This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

BooksAudiobooksComicsSheet Music### Categories

### Categories

### Categories

Editors' Picks Books

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Audiobooks

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Comics

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Sheet Music

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Top Books

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Audiobooks

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Comics

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Sheet Music

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

15

Tube Flaring

Summary Introduction

240 241 241

Requested Solutions FEM Solutions Input File(s) 241 245

**240 MD Demonstration Problems
**

CHAPTER 15

Summary

Title Features Geometry Chapter 15: Tube Flaring Deformable-deformable contact Large elastic-plastic deformation Axisymmetric • • • • • • Tube diameter = 8 inches Tube thickness = 0.3 inches Tube length = 8 inches Tool apex angle = 30° Tool wall thickness = 0.6 inches Tool length = sufficient to mode the process

x=r

y

C L

x=r

y

C L

Material properties

Tube: Young’s modulus = 3.0e7 psi, initial yield stress = 3.6e4 psi, yield stress at 0.1 equivalent plastic strain = 1.8e5 psi, Poisson’s ratio = 0.3 Tool: Young’s modulus = 4.0e7 psi, Poisson’s ratio = 0.3, no yielding Quasi-static analysis The left end of the tube is prevented from moving in the axial direction but is free to move in the radial direction. An edge load is applied to the right end of the tool (the end with a larger diameter) to push the tool into the steel tube, then released 4-node axisymmetric elements Friction between the tool and the tube is ignored in the analysis 1. Plot of tube tip versus time. 2. Contours of von Mises stress at maximum load on deformed mesh 3. Contours of plastic strain on deformed mesh after load removal

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2

x=r

Analysis type Boundary conditions Applied loads Element type Contact properties FE results

Radial Displacement Point A (in)

A

0.1 0.0 0.0

y

C L

Time (s)

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

CHAPTER 15 241 Tube Flaring

Introduction

A cone-shaped flaring tool is pushed into a cylindrical tube to permanently increase the diameter of the tube end. The goal of the analysis is to determine whether the final shape of the tube, after the entire process, meets the objective. The nonlinear nature of the problem, along with the irreversible characteristics, makes it impossible to know in advance the load required to drive the tool into the tube. As a result, multiple runs through the analysis cycle may be necessary to achieve the final objective of the analysis. This problem demonstrates the use of MD Nastran SOL 400 to analyze a contact problem involving deformabledeformable contact and large elastic-plastic deformations.

Requested Solutions

The requested solutions include the curve of the tube diameter at the right end as a function of loads and the deformed shape of the tube and the tool along with the distributions of von Mises stresses and plastic strains.

FEM Solutions

A numerical solution has been obtained with MD Nastran’s SOL 400 for the element mesh (shown in Figure 15-1) using axisymmetric elements.

x=r y

Figure 15-1

Finite Element Mesh

There are two contact bodies. One is the tube and one is the tool. The two contact bodies with ID 3 and 4 are identified as selected elements of the tube and the tools respectively as:

BCBODY BSURF ... 3 3 115 2D 109 116 DEFORM 110 117 3 111 118 0 112 119 113 120 114

and

BCBODY BSURF ... 4 4 32 2D 25 33 DEFORM 26 34 4 27 35 0 28 36 29 37 30 38 31 39

**242 MD Demonstration Problems
**

CHAPTER 15

Furthermore, the BCTABLE entries shown below identify that these bodies can touch each other.

BCTABLE 0 SLAVE 3 0 fbsh MASTERS 3 SLAVE 4 0 fbsh MASTERS 3 1 SLAVE 3 0 fbsh MASTERS 3 SLAVE 4 0 fbsh MASTERS 3 0.05 0 0.05 0 2 100. 0 0.8 100. 0 0.8 2 100. 0 0.8 100. 0 0.8 0. 0. 0 0.

0.

0.

0

0.

BCTABLE

0.05 0 0.05 0

0.

0.

0

0.

0.

0.

0

0.

**Axisymmetric elements are defined with CQUADX along with PLPLANE and PSHLN2 entries:
**

PLPLANE PSHLN2 + + + + + $ Pset: CQUADX CQUADX … 1 1 1 1 C3 AXSOLID C4 AXSOLID C5 IPS C6 AXSOLID C8 AXSOLID "pshell.1" will 109 1 110 1 1 L L L Q Q be imported as: "plplane.1" 10 144 145 1 144 146 147 145 + + + + +

The Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratios for the tube and the tool are defined as:

MAT1* * MAT1* * 1 1. 2 1. 3.+7 4.+7 1.15385+7 1.53846+7 .3 .3

**The yield stresses along with the hardening are defined respectively as:
**

MATEP 1 Table 36000. TABLES1,1,2,,,,,,,+, +,0.,36000.,0.1,180000.,ENDT, 1 Isotrop Addmean

The NLPARM entry is used to define the nonlinear analysis iteration strategy. There are two load steps: loading and unloading. One hundred (100) uniform time increments are used to solve each load steps. The stiffness matrix will be updated at each iteration (full Newton-Raphson iteration strategy).

NLPARM NLPARM 1 2 100 100 PFNT PFNT 1 1 25 25 U U YES YES

CHAPTER 15 243 Tube Flaring

The tube diameter at the right end of the tube gradually increases during the analysis as the load increases and reaches the maximum of 0.4316 inches. The final tube radial displacement after unloading is settled at 0.4093 inches. See Figure 15-2 for the curve of tube diameter as a function of time (load). The entire analysis procedure can be repeated with various load levels to achieve the desired final tube diameter. The curve is not smooth at the loading path because of the discrete finite elements. It can be improved by refining the finite element meshes.

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2

Radial Displacement Point A (in)

A

x=r

0.1 0.0 0.0

Figure 15-2

y

C L

Time (s)

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

Curve of Tube Diameter as a Function of Time

The deformed mesh and the distribution of von Mises stress at the time the applied load reaches maximum are shown in Figure 15-3. It can be observed that the stresses are concentrated in two areas: the tip of deflection where the tube made contact with the tool and in the area where the tube is deformed.

**244 MD Demonstration Problems
**

CHAPTER 15

x=r

y

Figure 15-3

Deformed Mesh and Distribution of von Mises Stress at Maximum Load

The deformed shape of the tube and the tool along with the distribution of plastic strains at the end of the analysis are shown in Figure 15-4.

x=r

y

Figure 15-4

Deformed Mesh and Distribution of Equivalent Plastic Strains at the End of Analysis

CHAPTER 15 245 Tube Flaring

Input File(s)

File nug_15.dat Description Tube flaring input file.

A cone-shaped flaring tool is pushed into a cylindrical tube to permanently increase the diameter of the tube end. The goal of the analysis is to determine whether the final shape of the tube, afte...

A cone-shaped flaring tool is pushed into a cylindrical tube to permanently increase the diameter of the tube end. The goal of the analysis is to determine whether the final shape of the tube, after the entire process, meets the objective. The nonlinear nature of the problem, along with the irreversible characteristics, makes it impossible to know in advance the load required to drive the tool into the tube. As a result, multiple runs through the analysis cycle may be necessary to achieve the final objective of the analysis. This problem demonstrates the use of MD Nastran SOL 400 to analyze a contact problem involving deformable-deformable contact and large elastic-plastic deformations.

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd