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SEX AND DREAMS
THE LANGUAGE OF DEEAMS
BY
DR.

WILLIAM STEKEL
(VIENNA)

Authorized translation by

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VAN TESLAAR,
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BOSTON

RICHARD

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THE GORHAM PRESS

COPYRIGHT, 1922, BY RICHARD G. BADGER
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As one of the pioneers in this great work Dr.TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE Language of Dreams. Wm. Without the information it yields regarding the operations of man's Unconscious. and which often baffle their best efforts in the absence of the kind of knowledge re- vealed through this very art of dream interpretation. is intended as a guide to the interpretation of the Unconscious for those Stekel's is Dr. Stekel himself has applied the revelations of dream analysis to other fields of scientific But the inquiry. conceivable. the general practitioner and the specialist alike. is devoted almost entirely to correlating the subjects* dreams with the neurotic character traits which confront the psychotherapeutist. the first who are concerned professionally with nervous disorders. The Language of Dreams. of which herewith portion presented to the English reading professional ranks. 5 . a wider field present work. The interpretation of dreams has become an indispensable aid. The balance of the work will appear as soon as the demand for it will make itself felt. the rational management of nervous ills is well-nigh in- The art of dream interpretation has of application and elsewhere Dr.

and from the superficial to the deeper layers the same time the author himof symbolization. the interpretations proceeding from the simpler dream elements to the more complex. well versed in the theoretical im- plications and in the theories which form the foundation of dream analysis. should be regarded in the of working hypotheses rather than as final principles." The principles of dream interpretation are not discussed They are revealed and outlined briefly abstractly. Throughout the work the emphasis upon Abstract speculation is reduced to a minimum. self warns us that the whole art of dream analysis is At but a recent scientific procedure. Dream analysis is The a task that calls for unusual candor and pa- . practice. The contents appreciated that it are carefully graded. are numerous pitfalls for the unwary. of course. the author must be made serviceable to who have had little or no premany practitioners vious training in this kind of work. Moreover. Numerous deThe accepted gener- alizations. in connection with typical illustrative is dreams. he points out.6 Translator's Preface is Stekel. tails remain to be worked out. in preparing this volume. Nevertheless in his Lan- guage of Dreams he has kept strictly to the practical task of showing "how the analysis is done. and the consulting psychologist should light test them out for himself. interpretation of dreams is far from being There as easy a task as appears at first glance.

Properly carried out the analysis of dreams reveals depths of the human It fortifies our professoul hitherto unsuspected. StekePs expert application of psychoanalytic principles. time has come for the English reading professional ranks to profit by Dr. so skilfully presented The psychology and technique of dream interpreby Dr.Translator's Preface tience. Stekel in the work of which the present volume is the first portion. tation. 7 do the work successfully presupposes an immense amount of general knowledge and a broad It is an art that involves cultural background. To Above all. with sional endeavours knowledge of the highest orthe latest scientific methods thus inour creasing professional efficiency and enlarging our capacity for serving our fellow-men is a grati- der. one qualifications of the highest order. But after one has schooled himself to the task the results are most gratifying. constitutes a most important method for getting at the vital facts underlying our mental functions during health and disease. must be willing to go through a rigorous mental discipline in order to approach the task of dream interpretation without any preconceived bias and without the handicap of subtle emotional resistances. To adopt fying achievement. Those who desire to penetrate the riddle of dreams as a means The towards increasing their knowledge of human nature as it portrays itself reflected in nervous ills should .

Brookline. 1922. . The prepa- ration of the English version has been undertaken with that end in view. VAN TESLAAB August 10. Mass.8 find the present Translator's Preface work an invaluable aid.

thinks of the act of telephoning 55 - Ill Superficial aspects of moon and the earth dream interpretation The The "Rathaus" dream life Representation of unbridled 73 IV Symbolism of Mother Earth the sinking tree Representation of The fear of self 93 V Dream masks Pursuit dreams The political dream about Bismarck The wonderful villa The dream about the baker Contrary meaning of aboriginal words The psychology of the Don Juan type Savings bankbook and love Evil thoughts of childhood The skillful fencer The dark man. and from the front. A. upwards. Cont. Transposition from below.CONTENTS CHAPTBR PAQB -^ I The meaning of symbolism What is a symbol? The dream about the slain woman Lovesick humanity Dream of the jealous father and myth Dream 15 II The analysis of a simple dream The dream about the telephone The ballad of the poor eagle What Mrs. a symbol for death 107 VI Dream masks. backwards Scorn under the mask of gentility A dream which must be interpreted in reverse sense The second symbolic equation The symbolization of scornful love Why dream the child calls "Papa!" A bio- graphic 139 9 .

the dreamer seeks the male in the woman 187 X Symbolism of left and right in dreams as substitute for incest The father The cousin must leave diplo- Symbolism of the spiral matic behavior Dream about 213 XI The dreams sweets of a doubter The dream about stolen books The dream about The sec237 ond version XII The symbolism of life and death in the dream The long sharp sword in the dream Masturbation represented by pocket The matricide idea Blood for spermatic fluid 251 XIII Speech in dreams The symbolism of conversation Color symbolism of Mr. . 161 VIII The splitting of personality in the dream The dream of a judge: villa and prison The museum dream Transformations and bisexuality five fingers 175 ^A IX An old dream in a The meaning of new light Bi- sexual symbols All dreams are bisexual How .10 CHAPTER Contents PAGE VII Dream masks brave servant fusion Displacement and Criminal (asocial) instincts The . . S Representation of the emotions in the dream The dream of "getting ready" A clergyman's dream The root of foot fetichism Triumph over the father 271 XIV Dream Infantile roots of the fear of contact thoughts and compulsive images Why the 281 dreamer "wonders" Index of Subjects 315 318 319 Index of Names Index of Symbols .

traveller after having gone says to himself. It would be unfair to appraise humanity on the basis of the results of these investigations. and only with the evil. Perhaps I can make myself clear best through stranger comes into some town unfamiliar to him. My get that there is also another side. he looks over very thoroughly and with great enthusiasm its monuments of art . to every virtue.AUTHOR'S PREFACE Every mental activity is dominated by the law of "bipolarity" to every instinct there corresponds a counter-instinct. He then departs believing he has become Another thoroughly acquainted with the town. For this work deals specifically with the evil in human naBut we must not forture. work treats of the secrets of the human soul. some weakness. One can : never understand the nature of fails to man so long as one take into consideration this fact. a vice. he an example: A is charmed by' the beautiful sights which culture has provided. through the program suggested by the usual traveller's guide : Now I want to look into the reverse side 11 . to every manifestation of strength.

to penetrate the true character of human nature. and he discovers once more that only he is able truly to appraise the light side of the picture who has familiarized himself also with its shadows. They are not intended for inexperienced lay persons whose minds may be confused rather than enlightened by these investigations.12 of the life Author's Preface of this place! He knows that the pom- pous formal life has its seamy side. It is of acquiring insight into the very depths of the human soul and thus enables us. My work should not be merely read. for the first time. tested out. jurists. I have been guided pri- marily by practical requirements. My tions of the investigations are concerned with the foundahuman soul. This field opens to us the opportunity mental horizon will be enlarged. for the person . mental hygienists. In the conception of this book. the result of many years of diligent labour. The theoretical aspects and the past literature concerning dreams have been covered so well by Freud that I must refer all those interested to that author's fundamental and highly instructive work. is it must be I welcome every criticism so long as it not dictated by blind prejudice. edu- psychologists will undoubtedly find herein a certain amount of inspiration and their cators and high time that we devote greater attention to the facts of our dream life. Physicians.

the ladder. additionally. it fol- This was my own lows only after personally testing out the prin- ciples. when I first began to devote myself to the subject of dreams. : everything This book at this is is in the process of but a rung in becoming formulated. experience. one fact the interpretation of dreams is a science in the process of formation. . I may point out. Who can time measure the majestic heights evento be attained by the structure to which the tually present work is but a stepping stone? STEKEL.Author's Preface 13 unfamiliar with the problem of dream interpretation will be inclined to look upon some of the state- ments in the book as somewhat forced and perhaps artificial. Conviction cannot arise through reading alone. Everything about it is in a state of flux.

.

THE MEANING OF THE SYMBOLISM WHAT IS A SYMBOL? THE DREAM ABOUT THE SLAIN WOMAN LOVESICK HUMANITY DREAM OF THE JEALOUS FATHER DREAM AND MYTH .

