot goes on the stage. As she ingly into his arms. don't deserve any- else. infinite he was to never express able to get away of his from himself and the whole power and his art. after having been consinks unresist- sumed with longing for her. or we get at last a hesitating They hear an inner voice which tells them : they are either answer. You lot. possibly get on. imder some pretext or other. from her surrendering embrace. and bad their conscience acts accusers and their I own own judges know an actor who might have become famous. and disturbing inner hears the dreadful it. " You are not deserving. for You are much too wicked thst. say to himself "Of are and you thing will fail miserably." In other words: they have a "bad conscience. he hears the veto.108 THE BELOVED EGO silent. which showed possibilities." In this mood he and has to fight continually against his hindering self.

and at length the watches. till He such happiness. and yet may decide their fate. she.THE FEAR OF JOY his finest 109 engagements. girl for A man to has been secretly wooing a for a long time. He does not deserve their love. seems to them unmerited. all A sad vein of of resignation runs Their feel through success the actions these people. how another obtains the happiness he had so ardently desired. as if thinking it over once more. Those men are of the same type who uplifted feel themselves She. goddess slowly. so high. a poor mortal. This silent form of ** Fear of Joy " explains many actions which would otherwise be inexplicable. and offends his best friends. wooer with mournful resignation. Many a hand which might well reach for the highest goal stops and hesitates. and they almost ashamed of it. shrinks from He does not deserve that. has favoured him. A silent humility forces them to renunciation and self-denial. time effaces the picture of the cruel hand. the goddess. when a woman accepts their wooing. may remain in the case of others below the threshold of consciousness. with a it and replaces with that of a human . Months and years pass. but surely. Every one waits him first to say the final word. so beautiful. and propose marriage to her. What happens with this man in full consciousness.

find. There are also who dream of long voyages. renunciations are more or less severe punishments arbitrarily meted out by the " Inner Judge. in spite of all their plans for travel." Nietzsche. as they remain at home. Gloomy their and superstitious forebodings penetrate into souls. : The air resounds with secret warnings '* Don't do '' Every joy is it. They are afraid of too great a joy. Norway. because they wish to deny themselves their greatest happiness. you will have to suffer for it !" paid for with pain. cross the ocean in modern giant and yet. has exposed the social roots of this . it is some trifling pretext. especially in the twilight at the end of the day.110 being with those THE BELOVED EGO all its faults and virtues. To tell the truth. by an exhaustive investigation. and live in their Italy. And behind and this fear is hidden that scourge of our time —Conscience. in vessels. who devour They study all imagination in the guide-books. they one always can." shrinks back longing. all We all have a very sensitive conscience. and all literature descriptive of travel. And the little anxious heart of its and renounces the fulfilment How many such longing thoughts have ! already been sacrificed to this fear of joy Every second some wish sinks unfulfilled and soulless to the ground. because fear of joy has transformed joy into fear.

111 One may easily make the error of holding It religion responsible for conscience. and so has remained far afield if would lead us too we tried to find out the social roots of this highly interesting different aetiology phenomenon. A child hears "You the sun should shine on you I" a grown up sun.THE FEAR OF JOY conscience. seems to A of conscience me more important and fruitful for pre- sentation just now. he is also inoculated with the fear of joy. one cannot wonder that there are are not worthy that If the child. and at the same time constantly having pointed out to him . may also one of its causes. seems more probable to me that the bad conscience of humanity has created religion. Die Sonne bringt es an den Tag. then this phobia. small and big. are reminded of their wickedness. (The sun will bring it to Ught. It is characteristic of the education of the cultured person that. It of Judaism. besides other origins. neurotic. with the necessary moral conscience. shows an inexplicable fear of the in the and can walk only have this as shade without a feeling of anxiety. If one thinks how often children. as people who grow up to think themselves evil and con: temptible.) Another child fits is continually being told of the bene- which his parents is shower upon him. Thus Christianity has been the till bad conscience to-day.

and because we wish to represent a higher type of man. suppressed impulses and hungry instincts which exist in us. just as they had not themselves committed exactly the same misdeeds in their youth. unnatural and ungrateful ture he The parents if set themselves up as models of virtue. at any price. We must love Goodness because it is good. are counted unclean This creates feeling of inferiority in comparison with other people. without any consideration. this im- These are only a few observations on is portant problem. It . as the Fear of Joy. in obscure and a indistinct dreamlike wishes and repressed longings. should be Not our children only but all people educated up to the joy of Could we not banish the sinister spirit of asceticism and bring to a noble enjoyment of life ? up humanity I do not want to be misunderstood.112 THE BELOVED EGO creais. children to rejoice in good and beautiful things. but not through fear of retribution and punishment of hell. and which come up and wicked. lies in this There are far too many world of ours. what an unrepentant. The conseAll quence is that people are inclined to think that others are better and nobler than they are themselves. which known life. of life I am not an apostle of egoistic joy Joy in beautiful and good things is one of the most We must bring up uplifting joys in this world.

THE FEAR OF JOY Noble-Men. I preach this new Joy And would be such a bad thing? I imagine a time (which will never come) with temples of joy. others. Why does one never H . means also to rejoice with means to give joy to others through one's own is The world period of so traces. All founders of religion bring us a religion for the future. ? Perhaps a few chosen ones among this What would world be without a strong belief to form the basis of our social order. cheerful Pan dead. A beautiful old song my ears. Are we ripe such a religion us. and in this strenuous seek in vain for his much machinery we But the I notice that I religion of have begun to preach. joy. and to secure order and morality ? its Every period needs problem religion. The present is always left out. Here the for psychologist becomes a Utopian. It makes the that of the Intellectuals immensely difficult we have only the religion of the past at our disposal. longing for emancipating laughter. of Life. and with people who are capable of accepting life as Joy. is Merry. 113 should be our endeavour to educate ourselves to be To rejoice. Let us descend from the heights of philosophical enlightenment to everyday continually rings in life.

and gather the rose before withers.114 hear it THE BELOVED EGO now in do people sing " At Home " day." . so little ? Imagine the modern and the lady of the house starting the song " Enjoy circles ? : merry Why life while the lamp it is still burning.

and the demanding tremble all decision in They over whenever they have to make any money matters. which they prefer to shun. money an victims of charlatans of various kinds. alike in a monetary transac- . They never learn how to deal with money or how rightly to value it. and they become the impossibility. All financial transactions are a difficult problem to them. which But let us we will go into later. Does not even the so-called normal person act strangely with regard to money? There are hardly two people who behave tion. these people the To payment of of a debt is a great task.CHAPTER X WE AND OUR MONEY The normal person would not think it possible that there are people who are unable to adapt themselves in any way whatever to the use of money. not from stupidity. but from their inability rightly to grasp the responsibilities and values of money. leave these extreme cases.

should they do with it? If they are rich children. or so-called. whose whole for becomes a struggle money. talk continually about it. money difficult is. money is To these children. are proud of their treasure. money is money. children are accustomed to all sorts of monetary and business transactions. a little is boy very asks his father what puzzled. They sell and exchange stamps. and will even do another's home-work for a good price. Fatherland. What Money is to at last he replies. show it to every one. The father define. from their real. Those are life bom business men. however. dealers. Other children show an entire lack of appreciation of money.116 THE BELOVED EGO one can observe Already in children. exchange pens for books. money is not money. " much " or " little. money. play with it. uncles They know are well the meaning of and aimts. . they collect it and save it. Art. Love. They are embarrassed when some one gives them money. thing from a monetary standpoint." and already as generally quick at reckoning. and ask and beg for " tips " the value of money. In one of Dickens's novels. who view everyTime. Some children have from early childhood a keen sense of They are happy when it is given to them. differences immense in their valuation of money.

money. want are and wish to acquire in Indeed there dangerous to of a many professions which it is disclose this craving for money. is with which he hides his The doctor must dependent upon the accept his fee with if never disclose that he also acquisition of hesitation money. He must and apparent unwillingness. as forced to do so by necessity. their greed for it. What do they care about the future ? And many of them know day that Father has lots of money. They are ashamed this Even grown-ups show about money. Others are afraid to take it money in their hand. shame. The reputation business man generally depends on the cleverness profit.WE AND OUR MONEY whose every wish to is fulfilled. as if would bum and injure them. 117 or who are not allowed buy anything themselves. rather than obeying his own im- . and the touch would cause stains and ness. admit openly that they love it. and that some his money will to some extent belong to them. At the same time they look at the treasure to betray with secret longing. Every one likes to play the part of the idealist who does not care Very few people it. of it Or as if it were ill- dirty. they smile dutifully and gratefully when they are promised that the money shall be put in a money-box and kept for them.

There are many bad wonder. but in other countries a is more straightforward attitude taken in this respect.118 pulses. especially in German countries. tyranny. life consists in one taking advantage of all and are deceived deceivers —but we save we have so ourselves anxiety and the trouble of taking precautions. Envy. instincts in Money most brutal mankind. and very difficult to tame by ourselves moral and educational means. This is in accordance with the expectation of people. greed of gain and profit. THE BELOVED EGO and must express to in it his face that he would prefer do without altogether. No Because money matters have a bad effect upon nearly every one. we are being taken advantage of and of being exploited by others. and from the after doubt as to whether received our due or not. people in the world — is an old saying. or such people as have been well recommended to us. We shall be no less taken advantage of —because the whole of another. We are always on guard against the badness of the world. which for strange behaviour the motive afraid of on our part. arouses the avarice. is All of us have a hidden fear. acquaintances. are wild creatures to have power over us. We therefore prefer to have dealings with our friends. other people. only because We are suspicious of we understand .

the dream intergreat riches prognosticated —wallowing if in money. The tragedy life. air. time. This gives us an insight into the origin of the different attitudes of people towards money. Only good people are trustful of others. . One of these equations of dirt. A called a " dirty " rascal. Money poisons human is relationships. the old If books on dream interpretation show one walked along a preter muddy country road.. Blood- thirsty. sinister thoughts are connected with money. money may be symbolic Even and life. We air. blood. We discover a series of called this " Symbolic Equations " as I have phenomenon. that people dream very frequently about numbers * Austrian expression=suffocates. of " The Rheingold " There life is the tragedy of everyday a remarkable phenomenon of the j>sychic is which especially revealed in dreams.WE AND OUR MONEY and can see our 119 own depths. call a usurer a blood-sucker. We from the observation of dreams. this. filth and in everyday language money stands for also find further (filthy lucre). Money symbolizes he is because a merchant " erstickt " * all his unable to pay up miser is debts by the end of the time limit. suggests to us that excreta.

and so on. cannot be sufficiently often repeated. These dates may have been entirely forgotten by one's but have been stored up is conscious mind. They signify a guilty conscience. is We are all but in what very different ways does avarice show itself.120 THE BELOVED EGO These and money. and of important and fateful dates in one's own life. which however. one astonished to find what an excellent mathematician the unconscious mind of man is. births. pression. is In analysing these dreams. F. important numbers often have a very as I significance have shown in Die Sprache des Traumes (Verlag Von J. The fimdamental and . Wiesbaden. The numbers show a marvellous connexion with certain dates of deaths. Bergmann. 1911). and this truth line of slight. like a up these apparently forgotten of sleep. in the unconscious. The very demarcation between good and bad very miserly this . submergence into subterranean depths. memories into the dim obscurity But what a strangely different aspect we get of a person after the exposure of his suppressed emotions. We are all very much alike. always accessible to dream. There really no forgetting an im- Every experience produces an everlasting is impression. and the so-called forgetting only a are. brings Dream. bold diver.

We should acquire and redistribute without reflecting upon how much and worry is attached to it. sweat. blood been too strong. His lust for the glittering gold has trouble. From time (lest we steal up into the dim garrets of our souls. but should accept it lightly and pass it.WE AND OUR MONEY universal egoistic instinct for reality only a disguised I'il money. because it might contain germs of envelopes. has undergone many transformations. to time We have our secret money-boxes where we store up our treasures. afraid to handle disease. with money. which is in form of craving for power. The child who can handle calm conscience. We should not ponder deeply about money. money. a third with and a fourth with memories. The neurotic has lost this unbiassed attitude towards money. another with love. and anxiously and with beating hearts discovered) count over our wealth. The curse of life. which gives money well has a promise of a strong conscience later on. it on. the Rhein-gold pursues him through his whole and the forms which this curse takes are is very strange. we should be Our relations towards of and firm attitude money demand a tranquil mind. One person coins. He disinfects the in protecting and the paper money he places . One person all is mean life.

And if moneyed victim gives with both hands. This runs away like a neurosis from suffer. water through his hands. then. only in accordance with their desires. fees for a poor exams have to be found. and masking the unsatisfied greed which they once their father's or mother's felt for becomes of real value to money. mothers girl's die. especially from the poor. They know their victims quite well. a provision has to be student's their honour at stake. Money. This type is well-known to the professional beggars who swarm in our great cities. as he . a made for a widow. and so on. they are powerless to refuse any request for money. distraint or is im- prisonment threatens. but that of their parents warm but in their hands. which the heirs of rich men frequently thus showing their unconscious contempt for wealth. They long for any oppor- tunity to spend this is They naturally fall an easy prey. who in return have to hand over a All sorts proportion of their spoils." it.122 THE BELOVED EGO it is Another cannot keep money . and who make a comfortable living out of the generosity of those people who cannot handle money. only them when they acquire it " never gets for themselves. and only pass on their addresses to their best friends and brothers in the profession. stories are of pathetic poured out.

neurosis. to say of a sin for which they have . the has been paid on such and such a this But even does not satisfy the poor creatures. and in money frequently signifies guilt. The guilt all. may The not have been an actual experience at ethical lapses of neurotics are comprised in their . and even the assurance of the tradesman cannot pacify them. might have made a mistake himself. The doubt returns again. life.WE AND OUR MONEY would make atonement well as for his own. —Yes. This burden has not been removed. They in Have I already paid it your last bill ? The tradesman looks bill up his book date. being only human. In dreams. is . For all those who cannot an excessive handle money rightly suffer from consciousness of guilt. 123 for the sins of his father as There is another type which cannot pay a trades- man's bill without being subsequently seized with it doubt as to whether they have paid return to ask the tradesman : or not. What tortures these people is the inner reproach of a secret debt which they have not yet paid —that . Money is the symbol of guilt. itself A deep feeling of guilt expresses in this neurosis. be- cause he. and so every debt and every bill with which they have to deal guilt to becomes a symbol of them. not atoned.

wishes THE BELOVED EGO and are have in most cases fantasies and which gone beyond the permitted bounds. constituted of money equivalents.124 thoughts. works of thing can be got with money. but already pictures to himself what he will do with the money. really only a key to power and to from Money possession. The miser sees the possibility of attain- ment of all these before him. which hinders him from also adopting a well-balanced attitude towards money. To " means " is people of who suffer this neurosis the more importance than the "end. having been recognized by their conscience as criminal. entirely possessed At last his love by money. society. and then. love." They suffer this punishment because they want to conquer the world for themselves with their treasures. friendship. If an heir hardly has the patience to wait for his father's death. Money with him His takes life is the place of friend. Excessive miserliness is is a neurosis. then he creates with these fantasies a bad conscience. but he postpones the opportunity until he has amassed more wealth. at least an apparent equivalent. And is he must collect more and more. : Now and then one finds an exception a man who saves for a long . travelling. have been repressed. gormandizing. art. art. and travelling. Money Every- means everything —laziness.

I imagines. 125 time. but they have never earned. They are those who have possessions. war From time to time one reads in the papers of a shortage of money . but are perpetually in dread of becoming poor. and then suddenly becomes open-handed. in the event of The bank might fail war. What is safe in this world ? Nothing counts as safe to them. and one neurotics will have may be sure that these drawn their deposits out of the for the banks because they had begun to tremble safety of their property. I could multiply these examples. but these few will suffice. and Then there is quite a special variety of these people who suffer from a money complex. It is feel that they true that they have inherited. have . pleasure that these people feel The when they have themThey selves acquired a small siun is indescribable. their own house might collapse (has this not happened in San Fransisco?). their if investments in shares might become valueless arose.WE AND OUR MONEY plays the Grand Seigneur. feel that one of the bonds which chains them in the chamber of anxiety is torture loosened. They are incessantly haunted by the spectre of poverty. as They show us that the rich are not always happy in their possessions as one generally The most serious cases of neurosis. and are incapable of earning a penny.

because when they are grown up they are helpless in face of the problems of money and Therefore acquisition. Perhaps the best method of doing to this is to If encourage them coin result earn it themselves. the own will follow autoIt all is matically that they also attach the right value. quite a mistake to give children no money at to handle. to get into the way over-valuing money. because they possess a powerful remedy against neurosis work. and to value It is a it rightly. one of the important tasks for parents and teachers to train children in the proper handling of money. requires great are not to be envied. but we must guard ourselves carefully . They can else neither spend nor acquire. It is them happy people with a capacity for work. poor can never become so seriously affected. as children at of home. represents it each direct and of note their they have effort. dangerous thing for them. Heavy work rarely permits the development of such complicated psychic phenomena.— 126 THE BELOVED EGO The always found amongst the very rich people. children should learn good time how to value money. or do anything connected in with it. We must not despise money. and it The rich acumen in the education of the children of the rich to turn into healthy. as it is one of the necessities of life.

nature. to the wild scramble after set money. . . or not only money for them. But we which it are a long way yet from that ideal age in is will be said —Time Happiness. and parents make only a wealthy marriage All long for wealth for their children. comfort. enjoyment. happiness. rest. And one thing particularly I would beg of Fate for them. all the power of adapting themselves to of life. children the fact that 127 We . re- laxation and only then. be the outstanding feature Time should not be money.WE AND OUR MONEY against over-valuation. I would ask for them a contented mind. good deeds. which. . money. art. . may earn and What can be sons to said of those parents rich who always their ? tell their daughters to catch a man. must impress upon the money and happiness do not and that one depend upon each other yet keep one's ideals. that they should not succumb to the temptation of the Spirit of the Age. If I could ask of Fate what I would have for my children. because the outward show arouses the envy of those who possess not. circumstances all and it of obtaining from every hour the happiness has to offer. but Time should be love. useful work of our Modem Times. cheerfully accomplished. one gathers from the example will by the New World.

but It is our keen eyes see only the fault of others. very few exceptions) and that good and evil dwell in every breast. which wishes to see and hear only everything for itself. seeks eagerly cut off its head. and to have Unfortunately we know ourselves only too little. then a double head will grow in it place. only all when we win through beings (with to the knowledge that are alike. that we can . with a for prey. and. Its glistening energies. as was with the Lemaic snake. itself. body It fills our soul and saps our best makes us blind and deaf. and holds continually before us the mirror of the greedy Ego. If hundred poisoned fangs. We consider ourselves to be patterns of virtue.CHAPTER XI ENVY i An we its ugly yellow worm gnaws at our soul.

is And how that quality of envy is 1 Even the mere fact that a it certain thing possessed by some one else. to become an object We can see this demon- strated repeatedly every day. It is the nature of like to Man to be entirely egoistical. the The is other person's half will always to us. There I once no escape from this optical delusion. by-and-by. The first stirrings of envy are curious aroused by another's possessions. for his whom this old coat served as his The first time he came to me in Sunday best. to one of my poorer colleagues. into Just divide an apple two halves. " new " coat. we can also acquire a sad tremendous part played by envy in the individual psychic life and in humanity in insight into the general. I could not understand possession why by had given away. causes of envy. I was astonished at its fine and it appearance.ENVY attain 129 recognize in the faults of others. have everything for himself. and everything revolves round his He would own wishes. he is the centre of the world. and can and all-understanding humility which distinguishes the wise man from the that all-knowing fool. But then. seem larger one however equal the division. Thus . our own. had an old coat which I gave it I could not possibly wear any longer.

How their the case when the first lovers have obtained their beloved ones. and finally there remain only a few poor miserable of fragments. and when they have become possession. and no power in the world can the image. who complain to me about their bitter anguish. and however great the may Each be. another had changed little We the realize far too how possession decreases value of an young men in love. there must of necessity exist faults fault takes a little from their illusion. and who contemplate taking their own lives on account of object.180 THE BELOVED EGO my opinion. The qualities of a human virtues also. being must be there. that they can never possess a person so completely as when they have never possessed him ideal or her at The tible image of their beloved remains indestrucin their soul. the last fragments a proud array. wherewith they had adorned the goddess of their fantasy. is the stains begin gradually to appear. although they had believed to be divine. It stands the test affect and imsullied of time. Memory transfigures different is and enhances its charm. . Possession ig lost. I point out to them all. Even time cannot destroy it it. Their ideal only a it human being after all. After the varnish of infatuation has worn off. How often do I console the hopelessness of their love.

We should realize how bitter envy is. And what One fame ? Fame the envy of the infamous. or we which is do not want to realize We fight for success. realize make a it. I possess I possess it. is should bring us fame. oneself.ENVY This is 131 indeed the greatest curse weighing down humanity." sisters also And the effect follows. Do you see how much I possess? Are you not yellow with envy ? I have still much more To-morrow I shall come with other finery I even more splendid. "I possess it. themselves like peacocks There are women who adorn streets. is never famous for One Let us is so only in relation to one's fellow- men. They want . their furs. ! surrounded by the it What ecstasy of gives one to be is envied The whole cruelty man exposed in this quality. Not for anything in the world would they speak the truth and betray that they are envious of the richer one. own envy possession only of others. take the life trouble to observe the whirligig of everyday from a bird's-eye view. Their want to be envied. and how it can gnaw at our innermost souls and torture of existence. But we do not it. : their silk dresses all proclaim it. and cover themselves with finery and go swanking through the Their diamonds. Humanity has not the when it is capability of enIt appreciates its joying possession in the present.

they also have a feeling of relief that there is no need for envy. Yes. of There are people who never miss a bitterly and weep and are always full sympathy. He who envious of him. Oh.132 everything THE BELOVED EGO —but no it pity. In misfortune one sometimes says: " I do not envy the condition of the poor. is sorrow. which can be compared with no other sensation. speech often discloses our secrets." Who rather has not noticed that people are always ready to sympathize in misfortune. How also or." the proverb. that there now no need to envy one's neighbour." " Better ten people envious than one pitiful". Envy only becomes it ! silent before misfortune. beautiful feeling. always bewailing their own and so are glad when they get an excuse for weeping. is The sensation of being without envy a gratifying. has no fortune. shows with a secret pleasure. It is a secret rejoicing in another's one. disclose crawl in " Envy does not has no one empty bams. Those people who do not envy . and then changes into pity. Besides the fact that these people are lot. how some people gloat over pitying is The pity feeling of not genuine. and that they would weep with you a hundred times than ? rejoice with you once burial service. *' : very clearly does source of that inexhaustible it funda- mental wisdom.

Poverty drives away one's friends. "Where there . in need. their garden. it. To be rich means. joy in their own possession. to be free of envy. a " When you is are hundred friends go to one ounce. There are also One hears over and has friends over again that a happy and friends. They are in reality the only rich people. everything seems so valuable to them that they would not envy a king for all his riches. false proverbs. successful person and that misfortune drives will away. anyway. And evil the stronger he finds to be envied. was the men.— ENVY others are the best. much more so than was He who has attained freedom from envy and the all of noble character should strive for this — ^is first to notice the strength of others' envy. his sunshine. their husband and children. of the word. They are proud of everything Their home. How their happy are those few who can feel joy in own possession. because they have 183 what most people lack . " Every one become your is friend in good fortune. the instincts and the more he is feels himself more he astonished at the which possess humanity." is But no misfortune not always poverty. wife. satisfied who was with his tub and richest of Croesus. in the noblest sense Diogenes." But this proverb not in agreement with fact. their their little they possess.

and you see one friend if question yourself in silent hours perhaps you have . he remains with his friend What life ! experiences the great have had I horrible.184 THE BELOVED EGO friendship on you. you The friendship of him who is may be able to retain. and secretly when the oppor- tunity occurs they easily become open opponents. all would be surrounded by the most But. the lonelier one's One friend after another leaves the holy temple of friendship under the slightest pretexts. enemies in disguise. there people force their But fortune and success drive friends away. You surrounded by secret enemies. fortune. He on whom no ray of success shines. occasion for envy or need for help. If one could only go by the assurances of people. with a few rare exceptions. although your intentions are noble after another disappear and pure. they are envious. horrible insight into the depths of What human the too You can understand now the ostracism of Athenians. one faithful of friends. still This ostracism feel yourself to-day claims its victims. You from your society. and the greater one^s life. A man was banished because he was good and people liked him too much. The more successful one is is. himself successful. must possess a rare of soul. if magnanimity without envy.

You have found other friends. cruel light. we have sufficiently appreciated the importance of for the individual. social envy that we must not forget the tremendous importance of envy. They would far rather be need than be envious of your happiness. through no fault of it is yours that you have lost your friends.: ENVY not been a good friend to them yourself. They were too weak to for pretexts confess to themselves openly that they could not bear your happiness. They looked out them ?) and they (Who could not find pretexts if he looked for You have not greeted them in so You have become proud. kill ! How is it fortunate it is wishes cannot How possible that people evil can be so foolish as to believe in the eye ? A rich man who drives rapidly in his motor-car through the by countless longing wishes of the The rays of envy pierce through th« streets is followed less rich. or if 185 you have given them some offence. or done them some harm? And the obscurity of unconscious feelings It is yields to a cold. friendly a way as usual. but because you have been successful and have fought your way through. The bitter truth is found them. your friends If You have in given them insufficient cause for pity and compassion. they have never been sufficiently yoiu* friends to be able to enjoy your happiness with you without envy. .

? and she one herself be without Women who can time been servants servant. will never reconcile themselves to having to serve her. illuminated. joyous windows and play round the But these rays melt of the away ineffectually. So much said about ingratitude of servants. the servant class con- sumed by envy. only iu poor famiUes. ? Why do we expect gratitude and recognition Over and over again I have observed that faithful servants can be found. cut-glass oblivious. Only high-born people can have those parvenus and never who have succeeded in obtaining what . and only increase the pride wealthy occupants. Is she dresses. where the servant can pity the wife and need not envy her. her pleasures Why? Is she not prettier than her mistress? Is she carved from a being? different wood ? not also a human have at neither Why should the other possess everjrthing. The maid envies her mistress her and her freedom. Involuntarily. Happy people are unfortunate in their is servants. One could us illustrate write volumes about social envy. it Let say the by a generally intelligible (so to is "popular") example. themselves manage nor keep a The servants real servants. and housewives never tire of illustrating this by the most incredible stories.136 THE BELOVED EGO passengers. with rare exceptions.

A great many of the annoyances of arise this inexhaustible fount of envy. kindness.ENVY all 187 of servants long for : freedom from the fate of helots and promotion to the position is masters. For hatred breaks out and they leave their mistresses. generally directed Just let her ! once thoroughly enjoy the delights of work is This hatred towards those life women who do no work. How should not be so ? Does not envy count as one sins. of the seven which religion tried to do away with made love of one's neighbour the highest command ? Should not the endeavours of all ethical deadly when it . They take a malicious pleasure in the knowledge that the " lady " has to do the work for herself. They feel themselves united in hatred eat. pass through suffer like Working mistresses much life less from from it the envy of their servants. toward the mistresses whose bread they trifling reasons. and use her own hands. and take good care to malign their mistress. upon them every And they take good care that the " lady " lavished who have remains for a long time without servants. and drones. That the explanation of the secret solidarity of the servant class. all their They tell complaints to the housekeeper and to the servants in the neighbourhood.

What we lack we seek in others. and of later periods. Our vision has always been directed outward. Always one heard good boy he is. Because we rejoice too little qualities. We own are lacking in self-contentment and the joy of our in our own ego.188 THE BELOVED EGO own is thought be able to drive envy away." Let us glance back at our early youth and remember the educational maxims of the first years in life. We seek it in the other instead of in ourin selves. Everything we lack is possessed by the other. one's own It leads to an over-estimation of the other person. : Rosegger says very truly sign of life But need he " The first. Every man remain so the very ? born an absolute egoist. a revelation of will arise Whether love for humanity from or self-love —education : will decide. in selfit. and make use of the strength of soul. first which the awakening soul is a young human being utters love. see what a a joy he is What to his parents 1" We have always been educated by the example of others. and to increase the joy in one's possessions certainly ? A great mistake is made in our education. It should go inward. "Just look at Johnny. Our own incapacity for happiness causes our neighbour to appear happy to us. that which we possess becomes . The knowledge of our own weakness makes us imagine strength in others.

Emerson travel about in order was once asked why he did not ** to see the beauties of the world. How many more over this world ? thousand years have to pass on will towards eternity before the sun of love shine At present the dark clouds of envy . It is Real love does not know envy. will creeping impotently away. glad at the advantages possessed by others. and brighten the There is too little love in our world. Here shines a torch with which we can illuminate the dark nights of the present. He answered Why should I seek the beauties of foreign places when I have not even exhausted the beauties of my own garden?" In this fertile ground grows the most noble quality of humanity . At any rate it can bear it. 189 We lose self-esteem because we over- value the other person and undervalue ourselves.: ENVY worthless. increase the joy We in our must therefore endeavour to own possessions and thus meet envy. love to one's neighbours. future. the yellow worm of envy disappears. in a love that uplifts one gentle. and can rejoice in others* happiness. prospects are opened New up into the psychology of the Ego which are well worth a closer investigation. friendly rays Wherever the of love penetrate. We must educate our children above oneself.

140 THE BELOVED EGO Only now and then overshadow the splendid planet. a bright ray breaks through the gloomy mist. and fills the trembling heart with secret hope. .

We a difficult art and we talk rightly doing this of of " Artists in Life. live your as it should be lived ?" all : important question of possibilities of life and most " Have you exhausted all and the that ?" repeatedly pass the threshold all feel life is of consciousness. because we select only a whom we give this title of "Artists in Life. We not only want to of life. know what want to be to make of the world and also satisfied that we have tackled life rightly. become quite is clear about one's own we line very general.: CHAPTER XII ARTISTS IN LIFE There is one problem with which concern themselves : all thinking their men particularly attitude towards life." . necessity to of direction Over and over again we hear their " view of life " and certainly the . There dwells in some dark corner of our soul a doubt which continually repeats the same questions to us " Are you on the right way life ?'' '* Do you third. catchword." And by few to we only show how far the great majority men lack this art.

