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# Chapter 11: Elastic-plastic Collapse of a Cylindrical Pipe under External Rigid Body Loading

Elastic-plastic Collapse of a
11 Cylindrical Pipe under External

Summary 146

Introduction 147

Requested Solutions 147

FEM Solutions 147

Modeling Tips 152

Pre- and Postprocess with SimXpert 153

Input File(s) 210
146 MD Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 11

Summary
Title Chapter 11: Elastic-Plastic Collapse of a Cylindrical Pipe under External Rigid
Contact features Rigid-deformable contact; Velocity controlled rigid bodies; Elastic perfectly plastic
material; Nonlinear shell elements with large strain plasticity
Geometry Pipe Length = 24”; Pipe Diameter = 8”; Pipe Thickness = 0.4”
+
Move Down
R=4
V = -2 in Rigid
Body 2

Pipe

Rigid Move Up
R=3
Body 1 V = 2 in
+

## Material properties Elastic perfectly plastic material

6
E = 3.0 10 psi  = 0.3  y = 36000 psi

Analysis type Quasi-static analysis using elastic perfectly plastic material, geometric nonlinearity, and
nonlinear boundary conditions
Boundary conditions Both ends of pipe are constrained in all degrees of freedom
Applied loads Both rigid bodies are moving towards the pipe in y-direction with a velocity of 2 in/sec.
for duration of 1 second.
Element type 4-node nonlinear thick shell element
FE results Plot of y-displacement and total plastic strain contours
100000

80000

60000

## 40000 Force Y Top

Force Y Bottom
20000

0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
Die Displacment [in]
CHAPTER 11 147

Introduction
A model of a cylindrical pipe is subjected to crushing as rigid bodies above and below the pipe move inward towards
each other. The model is created using 2-D nonlinear thick shell elements to model the pipe and rigid surfaces above
and below the pipe. The problem attempts to quantify whether the movement of the external structures cause the
plastic collapse of the pipe. Initial contact with the external structures is expected to cause elastic deformation of the
steel pipe. Additional incremental movement potentially subjects the structure to stresses beyond the proportional limit
of the material. The yield stress defines the onset of plastic strains that may initiate the collapse of the structure walls.
This exercise illustrates several SOL 400 capabilities including large displacement analysis, contact analysis between
rigid and deformable bodies, and large strain plasticity modeled with an elastic-perfectly plastic model.

Requested Solutions
The large displacement elastic-plastic contact analysis is carried out using MD Nastran SOL 400 for this rigid to
deformable problem. The application of the nonlinear thick shell element is demonstrated by using the nonlinear
extension PSHLN1 option for the regular PSHELL option. The following results from SOL 400 model are compared
with the results obtained from the Marc model.
• Contour plot for y-displacement
• Contour plot for total equivalent plastic strain

FEM Solutions
A numerical solution has been obtained with MD R2Nastran’s SOL 400 for a 3-D representation of the deformable
pipe structure and two semi-circular sections of rigid pipes sections. The details of finite element model, contact
simulation, material, load, boundary conditions, and solution procedure are discussed in this chapter.

## Finite Element and Contact Model

The finite element mesh for the pipe contains 18 elements around the circumference and 18 elements along the length
for a total of 324 elements. MD Nastran CQUAD4 elements with material ID 1 and thickness 0.4 inches are selected
using the following PSHELL and PSHLN1 entries. The PSHLN1 entry enables SOL 400 to access the thick shell
elements with large strain capabilities. The finite element model used for this simulation is shown in Figure 11-1.
PSHELL 1 1 .4 1 1
PSHLN1 1 1 1 NO +
+ C4 DCT L
148 MD Demonstration Problems
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## Figure 11-1 Finite Element Model used with MD Nastran Simulation

In defining the contact model, the primary pipe section is modeled as a deformable body and the two external pipe
structures are modeled as rigid bodies. Elements comprising the deformable pipe structure are used to generate a
deformable contact body with ID 4 using the following BCBODY and BSURF entries. Contact body IDs 5 and 6 are
used to define the velocity controlled rigid bodies for the two semicircular sections of rigid pipes. The geometry
profiles of the rigid surfaces are defined using 3-D NURB surfaces that describe the true surface geometry and most
accurately represent the curved surfaces.
BCBODY 4 3D DEFORM 4 0
BSURF 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
...
BCBODY 5 3D RIGID 0 1 0
0 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. -2. 0.
RIGID 0 1 CONTACT_TOP
NURBS -13 10 4 4 50 50 0
-2. 8.1 -5.5 -2. 8.1 -4.66667
...
BCBODY 6 3D RIGID 0 1 0
0 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 2. 0.
RIGID 0 1 CONTACT_BOTTOM
NURBS -13 10 4 4 50 50 8
0. -7.1 -5.5 0. -7.1 -4.66667
...