Sie milssten finden. dieses Traumleben miisste sie aufmerksam machen.] and be would they that would They -find Kurnburger .Wahrlich. here nature has already disclosed the first hint of the great riddle which man is so thirsty to solve. if men were more delicate sensitive to observe hints. wdren die Menschen sinniger. {Truly interpret '. nature's roused by their dream life. die Natur uns hier scJion die erste Sible eingefltistert hat. die feinen Winken der Natur zu beobachten und zu deuten. nach dessen Losung sie dilrsten. dass von dem grossen Rdtsel.

at any rate." says Nietzsche. can hardly visualize. too. The dream was considered art of cient one. for instance: because the ancients believed in dreams. the simple folk have never looked upon dreams as "foam." Contrary to the learned men. were capable of man through the dream That was a period which we." Within their soul there persisted a belief in the reality of this 15 . belonging to a sophisticated age. evil into contact with powers. have changed.SEX AND DREAMS dream interpretation is a most anSome of the oldest documents relate to dream interpretations. Usually it was the voice of divinity that was speaking through the medium of dreams. "We no longer understand precisely how ancient mankind felt about the most ordinary and common facts of life about daylight and about waking up. The an intermediary between the higher forces of nature and mankind. their waking life had another coloring. "The lights and shadows and the coloring. But demons and coming life.

game * The extensive literature on dreams has been adequately considered by Freud to whose work the interested reader is referred. 1 1 want to take this opportunity to state that I have not disdained to look over the various Egyptian and Persian dream I wanted to find out whether our knowledge derived books. But the belief rested stub- bornly on what might be termed the "historic" background: the people wanted to interpret the future through the dream. so-called. derivation of this belief is the A application of the dream to mercenary ends. ingless They look upon the dream as a mean- sciousness. That is but rarely the case. play of the phantasy uncontrolled by conEven so. impress me as being deliberate artefacts. We ought to see what we can make out of it. The transposition of dream pictures into numbers is clearly traceable to the lottery which is only a few centuries old. The dream was looked upon as the infallible prophet. 1 The "cultured" classes reas their duty superiorily to smile at such practices. which circulate among the people.16 psychic Sex and Dreams experience. Here and there an investigator occasionally tried to penetrate the riddle of dreams. Whoever could interpret dreams possessed the gift to solve the riddle of the future. through the modern analysis of dreams is in any way corroborated in the old writings. . ordinary reflection should have suggested the thought that here was raw material of great psychic value. But these promising 2 beginnings only led to far-fetched theories. The dream books. though in a distorted form. transposition of the diligently role The dream pictures into figures is practiced to this day and plays a great among it gard the people.

dle ages The naive conception of the mid- was that the dream represents a struggle between heaven and hell. in his primordial character. It is the eternal warfare between instinct and re- pression. Hence the first conception about the origins of dreams." power of dreams is greater The dream is the bridge be- tween the real and the supersensory world. a contest between God and Satan.Meanmg Anatole France is of Dreams 17 states : justified when he "I am firmly convinced that the than that of reality. the gods. That combat has always fascinated man's From Job and Jesus down to Faust and fancy. The back as temptation or as the influence of demonic powers. between man. it reflects is a gift sent down by commands and warns. that the dream The divine voice annunciates and praises dream interpreter of former ages claimed the gift of understanding that secret language and to be able thereby to foretell the future. it through the dream. Divinity is the projection of our ideal into inlieved in finity. what a wealth of poetic creations! Parsifal. The ancient peoples knew this better than we. What we demand command. . But not only is the ideal self projected into inThe evil self is also refracted outwardly and finity. They be- dreams and through the dream they felt themselves nearer their divinity. to us as God's of our ideal self appears All appearances of self are continually referred to an ideal that stands supreme.

Our cul- ture requires the continual repression of our cravThe higher man ascends upon the cultural ings. and himself. Culture means smooth-working inhibition.e. Social progress is based on the annihilation of individualism. tions. with unpleasure. the smaller becomes the span of his individual freedom. which arises out of the non-fulfillment of wishes and with the pleasure which accompanies and .. it of all inhibitions of a religious and ethical The term conscience in itself shows that evil. The greater the stronger the social rights of the individual. Hence the cleft which arises between the pictures of the waking self and the hallucinations of the dream. pertains to a knowledge of good and The primitive man has so such knowledge. under the which breaks forth in this wonderful symbolic picture. scale the stricter are the laws which impose the ethical strictures of the society in which he finds himself. is The dream is a hal- Consciousness the bearer of inhibi- The ethical self first assumes control of conit sciousness and then of attempts to penetrate into the depths the unconscious.18 Sex and Dreams tinsel of culture. He is familiar only with the promptings of his cravings. the stricter also the limitations which the individual must impose upon himself for the benefit of all. represents an indulgence in fancies without the intervention of consciousness or under a limited control lucination. the social freedom. The dream by the latter. i. Conscience is the sum character.

the dream portrays secret symbolic language." states latest writing on dreams. etc. we disregard likewise the ancient hypotheses which were based on the premise of an intervention of evil powers. But the tremendous gap which exists between the requisites of self leads our cultural and those of our elemental The cultural self eventually to a strange state of affairs. It fails to recognize the lanthe primordial self. also \ lightning divinity. Its its images in a language is the Ianguage of the primordial man. pass conception according to which the dream was merely a senseless play of mental eleover the old What is the function of the dream? We ments . or assumes not to know. The writings. The art of dream interpret tation consists of transposing this symbolic lan- guage into everyday terms. For that reason. "Our relations to the world. . and of the dream thus carries out more comguage pletely its attitude of "innocent" ignorance. too. A expressed himself in symbolic earliest written documents are symbolic sword signifies fight. The primordial man in us lives again in the dream. 1 "is Freud in his from the outset such *Vorlesungen iiber Psychoanalyse (Wien. a tree nature. We turn directly to the theory of Freud. 1920). For man's aborigi- ! nal ancestor form. who regards the dream as a wish fulfillment. knows not.The Wish-Fulfilment Theory 19 follows their gratification.

He lieve in telepathic dreams. Therefore we withdraw from time to time into the primthat state which is characteristic of ordial state. it can lay claim only to two thirds of us: for one third of our existence we are as if we were yet unborn." This one example from Freud's latest work is enough to show the one-sided character of his conception of dreams. forgetting one's present." pressed the same idea in my monograph. Some of us curl up and actually assume during sleep a position very close to that which is characteristic of the infant when resting within the mother-body. But he brushes . darkness." Hebbel has expressed fittingly the same thought more the dubious without recourse to notion sinking back into the intra-uterine state: I have ex"Sleep is a sinking into one's self. Every rising in the morning is thus like a new birth.20 Sex and Dreams that we cannot endure it without a break. The Will to of a Sleep. means reexperiencing and pre-feeling one's one's future. our intra-uterine existence. Into this procrustean bed of wish he wedges in every dream. The dream is and remains for him a wish fulfillment. as follows: "Sleep past. and absence of stimuli. At least we create for ourselves an environment very close to it: warmth. lects altogether the telepathic Thus he negdoes not beaside also dreams which do not happen to fit in with his theory. It looks as if the world does not possess us wholly as adults.

In the work mentioned above Freud dream and adds his interpreta- He states: . But if we investigate the inhibitions we find back of them also the influences of culture: warnings. a dramatization in which the cravings as well as the inhibitions find pictorial representa- I which even foreign thoughts may crop tion.The Wish^FulfUment Theory all 21 other dreams. If one sees only they cravings. out through telepathic means. which we must recognize as denoting warning or anxiety as well as the dreams which we may call "instructive. the craving for power. relates a peculiar tion. religiosity and moral Perhaps trast it conception will be more clear if I conwith Freud's in connection with a concrete my illustration. foreshawdoings. preparation for the future. the nutritional instinct. for self-aggrandizement. we must look upon the dream as a picture of both sides of the combat. one may be easily led to the erroneous conin and ception which I myself have held for a time. etc. his under the struggle of man with himself dual aspect as the heir of primordial in- stincts and as the representative of culture. restrictions of every kind. For back of every wish there always stands some craving: the sexual instinct. that the dream is merely a wish fulfillment." Anxiety is always for him the sign of a repressed wish. But knowing that the dream portrays the eternal warfare between craving and inhibition.

half past eleven. clock man. will be informed by the genial master that the dream is dreamer wishes to capable of punning and wit.22 Sex and Dreams "One of my patients had lost her father during the treatment. rather forced. the dream element in question but this association On account of ceryields no light on its meaning. She made him in the dream the primordial man. it is a quarter of twelve. critical revulsion against the beloved and honored father had its share in this dream. (Urmensch. primordial man. by having him call out the quarter hours for the noon meal. apparently in a direction remote from the dream proper. and the obliging . tain considerations which arose in the course of the treatment the suspicion seemed justified at the time that a carefully repressed. a play on words!)" Any one finding this play of words between Uhrmensch.' Towards the solution of this strange dream feature the patient recalls merely that the father always wanted to see the children gather for their meals on That undoubtedly had something to do with time. Since then she takes every opporIn one tunity to find him again in her dreams. The see her father. the subject relates that she had listened the day before to a lengthy psychologic discussion when a relative said 'The primordial man lives in each of now think we understand her. and Urmensch. Continuing further her associations. of her dreams the father appears in a certain and says: 'It is a quarter past connection . That gave us !' her an excellent chance to conjure into life once more her deceased father. : We Uhrmensch. . eleven.

no kindlier attitude. I would have conceived this dream as a warning. conjured up (hallucinatorily) by her yearning to see him again. The for God's judgment. with which to approach his child? . we may A power draws appreciate the patient's trouble. half past eleven. It cried out to her: "Life is short! well! the father Use your days (the ghost hour). Soon twelve flight of bells will strike Soon your day will be over!" is very ingeniously indicated "a quarter past admonition: by progressive eleven. This earthly must be but a as if preparation for the life eternal. her towards indulgence and enjoyment and another pulls her in the direction of renunciation and selffather appears as the representative of authority (also of the divine) and admonishes her: "Renounce all earthly joys and prepare thycontrol. Therefore." But is this dream a wish fulfillment? If the self father appeared in response to her wish. of life She is interested in the question life is after death. a quarter of twelve. a typical clear wish fulfillment. The death of her father had strongly influenced the patient and caused her thoughts to shift from worldly to super- mundane themes. The day of judgment is near.The Wish-Fulfilment Theory 23 dream fulfills her wish." Since the neurosis expresses the struggle between craving The time the and repression under the form of an ailment. would he have found no other words. according to Freud. for the life eternal.

dream seeks solutions for unsolvable problems. It is an apposition of past and present and a foreshadowing of the future. as the riddle of The dream is in fact as inexhaustible yet as transparent as man. She will continue to wander on the path of asceticism and self-denial.24 I see in this Sex and Dreams dream merely the power of conscience. The dream is the stream of our mental life as it flows out of the unexplored depths through the filter of conscience and up to the level of awareness. a dying for the day. This dream is a warning and it foreshadows at the same time the subject's future. And. according to the power The (craving or inhibition) which pervades it. I hear an anguish- ing outcry which fills me with compassion. not start out with any precondoes one provided Are the thoughts of a person in ceived notions. man and the waking state reducible to a single formula? Do we think merely in terms of wish fulfillment? This question is rendered superfluous when we take into consideration the factor of conscience alone. Letters of flame proclaim in the subject's dream the approach of that end which overtakes every one. I sense the torturing anxiety. It is what about the character of the dream? wish or a warning. Every falling asleep is is waking up a rebirth. I note the racking regret over a life misspent or lost. Its realm is inexhaustible and it is not to be encased within the narrow limits of a formula. Every The thought of death re- .

And thus we die many times.Death veals itself in Dreams in 25 the in curious pictures dreams. Traum ein Leben. And every dream dramatizes dream is of itself plastically this bitter combat. judge and defendant alike. Contributions to the Psychology of the Artist and of Creative Activity. . amidst fears and regrets. we hear the swan song in the midst of all the frivolous cravings. every a proof that humanity strives to grow out and up towards unsuspected heights. It is if the ideal as which we have shifted to infinity at night finds the path back to us again. with treacherous selfseeking and forbidden cravings. Though we forget the fact of death during the day. as if we are trying every night to overcome once more the demons which incite us from one indulgence to another and which fill our childish heart with envy and with feelings of revenge. Within ius Bes heaven and within us earth. English version by Dr. In 1 Grillparzer's wonderful drama. Analysis of this drama in my: Poetry and Neurosis. Van Teslaar. Every night provides a cleansing purgatory for our world of thoughts. critically. James S. the last accounting. 1 Vid. the dream brings back to our mind the eternal "memento mori !" Each one of us hears the admonishing voice: "It is a quarter of twelve!" And we hear it in the midst of our en- tangling wishes. and we pass again and again through thus we look over our past appraisingly. and though the bustle of daily existence may stifle the voice of conscience.

" appreciated. states Feuchtersleben. symbolism in human life is not yet "All art is symbolism. as a picture of the struggle The artist has between craving and inhibition. . "The most important task of role of sufficiently The my career. schooling for the interpretation of The proper dreams involves an appropriate new conception of language. speaking as an artist. the keen tracing of double meanings and familiarity with symbolisms and with the processes of dream distortion." states Hebbel. It is not an easy art to acquire.26 Sex and Dreams we find a wonderful expression of this function of the dream as a warning. cial training It requires speIt in- and a great deal of patience. drama the key to the un- But we must be grateful to Freud for having shown us the path leading into the realm of dreams and for having been the first to penetrate with the pioneer's keen eye the veil which has kept the dream a secret. Any the art of dream interpretation. furnished us in this poetic derstanding of dreams. To-day the interpretation of dreams has become an indispensable aid in the practice of psyone intending to be helpful as a psychotherapeutist must familiarize himself with chotherapy. volves careful testing for one's self of the results thus far gained until one acquires the requisite knowledge and conviction through personal observation and experience.

peculiariall are more or less hidden symbolties. Without knowledge of symbolism the interpretation of dreams is an impossible task. of tracing the double meanings and of becoming famil- iar with the distortion. II Franz Deutike Leipzig. The proper training for dream interpretation consists of learning to read aright its language. To Rudolf Klempaul Sprache ohne Worte (Language without Words) and his more elaborate work entitled." states Feuchtersleben." Symbolism pervades all our existence. particularly. Das Leben der Sprache (Leipzig. 1909). his isms. Friedrich. customs. thought. customs. Language. "All art but symbolism. "The most important task of my life" declares Hebbel. symbolisms and processes of dream The still significance of symbolism in human life is is but insufficiently recognized." Symbolism pervades all our life. Wm. . "I re- gard the symbolization of my inner life. 1888). beliefs and thoughts are more or less cryptic symbolisms.Symbolism 27 "I regard the symbolization of my inner life. Schrift en zur angewandten Seelenkunde. belongs the credit of having shown up the tremendous significance of symbolism. What 8 is truly a symbol? Riklin states 3 : (Wienu. Language. through his various works.

impressive both to the eye and to the ear. the case. in military service denoting the field postal station. it enables me to know that the station has postal connections with places not on that line. and in various other connections. At frequently used as signs of recognition among members of secret organizations. Why does not some other sign stand for postal connections in the railroad time guide? The postal horn is something that originally belonged to the postal service. an abbreviation for someWhen I look over a railroad time table and find a 'postal sign* in the form of the familiar horn mark. with the Runic Characters. . Symbols are portance in that connection tuations. "Usually the concept symbol embodies also something mystical (or mysterious). although its im- on account is not without its flucthe present time we no longer have the long-distance drivers lustily blowing their horn. The 'mysterious' feature consists of the fact that only the initiated is That was familiar with the meaning of the sign. But the horn persists as a sign in the railroad time guides. It is particularly fitting as a symbol of its history and development in connection with the thing it signifies. Thus we find here two additional features which belong to the symbol. the signs among the Freemasons. as for instance. for instance. "A spicuous signs.28 Sex and Dreams symbol is a sign. The sign chosen for a symbol stands in associative inner. relationship to the thing it signifies and is meaningful. as well as outer. Although no longer an essential part of that service it was formerly one of its most conthing more elaborate. "But the symbol stands for more than that. against the name of a station.

in the course of its developmental history it may gradually assume varied significance and stand for a number of things: the postal horn may be variously taken. may interpret it falsely or only in a sense with which he happens to be familiar. In a distant mountain village it means one thing. to a number of cumstances: plausible interpretations. that it takes in thousands of association paths. in a psychologic sense. for instance. that. "This indication of possible meanings shows that the sign or symbol stands for a summation or fusion of all the possible associations. too. has the advantage and disadvantage at the same time. Any one who is not ex- perienced and does not know the symbol in all its possible applications. Developmental what lends churchly ceremonials history and the changes in meaning incidental thereto are enough to obscure the true meaning of the symbol to all but the initiated. or cirit may mean 'junction* when placed the station name in a railroad time guide. This leads to of the symand the sense* 'shadowy many-sidedness bol lends itself.Symbolism 29 which only certain persons could read. is their power of impressing the human sensitive mind. for that reason. of containing numerous symbols which may be interpreted in any one of various ways. It is characteristic of the dream symbol." (Wunscherfiillung und Symbolik im Mdrchen. "Because the symbol is only a sign. for instance. only a part of the original thing which it stands for. The Bible.) . against or 'postal connection* when found in a circular. on a uniform sleeve it stands for something else. and may mean any one of a number of things according to the locality.

The brothers at once interpreted the dream to tied sheafs We mean that Joseph "Shalt thou will surpass them: be our king and rule over us?" Even we children of this age could not interpret the dream otherwise. 8. 4 Before beginning to describe the art of dream interpretation proper let briefly to the Bible us turn our attention dreams and to the Greek art of I know no more fitting examples interpretation. 4 There is an excellent German translation of this work by Friedr. Unfortunately. your sheafs bowed before my sheaf. was his : owed on the field and my sheaf stood (1) and upright. the most significant portion. The first dream which he told his brothers. The best known is the dream interpretation of Joseph. has been omitted. The anwere further advanced in that respect. . whose book The Symbolism of Dreams is worthy of the modern psychoanalyst's attention. The Symbolism of the Sexual Processes. The great fault of modern dream interpreters was precisely the fact that they knew nothing about symbolism. found in the first book of Moses. Vienna. Krauss (Hartleben. How impressive is the symbolism of dreams set forth in cients the Bible ! And how completely rounded out appears entitled the symbolism of Artemidoros of Daldis. for introducing the subject of dream symbolism.30 Sex cmd Dreams Without a knowledge of symbolism the interpretation of dreams is impossible. 1881). Joseph high position entirely to his extraordinary ability to interpret properly his master's dreams.

we are justified to surmise favorable augury regarding the future of any one whose youth is filled with such dreams.Symbolism 31 Only we are able to conclude from it that it is the dream of an ambitious person.. merely by swaying the limbs or the body. cit. as an angel. And since ambition carries one far. Sometimes the flight through air is carried on without wings. 236) amples (4) Some one dreamed of being tied with a chain developed : 8 In modern dreams "ambition" is symbolized by modern means: the ambitious person flies high above the heads of all others in a balloon. These interpretations exhibit a remarkable grasp of dream symbolism. moon and the eleven This dream led to his supposed perdition and was the beginning of his miraculous good luck. 5 also denotes sim- The second of Joseph's dreams ilar ambition: stars (%) I thought the sun and the bowed before me. aeroplane. which eat up the seven fat cows he genially interpreted as seven years of famine which were to follow seven years of abundance. Equally remarkable are Joseph's further interpretations of dreams : (3) The seven ugly starved cows. . p. The art of dream interpretation was similarly among the Greeks. or according to the good old fashion. and I quote two exfrom Artemidoros (loc. especially when one is endowed with the necessary wisdom and with indefatigable energy.

through the flesh of an animal. first and that. that dream led to a course of action which he might have adopted even in the absence of the dream. This glimpse into the future is as clever as the next prophecy of Artemidoros which I shall presently relate. Possibly only in a short time. for in that position he covld not get away from the holy place. . "That man eventually sold his own wife and made money out of the shameful deed. (5) Thereupon he dreamed that he was very joyful over and he attempted to hide the money he had gained. The second dream from the work of Artemidoros shows a symbolism to which we will have occasion In that dream picture the frequently to revert. Poseidon . too." In the case of that man. on account of the jealousy of those around. sexual is represented as flesh: the sensuous in man. one becomes a priest who did not unless he were coerced. . first wish it. As he could look upon the dream as an order from the Gods. of bartering with and offering her flesh for sale. . wish was father to the thought. No . He dreamed what he lacked the courage of carrying out. That source of income proved very profitable but he found it necesit sary to keep the matter from any one's knowledge. and that he earned a great sum thereby. Some one dreamed of seduc'mg and sacrificing own his wife.32 Sex cmd Dreams He became a priest of to the post of Poseidon. long before the deed.

for the well known Jester- This Turkish Eulenspiegel is Poet. I limit myself to one account of a jest of Buadem (lit- man"). Mullendorf. the publisher. De Somniis. (Jokingly:) "Give me ten paras (the smallest monetary unit current m Constantinople) and I will interpret the dream for you. author of a book. his wife The dreamer and acquire the From the art of dream interpretation of the East one might also draw some excellent examples. philosopher and mathematician. . and whose faith in the prophetic truth of 6 Die Schwanke des Nas*r-ed-din und Buadem." son. quite five or six years of age. 2736. Cardanus." 6 my "My dream. sell can hardly wait to gain. supposed to have "flourished" during the fourteenth century. is only a pseudonym devised by Mehemed erally "that Tewfik. Nassr-ed-dm.Impatience 33 T% The dream rl is a dream of impatience. that has a 99 Let us now take a long jump all the way into the sixteenth century and turn our attention to a dream of the famous physician. the when he related following dream to his father: (6) "Father." "If I had ten paras. a name which. Reklam Bib- liothek. last night I have seen fancy cakes Buadem was not m good meaning. I would not be dreaming of cakes. according to Dr.

The gate was open and I saw a girl clad in white. after a resemblance with a face he had seen in dreams . dormant. I begged him most fervently to leave the gate open.34 his Sex and Dreams dreams was so unshakable that he chose his wife. the dream had prophesied for him the awakening of previously in his passion. particular woman's been company. the daughter of a highway robber. I embraced and kissed her. no poet. I was at the entrance to that garden. the story: (7) One night I found myself in a beautiful garden of flowers and fruit. I want to avoid for the pres- . no human thought could have conjured up anything more charming. but at the very first kiss the gardener bolted the gate close. It seemed to me that I felt sad about it and I was still clmging to the girl when I was locked out. That an impotent man should crave that He had entrance into the "garden of love" any one may Here is how Cardanus relates easily understand. A soft air pervaded everything so that no painter. Often the whole dream is devoted to a symbolic dramatization. But the symbolism is not always so obvious and plain as in this example. What is a man of rich imagery likely to dream about when the garden of love closes on him? This beautiful example shows us the day wish in a symbolism but partly covered up. impotent up to his thirtyfourth year.

" The dream takes words in we must conceive the processes pictorially.Garden of Love 35 ent the more complicated problems which we shall have to consider later. "This dream has achieved plest of means. and the dream situation merely depicts the colloquialism 'mit Schimpfworten um sich is werfen.) Occasionally we are compelled thus to reduce the situations and pictures of a dream back to Redewendungen. Interpretation of Dreams." (Freud. who finds this end through the simby taking a colloquialism literally and representing the picture to which it 'Monkey. "colloquialisms. That requires a special art and particular practice. I shall merely quote an example from Freud's Interpretation of Dreams show- ing how the dream expresses colloquialisms through pictures. namely. Both must be acquired. A She throws the animals at the dreamer. translated by Brill. a derogatory term. gives rise. the chimpanzee clings to the latter. .' like almost any animal name. as if preparing for window cleaning and carries a chimpanzee and a gorilla cat (later corrected to angora cat) with her. its very disagreeable. lady dreams: (8) A servant girl climbs on the ladder. In order to illustrate what I have just stated I record now a brief dream with a very significant a literal sense.' 'hurling insult'.

r. 8 Dr. 1908). (9) 1 see before me a large wooden picture of the I take a chip out of it. He is unable to state why. Binet-SangU. For the present I have merely attempted to indicate in a few general lines The underthe foundations of dream symbolism. even strongly so. is This dream bolic sense. T . book. though outwardly a fanatic free The day before the dream he had read a thinker. That is a strong disadvantage in a work of this character. (The Insanity of Jesus). But it cannot be done otherwise. their recognition impossible. Suddenly he had to give up the reading. The also to be understood in a symdreamer is still a believer at heart. La Folie de Jesus (Paris. The further significance of this dream and the relationship between anxiety and wish need not be taken up at this time. We have had even before Freud some For the subjects whose dreams are repeatedly quoted I have adopted substitutive designations in the form of Greek The names of all persons are changed so as to make letters. Gottheit Jierausgenommen (a German colour "chip on the shoulder" unlike not loquialism expression) . entitled 8 La Folie de Jesus The deeper seine reasons for this compulsion-like act are Er hat sich etwas gegen revealed in this dream. It was a compulsiveLike a commandment: Now. Maloine. standing of symbolism forms the basis of dream interpretation. 7 a man suffering of anxiety has the following dream: Christ.36 content. Discretion is the first duty of the psychotherapeutist. quit reading! like act. Sex and Dreams Beta.

it is called il maschio di Volt erra. He points out that language as a whole is sexualized and symbolized. p. Is it not remarkable that our language (the author here refers. have dwelt on the symbolic conception of life as a whole. The race seems to have It cannot put the male and female lost its reason! out of its mind. "Indeed. naturally. "The iris is called 'das Mddchen des AugesS lit- . particularly in the chapter on Die Psychopathia Sexualis des Volkes (loc. Schubert and Kleinpaul.. half morbidly. it cannot see an elevation or a hole without thinking of sex and if it is a tower in which prisoners are languishing away. These investigators have also boldly pointed out the sexual symbolism. Language is is full of sexual symbols. But is that the case only in dreams? One should consult what Klempaul has to say on the subject in his work entitled Das Leben der Sprache.Language Symbols 37 intimation of the role of symbolism in human life. the paul. to the German) distinguishes words according to their gender? When we take up the dream analysis we are im- pressed with the far-reaching extent of our symbolic thinking and particularly of sexual symbolism. cit. 490). already mentioned. for instance. human race love-mad/' say Kleinr "Whichever way we turn we meet perpetually her phantasy. half foolishly centered on the sexual sphere. In the dream anything oblong may represent the penis and anything round many stand for the vagina. vol ii.

or. as Fischart is an Italian proonce remarked. verb. for bad eggs and rancid butter belong together'. rpvira.' not because of any resemblance to a girl. so also in Genesis (i. "and numberless technical expressions can be explained only through their reverberation of the old Adam and Eve theme. "Mutter. Weib and Schnecke. in pairs and one sticks into the All such 'paired' things evoke the 'great luck' of sexual beings. on the other side Vater. represent here only the important parts. screw. in all languages is the name for woman. Monch and Mann. "Reflection or thought assumes this erotic bent particularly when something fits into a hole. and because the eye is small. Nonne. mother. like the foot into the shoe.. etc.38 Sex and Dreams erally. denn faule Eier und stinkende Butter gehoren zusammen. Often it happens the . that which is called lingam in the Ganges region.' 'the right stopper for the bottle. father. tal Cavicchio. a popular German saying expresses the same thought: 'Auf jedes Topfchen gehort sein Es 1st Deckelchen. nun. it was regarded as a little girl." continues Kleinpaul.' eben recht dahinterher. monk and male. Be- cause it has a hole in the middle no anatomy is needed for that the black mid-spot in the middle of the eye looks like a hole. trou. Hole.' 'every vessel has its cover. in the various technical industries have the " 6 Qual Buco. the 'girl of the eye. or the knife into the sheath.' l same origin. sexual union. The iris itself is a girl. female. when things come other. There is deep significance in such terms: monk and nun. matrices. trypa. 27) . The numerous mothers. es war eben em Zapf fur diese Flasche.