They those people who feel themselves under the oppressing obligation to make the most of time. On the contrary. those who demand for their capital the highest possible rate of interest. we notice that they are mostly people who are able to gain from life the amomit of pleasure. and behind the mask dis- of Life-Art there appears either the spectre of satisfaction. maximum They are of hfe energy A somewhat deeper analysis very soon convinces us that these great capitalists of usurer's rate. of suffering mien neurosis and of *' Weltschmerz.joy are living on interest at and that there is nothing life more and to and dangerous than to over-exploit one's force drain to the dregs the cup of enjoyment. or that of boredom. A super- enjoyment produces dullness ** Artists in Life" frequently become " blase. of pleasure-feelings the sharp apparent." The sad part of it is that these so-called " Artists in Life " are really no **Life Artists" at all. Every pleasure becomes a duty by from the rose wreath thorns of displeasure become fluity of repetition. and . . or the tortured. life. they are often miserable dabblers in life.142 If THE BELOVED EGO we glance at those who are called " Artists in Life " by their fellows." are mostly The so-called artists appear on closer investigation to be the poorest of mountebanks.

and that for pleasure. living. every function. They some- always want something of different. and they weave visions of future enjoyment. Every second which passes away into Eternity is to them a disturbing admonition and warning " How They gasp under the have you spent life ?" : burden of time. existence. and plunder They want to exhaust all possibilities of They are always hunting for sensations.ARTISTS IN LIFE kill it. while the present pleasures only stir them slightly. neither to know. It is them pleasure a labour. They cannot hear the life ticking of the great clock of without shuddering. They wrestle with life. Although they are envied by those who are not in the secret. enjoyment pleasure. . The lady who must be present at and neglects her house and family. 143 is Time also is not only money and for them. they always thing different. They wish when one becomes conscious of time. they feel that they of are only tools an extraneous motive is force. and are never satisfied. They are always on the move. nor to feel. and work no not difficult to trace the individual variations of these types. they always think sacrifice to something different. that they are growing older and are nearing death. time for them They are tortured by the horrible dread of the empty hours.

or at an important "first night. who feel a The made up man" is only a Philistine acting the Bohemian. who and will take any amount of trouble in order to be present at a sensational lawsuit. the most important duty. ill How many people who are really " bleed to death " in secret in order to pass as healthy . to think of one's self. needs and his secret inclination. He can amuse and "smart organize by request. who must try to play the part fellow." helots of She really belongs to those miserlife able society who forget. and he invests himself with the halo of the human affairs." cheerful at the behest of society. amid their countless obligations." I of the "smart know highly moral people moral obligation to be immoral. and the elderly man. He is under the obligation to be always merry." is This lady who ** does " everything." sacrifices To his of the "smart fellow" he his entire inner man. is Another type the young man.! 144 THE BELOVED EGO fights strenuously." quite wrongly called an Artist in Life. He is the man who must be present and show He has always to be off his wit at every "rag. man who is well acquainted with all He has to play the part of the "Artist his halo in Life.

the Have you now time for me?" calls one. *' He is the man to whom all people put the question. and life passes only too quickly behind him there is a demon (or is it his genius ?) who drives him to work with the whip is." says another alluringly. in Life" really does not Uve at He life. This " Artist all. it How is do you find the time to do ?" (All think it a miracle that he can do that he does. is Happiness depends upon knowing that one all able to use one's capabilities in the right direcis tion. living. impulses and dreams. and to know why. He is interested in a thousand things. does not attain the conscious realization of his He staggers life. These Artists in Life happy. happiness also the ability to live in accord- ance with one's disposition. . one lives. me. however.) And the solution very simple. along in a constant state of intoxication with which. what boredom of the Sense of Duty.ARTISTS IN LIFE A third type of the false ** 145 " is Artist in Life the man who At the ward ** has time for everything. portals of every hour there are waiting innu- merable alternatives ** : which thrust themselves for- No. and has a thousand things to do. In one sense man is certainly happy he does not know for . and '* purpose. . is not the same thing is as really To really live one's life it necessary to be for what " are not conscious of living. The day is short.

because it only exists them in the fulfilment of a fulfilled which has hardly begun to be when already Such new plans. in public.146 THE BELOVED EGO happens to those people who thus wear ? Now what never for themselves out in their struggle against time They plan know happiness in the future . they are everywhere and no- Another type of "Artist in Life" is that person who knows how to be lazy with dignity is and enjoyment. One must have an innate talent for There are some remarkable people who only do someare extremely know how thing. where. not as easy as some simple-minded people imagine. They clever at keeping up an appearance through the of great deeds. They belong to societies. a burden under which another person would break down. at all. while giving the impression that they not do even a great those deal. they busy themselves with art and nature. new wishes and new duties appear. in short. while they handle only giant dumb-bells made of papier mache. They are like pseudo-athletes actions who of play lifting Hercules and go tremendously heavy weights. they they represent social functions in the world of politics. people are ingenious in saddling themselves with so many appear duties. To be lazy laziness. They . but to do nothing with great virtuosity.

in talking with fools. In Liebesqual. ! which we call conscience We can see from these examples. Allein das Gliick. every one hopes that Fortune may smile on him. ware Gottes Sache. the backbone which keeps a man up. and yet not to be deceived. that dear. in feverishness. wenn's wirklich 1st keines kommt. but tire- some voice. self-esteem ? Do they not miss the delightful.: — —— ARTISTS IN LIFE a scented pocket-handkerchief. dass das Gliick ihm lache. and wipe their dry foreheads with Do they not lack the most important thing. im Fieber. im Gesprach mit Toren. in reckless squandering of time? Although yet. to which many a others could be added. only divine Beings could bear . in lovesickness. thing as an " Artist right in singing in Is there really such Life?" Was the poet Platen Wer wusste je das Leben recht zu fassen. that " Artists in Life " are very few and far between. life in its fullness? Who has ever grasped it Is there one who has not lost the half of in dreams. Fortune really come —no human. ertragen Menschen. priceless knowledge of their own value? Do they not fail to attain satisfaction with their work? voice. im leeren Zeitverprassen ? Denn jeder hofiPt doch. They which are secretly admonished own by an inner will not be silenced . Wer hat die Halfte nicht davon verloren. Im Traum. seductive. Are they really " Artists in Life ?" 147 pretend to sweat. should it.

who enjoy the productions which have been brought forth with pain and with doubt and anxiety. People often possess the . Aus meinen grossen Schmerzen mach^ ich die kleinen (" Out of my deep sorrows. We know them.") of not pondering over life constitute the "Art of Life*' The secret consists in the harmonious interchange of work and enjoyment. 148 THE BELOVED EGO sad is And how the continuation of the sonnet where Platen denies every possibiUty of happiness. no. They work anguish. are capable of calling an emphatic halt from time to They are people who possess the ability to relax and to disconnect. We know what unsatisfied fellows they are." in Life and are those people " the artists ? whom we call "Dabblers No. They are people for whom work time. and the simple in mind ? Does then the "Art fact of not pondering over life constitute the of Life . we cannot go altogether by the poets. and that it is just their misfortunes and their dissatisfaction with the world that forces them to create and work.." and are there no "Artists in Life?" Must we look for examples of happiness to the animals of the woods. for other people. nevertheless. I make my Lieder. is a pleasure. but who. Is there then no such thing as the " Art of Life. But there must be a real " Art of little songs.

brushed aside. by elucidating them. the great doctor and thinker. unpleasant thought intellect. thoughts to a solution. We can only forget that of which we have actually been conscious. pleasant thoughts we should be forced to bring all painful But there are so many unwhich can never be dealt with . to till go on thinking out every he finds a solution in the And Feuchtersleben. but of what use is 149 if relaxation the mind does not possess the capability of disconnecting? Without forgetting there present. To put these theories into practice. that Lethe before ! enjoy life. continually reappears with ever-increasing obstinacy. because those emotions of which we have never become fully conscious. is no enjoyment of the the idea of How the full of meaning and true to life is we must drink of the waters of we can reach the Fields of the Blessed Man must always carry with him this of Forgetfulness in order to be able to Water magic ancients. holds that one must master an object before That which is one may despise it. Only the perse all light of day can.ARTISTS IN LIFE former. dis- the spectres of night. and retains them in the depths of our souls. There is also a it fixes " forgetting " which is pathological. Grillparzer advises every one who wishes to become thoroughly sound.

Others are healed by peace and by time. He does everything whole-heartedly. will not heal. voices in his innermost soul. man can develop The " Artist in Life " can do has the even more. By such concentrated and concentric thinking. and through which one secretly bleeds to death. He is drives away and so is able to enjoy the present because the past does not oppress him. in Life " can forget when the He in possesses the ability to discon- he is at a concert. he forgets his business and his worries.150 THE BELOVED EGO Every one has open wounds that '' conclusively." But does not this probing of the if wounds cause greater pain than of themselves ? one allowed them to heal There are woimds of the soul which the surgeon's cold and cruel knife must all explore. capabilities. He can even forget that he He can enjoy himself and listen to and sad memories. and to enjoy every minute as if it offered to us what it had never offered before. the deepest secret of the art of life : That to sever the strings which tie us to the world of displeasure. Only the " Artist hour demands nect. business he only lives for his work. because owing to trate his power care of disconnecting he can concen- on the present time and on the moment. the ordinary all his capabilities. without the intrusion of alien thoughts . If it.

quiet of the country ! or in the would fare like the dying king. to possess a wide circle of interests and of work.ARTISTS IN LIFE Thus should the true " seek Artist in Life " be. shirt Artist in Life " might be found rather a hut than in a is The " Art of Life. unattainable. to be able to forget it." fulfil all this ? Who would be able to We must be content to strive for the ideal. to if I am whom afraid the doctors promised recovery he could put on the shirt of a counsellors searched for happy man. His servants and one happy person. a long time in vain throughout the kingdom to find At last ! they foxmd one. . The very fact of striving for art impUes in itself a great deal of art. that and not to consume oneself in longing is the real " Art of Life." of Having no Needs " a part of the "Art To be interested in everything. 151 Go and you him ! Seek him in the noise of the great town. but this Also this in '' happy man had no palace. to be able easily when the hour of rest demands to renounce what one has eagerly for the desired.

one listens to the jeremiads of such an " Unlucky consists of Dog. in disappointment.CHAPTER Xm it THE UNLUCKY DOG It is always just to him that happens ! It is as if Fate had chosen. one is almost convinced that . but he unbelievable. his one poor special Unfortunate in order to heap upon If head all the misfortimes of existence. of plans which failed. is All lucky enough. followed by ill-luck. he is an "Unlucky Dog. Every joy is In short. deliber- ately cruel events which are heaped his friends are upon him." his life an unbroken chain of unpleasant." really these unfortunates Are there exquisite ill luck? What does it who have such mean to have ill first luck? One must not judge according pressions. because if to one's im- one listens to this astonishing series of special misfortunes. Every hope ends spoilt for him. quite special. of wasted endeavours. unprecedented Whatever he touches goes wrong. among all human beings.

where can never be found Such an Unlucky Dog" must possess a special faculty for concealing his capabilities. lies in the foundations of his And Each now is to trace back the connexions. But on may use find a hidden force which guiding his Fate. and happiness is always in die I " Wozu — there. how near the Good lies Only learn how to grasp happiness. The reason why he our task of us is is such an unlucky dog psychic constitution.THE UNLUCKY DOG life 158 : does treat different people differently it empties its cornucopia liberally over some. there are people who run to have their ears boxed. from the wise words of Goethe that lies in the secret of good fortune the power to grasp Feme schweifen? Sieh. To a popular phrase. anxious not to be swallowed up in the crowd of ordinary humanity. das Gute — liegt so nah: heme nur das Gliick ergreifen—und das GlUck ist immer da. that we and seek it what ** near. We might learn it.) Does not to all this mean ? that equal chances are offered human is beings That we each have the power are unhappily blind to for to find the Good. it puts stumbling-blocks in the ^ closer investigation one is way of others. . the Good ? in the far distance.'* (Why roam in the far distance ? See. whilst. like the a^^A' spiteful stepmother.

You never do have any . and would attain to something quite exceptional. and enforcing his Ego upon But in course of time. or because you were lacking in capability. when one realizes that the claims of the " great historical mission " cannot be fulfilled. . Mr. Each would stand above the others. outside oneself. in his soul And every one has deep the secret hope that he will succeed in working himself up others. ill-luck. objectively. What it ? could be easier than to blame blind Fate for fault that It was not our we have had ill-luck. would be conspicuous. : no longer necessary to admit to oneself You did not get on better because you were lazy. been successful simply had " good luck." better. for For example. we did not get on Our friends who have Thus the is depressing feeling of inferiority It is entirely removed. in a bad humour. which he blames the bad . so to say. and only then to bring them into rela- tionship with his is own Ego. to see them. and especially in the life of the He has a tendency to project outwardly neurotic. These " tendencies to excuse oneself" play a great human life. A. . for the breaking down of all one's hopes. you have simply had luck. No. then one seeks for an excuse. part in all the events of his psyche.154 like THE BELOVED EGO everybody else.

155 How could he be cheerful on such a grey day? skies. and which returns to him now in the form of unpleasurable impressions. once it should have happened part of his lesson. The day willing to after to-morrow perhaps some news him.THE UNLUCKY DOG weather. And his illness —Who has ever heard of . the or some other train is either late. If If he goes to an inn. he goes by train. for If he goes an excursion. tendency to from the crowd breaks is through. that he had not learned one little the teacher would be certain to pitch on just this particular part on which to question him. but fortunes as he. he upsets his stomach. he I an exceptional one. Many people have Good Lord nobody else has such special misThat had already begun when he If for was at school. it is sure to rain. quite He is not an ordinary unlucky dog. for he was also in bad which he laid the blame on a letter he had received from a friend. in spite of blue spirits. tinguish himself ill-luck his shortcomings the excuse for his this own dis- At the same time. own unhappiness which he projects into the world. The " Unlucky Dog " projects on to Fate. his in the newspaper will depress He will be very unhis admit that it is own bad mood. misfortunes. He forgets that yesterday. making weakness. has a ! collision. accident.

and he is not satisfied until he has con- vinced his listeners and that he is made them thoroughly realize really an exceptionally unlucky dog. this. and did it who messed about with And so not understand the case at all ! goes on." in being quite an ** exceptional But what all lies is the real truth of this story ? ? Are they which he told Or ? is there a certain I amount of truth in his complaints have now to take our lie. When satis- he has succeeded in one can see a smile of faction pass over his face. and his a thread. in all story-tellers The art of story-telling lies chiefly the touching-up. But who ever has been always life ? lucky in Who has always been successful ? Who has never had to complain about the spitefulness ? of the object Life presents itself in different ways according to how one emphasizes the lucky or un- . him. and was obliged to send another one in his place. And what a serious operation it was that he had Everything had grown together. and has succeeded person. He did not but has only over-emphasized and exaggerated. He has obtained his wish. his surgeon became ill. poor unfortunate's part. as involuntarily do. two days operation. life hung by after the To cap everything.! 15« THE BELOVED EGO appendicitis from a a person getting cup of tea ? Yet he was the unfortunate person who did so.

least of all Fate. . has merely forgotten This illustrates the instructive story of the knife and fork. came to my This spitefulness of the object caused me to make a record of the successes and the failures in my searches. failures Greatly to my surprise. When was told take out a fork. forgetting the These have a peculiar things. brought out a knife. of We had a drawer. knack the of never They manage to forget the good things quickly enough. of course my hand knife. with a handle similar to that of a knife.THE UNLUCKY DOG lucky events. to the dark depths which I knives and forks were hidden from sight. of his He life. They are people who do not and easily forgive if either themselves or others. It is a story which had always puzzled in me as a boy. but had overlooked them because there was nothing to bring them into notice. I then realized that I had not observed those occasions when I had been successful. 157 The ** unlucky dog " goes through the same experiences as the person star. I was told to get a invariably a fork. bom under a lucky the lucky events But he relates only stories which are in a minor all key. There are many people who appear bad to be continu- ally harassed by misfortune. but of all memory the unpleasant things remains indelibly. the successes and the balanced each other. When hand.

is which although sometimes very cleverly disguised at others quite evident. fear of ill-luck.158 THE BELOVED EGO the ill things are not to their liking. will discover The Unlucky Dog. account of all his unpleasant memories he keeps a careful daily record of them. an unjust reproach from exact He keeps an . nor nor a pointed remark of a his teacher. his forgets as soon as possible. and is most anxious that not one life All the good things in them should be lost. As pleasant and un- . He behaves as if he lived in which might be brought upon him by one or other of his actions." one from his conversa- tion. He has not forgotten the curt answer given him ten years ago. once it really occurred that he was fortunate. Only a noble nature can forget ** done. friend. has not forgotten any evil thing which has ever occurred to him. then something exceptional was sure to have happened at the same time to spoil the enjoyment of his luck. that have come to him just of as strokes of luck— much tries as to any one ^he else — ^his success. In this way is often formed a strange superstition. nor an insignificant dispute in his youth. or else he to remember some unpleasant occurrence If for coincident with his good fortune. his joys. self He dare not enjoy him- because experience has shown him that then evil something always happens. even by one's enemy.

stition There is already apparent. a tremen- dous feeling of self-importance. that there are supernatural powers who take a for their persecu- particular delight in selecting tion him and mockery. Occasionally a glimmer of truth : breaks into his mind he imagines his ill-luck to be a punishment —a punishment for his evil thoughts. his Sometimes he has a revelation of own badness. He does not deserve good fortune. He feels that he not a good man. ill-luck . guilt hinders is A deep feeling of him from being happy. years' His first impulsive thought " Why . is 159 pleasant impressions must alternate with each other. many is.THE UNLUCKY DOG so a stroke of luck less enjoyable. He is followed by that signifiies. Whenever he hears of other Then his secret delight in the While on a misfortunes of other people. and that the disease will probably be one of duration. When does this occur ? people's misfortunes. is The Unlucky Dog." believing secret supernatural powers which govern afraid of these spectres and does not want to provoke them. sure to be followed '' by something in his fate. even in this super- which he hardly admits to himself. visit he hears that his cousin's child has had to be taken to the South on account of hip disease. and deserves no better fate. according to his own supersti- tion. his brutal egoism and his hidden cruelty become apparent to him.

was very much envied by him. He says to himself. you His will suffer you have enjoyed yourself for it in another world. has been a chain of misfortune. and acquire eternal blessedness is ? The idea of redemption through suffering deeply engraved in . You really are a bad lot ! You certainly do not deserve that things should go well with you." And now the door is open for ill-luck. that this malicious joy ** a sin. therefore. He purposely avoids all opportunity of meeting happiness and of enjoying himself. for Now the voice of conscience forces him to look misfortune. on hearing the unhappy news.1(50 THE BELOVED EGO him for once ?'' having been more successful in His first is shouldn't he have something to worry This cousin of his. business. Which means ** in other words if on earth. feels few minutes he a low impulse. strange teaching that it is to be. the well-deserved punishment for the evil stirrings of his mind. The unlucky dog " hopes for happiness in the other life world. He is an " unlucky dog." as he wishes played by a barely admitted piety. A great part is We all know the difficult for more a rich man : to enter heaven than for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle. suffer- Should he not then gain compensation for his ings. But after a is impulse. one of malicious joy.