Furthermore, the following BCTABLE entries identify how these bodies can touch each other. BCTABLE with ID 0 is
used to define the touching conditions at the start of the analysis. This is a mandatory option required in SOL 400 for
contact analysis and is flagged in the case control section through the optional BCONTACT = 0 option. The BCTABLE
with ID 1 is used to define the touching conditions for later increments in the analysis, and it is flagged using
BCONTACT = 1 in the case control section.
BCTABLE 0 2
SLAVE 4 0. 0. 0. 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
MASTERS 5
SLAVE 4 0. 0. 0. 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
MASTERS 6
CHAPTER 11 149

BCTABLE 1 2
SLAVE 4 0. 0. 0. 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
MASTERS 5
SLAVE 4 0. 0. 0. 0. 0 0.
0 0 0
MASTERS 6

Material
The isotropic elastic and elastic-perfectly plastic material properties of the deformable body are defined using the
following MAT1 and MATEP options.
MAT1 1 3.+7 .3

The following NLMOPTS entry enables large strain formulation using additive plasticity with mean normal return.
NLMOPTS,LRGS,1

Both ends of the pipe are constrained in all degrees of freedom using the following entries. In addition to this, the top
and bottom rigid surfaces are given velocity vectors of –2 inches per second, and +2 inches per second, respectively
in the y-direction. This causes the upper structure to be pushed down onto the top of the pipe section and the lower
structure to be pushed up into the bottom of the pipe section at a rate of 2 inches per second for a total time of 1 second.
The velocities of these rigid bodies are defined in the BCBODY section.
FORCE 1 1 0 1.-16 1. 0. 0.
SPC1 1 123456 1 THRU 18
SPC1 1 123456 343 THRU 360

Solution Procedure
The nonlinear procedure used is defined through the following NLPARM entry:
NLPARM 1 100 PFNT 0 500 UPV NO

where 100 indicates the total number of increments; PFNT represents Pure Full Newton-Raphson Technique wherein
the stiffness is reformed at every iteration; KSTEP = 0 in conjunction with PFNT indicates that the program
automatically determines if the stiffness needs to be reformed after the previous load increment is completed and the
next load increment is commenced. 500 is the maximum number of allowed recycles for every increment and if this
were to be exceeded, the load step would be cut-back and the increment repeated. UPV indicates that convergence will
be checked on displacements (U) and residuals (P) and V stands for vector component which will do a maximum
component check. NO indicates that intermediate output will not be produced after every increment. The second line
of NLPARM is omitted here which implies that default convergence tolerances of 0.01 will be used for U and P
checking.
150 MD Demonstration Problems
CHAPTER 11

Results
The contour of displacement in y-direction and total equivalent plastic strain in the pipe section from SOL 400
simulations are shown in Figure 11-2 and Figure 11-3, respectively. Similar plots from the Marc simulations are
shown in Figure 11-4 and Figure 11-5, respectively. It is clear from these figures that the predictions from the SOL
400 matches closely with the prediction from Marc.

## Figure 11-2 Y-Displacement Contours from SOL 400 Model

Figure 11-3 Total Equivalent Plastic Strain Contours from SOL 400 Model
CHAPTER 11 151

## Figure 11-4 Y-Displacement Contours from Marc Model

Figure 11-5 Total Equivalent Plastic Strain Contours from Marc Model
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Modeling Tips
• PSHLN1 entry in conjunction with regular PSHELL entry allows the users to make use of the thick shell
element which is capable of handling large strain elasto-plastic applications problems. Users should also make
use of the NLMOPTS,LRGS,1 option to flag the large strain behavior of these element.
PARAM,CDBMSG05,5
after the BEGIN BULK option will output a num-11m.t19 file that has the contact information available for
postprocessing in either Mentat or Patran. With this information, you can plot the normal contact force on the
rigid bodies (Die Forces) versus the Die Displacement as shown in Figure 11-6. The step shaped response is
due to the local collapsing of the curvature of the pipe elements. Using more elements would require smaller
step sizes.

100000

80000

60000

## 40000 Force Y Top

Force Y Bottom
20000

0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
Die Displacment [in]

## Figure 11-6 Die Load versus Die Displacement

• It is possible to make use of load controlled rigid body in place of the velocity controlled rigid body for this
problem. In such case, you should apply necessary displacement boundary condition at the control node of
rigid bodies to simulate its movement in y-direction.
CHAPTER 11 153

## Specify the Model Units

a. Tools: Options
b. Select Units Manager
c. For Basic Units, specify the model units:
Length = mm; Mass = kg; Time = s; Temperature = kelvin, Force = N
d. Click OK

b c

d
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## Create a Part for the Pipe

a. Assemble tab
b. Select Create Part
c. For Title, specify pipe
d. Click OK
e. Observe pipe in the Model Browser Tree

a
b

d
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## a. Geometry tab: Curve/Arc

b. Select Arc
c. Select Circle
e. For X,Y,Z Input, enter -12,0,0
f. Click OK
g. For Circle,1 Radius, enter 4
h. Click OK
i. Fill

c
g
d

e
h

f
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## a. Geometry tab: Curve/Arc

b. Select Arc
c. Select Circle
e. For X,Y,Z Input, enter -7.2,0,0; click OK
f. For X,Y,Z Input, enter 7.2,0,0; click OK
g. For X,Y,Z Input, enter 1.2,0,0; click OK

g
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## Create Mesh for the Pipe

a. Meshing tab
b. Select 2-3-4-Line Mesh
c. For Curves, select 2 curves
d. For On curve 1: enter 18
e. For On curve 2, enter 3
f. Leave On curve 3 and 4 blank
g. Click OK

d
e
f

g
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## Create Mesh for the Pipe (continued)

a. Meshing tab
b. Select 2-3-4-Line Mesh
c. For Curves, select 2 curves
d. For On curve 1: enter 18
e. For On curve 2, enter 12
f. Leave On curve 3 and 4 blank
g. Click OK

d
e
f

g
CHAPTER 11 159

## Create Mesh for the Pipe (continued)

a. Meshing tab
b. Select 2-3-4-Line Mesh
c. For Curves, select 2 curves
d. For On curve 1: enter 18
e. For On curve 2, enter 3
f. Leave On curve 3 and 4 blank
g. Click OK

d
e
f

g
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## Merge Equivalent Nodes

a. Node/Elements tab
b. Select Equivalence
c. For Entities, select Select All
d. Click OK

d
CHAPTER 11 161

## Merge Equivalent Nodes (continued)

a. Node/Elements tab
b. Check for any other coincident nodes by repeating the previous step.
c. Click OK

a
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## Merge Equivalent Nodes (continued)

a. Quality tab
b. Select Fix Elements
c. Select Normal
d. For Element Verify Normals 1: Mode, select Show Normals
e. Select Select All
f. Click OK
g. For Element Verify Normals 1: Mode, select Hide Normals
h. Select Select All
i. Click OK

a
b
c

e f

i
h
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## Save the Intermediate File

a. File tab
b. Select Save As
c. For File name: enter ch11.SimXpert
d. Click Save

c d
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## Create a Part for the Upper-right Body

a. Assemble tab
b. Select Create Part
c. For Title, specify upper_rigid
d. Click OK
e. Observe upper_rigid in the Model Browser Tree

a
b

d
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## a. Geometry tab: Curve/Arc

b. Select Arc
c. Select 3 Points
d. For X,Y,Z Input, enter -2,8.1 -5.524.1 -5.568.1.5
e. Click OK
f. Click OK

d
e
f
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## Create Surface for Upper-rigid Body (continued)

a. Geometry tab:
b. Select Sweep
c. For X,Y,Z Input, enter 0 0 1
d. For Sweep Direction screen, enter Vector
e. For Axis, select Z
f. Click OK

e
f
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## Create Surface for Upper-rigid Body (continued)

a. Geometry tab:
b. Select Sweep
c. For Entities screen select the CURVE/5
d. For Length of Sweep, enter 10
e. Click OK

c
d

e
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## Create a Part for the Lower-rigid Body