" Truly. he answered.<anguage Symbols 39 male half bears also a particularly significant name. to conquer. the father: All the women in the house worship the the mother. I am worried because he alone wants to stop them up. When I ask him why it worried him. relations grossly sexual He suspects the father of justifiedly. In fact. whose father is a famous artist and a very popular Don Juan much admired by the ladies. it is enough to perceive the true spirit of the language in order to interpret quite a number of dreams. French teacher. tells me the fol- lowing dream: (10) Father finds various holes in the rooms. Kleinpaul's statement is correct: Lan- guage is full of sexual symbols. The young man is an Alexander who is worried because Philip leaves him nothing an artist. perhaps The holes in the walls are to be taken in KleinpauVs literal sense. like stamp." He rationalizes his fitting expression of Jones. We began with the general neutral symbolisms . The screw seems to imply a marital relationship (spindle and female). the aunt. while the typically female parts are poetically cohered up. all that trouble alone. the secretary. sixteen years of age. A young boy. I could That is not a suitable task for so great dream to use the But we prefer to take the dream literally. or spwdle. "Because father took help him.

Joseph's dream interpretation. all who has conceived the hypothesis that dreams are generated by bodily sensations. a penny whistle. . the similar portion of a pipe. That is inevitable in the case of dream interpretation. the stem of a clarinet. we meet the masked formulations as preserved by the plastic art of the For instance. near by. an erotic the wish for ex- traordinary potence often go hand in hand. That theory has proven altogether untenable. a thousand sons. symbolized by representa- tions of the erect organ itself or by pictures and phantasy actions which aroused desire for sexual But here. too. Scherner. Nevertheless its founder formulated a fairly correct view of ulous. the stem-like configuration of the found object corresponding to the similar form of gratification. or a piece of fur.40 the sheafs in the Sex and Dreams field 9 and already we find ourselves in the midst of erotic symbolism. etc. (The stem of clarinet or whistle represents unmistakably the form of the male organ. well-known investigator dreams. Paranoiacs with delusions of grandeur often claim they have a thousand wives. Some details may appear ridicsexual symbolism. But facts lose none of their significance Regarding sexual symbolism Schemer writes: "Sexual excitation is merely because they seem ridiculous. Dreams of "greatness" and may also lend itself to another. one finds on the street phantasy. 10 Das Leben des Traumes (Berlin. may 10 mention the here another forerunner of of Freud's. Whoever takes up the subject must be prepared I to meet the issue. while on the way to a particular spot. Heinrich Schindler. 1861).

corresponding to the uppermost portion of the sexual apparatus. The high flattened out tower represents the tension of the active organ. such as usually follow urinary stimuli. the impression is gained that a second is peak (nothing corresponding to reality) must have down there. or he sees them step over him. women. it suggests the vision of a high tower through the undergrowth. Finally the fur piece in question stands for the pubic hairs. its peak seems crumpled or flattened. in order thus to express the parity of the lower organ . which primarily involved in the act of finding the respective objects. and observing the round cupola below. but the found objects are always double. finding the three pictures together means the conjunction of the objects Or as the result of represented through them. while thus watching atthe dreamer sees himself standing under tentively. one sees through a clump of trees under which one is standing a near-by tower of great height.) bladder stimuli one finds a curiously crumpled up short stem or cigarette holder which portrays the collapse of the whole male external apparatus.Sex Symbolism 41 the external male sexual organ. on account of the character of the excitation of the double organ of vision. phantasy seeks forcefully to find two towers where only one exists in reality. the clearer symbolic expression corresponding to the sharper degree of stimulation. instead of the symbolically more fitting bush. just as the brush stands for eyebrows and eyelashes. and one wonders that the highest peak of the familiar tower (an object known in reality) is crumpled up. More clearly delineated appears to be the symbolism denoting states of sexual tension. because . For instance.

) The next dream year-old woman : is that of an unmarried thirty- (11) Papa goes around cutting off all the leaf ends to all the plastic figures in the room. (Das Leben des Traumes. because phan- tasy fuses all pictures in one. . . Tower. that covering? What was the fig leaf for.42 Sex and Dreams the active organ in erection stands forth in the midst of the surrounding pubic hair (underbrush). She could not attend a dance. 197. has never dared say to him in actual life. This dream we may also take in a literal sense. I awA to prevent it. That is how she remained unmarried. cupola. peak. The father removes all ends. the ends are clipped off? We Why if She notes how senseless . underbrush. he thus prevents her from having an opportunity to become familiar with a phallus. p. double ball. Young men never called at the house. She was the obedient type of daughter. unfortunately. circumlocution so characteristic of dream thoughts. together express a composite thought. I am thinkturned has he crazy? ing: The girl tells us that her father was always terHe did not allow her so much as to ribly jealous. angry at that and want shake hands with a strange man. . In the dream she finds courage to tell him what she. There comes to her mind a figure pronote the tected in front with the usual fig leaf.

That is not a mere play on dreams. that they are pervaded through and through with a cryptic sexual symbolism the significance of which presents no particular difficulty. the adults dream New principles are being evolved. thus perceive in connection with two different dreams the meaning of "hole" and of "end" or peak. Franz Riklin tries to apply that key charming realm of fairy ! to the investigation of the And lo the attempt proves successful.Sex Symbolism her father's conduct seemed to be. It is equally valid in connection with stories. 43 She is struck by We the peculiar (crazy) feature of his conduct. The Wunscherfulim Marclien (Wish Fulfilment lung und Symbolik . words. myths. The language of dreams makes use of the cryptia forces which have created our everyday language. about. of fairy stories is particularly story! What wonderful association! What the children experience. turns out that the fairy stories of children bear an intimate inner relationship to the dreams of adults. folklore and wit. The symbolism clear. It stories. Freud has furnished us the key to the meaning of Dr. the chil- dren dream about. That symbolism holds true not only of dreams. Dream and We transpose the old truths and now declare: the obverse is true: what the adults experience.

too. and Symbolism of the Fairy Story) by proves that the fairy story has a cryptic sexual meaning. simple fairy stories represent relatively simple folk wishes. this curative means (consolation) has become a generalized. The ing Marlevn in Becfatein's famous collection of fairy mother weeps three days and three stories? A nights over her most deeply beloved child. At night the door opens softly and the deceased child appears in its nightgown carrying the little tear vessel in which all A few more tears flowing the mother's tears are gathered up. for thy child is well "Therefore. no more. The child tears. weep taken care of and little angels are its playmates !" and the The more child disappears.44 Sex and Dreams Riklin. psynamely. But it happens not to be an account of a particular experience. ! The mother avoids shedding in its must not be disturbed Riklin very properly observes that heavenly peace the story could equally well be an actual dream of some particular person. in the Japanese story variants in numerous up away ! That is : . like the dream. that excessive chically purposive belief. Riklin brings a number of excellent Who is not familiar with the charmillustrations. The fairy story. and the little vessel is filled to overchild attains peace and quiet. represents a "wish fulfillment" in Freud's sense. tears disturb the peace of those who have passed not a notion helpful to the dead but The same motive is played it is helpful to the living.

the words are symbols. by Everywhere the wish of the adults to "New be rid of their worry sooner reveals itself as the cryptic motive of the weaver of the fairy story. the scales (as. We underrate the significance of symbolic acts and of symbolic representations in our everyday is. Noteworthy are the meaningful abstract symbols: God's eye. masked. our ges- tures are in great part symbolic. The sexual symbolism reveals to us the character of the story even more penetratingly than the prinHere we first learn that ciple of wish fulfillment. the adults tell the child chiefly prefer to hear. As a matter of fact. A para deliberate gesture. Riklin states: "Is not almost a word The every symbol? writing signs are symbols. form. the color symbols: A black. of justice. red. . that life. what they themselves Naturally they do so in symbolic.Wiahrfulfillment 45 about the other "Nwn German of the Temple of Armida". which under certain circumnot represent a sexual symbol. existence is inconceivable without symbols. no object. our mimicry. for instance). the symbolism of uniforms. the cross. edited chen". in the Ritterhaus. a wink of may ticular intonation. tremendous power belongs in the first place It pervades our whole life. geographic chart is a symbol." What There stances is to the sexual symbol. in anversion by Grimm as "TodtenhemdIslandic Folktales". etc.

which A Eve plays also a great role in folklore. . that the folk story or myth represents in its relations to the folk mind. cold. The myth. Further illustrations of this type may be found in of Riklm's work already mentioned. sexual symbolism which is remarkably like the similar dream symbolism. the ugly toad. Grimm). A snake seduced in paradise. sometimes fairly overt and rather obvious. the overcoming of disgust is rewarded with the presence of a wonderful prince. and take the cold snake . Also the striking example of the religious formulations. ugly snake is a sexual symbol. too. too. Becfotein). The slippery. What The myth is a folk dream and contains in a cryptic symbolic language and ex- pression of the unconscious wish-excitations and fulfillment-hallucinations of the folk mind. and when the lat- ter overcome their revulsion into their bed ." Sexual symbolism is the key which unravels for us the various myths of the different races. the snake suddenly changes into a wonderful prince who had been bewitched.- .46 Sex and D reams may give the eye accompanying an innocent remark the latter a "double meaning. contains a more or less cryptic. the fairy stories mean to the individual. which climbs into the bed of the king's daughter (Der Froschkonig and Der Anne Heinrich. like . Here. latter we have in the concept of the snake. The snake appears to young girls (Oda and the Snake.