He No grabs it from every quarter.THE UNLUCKY DOG the race consciousness. They are lavish The sorrows of others form a sombre background. enough with their compassion. is He thirsting for love. throwing into relief the brightness of their own fortune. because people are only afraid lest they should be in the position of envying others. and the to silver denied him. It one of man's is most remarkable achievements that he capable of . who bear There their misfortune with resignation is and humour. and by one is too insignificant for him to arouse to compassion by the story of his misfortune. He is a beggar for love. calls That impulse which Krafft-Ebing pleasure in Masochism. another point : unhappy people are always sure of compassion. all means. and rarely begs in vain. a disad- vantage in the great love market of love in the form in which it is and seeks most easily obtainable. belongs is the darkest chapters in psychology. As he cannot obtain the gold of friendship is of love. there are 161 Among the '* unlucky dogs " more martyrs than freethinkers. he puts up with the tries copper of compassion. to one's own suffering. We have now arrived at an important point in the psychology of this subtle gentleman. He feels himself at life. and that he gain in such quantity as will compensate for gold and silver combined.

who punish themselves indulgence in forbidden pleasures. owing dirties the room. domesticated animals we feeling of guilt.162 THE BELOVED EGO It gaining pleasure from pain. observe in a state oi freedom. turned This strange phenomenon of the dis- placement and distortion of pleasure can be even better shown in other examples than " Unlucky Dog. to illness. the animal world gives us no analogy for Masochism. It has been ! left to man for to transform guilt into pleasure All masochists are repentant sinners. seems certain to me that this perverse form of reaction can only come about through the instrumentality of the feeling of guilt. knows no feeling of guilt. A dog who. but in dogs and a very marked is even though he finds that he not which they have been educated. is wishes produce a variation which fundamental type. For this reason." in that of the We have pointed out that the ** Unlucky Dog's " These in reality the feeling of guilt originates from his evil wishes. But just as everything that King Midas is touched became gold. the " Unlucky Dog " who brings . The animal. so even pimishment into pleasure. not punished for his Guilty feeling due to the overruling of inhibitions with subsequent repentance. will show a is distinct is feeling of guilt even though he finds that he fault.

fairy tales ? or has not feverishly devoured those where fairies and magicians can fulfil every wish exists in evil A remnant of the old belief in magic still man.THE UNLUCKY DOG misfortune to others. because of the ill-luck bring. The " Unlucky Dog " possesses then the ability to bring misfortune to others. and Card players know of such unfortufind difficulty in nate people who watching a game of cards. in the There are many neurotics who is believe omnipotence of their thoughts. 163 There certainly are people who ill-luck to their friends imagine that they bring acquaintances. but he causes others also to . which they appear to The people who believe they possess this un- fortunate power are afraid to make friendships in . and peaceful happiness still destroyed by the " evil eye" of envious neighbours. the woman puts a spell over the cattle to is make them sick. Who would not like to be a magician. and that is his silent revenge for all the misfortune he has had to bear himself. they warn their acquaintances. eye. it." because behind despair hidden good deal of secret megalomania. He suffers. village millions of people still who believe this Children are being bewitched. as the belief of all children." We have often heard still stories about the " and there are nonsense. and seem to be a a great state about their I say is they ''seem.

ill-luck.wise Nietzsche. recognition and scorn. and we are not afraid life of his presence. success and defeat. Unlucky Dog! and you will A little more of.! 164 suffer THE BELOVED EGO —or so he imagines to himself. Just go on ! That's right. ! change into a phosis is fat. We do not want to have it. luck. and so we do not have is We know that everything luck and only vanity. and his whine about misery We We ** have seen through him. Pleasure and displeasure. Nothing in the attitude itself is unfortunate. depends on if we take. little. want to go through merrily. We do not believe in his misfortune. . they all dance an eternal roundelay. But Dog?'' shall we be angry with the poor " Unlucky Let him slink unhappily through life. and Many a happiness many a misfortune it all become happiness. He who lift cannot do so his is unfortunate but let him just up clumsy legs and try to dance. and the best thing we can do is to join in the dance too. we want the to be dancers " in the sense suggested by great ill- world. his He always manages to connect own personality with the misfortunes of other people. practice. triumph and humiliation. Every one can have luck he . lucky pig Such a metamorhas has not unheard changed to misfortune.

to make other people's interests own Luck means to adapt oneself to reality. . as I have mentioned before. and to make the most of all the possibilities the day brings. 16^ already Luck means.THE UNLUCKY DOG looks for it. one's ! ajid to live for others in oneself. Luck means to live in others for oneself.

great that fore Mankind cannot endure anything so beyond his comprehension. minutes.CHAPTER XIV IMPATIENCE Time stretches before us immeasurable. But thought transcends space and time. But the to measurement appUes only to the banks. is divided up and brought it is into the realm of consciousness in seconds. ThereTime. hours. whose waters run on whilst we are watching them. And again every person has his individual relationship therewith. on which the distances are marked. has posts along banks. the indivisible. incomprea bridge stretching from hensible and limitless. days and years. Above everything the human mind protest* . which considerably affects call character. that phenomenon which we generally else. Even a great river. with its which Time is so often compared. There is a curious relationship between time and mankind. and not the stream. like eternity to eternity.

will It is be either pleasurable or displeasurable. in spite of that. which hides behind death. and time will be for other people to enjoy. it They never they get so far as to know no boredom. one of the most wonderful consolations of belief it that helps us over the problem of time. People who have no is time. are the happiest. call Earthly happiness. this for the same reason. find time for everything they wish to do. attention to Religion always draws the shortness of of the time at our disposal. and will not. and against the of existence. eternal life. but. else than consciousness of time. the thought of dying us nearer the grave. There no need for them to kill time. and gives a promise which. or that condition which we happiness.— IMPATIENCE finality 167 against the scanty allowance of time. become conscious of Boredom is nothing face. is primarily dependent upon our relation- ship to time. and do not want to be alone. There are people who have not the courage to look time in the They must keep themselves occupied lest they should be- come aware of time. they is There fear of another spectre : boredom fear of Every irrevocable second brings people. To most and of the . according to our behaviour on earth. He cannot. accept the fact that one day he will exist no longer.

with its obligations. unbearable. I have " I do not want life had so little out The impatient person's world of !" differs from is the world of the patient one. He his mistrusts time. and He who its conducts usurious business with is life. He insists expects punctual of payment. the sinking back into the lap eternity. a Shy lock his interest. and does not least it be importuned. the joys and wonders which : How often the doctor hears the remark to die yet. it continual reminders of least. but to him who demands impatiently. in so far as he who im- patient cannot wait for the fruit of his activities. and the enjoyment on his due. Ripe but fruits fall into the hands of him who can wait. and He . and suspects it as a creditor does afraid he will lose a bad debtor through whom he is money.168 THE BELOVED EGO of is end of existence. life many a failure in the of the impatient man for arises from the eagerness with which he hunts success. It pays. He who with time. the fruits of his is labour. like to but according to whims. They are afraid of departing last from drop this all world before they have tasted to the it offers. is impatient lives in a continual struggle does not want to become old. interest When pays with and double pays interest. Time certainly an excellent payer. expected.

it gently closes his eyes. experience before adversary. and never gives him any peace. shall where we find The impatient man his fate. And between these two great burning groups there are innumerable grades. When Only one does not too eagerly demand. and to exhaust every possible fades. it Time his perpetual who keeps him continually on the go. is everlastingly dissatisfied. 169 He to does not want to have fulfilment only after the flames of longing have been extinguished. they who have become strong in the fight with time.IMPATIENCE does not want to be reminded of the grave. the decisive But sometimes. in moment. pro- claiming him a prince or king. and crowns the contented one. seemingly patient ones. then there are the patient ones whose patience suddenly collapses. Life sometimes goes like a fairy tale a fairy appears. whose hearts There are the are with the desire for fulfilment. in the He wants is bum glow of life. and are they then become more wild than those impatient. and . But a contented person nowadays ? and bewails There are two kinds of human beings : the patient and the impatient. in the poverty of wishing rests the wealth of : fulfilment. whilst they appear to be calm and quietly waiting. Time all will pour out the profusion of gifts he has to offer.

and chooses from first. that they all carry a secret about with them. : will keep the best mouthful till the last. if The impatient one its seizes on the best bit as in fear of being taken from him. in their mien and gestures. They betray it in all their actions. in every word they speak. It is a peculiar trait in people. It is absurd to disbeUeve in graphology nowadays. The cat is for fore-pleasure." We discover that by . and yet are incapable of keeping this secret to themselves. before devouring The danger estimation of for the patient person lies in the over*' fore-pleasure. His enjoyment is in the retrospect . in every movement of their body." it She plays long with the mouse slowly and at ease." We find the same type among the animals. tell One can a person's character not only by his handwriting. his The dog is impatient. meal the best piece and puts up with the less attractive '* portion afterwards. but also by his manner of walking.170 leads THE BELOVED EGO him into the mysterious land which hes beyond patience and impatience. and To take a very prosaic by the way he looks at one. he is the man for " after-pleasure. recognize our two types most example one can The patient one easily in their manner of eating. he increases the enjoyment by prolonging the " fore-pleasure " as much as possible.

du bist so schon!" Faust is ("Stay awhile. is the fulfilment a disappointment for him. while enjoying. and he it off has good cause to put as long as possible. It is . because his future his past. possession. is longing for new Memory remains to him as a treasured is He the man who appears to be hurry- ing forward. he enjoyments. and only for the endeavour. moment. all his aim The impatient one should really possess to the full the delights of the But already. before he can obtain enjoyment from Thus the two without conception of directions. and the present must become the past it. others the foretaste. Some *' : seek only the memory all of happiness. the irony of Fate I — that time one did not realize one's happiness. when one was At with the mother. who.IMPATIENCE his patience 171 Therefore he gains a secret pleasure. but fewest of can say to the present Verweile doch. There is only one real happiness childhood. pursues one enjoyment after another. thou art so beautiful!") the type of the impatient one. He is can never find what he seeks. He has already enjoyed is all the pleasure. and yet continually glances backward. happiness finds its solution in is The moment of happiness value for most people. But oh. and finally returns to youth. full of a thousand schemes.

To a last lover waiting for his beloved. but always a relative. passes us by. like eternity. of song. old. If there is anything which could prove to us that time never an absolute. To the child. time seems It passes all too slowly for is him. producing the optical illusion is we ourselves who are moving. One yet passes rapidly through wonderful countries. and from one birthday to another an im- mense period. the hours pass like fleeting seconds. The impatient hood. the seconds seem endless. Finally he drops down . We believe where one can travel round the world for a few pence. then it is certainly this misapprehension of time. and to the person condemned to death. The impatient one wants to get the better of time by running a race with it. and still remains on the same spot. The picture So time moves before our that it eyes. is one's world is the world of child- Children are consumed with the desire to be The years stretch endless before them. Or we are at a cinema. concept. the For the old man. the years pass Uke a distant sounds trottoir roulant. while we fondly imagine that we are passing time. and are Time is like a we are moving ourselves only being moved.172 the ideal of THE BELOVED EGO all human beings to be grown up and yet a child.

When pleasure called alluringly to him.IMPATIENCE exhausted. insufficient for the purchase of reality. That and is why he so often lives in a world of fantasies of time blind to realities. this. Fantasies mostly have a very low exchange value. activity shortens time. He never had time to that time held him in its clutches. forgot life itself. in this wild chase. for itself. for his fantasies. he never it. and that's the end of that little 173 comedy. and played with him as a cat plays with a mouse. There is only one exception to alone can obtain the case of the artist. In the sphere of art are to be found those poor peasant boys who . He so can transform fulfil still impatience into works. is then they say of him that he nervy and has over! worked himself. and his childhood wishes. unobtainable of his What he demands He would like to convert into the value dreams terms of reality. What silly talk We makes never get nervy over work which we enjoy. forgetting that the real meaning notice of life is to live. The impatient one does not love work he would rather obtain his aim without is is work. and. If he loses patience and despairs of his success. had time for He rushed madly after success. Goethe holds that it and idleness unbear- ably long. He money all his and from the world of dreams he creates his greatest successes.

insists He have on his kingdom. this other Then he world ness. life. neurosis. with the miseries of and be a poor or spend his he is life in selling goods behind a counter. while ? dreaming of crowns and precious stones No. Then it is that he has to pick up the crumbs of what he has once carelessly thrown away. and the share value have dwindled nothing. are impatient people who have lost No it is one needs so much patience as the im- patient one. The impatient one wastes like a spendthrift all the patience he has. is seeks refuge in another world. that kingdom which promised to us of old in fairy and by our own dreams. and before bows. and soon becomes a beggar. and under certain conditions. because The patient one needs no patience already in him and he cannot lose it. of his fantasies neurosis develops. Why should he battle clerk. mad- Neurotics patience. a beggar following behind each of us. us in As Raimund is tells his wise fairy tale. What tales the impatient ones seeks is is ruling power. the greatest When we it stretch out our hand in need. he does not renounce the value of his fantasies. or. to And when a his wishes become bankrupt. is unexpectedly filled with .174 THE BELOVED EGO whom the great crowd become kings.

IMPATIENCE treasures of the past. Then we try to rebuild a new home from the is scanty remnants. or a song dying It is away in the silence of the night. happiness enough .! . and eventually concludes an armistice with time. And the great miracle wrought the impatient one learns to economize his patience. He has learnt to put up with brings fresh : reality. and is content with what each day the scent of a spring evening. or perhaps even a lasting peace. which life 175 has compassionately held in store for us. the perfume of mown hay.

blame help lies. The one aim which for years had been ever before them. of shunned no expense and obtained the governesses.CHAPTER XV DEGENERATE CHILDREN The increasing number of reports of child criminals have drawn universal attention to the relationship between degeneracy and childhood. expensive tutors and of their lives. Just recently we have read of a twelve-year-old thief. How ? ? do such moral abnormalities come into existence genital ? Are they con- Are they acquired is There nothing more painful for parents than to see that a child that has been surrounded with love. and brought up with every care. They spared no trouble with regard foreign to his education. has fallen into wrong ways. who in courage and cunning oldest could not have been outdone by his fellow-criminals. and has begun to be accounted a They anxiously ask themselves where the failure. was that their child might have a .

what pedagogues a and doctors on the call degenerate. then as naughty. been thankful to have seen even a stead of the anticipated genius. One can hardly his family. first At the child last it is counted as spoilt. (*' He is. An excellent expression has been coined as — disease " Psycho-Pathological The type example. who has been the joy of fall may become. until they would have little talent. in- But to whatever their desires. modest proportions they might reduce the reality was invariably disappointing. Gradually the wings and step by step the idolized child becomes the all tormenting tyrant of the house. boundlessly egoistic Hypertrophy the . 177 But what disappointment time brought all their ! Gradually they saw proud hopes dwindle. there are nujnberless variit —nevertheless will not be difficult to sketch character in a few strong lines. which become ever more monstrous the more easily he finds they are carried out.DEGENERATE CHILDREN splendid future. before all of things. enforcing his changing wishes." is of which such a degenerate child an not a rigid one. off. is and at has to be admitted that he is different call from normal children. no ideal was too high. believe what an utter devil a be- loved and charming child. he failure. ations its is stand by Koch for such children boundary between health and Inferiorities.

hidden one of the small dissimulasuch an adept. and to him alone. He is jealous. and the unjust persecution of the poor child appears to plausible them as a and sufficient excuse for bad school reports. and then others. sisters and school-fellows. For this reason he seldom has a friend. many enemies with violent scenes. on the contrary. Such children change the school that they attend almost every year. or has other He always feels himself persecuted as Either the teacher is ** the scapegoat. then behind this is If he professes these feelings.178 THE BELOVED EGO "). tions in which he desires is His comfort. all altruistic feelings are to Ego him inconceivable and incomprehensible. insubordinate to teachers Degenerate children are . He easily inces- offended. and so santly comes into conflict with his brothers. because the parents are only too willing to believe the child's complaints. because in every token of love shown is to another child his egoism detects a betrayal of the affection due to him. his First count above everything with him. and of uncontrolled temper. or one or other of his relations is waiting for an opportunity to per- secute him. all comes the beloved Ego. whom he comes to blows. He is changeable and restless and cannot stick at anything for any length of time." children have conspired against him. but. or the school down on him.

less special and make themselves conspicuous by an endmisdemeanours. one symptom. in fact. in the simplicity of their hearts. a strong accentuation of erotic emotions. they often employ the most erroneous . They are always dependent upon extra coaching and tutors. It is touching to see how some parents fret them- selves in their endeavours to bring such degenerate children into right ways. as to simulate occasionally in a very clever way. arson. recognize 179 no authority. the every degenerate child does not fully exhibit whole of these bad qualities. As already mentioned. or There is only break out at certain intervals. devour their food hastily and can never have enough. ! What a long catalogue of failings Fortunately. Often the above- there are numerous variations. intriguing and even of small thefts.DEGENERATE CHILDREN and parents. which we have not mentioned. and how. mentioned qualities are only slightly marked. They can often be conwhich they go so they far If victed of lying. not complaisant to their wishes also threaten other deeds of violence —for instance. series of As a rule they are dirty and very greedy. however. which is common to all degenerate children. They one is like to threaten suicide. and. at the same time they lack all self-confidence. it is a conspicuous sexual precocity.

whereby they further strengthen the qualities of the child and lose the good ones alto- gether. One can hardly criminal expect families. are orphans. become degenerate more easily than those children who are watched over by the loving eye of the mother. Here also. or the formation of moral insanity. There is much talk in these days of degeneration heredity. would be very much mistaken. if one investigates further. That there has been enormous exaggerahas been proved by the recent outstanding psychiatrists of tion in this respect investigations and psychologists. temperate drinkers). those in which What sort of marriages ? we find such child failures They are . For we very often find degenerate children just in the best of families where children are watched over and brought up with exaggerated care. from drunkards (not downright dip- somaniac naturally. But one is factor cannot be over em- phasized —that type then environment.180 THE BELOVED EGO evil methods. is But he who would imagine that this alone sufficient to avert degeneracy. This can readily be understood when one and investigates the foundations of such abnormalities. the environment will be found to be the are fundamental cause. or children whose parents busy the whole day away from home. morally sound descendants from of the real. And.

" You belong to me alone. which lack that is harmonious atmosphere of a peaceful home which necessary for the development of a healthy soul. or because they love each other too much. because one or the other neurotic. because the forth. The authority that the child gets to know is the father. clasping the child convulsively to her breast. . all Round about this belief in authority are built those moral restraints that are necessary to the individual in order that he may fulfil his social duties and not come into laws.DEGENERATE CHILDREN usually so-called 181 unhappy marriages. The first knows no authority home. if he does not love him better than The foundation-stone child of degeneracy in the is laid. father and mother are The continually quarrelling with each other for a thousand reasons —because they did is not marry for love. " I am master of this house !" And secretly he asks the child Munrniy. and the neurosis explodes into countless domestic storms. and so But why repeat what is common knowledge ? At an early age the child is drawn into these conflicts. " You have got to do only what I tell you!" shouts the father. and you are only to love me!" cries the irate mother in a pathetic tone. man or the woman is unfaithful. It is conflict with written and unwritten the famous French told of Carriere.

rule. education must begin with authority. all authority.182 painter. we have not yet reached that In other words. and freedom must be won by the indi- vidual himself overcoming the belief in authority. Undoubtedly many individual children have not have reached this stage even in a thousand got as far as that. and with an intense wish to become like father and mother. Certainly no authority can be gained violence by means of and blows. In rare cases. On this broad foundation must the be built all that goes to the making of moral man. THE BELOVED EGO who died not long ago. actually. the tutor or the governess may be able to play this part. For the present. for education begins with a belief in the authority of the parents. because the most powerful . there is only one way —a living example. may be very beautifully thought out. in such a family there will hardly ever be a degenerate child. but the great mass of mankind will years. in In a family in which peace and harmony a family where the will both of the father and of the mother are mutually respected. We haven't got as far as that yet. impossible and impracticable. ethical height. children have not yet reached that stage where ethics can replace authority. that he had of made the remark that the education with the undermining of that it is youth must begin Theoretically.

What is there left . and does not turn into affected conceit by boundless it praise. deep love that sees faults more clearly than the stranger even. virtues but the quiet. Apish love gives the this child whatever it wants. A child must have free play for its imaginits A piece of wood stimulates imagination splendid of more than clothes. Not that ape-like love —blind. the most beautiful likeness is doll with The faithful to Nature the modem manufactured toy the reverse of a benefit to humanity. 183/ and always will be. concerts. truly a bad prerealizable paratory school for into the if The child very easily gets is way of thinking that every wish he has found that he has obtained most of his de- sires by cunning and tears. which the cultured modern person shows. life. It is more important to train a child to renounce than to enjoy. unmeasured. exaggerated. neurotic. ation. more about in this who only come contact with the results of this false education. just as objectionable for children are the various children's plays in theatres. with their fairy stories staged with extravagant splendour ballets.— DEGENERATE CHILDREN lever of education is. and believes in This is way to make happy. Educationalists are able to say subject than doctors. love. Connected of with this subject are also the so-called pleasures children. e tutti quanti.

etc. : it is not every one who cut out for Thousands of unfortunate youths have made excellent artisans.184 THE BELOVED EGO And the longing for the the most powerful lever to individual as for the whole for the child to long for? unknown and the new is progress. . One often sees a wonderful get change when such children work which is agreeable to them. but I must mention is one thing study. and the modem . —for some occupation. arrive at nothing in secondary drifters. ploited to the attention to the law of re-valuation of mental energies. against Latin and Greek. It need not here be expected that I shall start on the usual Jeremiad against schools and institutions. schools. I drew Here the natural disposition must be exfullest extent. who would capable business men because they and efficient farmers. One dom finds a child that has not a great interest —and even a certain talent other. or anYears ago. is a surplus of energy which cannot discharge and therefore breaks out as mischief or bad conduct.The most frequent cause of delinquency itself. and become unstable sacrificed have been by the stupidity of their parents '' to an ambitious project for a cultured " profession. as much for the of humanity. chiefly The art of the educator is shown in his sel- treatment of slightly abnormal children..

but of a friend. and useful members of society. just because the children meet with so many evil and depraved cominfected panions that they become yet more with moral poison. But even . and the effort made to influence the psyche through the example of the teacher. and in the end their psychological training results only in the cleverly. At the same time. there are but very few institutions like that founded in Zurich by the engineer Grohmann. Independence is often the best means of lending certain stability to such unstable beings. that were formerly so much favoured. Unfortunately. are in fact really dangerous. the child finds in I his best teacher. The so-called reformatories. who is to the pupil in the relationship not of a tyrant. of their sense of appreciation for is is In this way.DEGENERATE CHILDREN method of dealing with 185 them is based on this. and the body hardened by outdoor life. have before me many examples to where so-called delinquent children grew be exemplary and a blameless persons. the is sense of the is beauty of the universe aroused. the surplus energy provided with a suitable channel. power to deceive more educational estab- Quite different are the modem lishments which try to attain their aim by work and by the awakening Nature. life itself Finally.

The this field of prophylaxis is much more fruitful. Gentleness is the chief thing. " Light. exercise. recovering health. we No mechanical method can be employed for the of handling degenerate children. suitable . exercise. of course. Hundreds social overcome psychic youthful and. . climb upwards on the ladder. the family of the poor patient discussed these rules of treatment. The lady in charge the female patients in the institution said to the family *' Our rules for treatment are simple. air. naturally.: 186 there their THE BELOVED EGO one may generalize. change. only we had begun with these before our poor sister became mad ?" . plenty of change. amusements. Pedagogic exist. disability. . After that. hundreds disappear in the turbid stream which call life. But. again. suitable amusements if . and a younger Father. come light. ! air. . sister said to the father. pious and housewifely upfor bringing was brought by her family entrance of into a lunatic asylum. In connexion a very striking story of Multatuli occurs to me girl that has been published in his Ideen of under the a young title " Prophylaxis." On the way home. every case must be treated and solved individually. . pre- scriptions of universal validity do not Here." It relates how of modest.

is Multatuli cruel. but we dream of a better make this imtime when the no light State will undertake the role of parents towards those poor children in whose home there bread. There are for many such fathers whom he would recommend a millstone. he should only know the sunny Certainly. surely. The father acted only through be punished. but in his opinion. It is the evil intention only that should But a deep truth great poet and difficult for it. and full of variety. and instruction should be play to him. and not with evil intention. still) one second before than to have had to hear such a ques- tion from the lips of his child. is and no de- Then. side of At life. there will not be so many generate children as there are to-day. But if I wished to about the bringing sum up all that lies in my up of children. His teaching should come through his play. I would heart say. . home. had been better for him to have had a millstone tied about his neck (and more his marriage. It should not be parents to deduce the wise teaching from of the child The life must be writ in joy. this lack of understanding. lies in the little satire of philanthropist.DEGENERATE CHILDREN Multatuli goes on to say that he does not 187 know it what this father answered. social circumstances often possible. than to deserve such a question from his child.

188 ** THE BELOVED EGO Do not bend their Give your children inward freedom! their wills unnecessarily. Provide him with the work that will be to him a joy and a recreation. like a sunflower. nor through them by your example Be noble and good. be strong and unyielding when the time demands it. is children will not have to wulk in the paths souls. do not torment him with your ambitions and your plans. moral stories. which misdirected wander when in the dark^ no light to show them the way . loving and gentle (yet in moderation). not through edifying con- versations. and avoid arousing defiance. Then your along there ness. influence ! Find out the direction bilities of in which lie the chief capa- the child who. En- courage his interests. Teach them the love of the good and the Teach them. nor by pious But tracts. beautiful. nor through fear of your anger or the punishment of God. lost. turns the his interest whole of towards his future sun.

and the supposed truth lie. When about question a discussion of among ordinary the people first any form nervous complaint. dependent for value upon the credit it The day will come when proud Truth will dethroned and its place as ruler taken by its enemy. vanishes and becomes nothing but a well-masked It is similar in the case of counterfeit money. because they appear to have the same value as truth.CHAPTER XVI EXCITEMENTS There are truths which one accepts. which not dis- has a value only so long as covered. which up to that had been called " Untruth." be One there is such doubtful truth is the widely spread opinion. less piece its fictitiousness is The treasured note then becomes a worthof paper. in the same unquestioning manner as one takes paper money. . One day it occurrs to some one to examine carefully the real value of the truth. Indeed every truth is like a bond its entirely inspires. that " excitements " are harmful.

if it would not be better to take quietly for a time. an existence full of excitement. excitements tend to keep one young in good health. We seek for thorns and find them e*er. asked will be whether or not the patient has too excitement in business or in his domestic of a doctor's patients complain to him. and ask ful to if those are harm- them it ? And Ufe. and arises from ignorance of the facts of real But life is as the water of a stream rises and falls. as the more healthy. for them They envy people who is Hve a quiet As. life. I should not hesitate a second before deciding for the latter. that they had too many excitements. as in everything else life.: 190 THE BELOVED EGO much Most have circle. so a constant up and down of excitement and worry. steady stream —such envy is ridiculous. a peaceful or any excitement. For . there no business life without some excitement. No and in ! Excitement does not produce On the contrary. mentioned before. too Of course. and he who does not experience these ups and downs in life. like a tranquil. much may be is harmful. aptly says We love to gather pain and care. As a beautiful folk-song. however. or any family in which flows on quietly and without change. But if I were life asked which without the more harmful. seek for excitements. illness.

and vice versa. to whom ! the short-sighted would say ? She was one of those women " What's the : matter with you desire You have a beautiful is all that heart can You have a good husband who worships you. in charming children. So what lacking?" life. This lady in fact led the most peaceful Her his husband. but always is The fascination of ugliness only the result of built satiety of beauty. This truth dawned on me once. rest We need excitement in order that a may be a real rest. which I still regard as true. when herself I became acquainted with a lady of nervous afflictions who complained of all kinds in conse- and believed quence to be unhappy. 191 excitements are not only excitements. but are also in- And how poor is '' the life without the is stimulation of incitement. there can be no of shadows. tions. so the charm peaceful days can only be appreciated by contrast with stormy ones. everything. Nothing harder to bear than a succession of happy days. house. a remains always the same ceases to Beauty is never stationary. left his office every day at three o'clock in the afternoon. and returned to . short. dresses. A beauty which be beautiful.EXCITEMENTS citements. changing. a high official. Our is life is up of contradic- Where there no light." runs an old saying.

What did she lack to complete all. her happiness? In spite of there were when this woman felt unhappy. the weather were bad. or. Once. Some- times the ''mad" thought came into her head. sometimes appeared to her unbearable. and who had never experienced It misfortune. At these times she became depressed and monosyllabic.) play music. even the illnesses of her came as a change to her. and showed those subtle indications of weariness of life which are usually hidden behind slight feelings of anxiety. she opened her heart to me. having no other interests than his wife and children. of were revealed to me. women with very busy husbands. it Howwell may sound. The monotony ever outrageous children of her life. in a quiet hour. fine books.192 THE BELOVED EGO (The recognized ideal of all house. would read his wife The husband adored and gave times her every attention. with one day exactly like another. complained of various bodily ills for which no organic foundation could be discovered. if They would go for a walk. such as the stormy stress of the day so rarely affords." the woes of a woman whose circumstances were only ! too happy. reminded me Tann- . and I know enough how tenderly she loved her children. "If If only there only he were not such a model husband All would come a change in this eternal sameness.