a. Assemble tab
b. Select Create Part
c. For Title, specify lower_rigid
d. Click OK
e. Observe lower_rigid in the Model Browser Tree

a
b

d
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## a. Geometry tab: Curve/Arc

b. Select Arc
c. Select 3 Points
d. For X,Y,Z Input, enter -5.5 -3 -4.1 -5.5 -6 -7.1 -5.5
e. Click OK
f. Click OK

d
e
f
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## Create Surface for Upper-rigid Body (continued)

a. Geometry tab:
b. Select Sweep
c. For X,Y,Z Input, enter 0 0 1
d. For Sweep Direction screen, enter Vector
e. For Axis, select Z
f. Click OK

c
d

e
f
CHAPTER 11 171

## Create Surface for Lower-rigid Body (continued)

a. Geometry tab:
b. Select Sweep
c. For Entities screen select the CURVE/5
d. For Length of Sweep, enter 10
e. Click OK

c
d

e
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## a. Materials and Properties tab:

b. Select Isotropic
c. For Isotropic Material screen, select steel
d. For Young’ Modulus, enter 3e7
e. For Poisson’s Ratio, enter 0.3
g. Click Add Constitutive Model, Elasto Plastic

d
e

g
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## a. Materials and Properties tab: Isotropic

b. Click Perfectly Plastic
c. For Initial Yield Stress, enter 36000
d. Click OK

d
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## a. Materials and Properties tab

b. Select Shell
c. For Name, specify pipe_prop
d. Select Entities pipe from Model Browser
e. For Material, specify steel
f. For Part Thickness, enter 0.4
g. Click OK

a
b

d d
e
f

g
CHAPTER 11 175

## a. Materials and Properties tab

b. Select Shell
c. For Name, specify pipe_prop
d. Select Entities pipe from Model Browser
e. For Material, specify steel
f. For Part Thickness, enter 0.4
g. Click OK

a
b

d d
e
f

g
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## a. Materials and Properties tab: Shell

b. Select Non Linear
c. For Membrane material, specify steel
d. For Bending material, specify steel
e. For Analysis type, specify IS
f. For Corner elements keyword, enter 4
g. For Element structural behavior, enter DCT
h. For Integration scheme, enter L
i. Click OK

b
c
d
e

f
g
h
i
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## Define Contact Body for Pipe

a. LBCs tab
b. Select Deformable Body
c. For Name, specify deform_pipe
d. For Pick Entities, select pipe from Part in the Model Browser
e. Click OK

a b

d
d

e
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## Define Contact Body for Upper-rigid Body

a. LBCs tab
b. Select Rigid Body
c. For Name, specify rigid_top
d. For Pick Entities, select SURFACE/1 (upper-rigid body)
e. Click Motion

c
d

e
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## a. LBCs tab: Rigid Body

b. For Velocity, specify X: 0; Y: -2; Z: 0
c. Click Body

b
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## a. LBCs tab: Rigid Body

b. For Inward Normals, click Reverse
c. Click Display
d. Click Preview

b c

d
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## a. LBCs tab: Rigid Body

b. Click Animate
c. Verify rigid_top is moving down
d. Click Exit

b
d

c
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## Define Contact Body for Lower-rigid Body

a. LBCs tab
b. Select Rigid Body
c. For Name, specify rigid_bottom
d. For Pick Entities, select SURFACE/2 (lower-rigid body)
e. Click Motion

c
d
e
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## a. LBCs tab: Rigid Body

b. For Velocity, specify X: 0; Y: 2; Z: 0
c. Click Body

b
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## a. LBCs tab: Rigid Body

b. For Inward Normals, click Reverse
c. Click Display
d. Click Preview

b c

d
CHAPTER 11 185

## a. LBCs tab: Rigid Body

b. Click Animate
c. Verify rigid_bottom is moving up
d. Click Exit

b
d

c
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## Define Contact Table

a. LBCs tab
b. Select Table
c. Click twice on T to disable self contact of the pipe
d. Click OK

d
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## Define Boundary Conditions

a. LBCs tab
b. Select Fixed
c. For Name, specify fix
d. Select nodes at left and right edges of the pipe
e. Click OK

a
b

d d
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## a. Right click on FileSet

b. Select Create new Nastran job
c. For Job Name, enter pipe-crush
d. For Solution Type, select SOL 400
e. For Solver Input File, specify the fine name and its path
f. Unselect Create Default Layout
g. Click OK