What was lacking until recently in the investigation of the problem of myths was an appreciation of the parables between the process of myth formation and the mental life of the individual. many other investigators held that the similarity of myths is due to transference. It is pleasing to record that the connecting links . Just as dreams disclose the secret thoughts of the individual man.Symbolism of Fairy and Myth fact convincingly brought out 4*7 by Abraham in his interesting study in folk psychology entitled Trawm und Myihus (Dream and Myth). so myths must disclose in unmistakable manner the ideals and wishes of the people. of the two realms of inquiry. a borrowing or transferring of the same myth material. The study of these myths has long been assiduously cultivated by the folk-psychologists who justifiedly expected to find through them a path towards a better understanding of the mental life of the various people. On ilarity between the other hand. It turns out that a number of myths which have appeared at different times among the most varied nations on earth show a remarkable sim- them so that some investigators were led to conclude that the formation of myths depends on mental processes common to all mankind. the world of individual dreams and the sphere of folk dreams as The bridging over represented in myths. represents a gigantic step forward.

namely. Occasionally I shall refer to the similarities between folk language and the symbolism of . in a study under that title. while fairy are creations of the poetic genius of the whole people. The Myth of the Birth of the Hero. An bolism almost inexhaustible fund of material for symis to be found in the collections gathered by title the well-known folklorist F. Krauss and his co- workers. whole humanity dreams through : its poets. Rank points out very convincingly the similarities between the phantasies of individuals and the folk phantasies as revealed in a series of birth myths. and published under the Anthropo- phyteia schaft). fairy and traditional stories present the same kind of psychic structure. 1907). to whom we were already indebted for another excellent study. Wien und Leipzig. One may contend that the myths about heroes were conceived stories We originally by poets.48 Sea: and Dreams between the social and the individual activities of the psyche have been successfully revealed at least in one limited field. Such a contention may be met best with HebbeVs fitting words in den Dichtern trdumt die Menschheit. S. (Leipzig. Deutsche The tremendous Verlagsaktiengesellmaterial gathered therein awaits systematic elaboration in the light of dream symbolism. The Artist (Der Kunstler. want to lay stress on the mere fact of this parallelism: for dreams and myths. by Otto Rank.

The symbolism of dreams is chiefly sexual. it re- There is another factor which plays a tremenlife: dous role in the dream the criminal tendency. of hypnagogic pictures (dream pictures before falling asleep. 11 Cf. no anerotic dream. or just before fully waking up. reveal to us the 11 operations of the unconscious. .Sexual Symbolism dreams. I have thus far indicated only a few simple examples illustrating the significance of sexual sym- not possible to give an account of a dream analysis without touching on eroticism. in fact.). 49 The formations of wit. Though the erotic plays a predominating role in the pages which follow it is not my fault. The cryptic criminal within us reveals itself in our But the criminal tendency stands nearly dream. Perhaps every I expect criminal is a sexual criminal possibly. bolism. Moffat. It is The power dous that it of the sexual instinct is so tremen- probably never leaves us out of its grip even for a few seconds of time. always in the service of the sexual. We shall see later. Freud. too. Wit and Its Relation to the Unconscious (Translation by Brill. when we consider the subject of half dreaming. I cannot do otherwise than present the material as veals itself. during the is so-called "twilight" states) that the sexual instinct momentarily ready to take possession of man's psyche. Yard & Co. There is.

also be a wish fulfillment of the moral But there are many dreams which do not fit within the range of wish fulfillment. "in the cynical gathering of male festivities. Payne. There are. or when reading the hu- morous papers the same persons suddenly display sufficient insight into sexual symbolism !" be the sense of avoiding these facts This of life simply because we do not like them? book is a record of facts. Whoever is endowed with unencumbered eyes cannot fail to see that symbolism plays the most important role in our mental deliberately. Freud's Theories of the Neuroses (translated by Charles R. between mine and thine (Otto Gross) does not cease in the dream. The wish fulfillment.)- . Why witticisms and do persons make free use of symbolism in why do they usually display such a keen appreciation of the symbolic shadings of meaning employed by the flirt? Hitschmann rightfully observes 12 that. Yard & Co. . eternal struggle between instinct and society. What would The ancient. Moffat. . . even though we conceive the "conscience dreams" as wishes of the moral ** self.50 Sex and Dreams to prove in the following chapters of this is work that not responsible for the presence the investigator of the erotic features. postu- lated by Freud. above all. or cabarets. the telepathic Hitschmann. We do not lay stress on it It is there. life. may self.

we now turn our attention to the analysis of a more complex dream.Wisk-fulfittment 51 dreams: no objective investigator can doubt any longer their existence or validity. . Enforced with a knowledge of these facts.

.

THINKS OF THE ACT OF TELEPHONING .n THE ANALYSIS OF A SIMPLE DREAM THE DREAM ABOUT THE TELEPHONE THE BALLAD OF THE POOR EAGLE WHAT MRS. A.

.

The great advance of the Freudian dream interpretation consists precisely in the fact that it has added a novel aid to the art of interpreting the dreams the dreamer's thought reactions. and adding : thereto a " commentary to include everything from his life or reading bearing on the explanation of his dreams would render a great service to humanity. it is not likely that . The : dream material which evoked the dream comes back to the dreamer's mind through free associations. A knowledge of the dream sistances the 55 . any one will undertake to do it worth while for some one to try personal choice. But the thoughts sometimes do not come up freely. But as humanity stands to-day." I have seen such diaries. It repeatedly happens that on account of inner redream parts evoke no associations in the dreamer's mind. without choice or scruples.II "A man making Hebbel in his diaries remarks and with regularity mind to record his faithfully up all his dreams. ful still it would be it as a matter of They are not very usebecause we are unacquainted with the dreamer's cryptic symbolism.

it is . the simpler also are that person's dreams. I have endeavored to prove that the manifest dream Here Freud. If we A H great know the dreamer's tray. material itself displays the most important content. I have discovI have achieved surprising results. That is not the case with every dream. is where my investigations deviate from Freud places the greatest emphasis on the material found back of the manifest dream content. ered relationships (for instance.56 Sex and Dreams language and symbolisms helps us over such "dead" The simpler the mental life of a person points. With this conception the latent dream thoughts. The analysis of a dream must proceed from the separate dream parts. in the case of a dream element. the symbolism of death) which I would have never unearthed through the dreamer's thought associations. are variously constructed. life. into a single dream picture. consists of separate Simple folk have different dreams than sophisticated peo- The dream dream parts which group themselves into a whole. many dreams do fit to ebb el's plan. we know also what the dreams porThere are also dreams which betray their meaning even before we have become acquainted with the dreamer's life history. For as already stated : The dreams ple. But how is the dream element to be interpreted? What is its meaning? What its relationship to wish fulfillment? "Usually.

(The Interpretation of Dreams.Sense of Dream Elements it 57 should be a question. itself. finds the meat stall exposed. chooses a big. Brill. goes to the butcher shop. authorized translation by A. "(&) in a historic sense (as reminiscence) . to its component parts only with the aid of the greatest finesse. to a single sym- There are also dreams which may be cleared up with a single key. or whether the meaning should be traced to the word tion. to make some purchases. "(c) "(d) sounds. "whether taken : "(a) in a positive or negative sense (antithetical relationship) . presents no greater difficulties to the translator than the old hieroglyphic writings. in fact. which does not aim to be understood. hard piece of meat. As a light educational example let us analyze a phantasy raise for their readers. Some are shadowy and intricate and require long and persistent scrutiny." states Freud. which reduces bolization. it In spite of this manifold possibility of interpretamust be observed that the unraveling of the dream work." The dream may be reduced dream. shaped as a sausage (12) A woman ." symbolically. for instance. When.) The dreams are various. for instance.

some peculiarity of punctuation may have great significance for the analysis. and to purchases in the love mart. in production. Alpha. Poetry and dreams are alike products of the uncon- and naturally show inner relationship. Occasional verses are produced in dreams and sometimes they are rather well done. warmth of the pocket. I must Poetry is not uncommon forego for the present the temptation of taking up the subject of poetic productions in dreams. are also significant for the analysis but which I must overlook for the present. naturally. in which the telephone has an erotic meaning. dream is obvious when we know dream of this character. where it hardly as it melts in the every detail of the that it relates to fieischliche Geliiste. containing numerous details to record here a which. Van Teslaar). Astonished. pleasant dream of Mrs.58 (Wurst). an error in spelling. reads 2 scious * The : (13) I visit my sister and find only my The telephone rings. This dream poetic is also noteworthy because it ends with a dreams. 8 1 take this opportunity to remark that all dreams are recorded exactly as the dreamers have written them down for me. my Study entitled Poetry and Neurosis (authorised English Version by James 8. . brother-in- law at home. My brother-in-law throws *Cf. lusts of the I want flesh. It is a long and spectacular dream. The most trivial colloquialism. Sex and Dreams it in Tier pocket. shoves fits. which ends in a ballad. I wonder since when the instrument had 'been introduced mto the house.