EXCITEMENTS
hauser's cry
ich bin
**
:

193

Wenn

so ein Gott geniessen kann,

dem Wechsel
Or
'*

untertan."

(Although a god

may

be able to continue thus to enjoy, I must have a

change.)

Aus Freuden

sehn,

ich

mich nach

Schmerzen !"
Poor
of

(In joy I turn longingly to sorrow.)
I

woman

Many

will smile at this expression

sympathy, and think one might be able to put up
I

with the misfortune of Fortune
only one kind of unhappiness
!

But there is really To give an example,

the cancellation of a barber's visit to a rich
sets the latter just as

man

up-

much

as the lack of sufficient

money

to

pay

his rent affects a

poor man.
life.

One

appreciates only the contrasts in

Therefore the
cried out

woman was
for

really to be pitied.

Her heart

an experience.

She longed for excitement.

She

wanted to bum, to blaze up, and rebelled against a
life in

which she could only smoulder away.

What

an oppressive, insupportable contrast to her childhood, when she used to
let

her fancy roam free in the

magic land

of

unlimited possibilities.

There she
Princes

could experience thousands of adventures.

sought her hand, and she refused them
she loved a poor knight.

all

because
resisted

Triumphantly she

temptation when her virtue was in danger.

She

defended herself against enemies and delighted in her
friends.

On

Ipnely moonlight nights

she heard the

194

THE BELOVED EGO
her
soul

post horn, and with Eichendorf, " spread the wings
of

and

flew

over

the

land."
life.

Before

her stretched the wide, unknown, alluring

What
floated

would

it

bring?

Numberless

possibilities

before her vision and an endless procession of ever-

changing figures passed before her.

And

then,

what

had

real

life

given to her?

One

single

beautiful

reality

—but

only one.

Oh

!

How

she longed for a

second.

Those who do not understand
realize

simply

this woman will not women men and become unfaithful that to experience something exciting. Many

openly confess, when a fleeting episode of their life has brought them into touch with sin and care, " at
least I

have lived."
life,

A

cry for real

for

burning hours

full of excite-

ment, for the straining tension of nerves, resounds
through the peace of quiet, homely households where
the
endless

hours
silent

crawl

like

bloodless

spectres

through the
excitement,

rooms.

What do men
exciting

seek but

when reading

novels,

and

detective stories in newspapers.

How

they crowd

into the theatres, in order to be able to live, in the

play,

a

life

which

in

their

own circumstances
pieces,

is

denied them.

The most popular

and those

which attract the greatest number, are the exciting

!

EXCITEMENTS
plays, full of
life

195
always in

—in which the nerves are
And
it
is

a state of tension.
cinemas, which

the same with the

now have

to satisfy the craving of

—only those scenes "draw** which are the most exciting—where one sees people in
the people for excitement

imminent danger

of their lives, every

moment

of the

utmost importance for their safety.

The heart almost
prairies;

ceases to beat in suspense for the appearance of the
rescuer.

The wild chase rages over the

deserters escape the

bullets of their pursuers

by a
and
and

hairbreadth

;

heroic maidens rescue the children
is

the old folk; and at last the tension
all

released,

ends up happily in a joyous scene.
fill

Thus

sufficient

excitement to

a whole lifetime

is

compressed into
life,

one hour.
false

Condensed extracts from

creating

emotion
false

However could such a

doctrine have been

spread abroad, as that such an urgent need of people
could be harmful, and produce neurosis.

How

often

the doctor has the opportunity of convincing himself
of the opposite
!

It has already

been emphasized by

past

observers

of

life,

how

stupidly and excitedly
trifling

nervous

people

behave

about

incidents,

whilst in face of great events ingly well.

they behave surpris-

Persons

who

in the ordinary

way

are in-

capable of making an independent decision, and

who

196

THE BELOVED EGO
hat

have to ask the opinion of three people before buying
a

new

—when
how

suddenly

confronted

with

a

difficult task,

develop an energy and vigour which

astonishes none

more than themselves.

We
A

would
certain

hardly

guess

many

things,

under

circumstances, serve a curative purpose.

Frenchen-

man, a

retired jeweller,

named Tavemier, who
a traveller,

joyed quite a reputation as
greatly from gout.

suffered

In the year 1827, when he was in

Egypt, he quarrelled with an Aga, with the consequence that the
enraged Turk caused

him to be
This painful

bastinadoed without further ceremony.

and somewhat unpleasant experience cured Tavernier permanently of his gout.
it

Some may
this

believe that
soles of

was the somewhat energetic massage of the
which brought about
*'

the feet

wonderful

cure.

the

may introduce a new "knock and lash method !") As a matter of fact, it was already known to the earlier doctors that great excitement is an excellent cure for gout. Perhaps an attack of gout is best met by an outbreak of rage, and this method was in earlier
(Inventive minds

cure " by

times actually put into practice, and sufferers from

gout used to swear and rage when the attack came,

and thereby experienced great
excitement
is

relief.
little

But

artificial

only a surrogate of

value,

com-

EXCITEMENTS
external sources and which
it

197

pared with the great excitement which comes from

cannot replace.
a great excitement

A
the

very instructive

case of

acting as a

remedy

is

related in the famous
scientists

work by

well-known

French

Raymond and
cliniques

Janet, entitled,

Fragments des legons

du

mardi.

It deals

with a thirty-seven-year-old lady

who

suffered

from severe attacks of anxiety and defirst

pression.

She had her

attack on the occasion of
It

her marriage,

when

she was twenty years of age.

was very

critical

and

lasted for six months. Similar

attacks occurred from time to time.
of all sorts of pains in the

She complained

stomach which prevented
lose flesh.

her from

eating,

and so caused her to

Pains in the head, pains in the back, and pains in
every joint completed the picture of
adddition to
will
all this

ill-health.

In

there was an alarming absence of

and

loss of will

power.

When

she was in bed,

it

required a great effort of will for her to get up.

If she

got up,
again.
trifling

it

was

just as difficult for her to lie

down

She hesitated and wavered over the most questions. " It seems as if I am quite unable

to perform the smallest task," she said;

"I

cannot
the

make up my mind

to
it

do

it.

If at last I

make

decision, then I find

goes quite easily."

This unsatisfactory state of things lasted for two

was visiting a niece who was about to become a mother. It is method of therapy cannot be applied to every case of neurasthenia. owing to the rapidity of the was obliged to take over the role of midwife. The next day she and her called in order to relate her adventure entire re- covery. when the latter suddenly began to complain of pain. The self-control she had to exert. What can we learn from this remarkable case? That many people suffer from weakness of will. and perhaps also the astonishment she felt at being able to help to bring a healthy boy into the world. which has now been complete during a pity that this the last two years.198 THE BELOVED EGO was effected in a remarkable years. but took world. to develop . because life has never given them the opportunity to prove their capabilities and to do some work. it upon himself to make his entry into the Our patient. and she once declared herself cured. and the services of child did not wait for the the midwife. the excitement. The lady. until a cure way by a great excitement. brought about in her a tremendous change. she as if felt €!t something in her head had stirred. to have means to turn to account all their energies. Thus ends the report of the interesting case of the above-mentioned authors. No one was at hand. event. herself the mother of two children.

affects stir filling if our only the surface of a the sails of a hurrying ship. work. a great aim. Those who have cultivated a keen taste for art and nature because have they Their always a sufficiency of excitement. we dissipate our if psychic energy in small everyday affairs. to work and tp to What does less? it matter whether one excites oneself more or What we want know is for what purpose a great one excites oneself. f who pass their time between dusty \ . in this I see the explanation of the otherwise inexplicable fact. always have scope for glowing enthusiasm. so long preserve their youth. to vegedream when we wished to blossom and to grow. If. that artists.EXCITEMENTS all their capabilities. If it is for a great idea. blood will flow more quickly through their veins. we fight with dwarfs instead of with giants and gods. 199 struggle. swamp then we instead of are rebelli- ous and full of defiance at a fate which compels us to be passive tate and to when we wanted to be creative. Therefore one should look for plenty of opportunities for excitement for oneself. and that learned men. then certainly those excitements will not be harmful. who live in a world of constant ex- citement. however. and the dross of bodily weakness will be melted in the fire of their psychic emotions.

like untiring. the longer alight. and continue. and rises from the ashes of passion.i 200 THE BELOVED EGO virility books and vaporous laboratories. the Phoenix. He who throws himself into longest. Life is a magic torch keep Aladin's wonderful lamp. Uves the the flame of one's From own psyche grows power. it the it more vigorously and strongly will burns. with ever anew — like undamaged wings — joy in enjoy- ment and in creative work. life the most whole-heartedly. . their work. retain their so long.

to-day a burning question) more detail. or to find out looks like. Basilisk-like. selves One does not undergo laparotomy what the appendix Only under necessity do we submit ourIt is to the knife of the surgeon. unwise frivolously or from curiosity to desire to unveil the I will reply to this inquiry of yours in image at (which is Sais. sees his innermost soul. . You in wish to know what I think of your plan ? You wish to go into the charmingly situated sanatorium N. That means you want to see your innermost soul in order to judge other people's souls more rightly and value them better.CHAPTER XVn THE king's spectacles A LETTER to one and to many. and in the three weeks you are spending there you want to go in for a little psycho-analysis. dies Hebbel says that man. from sheer pleasure. when he this well seri- Have you thought over ? Psycho-analysis may be compared with a ous operation.

once upon a time then Why not relate a fairy-tale when one wishes to talk . But there are which are Hes in the garb What is now left of the confused tangle of so-called Science of a hundred years back? ! Only a more great or less pretty fairy-tale On the other hand a many miraculous tales have become reality. who desired to know. always be the Therefore we will begin our scientific investiga- tion under the guise of a also scientific fairy-tales. Where shall I start ? I find it difficult to make a beginning. to all see. to feel. Once upon a time there was a short-sighted king. . I have a free hour and the theme needs a very thorough discussion. and with such unusual intentions. the Rontgen rays. fairy-tale. it Fairy-tales are truth in the present. the telescope. . about cruel reality? guise of fiction. in order that he might make extraor- every one happy. beginning as though So we have good reason for we were telling a real fairy-tale. He believed that his senses were for too poor and too dull a king so dinary as himself. of truth. . flying. At humanity lies is so coneasily stituted that can always swallow will more than truth. and probably this case. to hear.202 THE BELOVED EGO not be surprised if Do just I digress somewhat. such as wireless telegraphy. and to understand things. Well.

. stale He rang for his valet. worried most of all about his big. the should need no spectacles. sensi- Suddenly a very unpleasant odour assailed his tive nose.THE so he begged KING'S SPECTACLES all 203 to and implored the good spirits • He endow him with the finest senses possible. the cat. the hearing of the wild sense of smell of a bloodhound. In greatest excitement the king kept looking at his watch when he was alone in his bed- room. so oppressive was the atmosphere around him. He felt though he would suffocate. and the palate of the most fastidious cook in the royal palace. Was there a happier till man than our king now ? He could hardly wait the next day in order to enjoy It and make use in the of his fine senses. He became so troubled and so unhappy over his own supposed short-comings that the fairies agreed to grant him for one day the gift of the most delicate senses. ugly spectacles. He noticed what he had never noticed before. the sense of touch of the bat. to They hoped by doing this to cure him and For one day he make him happy once more. had been decreed at eight o'clock that the magic should begin to work morning. that his as bedroom was not yet aired. The spectacles lay safely inside their case. and he should have keen eye of the eagle.

a sweetheart who and he had gone out to was one visit of the stable-maids. for left his he had taken French-leave. At the silently king's angry gesture of dismissal the man went away. oh entered with heavy tread. her for a few hasty moments. after opening the win- dow. His Majesty noticed that he had washed but cursorily. in his face that this is was not the He also always very unpleasant to experiobserved—what ence—the half-concealed envy. He was deeply astonished and decided to dismiss his servant at once.204 THE BELOVED EGO his ears. ! how dirty he seemed to the astonished king. and to be at night. the suppressed rebellion. beck and like during the The servant trembled an aspen-leaf. The king read truth. Outside the Palace gate stood two guards. the secret defiance. last it night?" he inquired of the sleep in the king's ante^ call whose duty was to his chamber. and that he brought with him the unpleasant smell which is generally attached to the stable. and the piercing sound hurt The servant But. . the growing impulse for re- venge. in spite of his efforts to creep gently in his velvet slippers. post. and had a transgression for pimished. He had. which he would be severely occurred to He made use of the first lie which him. he said. characteristic of the servile class. " Were you away from the Palace valet.

. ministers came to pay their The king saw through and craftiness.THE KING'S SPECTACLES When 205 whispering quietly to each other." To which the other replied : " How If I should she be content with our old courtesan. in such a disrespectful ? manner his What own guards he con- spoke of him fided these his favourites. Last night I myself saw the yellow-haired chamberlain creeping to her room. in whom The and ? whom he spoilt with presents and kindness But worse was to their respects. The king could see quite clearly their malici- ous looks and could hear their words. Almighty God. beautiful mistress is faithful to him. me to see but one single-minded. At last. they saw the king without his spectacles they paid no heed to him. The stupid king. there also deceit and hatred. outward appearance into their hearts and from realized their falseness small signs And was wherever he foimd loyalty and love. . he made his supplication grant being. he believes that his beloved.. faithful human Grant that I may see some hearts which beat of in that true devotion to myself which I have been assured so often. were a lovely know how to find a better com- panion than this old short-sighted greybeard.. *' . I should man here. : alone in his own room." I The king hardly dared to was it trust his own ears. follow. . .

and he defiance. court Then he summoned and observed physician. He could not succeed. it. hatred. at the same time love and hatred. He cursed his acute senses. but seemed to stand still. how the latter trembled for his life before him. no longer wished to He saw by so much envy. gratitude and ingratitude. His trust in Humanity was shaken. danger. as to whether that might be from love. he longed for his former condition and his sheltering spectacles. and he rule. He had no precious life desire to inquire further. or from anxiety for the of the king with which he had been entrusted. secret room again that which had opened and time up to him the meaning of the Universe. and that he sowed Here ends our fairy-tale. was injuring another. like a snail his favourite over a dry hillock. that we blind to the true inner aspect of things. and he realized that in benefiting one. believe as he would have wished. We let need not draw a moral lesson from but us state this truth are all (turning again to reality). He asked for a sleeping-draught and slept until late next morning. It crawled slowly. mistrust. and that every one sees .206 THE BELOVED EGO did not venture to leave his He day. He counted the minutes. in making himself that yesterday's experience was nothing but a bad himself surrounded dream.

Since . : The only the merits of his beloved the antagonist sees only the faults and weaknesses of his enemy : the man who affects serves sees ever before his eyes the coveted object which obliterates everything else. . Through our all we become short-sighted.THE the disturbing KING'S SPECTACLES medium of his 207 even the external phenomena of the Universe through own all emotions. further than their own limited domain namely. The player himself may affect. he foresees danger. life and therefore whose the small conflicts of sized significance. easily be blinded by his own The distorting effect of one's affects shape the lover sees world according to one's own desires. yield more easily to their emotions and limit their horizon by all sorts of affects. and in believing so readily in tales which any one else all can easUy see through. their housekeeping. a But in reality we are like players in game of chess. acquire for us an over-emphaespecially. and their servants all conflicts are staged in this and narrow sphere. till finally they cannot see any . Women disposi- tion is much more primitive than that of men. People are surprised that others act so irrationally in allowing themselves to be deceived. The onlooker always perceives the best moves. their children. and he guesses the plans of the opponent. Wherever the affect plays a part. there Logic is at an end.

Alas ! how and disappears. they feel that one should enjoy and make good use of time. people fall ill. Then they make fine praiseworthy they will no longer be foolish. . their horizon broadens and of see. and play tragic roles for the most stand trivial motives. the everyday routine seems to still for a while. to get true enlightlet enment. For a moment they lay aside limitless spectacles and enjoy the wide perspective. days and weeks after recovery are truly wonderful. to show The first kindness. at first grumblingly selves willingly once more to the well-known yoke. to understand. and grasp meaning life. resolutions. to seize in one grasp all the delights of this world . they fight with their dearest surroundings over the trifles of life. to enjoy and to swiftly it others enjoy. one wants to take deep draughts of the glowing cup of life. and rise above the ridicu- lous pin-pricks of fate. one yearns to be good. nor give themselves up life to trivial cares.208 THE BELOVED EGO beings cannot live without conflict. When they cares. to forgive. this beautiful intoxication this free enlightenment. beyond their limited sphere work and the their deeper of into the Universe. We . put the old spectacles then we harness our- on again. and since human fighting and playing are everyday essential elements in life.

which may be perfectly adapted to their not able to faulty eyesight. for other- wise he would fare as our poor short-sighted king the neurotic can only be !) understood if we imagine him to be him far as a man who is wearing incorrect and unsuitable spectacles. spectacles His have distorted his vision. (and it certainly a very wise provision of nature that he does not do so. All the near things appear to away. but Past and Future are merged into one. they are shoot with accuracy. time with him not according to that shown by his watch. wrong end Distant things is seem to be within his reach . to any Sportsmen have observed that when newly wearing glasses.THE KING'S SPECTACLES 209 and become yet again the old short-sighted bamboozled beast of burden. he has so accustomed himself to his faulty glasses that he cannot adapt himself others. strangely enough. If even the normal man is unable to see the world is with unaided eyes. and the Present has all lost value to him. but. and it is this which makes the cure of these people so difficult —often almost impos- . correct case of They have become accustomed to the infocus of their eyes. as though he were looking through the of a pair of opera-glasses. The same occurs in the the Neurotic.

210 sible. see themselves neglected. always there light. while the other one was praised and spoilt. see this father reflected in their not rid themselves of the life. whereas the elder brother was allowed to do things which. and can" Father-complex. For instance there his brother the type of the younger brother. by which he was the He to obey. somebody who is standing in their In their outlook on the world they see only the person just in front. to him. who ostensibly has shown them top little love. it is. and carries out his is own secret plans. in his childhood. were forbidden. through their whole life. who. continue to wear these spectacles of childhood." They are always ready to complain of insufficient . THE BELOVED EGO We could give many examples is to illustrate this. there else is They always marries the always some one who deprives them of success. and not as he imagines it There are others who have had a very strict father. Such people then. who prettiest girl under their noses. left He was always in the background. ably a step in advance of them. who is invari- We must rob such a person of his spectacles. had to observe with himself always had envy how took advantage of the two years elder. These again. and get him accustomed to seeing the world as to be.

Only by correcting the faulty spectacles through which he saw his superiors was he enabled to remain in one place. A third vacillated between different opinions..) I know a doctor all who the came into conflict with clinic. Already when at school. the chief and assistants in every and had to leave after a short time. (Or so he religi- was told at home. and there he had to pretend piety. wealthy family.THE recognition KING'S SPECTACLES their superiors. and feigned sickness for this purpose. 211 by but seek ever to place themselves in the same position over and over again.) One aimt was particularly ous. and to specialize in one branch of science. in addition to having a rich aimt and so on. as he could expect as much as the much money as he could want. (Nietzsche's law of recurrence. Another wears the spectacles of work-shyness. relatives He stood between different see. and rests upon the hope that he he will come some into an inheri- He comes of a relatives from whom tance. . whom he was obliged continually to and to enter into their different idiosyncrasies. Another one of was Hberal minded. and has rich will day inherit. Naturally the boy stopped learning. he heard that he was fortunate in that he need not exert himself so others. and there he must not talk religion.

his spectacles in order to be able to enjoy What a diversity of spectacles there are which these people wear. which conjured before his a world without work. the spectacles of religion. A brilliantly painted Hope is still always more highly valued than a Reality with a fair chance of enjoy- . the spectacles tion. mention only the spectacles of nationality. also This man must remove life. but with the heir. because his living. as the highest aim. which qualities of our magnify the own nation and minimize those of foreigners. We reality need is illusions for life. These be-spectacled people always see false aspect of the world.212 THE BELOVED EGO man without a purpose. and the spectacles a of philanthropy. the spectacles of of scientific convic- mysogony. the spectacles of race. So he became a one secret hope of becoming an berth to work. He vision spoilt his life because he did not want to do without his spectacles. because the true aspect would be unbearable to them. The value of generally placed too low by people. and how difficult this makes it to I distinguish between normal will and abnormal people. it He gave a wide fit would make him to earn and that would free his relations from the obligation to think of his future before their death.

! We behave as we were noble men. —honour. The . enjoyment — is only a fleeting useless- illusion to disguise from us the emptiness and ? ness of our existence Are we to is learn. Is the Psalmist right toil when he holds that pain and of life? are the most precious jewels gain. fame. as the wise love. And shall we keep before our eyes the idea that everything. useful spectacles which pro- duce before us a non-existent world. Seneca asserts.THE ment. that in the ancient thickets of the soul slumber the instincts. beasts of prey. spectacles and learn that the primaeval a serpent. because is —as really — of no value to us. but some day to be. menacing primaeval animal to that man is man as the wild beast? Homo No ! homine lupus! I extol the good. We love Good for the sake of goodness evil ceases to exist for us. we see no evil and And we can remove our instincts are . is that whose poison is no longer And what about this chapter ? the fairy-tale with which I began is still Yes 1—the end to come. lo the we grow to our part. it KING'S SPECTACLES life itself 213 We is require deceptions. is man of to-day a transition if man. that there no pure no true and disinterested friendship. and. whose fangs have lost their edge neurosis effective. . The stage of the future Non-existent.

. the evil in themselves. and " lived. I Here the fairy-tale stops again. Forget that which you have seen. and found that the wise man was right as most wise men are. and with it those around him. but you have not . What It is more can you want just their virtue Do you want privilege to change man's ? nature and to tear the evil out of his breast and that they actually do sight of only the good." The king pondered long. That you cannot bear the Truth proves how wise kind Fate was in inflicting short-sightedness upon you and giving you spectacles. selves. with his spectacles. who have had a glimpse . have told to those people selves who are at cross-purposes with them- and with the world. clearly have you marked that these people have only done what was right...214 THE BELOVED EGO men and who was asked them to cure him king called his wise and to explain to him the badness of this world. An able to satisfy the king's He said : " Mighty King. seen the evil. and wear your spectacles patiently and with dignity. They are loyal to you to the death. old seer was found desires. They have striven with them- they still strive ? and retain the victory. They allow themselves to be killed for you they acclaim you when you pass That is to say they have conquered in your sedan. He made his peace with himself." .

I wanted to tell you that.— THE of their KING'S SPECTACLES 215 own is souls The king rebellions oneself. must also take into man. and that you would rather keep to your old you will regard " a little Psycho-analysis " as a necessity for the sufferer. Fearfully. Now you can form your own But opinion from the fairy-tale and from the essay. I cannot I have only related a fairy-tale —a scientific having a real background lit up by the glowing dawn of a new day. spectacles. Whether that decide. unpleasant Truth by and correct the new illusions. of these as a victory Thus every one who of a seeks and understands becomes the door-keeper new world a world with no . so we take up again our spectacles. Whoever has the courage to take off his spectacles consideration the words of the wise to his weaknesses. but . The impulses. to own up and to welcome the overcoming and triumph. I think that thick spectacles. this present-day disease of good people because all neurotics suffer from their goodness. and the servants are wishes. fairy-tale is ever possible or not. and have shrunk from the Truth. and our virtues minimized out of recognition. The the sharpened senses a bad conscience. It shows our faults magnified and exaggerated. are one's gift of the guards is are inhibitions.

" —in which I should see my entire .216 THE BELOVED EGO Keep your beloved old I I a danger for the healthy. thick spectacles then Praise your shortsightedness But let me tell : Hofmannsthal you two lines from Hugo von " I shudder. I do not want to stand before the mirror self.

my glance involuntarily falls on a clean. At any hour of a holiday I would find this tranquil old gentleman at his post. I decided. window sits At this window an elderly gentleman. down upon us so complacently. here loves to go out in the evening. that could not be. and whose quiet room contains whole world. Or was he perhaps an invalid ? No. gazing contentedly through his gold spectacles on the crowded street below. widely-opened of the grey house opposite. on week- .CHAPTER XVin HOLIDAYS When into I leave home on of a Sunday afternoon to plunge festive the whirl the crowd. Soon I was to know better. well-nourished appear- ance was against such an idea. I thought to myself at first. Ah. as if he were human affairs from a higher range of experieccentric. is one who no doubt when the first shadows are stealing over the quiet streets. for his healthy. losing himself in his his An reveries. Besides. and he always looked judging ence.

elastic gait. glancing now and then of at his paper of tells him of war. wishes attained and buried. conflagration desires and murder. the real explanation of my kindly neighbour dawned on me. Once as I returned home from the Prater. one of the few He was doubtless wise men who do not who allow themselves to be ruled by conventions. imderstand the meaning now of his subtle A park in Vienna. He joys. believing enjoying ourselves. smoking which his pipe. who for an idea are robbing ourselves need of a real joy. whereas in truth none of those sensations of bent on pursuing. in us Sunday. has discovered the secret of our so-called festive He knows into quite well that we are vaguely of deceiving ourselves.* dusty. an actual I smile. a philosopher. of the strivings and humanity. looks With a slaves quiet superiority he of down upon rest. . tired.218 THE BELOVED EGO tall. but go their own way. — order to pursue an imaginary one. through the power our imaginaton. and worn out. days I was often able to admire his figure distinguished and his fine. we have been we have enjoyed pleasure that we were that sits Quietly he at his post.

and anticipating gloomy week-days. took a choice cigar and a good book and sat down panorama double side my window. free of charge What a all and everything has in this world ! There they passed before me. 219 went and when I me when I On at I one occasion I tried following his example. his little . the anxious mother with her overdressed daughters. his pipe in his mouth. soldiers from the country on the for love and a hot supper thousands . eager for conquests and on the point of committing some quest of parents with great folly. prematurely mentally calculating the cost of the Simday outing. followed by aged wife. the holiday-slaves dressed up servant-girls. a . the careless student. while possessed by the one hope that things might go off this time without the usual bout of drunkenness.! : HOLIDAYS which used to follow returned. a flower in his buttonhole. . and thus to them some enable them to fire warm of their own . the tired child his on his arm. wasting their slender on fine dresses. who is sullen-looking. What an agreeable little had before me. seeking with difficulty to hide their poverty behind showy garments labourer. so as to ape '' ladies wages of high rank " for a few miserable hours. trying to give pleasurable excitement. disappointed. cold hearts at the . youth and countless other figures. children of all ages.

Noise. ? they not be days of rest for soul and body we not quietly think of past times. excitement. while of music scarcely drowned the hubbub voices. Truly —the whole restlessness of our time kill is shown Should Should by the way in which we our holidays. a pilgrimage into the longed-for land of Sunday-joys. crowdI ing into stuffy. saw them wanand dering in dusty. and prepare ourselves for the strife of the coming days to ? ? What does our rest really amoimt fatigue. dust. overcrowded gardens. How many. over- jaded nerves. poor slaves. Now things. I began to bitter realize the full absurdity of many The struggle for a seat in the Underground electric. and worried by perpetual anxiety lest they should miss the last train which would carry them. the tram or motor-bus. the breathless rushing through the beauties of Nature. as if to see faces were one of the I greatest joys in the world. back to the treadmill of daily life. heated and excited by passions. smoke-filled rooms. through such . jostling ogling each other.220 THE BELOVED EGO strange procession. saw them blaring greedily. watch in hand. saw them fighting to buy a morsel swallow it of food at a high price. I saw them. In thought I followed them to their destinations. danger. weigh one experi- ence against another.

all Indeed. mine according to imI my mood. except for a high stake. lofty seat behind and overlooking the Slowly the clumsy vehicle takes I me to Neuwaldegg. I possible to study. for shady meadows in the twilight. who imbibed the joys that a big town could offer in the way of Science. I remembered an experience of my own freely of happy student days. Then up driver. but who never sacrificed an hour's sleep. In an instant I I go am on out in the street. an immense craving for air. Art. in the eternal festival of Nature. Suddenly. while their work has never done these amusements them any harm ? ! Are really a pleasure Surely not This kind of amusement resembles work as one egg resembles another. feel experience. At last am in the forest ! How still and peaceful it all is. because from there onward to the the bus fare is considerably cheaper. I was a happy student in the true sense of the word. for green trees. . Now for my A hot day in June.! HOLIDAYS amusements. Sport and social gatherings. How different the whole aspect of things from that of a week-day. close my book. Nature. striding rapidly along. finding it Four o'clock in the afternoon. foot as far as the suburbs. 221 may have acquired the germs of disease. and who never arranged I chose his holiday according to the calendar.

I am received and served ! With what attention The host enters into a asks I confidential chat with me and if me in a friendly way where I am going. but observe that I much prefer . testify heavily nailed mountain of the path. and am satisfied it is with the food and drink. but that I would come on a " Sunday I should hear a tip-top Viennese Quartet. empty bottles. crammed rucksack and To left and right of paper.".222 THE BELOVED EGO if Flowers bloom close to the edge of the path as they knew that no cruel hand could senselessly. birds only to throw them away again carelessly. decorated hat. behaving On and on A a startled hare darts across little is my I path. I go. which no Sunday hear. now pluck them in and out of a brutal delight plunder. He also remarks that if very quiet here on week-days. visitor can ever No human being in sight ! No tourist with tie. I thank him kindly. where a solitary guest is seated at a neatly laid table. warble from the low-hanging branches their exquisite work-a-day songs. the boots. doubtless not surprised at my unex- pected intrusion. greasy scraps initials cut into the trees. Where chance leading me ? come to a quiet. tweed suit and gaudy with the absurdly unsuitable and pretentious alpenstock. friendly inn. that like a host of hohday-makers have been Vandals.

Never forest shall I forget that half-hour spent alone in the before the tombstone. but tell I thank him politely for I his friendly offer. . mourning. He was guarding a tomb in the quiet I could hardly of loneliness of the forest. quiet forest-inn I plunged deeper into the By tall chance I took the path towards Hiitteldorf. trees it ? sun had gone down behind the strange twilight flooded the clear tale. or The and a In the air. *' driven out a gentlewillingly give me a him on the box. Was a fairy- was it the play of my excited senses midst of this green solitude there sat a stone knight. Thrice blessed be thou. .! HOLIDAYS the 228 symphony in the green trees. just as in Uhland's He invites me to He is a coachman and has just man and his lady. him that am walking farther. Here is ' Field Flowers ' . It grew darker. He would Kranze. inscription. which remark so charms at my solitary neighbour that he seats himself my table. caressed by the soft . an inscription on a tablet which I had not " Here Adalbert Stifter wrote his noticed before. make out filled all the The grave of Laudon." seat beside Krug zum Griinen drive home with him. I was of with a chill sense the perishableness things." Adalbert Stifter —poet of rest and of joy in Nature. forest.

surrounded centuries long past. latest favourite Now out with my song (I had a new one every month!) " When we roam through the resounded through the quiet night. When with I compare this and similar experiences I my present holiday pleasures. are *' our acquired that liberties. where I knew of good friends whom I wanted to surprise with my late visit.: : 224 THE BELOVED EGO by ghostly figures from Had Romance then not yet died Had the enthusiastic poems of Eichendorff reality ? scents of evening. I could see them sitting round a table enjoying themselves. The the first lights of Hiitteldorf.. Through the open window of the villa. proud of all We fact talk a lot about our freedom.. all am driven to the conclusion that the misery of the world comes is from coercion. for streets . out? become and I had to hurry if I did not wish to be overtaken by the night." a surprise What them and how pleasantly passed the hours —until the last train. Because our Sunday to fixed by we have screw ourselves up to the Sunday-mood. slaves to our feelings ." and yet we overlook the slaves to our we are miserable slaves circumstances. calendar. which took me safely back to the place where I had mounted the coach. Now appeared twilight deepened.

when the desire against every authority. It was.HOLIDAYS and slaves to our surroundings. 225 This freedom laid is down by law —the Sunday of the wage-slaves. glimpse of mysterious fissures We have been able to catch a seen through deep depths. We have seen that the neurotic may be either inwardly pious and or outwardly unbelieving. or If cease work. my remarks have been carefully followed. The higher the grows the rights of the masses become. breaks away another stone from the noble edifice of personal free- dom. of his psyche. and turns us into machines which work. the protest of the weak against It is tyranny. at the will of the factory owner. however. in reality only another form of slavery. and we have described the sufferer silent battle which the unfortunate wages for the sake of one part of his personality. Every new advance. It is the rebellion of the helot. the smaller right of the individual. obstinacy fist the feeble. every new discovery. the is clenching of the to raise it in the pocket. outwardly pious and inwardly unbelieving. every new machine. necessary constantly to point out that our present order of society suppresses the right of the individual in favour of the right of the . his Beloved Ego. it will be seen that neurosis signifies the struggle between the indi- vidual and the the demands of of Society.