a
b

e
f

g
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## a. Right click on Load Case

c. Click OK

a
b

c
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## a. Right click on Loads/Boundaries

b. Select Select Contact Table
c. For Selected BCTable, enter BCTABLE_1
d. Click OK

b
c

d
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## a. Right click on Load Cases

c. For Name (Title), enter subcase-1
d. Click OK

a
b

d
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## a. Right click on Loadcase Control

b. Select Subcase Nonlinear Static Parameters
c. For Stiffness Update Method, select Pure Full Newton (PFNT)
d. For Maximum Iterations for each Load Inc, enter 500
e. Unselect Default Tolerance Setting
f. Check Displacement Error; for Displacement Tolerance, enter 0.01
h. Check Vector Component Method
i. From the Intermediate Output Control pull down menu,
select Every computed load increment (YES)
j. Click Apply
k. Click Close

b
c

e
a
f
g

i
j
k
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## a. Double click on Loadcase Control

b. Select Stepping Procedure Parameters
c. For Number of Steps, enter 100
d. Click Apply
e. Click Close

b
c

e
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## a. Right click on Loads/Boundaries

b. Select Select Lbcs
c. Select fix from the Model Browser
d. Click OK

d
c
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## a. Right click on Loads/Boundaries

b. Select Select Contact Table
c. Select BCTABLE_1 from the Model Browser
d. Click OK

d
c
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## a. Right click on Output Request

b. Select Nodal Output Requests
c. Select Create Displacement Output Request
d. Click Suppress Print
e. Click OK

a
b

e
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## a. Right click on Output Request

b. Select Nodal Output Requests
c. Select Create Contact Output Request
d. Click Suppress Print
e. Click OK

a
b

e
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## a. Right click on Output Request

b. Select Elemental Output Requests
c. Select Create Nonlinear Stress Output Request
d. Click Suppress Print
e. Click OK

e
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## a. Double click on Solver Control

b. Select Solution 400 Nonlinear Parameters
c. Structural Damping Coefficient, select Large Disp and Follower Force
d. Click Apply
e. Creep Analysis Type, select Additive Plasticity for Large Strain Formulation
f. Click Apply
g. Click Close (not shown)

f
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## a. Double click on Solver Control

b. Select Output File Properties
c. Nastran DB Options, select Master/DBALL
d. Binary Output, select OP2
e. Click Apply
f. Click Close (not shown)

b c

e
CHAPTER 11 201

## Create SimXpert Analysis File (continued)

a. File: Save
b. Select pipe-crush
c. Select Run

c
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## Attach the SimXpert Analysis Results File

a. File tab
b. Select Attach Results
c. File path, enter *.Master
d. Attach Options: click Results or click Both to get both model and results data which
enables postprocessing without using model data from SimX database
e. Click OK

e
CHAPTER 11 203

## Attach the SimXpert Analysis Results File (continued)

a. Results: Deformation
b. Deformation tab: Deformed display scaling, check True
c. Plot Data tab: Plot type select Deformation
d. Results entities: Results cases: select last increment
e. Results entities: Results type: select Displacements, Translational
f. Click Update

f
c e

d
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## Attach the SimXpert Analysis Results File (continued)

a. Animation tab
b. Results cases: select SC1:Step 1 (selects all increments)
c. Results entities: Results type: select Displacements, Translational
d. Click Update

d
c

b
CHAPTER 11 205

## Attach the SimXpert Analysis Results File (continued)

a. Animation tab
b. Click Pause icon to stop animation

a
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## Attach the SimXpert Analysis Results File (continued)

a. Results: Fringe
b. Animation tab
c. Results entities: Results cases: select SC1:Step 1 (selects all increments)
d. Results entities: Results type: select Nonlinear Strains, Plastic Strain
e. Fringe tab: Display settings tab: select Element edges
f. Label attributes, select color of labels
g. Click Update

c d

f
CHAPTER 11 207

## Attach the SimXpert Analysis Results File (continued)

a. Use shift + Right click on the mouse to rotate the model in SimXpert to view results in
various parts of the pipe
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## Attach the SimXpert Analysis Results File (continued)

a. Results: Fringe
b. Animation tab: click Pause icon to stop animation
c. Plot Data tab: Results type: Contact Status: select Normal contact force
d. Click Update

d
c
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