dark. whoever has no tele- phone. My money and I hear him negotiate over the telephone. there ships. beardless. is There is no more ground for worry or hardnot a decent family in the whole its of Vienna without are so own telephone and since there many subscribers. and charge. small. says my I press impatiently for the prompt acceptance of brother-in-law takes the my subscription. as I am already. A gentleman appears. unreliable telephone girls have been reaKnd ask what that has tells to The brother-in-law me placed by men belonging to the best educated circles who have volunteered to take up the service in ." brother-in-law.Telephone Dream 59 a deprecating glance at me and asks whether I do not read the daily papers. saying that I probably do not do so with sufficient attentiveness do with the telephone." miraculously extract -from my pocketbook. "A fool. "Ridiculous. He introduces himself as a bass singer of the Court Opera and states that he is the man in charge of . usually empty. so small a I declare. the cost to each has mate- rially decreased. a banknote of the required denomination.hourly rotation. "Only one hundred kronen per year. of the telephone service I perceive at once the advantages and I am enthusiastic about securing it at once. that the whole telephone system is now under'going a radical change and since the stupid. convinced." I exclaim very eagerly and ask about the charges. 1 answer. with a repulsive exterior and threatening loud voice.

beardless. disconsolate. and that I am very This man is desirous to exchange the gentlemen. Tenors have voices that are much more pleasant to hear. the highest in is "That I canalready" is what I am always but a step from burdened with the tele- happmess to the depths of despair and. and inquires about the I declare at once that his organ pleases telephone.t I cannot bear man's voice and I would rather give up tett mto my ears money" I say the telephone than have that horrible fellow shout in the -future. "Give me back my to him. Again a man appears. now that I am phone. the meaning of which I do not perceive. introduces himself as the Imperial Opera tenor. with red cheeks. it it not do. m-law and the bass singer to negotiate the exchange with the latter.60 Sex and Dreams my telephone number. then be treated with better con- that terrible him frankly tha. I have paid With m)e answered. I ask whether I could not have the Opera Tenor assigned to me. stout. aside and advises me tlfa My to brother-in-law takes me be very courteous with man and 1 to mvite him occasionally to an eve^ will ning meal and I sideration. after an exchange of some angry words. and overflowing . me better than the other man's. disappointed. I see the bass singer muttering insults as he leaves. My misfortune is over. accompanied by a woman whom he introduces to me He looks up my brotheras his sister. an actress. The bass smger does it with obvious ill grace and presently.

I extend my invitation for "What happy eagerly accepted. will Arme an unknown poem by Baumbach. She dislikes her husband. "In fact. She unhappily married. apparently so happy and filled with humor embodies the tragedy of a life. she cannot endure his tendernesses. another day influenza. I It is gladly recite you something right now. afraid of her own libido. she begins to cry out in the middle of She is the act and pushes him away from her. if you wish to hear me. 3 This dream. If she could give herself so. The ballad of the is poor eagle is the story of her marriage. a third day she The original of the poem chapter. One day she has migraine. brother-in-law's advice. called Der Igel. evenings we shall have. I now ask the lady and gentleman I try to be courteous and. which is sionally and my joy is boundless. is is perhaps just reproduced at the end of the ." I think to myself. charmed. She has thought out all sorts of excuses to keep him at a distance. without libidinous excitation she would do But because she does not want to be roused by him she repulses her husband during the sexual embrace. and I listen to its rethe greatest interest. cital with Then I wake up and I note down the poem." says the charming creature and begins.Telephone Dream 61 with happiness. When he at- tempts coitus. The actress holds out the promise of reciting occasupper. mindful of to be seated. The Poor Eagle.

is shown by the analysis of the telephone dream and of her other dreams. That has a deep meaning. The composition of the ballad in the dream is therefore natural in her case. . Wie man es jetzt gesehen hat. sexual aversion. for whom "fear has repressed love" as the poem expresses it.62 Sex and Dreams in beginning to menstruate and this keeps up for weeks her case. The man. directed only against her poor husband. Finally the fear of her husband's embrace became an obsessive thought-feeling with her and she fled into a severe neurosis. in fact. which of course cannot be true. dealt with a very nificant situation.* is Her likes. One of her earlier dreams sig- which she brought to me. is The lady subject who relates this dream has the habit and the ready knack of improvising verses. and can speak in rhymes for days. The lover retorts at that Schon ist : Heil! Heil! Hell! ihr Hinterteil. which to live is an abstinent existence. made it possible for her That her prudery directed only towards her husband. whom she consciously disIn the sad ballad she even has him become insane and die off in three days. but did not marry ardent and she truly loved was in her bed and acted as her The man whom I step in but the loving tireless lover. therefore. are and not disturbed thereupon I quote the pair verse : Zwr lAebe 1st es nie zu spat.

remarkable A sexual symbolism gives the key for the understanding of this dream. last possibly another three years. voice. wishes to learn the art of telephony. young man The girl who has the apparatus pointedness. etc. he wants another "number. in which the various technical terms of telephony full more a telephone song were employed with in charge gives him the "receiver" in hand. That explains the contrast between bass and tenor in that long dream Her husband has a deep sonorous bass picture. She finds him alone in the house and the telephone . a plain description of the sexual act. In one of the popular amusement places devoted to the lighter Muse a well-known soubrette sang for a year or of pointed hints. The sexual symbolism of the telephone was well known for a time in Vienna and actually current." and telephones so excitedly that he nearly wrecks the apparatus. That explains the telephone dream. It was. The same The dream brother-in-law begins with incest thoughts about the who is very happy in his married life. he calls up. Her first love was a tenor. which sounds painful in her ears and seems She has accustomed herself to disgusting to her. hear when he speaks.Interpretation 63 not normal and suffers of a mild progressive paralTheir family physician states that he may ysis. central answers . in fact. She simply does not disregard his voice entirely.

) 5 That was theretofore literally the price of an auto- "speaking tube" of course. therefore the cost is correShe. The act of "telephoning'* is no longer indecent. now tells her that the sexual life of humanity is being placed on another. that same brother-in-law who refuses to read the daily papers devoted to progress. pays one hundred spondingly lowered). pears terribly ill adjusted to his appetite. cultured men (what a contrast to her husband) are volunteering to give telephone service and hourly take their turns at it. On the contrary. rings at once. The brother-in-law.64 Sex and Dreams is. symbol for the penis. kronen for a Sprachrohr (literally. a The Sprachrohr. opposed to all reform movements likely to weaken Catholic rigor of the marriage ties. smaller in any individual instance. We . heretofore a solid. that confirmed clericalminded fellow. We note this to be a sort of male service. a speaking scribers is 5 tube. the guilt larger the number of sinners (the number of subis The tremendous. conservative Catholic. whose potence apother. as with her husband. is a note in this connection the tendency of the dream to express all sexual dreams as bisexual. This refers to the oft-mentioned theme of free love. there is no decent family in the whole city of Vienna without its own telephone. Men of good standing. the man weakened by telephoning being at once replaced by an- There are thus no fears and no hardships any more. that her sexual longings are roused. too. modern basis.

6 Evening meals here means night's lodgings. which has been meanwhile squandered away). in German. which would secure for itself a respectable sympathetic male through purchase. She is dissatisfied. sponds to the actual facts in the case. she wants her money back (meaning here the dowry. But she preThat really correfers to give up her telephone. a step which her Catholic brother-in-law has thus far used his whole influence to prevent. The telephone has a transmitter and a receiver. "usually empty. Noteworthy also is the pocket. . as we have suspected from the first. This process whereby two or more persons or incidents are fused in one too. tendency which we shall have repeatedly occasion to point out." which means. amounted to one hundred kronen. picture will be referred to repeatedly in our work.Interpretation 65 matic telephone (that is. "einen zvm Abendbrot einladvn" used in same sense. The scription to the telephone. The advice to invite him to evening meals shows the connections between eating and sexuality. she was brother-in-law negotiates the subFirst there appears her put in his charge the brother-in-law had witnessed her engagement (my telephone number was put in his charge). masturbation automatauto-erotism). own husband. ically used sexuality My last bill. the empty vagina. she wants a separation. showing that the brother-in-law of the dream is a fusion of myself and the brother-in-law. Frequently.

Further analysis shows that she herself is that charming creature. "tele- clearly bears the same cryptic meaning as recites the phoning. muttering harsh words. she finds very agreeable. My! what act shall have. her homoWe her and heterosexuality are coming into play. She had been often so called. in accordance with her wish. has a man and a woman at her disposal. Werden das genussreiche Abende pleasurable evenings we sein. so willing to accept the invitation to supper.66 Sex and Dreams The pleasing tenor. She would like to exchange her husband is The man whom she likes so well un- (He is accompanied always fortunately married. The actress will also an which.) by nistic woman into a very loving sister. for him. she turns the antagodream In the a lady. who appears next. she is very courteShe thus ous and invites the gentleman to supper. The picmakes a ture very clearly hints at the patient's homosexual Both erotic components. ." recite. now understand her enthusiastic feeling: "Nein! inclinations. a reproach against the tenor's wife and means: she is a comedian and "actress" is The The bass singer disappears fool of you! at last." That charming creature now poem im- plying scorn for her husband and culminating in the thought that an eagle belongs only to an eagle.