Thirst for domination and the will to power are only other forms of this impulse towards freedom. tent to be able to serve the idol of spised. . and it was but a natural step that and appropriate May Its it should also decree festivals. He is grovels in the dust before the very authority which he despises. THE BELOVED EGO In this respect no improvement is to be expected from Socialism. injury. He who can com- mand others need expect no commands from them. and nothing but that." I cannot end these remarks without pointing out the paths health I we must take to regain our health. and Power he con- so de- In short.226 masses. must be prepared to fight for our lost freeis The strongest motive power in man his craving for freedom and independence. The neurotic is more or less of a spiritual anarchist. mean joy in life. power is based on the sup- pression of personal ambitions in favour of general economic advantages. all By We dom. which already saddles the masses with authority similar to that of Church and State. he is a " half-man. 1st as a holiday for labour. sinks on his knees before his foe. He looks upon this lack of independence as a personal of coercion. and rebels against every form The reason fact that his reaction fails so miserably lies in the he has not gained inner freedom.

we must give them much reality through inward free- dom that they can dispense with the idea of a great historic mission. both are caricatured either in the and are expressed in grotesque forms as submissive Masochism or as proud isolation modest garb of the eccentric. every etiquette." away with that . every fashion. everything that casts us in one mould and turns us into a herd. Away with all social compulsion. our compen- satory ideal of freedom immeasurably intensified. But we must have the courage ourselves to checkmate everything that subjugates or restrains us. away with " what people say or do. separate them. and exhibit the true picture. In the case of the neurotic. We in must get at the beautiful and the ugly traits the caricature. It is the task of us psychic physicians to bring about the substitution of real values for false ones. vacillating between the will to power and the will to subjection. We must help our patients so to fight for that bit of lost freedom which their personality lacks. is A man slave suffering his from a compulsion neurosis the of symptoms and a psychic anarchist. away with every convention. But because we have is our inward and outward freedom.HOLIDAYS He who commands manded by any lost all 227 himself be comentirely need not let one.

a victory for humanity. proud level we be able to celebrate a For every victory which we have won without compulsion. but from not to please society. good deed performed. our own Every strong resolution.228 THE BELOVED EGO which we must do and that which we must not do. I believe in man. the uncontrolled. is our own judgement. recognize Just because I have come to how deep terrible his primal instincts reach down a into the savage. solely in the light of our own ethics. Let us strive to become our own lawfree will. I believe in the victory of good. not through fear of the punish- ment of hell or as a miserable bargain for the kind of recompense which rewards good deeds with eternal bliss. I realize that are all the victims of . good and free all Let us not forget that higher than oonventions an laws stands the iron law of inward necessity. Let us creatures ! Uve our life as noble. Let us learn to renoimce. then festival. And when we have selves to the shall elevated ourselves above ourof a noble-man. in short away with every duty that is not our duty or — is that a superfluous duty. boundless and —just because of we this fact I see better future. givers. I believe in this future. is a step towards the splendid temple of the man-of-the-future. the animal.

HOLIDAYS to 229 inordinate and unbridled desires. our fears. which are striving come to the surface. And the days on which I such days are my festivals. . ripe. I realize that our sufferings. our doubts. for liberties for which we are not yet can feel this. I feel that we are fighting for the rights of personality. are forces though which this upward striving expresses itself.

if to-day it I maintain the contrary to that which I believed yesterday. One must . lies That why genius can be its everything which outside the line of vision.APHORISMS Certain thoughts lose their significance as soon as they are put into words such value as they have is due to the momentary : emotion. Philosophy " really means to ask oneself questions and to answer The But oneself. definition of psycho-analysis : to recognize oneself Why does speech relieve us? Why must we have an outlet in Is speech. ** only proves my courage to give expression to the universal human. and why are we unable to tackle our problems alone? not a fundamental educational error responsible for this? Greeks *• learnt their philosophy from famous masters.word of to-day. farther in is." is That is the pass. Conviction. Talent can often be more just. and compensate in smallness for his greatness. Every genius has characteristics which betray his thus littleness. If my thoughts are inconsistent. Genius sees more deeply than the so-called normal man. The simplest in another. because concentrates immense energy on a single point. in its but. and substitute breadth for depth of conception. that so blind to own direction. It therefore sees one particular direction. : There it only one teacher Experience. in one only. is unfortunately.

only a He behaves as though he masked form of anticipated pleasure. Their shortis comings are unbearable because the compensating greatness represented only by a pretence of greatness. one must not come near them. is trauma at any rate an experience. The more they deprecate the thing they envy. megalomania. The small know that they envy. The neurotic's feeling It is of guilt always relates to what he might have done. thinking that in this way we shall continue to experience Those who much live is only for themselves. Intolerable are those small men in whom a slight touch of genius lends the appearance and behaviour of the great. The slightest murmurs of opposition on the part of the crew are condemned as rebellion and punished with scientific oblivion. The deepest remorse is just that for which there is no justification. The great rationalize their envy in order not to admit it. But who exploits another in order to make a fuller life for himself? . How utterly false ! We only deceive ourselves again into live. and therefore they seem there a greater egoist than the altruist to be egoists. I A clever woman once said *' : I regret that there is nothing have to regret. The envy of ordinary people is more honest than that of the great.APHORISMS To ^^281 excuse the weaknesses of the great for the sake of their greatness. and occasionally find it painful. Why? Because greatness can be recognized only after the petty details in the picture are forgotten. the greater seems also a tyranny of progress their own secret idol —the beloved Ego. The most Every serious traumata are those which have never occurred. Genius is never recognized by its contemporaries. see their greatness only. Preconceptions are the executioners of truth. through their works. really had sinned. Neurosis is the reaction to that which has never occurred." We we are said to live again in our children and in those for whom care. They give themselves the There is and of dogmatism which sails upon the sea of knowledge and displays the flag of exploration. by airs of genius. they must be enjoyed from a distance.

282 APHORISMS like locomotives in Morality protects the weak. common with all men. Work is said to sweeten life. Timid persons are are applied. not any work. but does not limit the strong. soul of the neurotic. Work is. Let this many men are ignited by men and burnt by is to lend fire to both. which the fires are kept at a low heat so that the engine may stop quickly when the brakes Fantasy They run on birds half steam. Should it not be taught that Egoism is a duty? Only when we give expression to all our capabilities do we fulfil our human . The most important function of a friend of the family : They must be rubbed compound before they take fire. Some passions are like Swedish matches. secret of success and is in finding one's o^vn fitting work. Friendship is the tombstone of love. transforms sparrows into birds of paradise. my probably in desire to acquire an blanks. and must be. Reality changes of paradise into sparrows. Reality depreciates the over-valued by an over-correction downwards. Ideals require the remoteness of fantasy. would have the courage Who. and this our ears much more So many difficult than is generally believed. the best remedy for The But only our own work. On the contrary ! Work is the bitter pill which makes palatable the cloying sweetness of all life. contentment lies nervous disorders. knowing the to speak of a murderous guilt? A tiny wheel that controls the impulses had momentarily ceased to function. in voices from the outer world resound is that the voice which speaks within us drowned. betray a enormous fortune with the least expenditure of effort. A great thought is a Siegfried releasing a Brunhilde from a flaming sea of unconscious inhibitions. There will always be more people who dream of drawing the first prize than the humble minded who accept life's All patients. across an inflammative example serve for women. The highest must occasionally be converted into the lowest.

health unites. however. souls.valued idea. the husband. Our calling is a concession to the demands of in society. 238 irreconcilable But humanity and society seem to be antagonists. illness. to the eye and discoverable only which operates in small gods. secret. The highest achievements do not emanate from the healthy. the It is a compromise between the dogmatic monotheism of the Jews and the polytheism of the Greeks. the under-estimate exceptional individuals really capable of a proper valuation. The healthy sick over-estimate the the importance of their value of health." Unfortunately one's calling is generally work an alien sphere and for alien interests. illness creates in striving for health. The Christian religion It allows of the : sublimation erotic impulses. He who enjoy good health does not create. exalts Only those and health are is certain : and health abases. The micro-organisms invisible by the microscope are the power The deity has been transformed from Small souls have of all supernatural greatness into unnatural smallness." is compulsion-neurosis in which Hygiene the modern religion. notwithstanding all attempts at analysis into three elements. who hover between illness One fact. he lives. But as there is only one love. so.APHORISMS obligations. It *' ought to be that form of activity to which one feels oneself called. To some people marriage fidelity is is a the " over. has all the elements the child. Statistics is the art of lying with numbers. wife and the father. Who has the courage to confess that he works only because he must? What excesses are concealed behind our work! In truth one needs a good conscience to be able to refrain from work and to give one's thoughts free scope. The sufferer illness separates. Ideals are the subterfuges of commonplace Sometimes vice. there is only one God. it requires more courage to confess a virtue than a .

most long enough. We save ourselves from feeling envy by Instead of acknowledging that we depreciating our opponents. : creating by their own efforts. Pedagogues atone for the fajilts of their education by heaping up a multitude of fresh educational errors. If only it Pedagogy should be the orthopaedics of the soul.284 Depression wise. but once mostly not at all. and wear the countenance of Hippocrates. viz. . A who in display of pride is man. which in their turn create again pedagogues from the crippled souls. shoAvn by the manner only realized in which he attacks people how they debased themselves when they seek to depreciate another. A man's true greatness adversary. did not further distort and cripple the ** ego " ! No ence belief can ever die. they would depreciate that other values in only one way. We live only once. if only The garment becomes a second skin. is APHORISMS virtuous lamentation which weeps that it is not Sympathy is the cruelty of the weak. I never recognized any other opponents than those who underThe man who does not understand can stood and envied me. letters announce the charms of a dead Professors are usually the sworn guardians of truths. Our hate is directed towards our superiors and our contempt towards our inferiors. Great movements never emanate from sources. Truths are cleverly disguised Chastity is lies. hate his greatness. all Our childhood is beliefs exert their influ- our lives. deals in false values in order to get credit cases. is He If speaks a foreign tongue. like the policy of the big business Illness is the stronghold of personality. — never be my his real opponent. Death shines official in their faces. the tombstone whose faded vice. we pretend to despise his smallness. The other grows smaller only as new we grow larger. it —and who succeeds they play Most people grow into the part they play.

Jealousy may be the reaction to a wish to be relieved of an other frees us and irksome obligation. Hence The excellent fathers often have worthless sons. But most persons take it to mean to use up their capital. Truly the claim for priority in thought is not worth a robbed of their due. The higher our ideal. . so that these failings often give rise to virtues. Sons caricature the faults of their parents. means to expend the " interest " on one's allotted time. Experience is the tombstone of fantasy. There are wishes before whose fulfilment we recoil. Spring is the transformation of the temporal into an image of the eternal. is the infinitesimal last link . ideal is the attainable goal which we do not wish to attain. Inventions problems. Antipathy its sheet lightning. so much the deeper may we fall. mess of pottage. we have to free ourselves into a democratic outlook on Ascetism live is the Harakiri of our immortality. But the contrary may also occur. Sympathy is the dawn of love. for each new thought of old thought.! APHORISMS Laziness is 285 and power. are a translation of personal problems into social Often enough they are the transposition of a psychic problem into a mechanical one. and thus the ** interest " gets smaller and smaller. and life. Marriage is that relationship in which the slavery of the one is alleviated by the bondage of the other. because with fulfilment their they would cease to be wishes. Reality depreciates. With equal right each new individual might claim the credit for the whole culture of humanity Fellow-men Remain alone and avoid the stimulus supplied by ! . a disproportion between will What is attained seems trivial in comparison with what one aspires to. There are students of research who always think themselves and who never cease quarrelling about priority. We To are born aristocrats. The infidelity of the absolves us from the obligation. . The dreamer shuns the fulfilment of his yearnings.

and in reality people only say what we have already told ourselves. May my Let to readers prove to be such learn us from our experiences. guides. dense . To gain inner freedom overcome the past. in . persons have over them a tyrant whom they serve and willingly: public opinion. bear the present. flocks. Pride is the compensation for some shortcoming. . To-day's extravagance to-morrow's avarice. . Baedeker with whose aid the patient finds his way through the So that at the best we are only entanglement of his neurosis. and the mask Most gladly : for dissatisfaction. The rich do not fear thefts. We must surpass ourselves from day to day. The falcon soars lonely through Associations of people are the destruction of the individual. It may prove a great danger to every science because themselves called distorts plain facts with complicated questions. and let us investigate honestly the sources of our successes. Actually every patient has We psycho-therapeutists are a kind of heal himself. In the darkness even a small light illumines. Illness brings out the true character of a man. The dullest minds feel upon to become the illuminators and torch-bearers of their times.236 the herd. Philosophy searches out the problems which are inherent in our daily it life. Let us not imagine ourselves the creators of a new life. of forgiveness is ! To be capable the prerogative of noble souls. Feelings are the garments of the soul. APHORISMS Sheep move the skies. and remain untroubled in face of the future. Remorse is often only a pretext devised for the purpose of revelling in a pleasurable remembrance. In perpetual sameness is we should stagnate. lose. One who always thinks himself robbed has not much to Only love gives ungrudgingly. What will people say? But what we fear is only our own inner voice. This saying of Goethe contains Life's greatest all the wisdom of the world. lies in charm change.

the goal were as remote as the sun.APHORISMS mean stagnation. 287 Whatever evolves was there before. our longing would find THE END . Everything develops. In the psychic life there are no revolutions. they pene- and gates and walls. and even neurosis does not Thoughts! trate doors Neither time nor space can limit them. And though it.

usually inflicted from from without. Gratification derived from self-admiration in love with his self-love.— — — Definitions of Psycho-Analytical Terms Used. who described this Megalomania: Self-delusion of greatness. physical pain.) Dissociation: Splitting of the personality. Bi-polarity : See page 9. Narcissism : etc. often sexual in character. (ernest jones. (ernest jones). perversion. The inventing of a reason is for an. Sacher-Masoch. or of crossing open spaces.attitude or action the motive of which not recognized. after Narcissus. Anaesthesia: Absence of sensation. Complex: A group of emotionally invested ideas partially or entirely repressed. the Greek youth own image reflected in the water. Rationalisation : Supplying the place of missing (unconscious) links in the chain of reasoning with another (conscious) link. . Agoraphobia: Fear of open space. . vast wealth. derived mental or (paraphily). (Frink). Masochism: After Gratification.

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