During the first part "teleof her married life she was happy and libido afterwards the Soon disappeared phoned. The "telephoning" ceased.Interpretation as a girl. 8 tions. The dreams of this type do not tax at all the interpreter's ingenuity. als Symbole der Vulva ehemals und The Schnecke. which was indicated also in connection with the "automatic telephone. One further remark I may offer on with regard to the character of the dream. I have It means that this called it a phantasy dream. In con- grewu the at first constrictor cunnei was excited into action and the husband responded with a corresponding muscular motion. 'Here we see a proof of her strong self-love. VI of Anthropophyteia. clearly represents the transposition of a dayinto a slightly veiled form of dream lan- very frequently found among hystericals. moreover. Aigremont has published a very instructive essay on Muschel und Schnecke jetzt. 67 She identifies herself with the wife of 7 the beloved man." The telephone symbolism links up through associations with In vol. . dream dream guage. Finally the act of "telephoning. the so-called This type of dream is narcissism. Dr. being replaced by a dread of the . . Naturally the dream reveals many other associaBut it is not necessary for us to dwell longer this dream and instead we turn our attention to other analyses." has also another meaning which is well known to her. is a bisexual symbol and as Schneck stands for the penis. ." during the act. in technical sense. libido. receiver.

68 Sex and Dreams DER ARME IGEL (Ballade) Em Igel -fond gefalien Ernst an der Jungfer Maus. Voll Zartlichkeit den Smn. Sein Herz schlug vor Verlangen Sie liebend zu empfangen. an. sie Voll Schreck er von ihr lasset. umfasset starkem Arm. Naht er sich Liebestrunken Der siissen Mauselin. Dem Da Wirt: "Zum schwarzen Kater. Mausi Igel Der Voter ward Um Gab seinen Segen dann. das Gott erbarm. selig fiihrt die liebe Und Der Maus Igel in sein Igelhaus. Im Rausch des Gliicks versunken. Sie piepst. Kaum hat er Mit treuem. Dass er als Igel stachlig war. wie sich gebuhret. . Doch wird's dabei dem Ehmann klar. Der putzigsten von alien Im kinderreichen Haus Bevm gut en Feldmausvater." hielt. gerilhret.

der guten. Man hat nach dreien Tagen Zu Grabe ihn getragen. Es hat . ward zwn irren Tropfe krankelnd starb er dran.The Poor Eagle Trotz atter Liebesgluten 69 Blieb I gels Gluck beschrdnkt. Moral: Drum Igel frei in klugem Sinn Stets nur um erne Igelm. . o wehe Der Ma/ws er in die Nahe Dem Der Igel stieg zu Kopfe Er Und Stachelungliickswahtn. Die Furcht die Lieb' verdrangt Und nimmer durft. bei Maus.

.

Ill SUPERFICIAL ASPECTS OF DREAM INTERPRETATION THE MOON AND THE EARTH THE "RATHAUs" DREAM REPRESENTATION OF UNBRIDLED LIFE .

m .das Irmere jedes Menschen ewzudrmgen. Suche dber gestatte auch jedem anderen in devne Seele einzugehen.

to penetrate into every one's inner but allow also the others to look into your soul. a dream which portrays but a simple is The (14) it. But she has the feeling that she must tell everything (empty entirely the laundry bag) so as to get over her troubles once for all. All her thoughts center on the 73 . gray dirty. symbolic representation of her psychoanalytic treatment. empty everything. A She has a great disgust for such things. During the last consultation hour she told me about her menstruation difficulties.] Marcus Aurelius. Let us endeavor once more to bring into relief the superficial aspects of dream life through the analWe turn our attention ysis of a few examples. gray A pillow case. It was of dirty. the pillow case refers to certain intimate doings which took place in bed. She washes her dirty linen before me. linen. sanitary napkins (way below). following a dream of Miss Gamma: I have emptied A laundry bag in -full my hand. a whole I had to pack of them everything disgusting. again to symbolism.HI [Endeavor self.

" and disgust. Further associations to laundry sack lead to a sack of a different kind the scrotum. An recall of . (Here. and grauen. eye. horror. She thought she was unclean. a reference to the dirty linen as well as to her horror notions of "clean" and "unclean. gray. Freud) and yields additional meaning. Es grant ihr davor.74 Sex and Dreams She is at present taking care of a sort of Mohrenwasche. aversion. It is overdetermined (uberdetermmiert.) The whole dream of is a typical symbolic transposition her waking thoughts. a play on the double meaning of grau. Two The serious traumas reveal themselves to her mind's uncle gave her to hold his phallus. Finally there come to surface infantile reminiscences which show that her disgust of dirt was preceded by a period of intensive mysophilia. she abhors it. The earlier layers of the dreamer's associations relate to her sensations during her first menstruation. when she remembers having searched the parents' bed linen for such spots. But that interpretation corresponds only to the most superficial layer of the dream. (Among some people the menstruating woman is considered unclean and is taboo for a time. It contains also an infantile root.) Further associations lead to her youth. But every dream derives its stimuli from various layers before it becomes a more or less loosely knit unit. It embodies some of the recent occurrences.

" The woman had of her husband's death. A relate now a similar "consolation" dream. For part we shall limit ourselves to the uppermost layers We have spoken of the simple process of wish ful- child appears to the mother begging her to weep no more. of associations. which as is associated with the of symbol practice masturbation. on the My son-in-law suddenly comes home bringing along a little. is more We shall not tarry but instead will proceed to the most some other "superficial" analyses. An earlier reminiscence relates to a similar incident in which her younger brother figured. An elderly woman who : has lost her husband two years useless I see lying previously dreams (15) Our dog. "Consoling yourself as soon as that?" He raises his shoulders saying: "Why not? What is the use to keep on mourning. old and sofa and breathing his last. fillment in fairy stories. this One must learn to accept the inevitable. Her tears I want to disturbs the child's peace in the grave. I ask him. dream on the anniversary For two years the widow had worn mourning and permitted herself no distraction. lovely brown dog. In the dream her son-in-law represents .Associations 75 is the ejaculation (I had to empty out everything) associated with a strong reaction of disgust. Noticeable once the bisexual use of laundry sack.

K. (the other girl) and myself." which has made a lastShe tells me the dream ing impression upon her. and also writes it out at my request: (16) It seems I had already been with a couple fully beautiful poetic of girls in a train. . The take another. his wife (her young. back to back with the two. . common. and t[here was a vague feeling that I was in some har- monic relationship with one J. Further. near the window.. . person too. old (dog. the fearsome thought. namely at the open door. artistically-inclined girl tells me that she has had during the previous night a "wonder- dream. But for the present we superficial ciations. limit ourselves to the meaning disclosed by the simplest asso- A very fine. and there was also something between H. brunette daughter) still was to pass away. Am sitting later in a large third class compart* ment. Moreover. far forward (m the direction of the tram) and to the left. The objectification of one's own thoughts through another thoughts. as sign of scorn) is dead. . the if son-in-law could easily console himself. it seems there is no one else in the compartment.76 her Sex and Dreams own sober judgment: comes of What this everlasting Don't mourn any longer! mourning? Do the way wise folks are doing. Other extremely themselves through the suggest is dream.

I seated myself again. . it moved But under my hands the moon was along. Only you're inexperienced and don't understand as yet the relations of things. She referred Everything is distinctly to physiologic relations. it was but an optical "Is that so. It felt like the pretty yolk swimming in a plateful of soup when one tries to squeeze it with the spoon and the egg yolk cannot be broken and shape every time." both hands and draw it into the compartment. keeping ing: but think- how strange and comical.Poetic Dream 77 / stand up and through the window L look upon in the shape of a gigantic egg somewhat her customary size. left of it a lummous ring fitting it. silent. and I don't know whether I actually said so. answered saying that illusion. I gave it up and fell back on my seat exhausted. The ring around it I disregarded.. To the double yolk. but H. much like the the moon hovermg Saturn rings. I make some remark about how strange it is that the moon should hover so close to the railroad track. "I am going to find I lean forward to catch the moon with and out. at any rate. seemed to say to me: daring it would not be. intertwmed with endless threads into everything else and reverts back to itself again." I say. elastic and wavered around. and H. thinking how presumptuous it would be for me to it resumes its draw the moon inside and rob the earth of its moon.

the simple sweet who has a lover. One also notes sinful girl. compartment " passage" compartment. a a is Durchgangscoupe. The sider extramarital coitus. is "You don*t understand that. and she that she perceives these excitations as envies her friend H. The fitting of one thing into another is perceived as "psychological" and the organic aspect is suppressed. like her friend H. therefore. The vulgar term for testicles comes to surface in the "Eidotter. She neglects She is. on account of the latter's exThe dream does not expose a riddle: it periences." is also that her It is noteworthy particularly striking.. like a wheel. statement. The meaning is the same.78 Sex and Dreams This "innocent dream of a virgin" enables one to depict the state of her mind." the egg yolk. Her mother's mar- . herself back One finds that she already dimly perceives a great deal and she holds from certain knowledge. prepared to conthe ring later. % depicts merely a simple. The ring is the engagement ring. picture of the moon was soon found to be a symbolism for penis and testicles. Miss Gamma relates an almost identical dream: (17 ) I saw 'floating in the air a great globe. surrounded with a rmg of blue glass. romantically disposed unI state anticipatively that the gratified person. Every- intertwined with endless threads (spermal thing threads) into everything else and reverts back to itself.

he turns out better than you think. is not there is missumbrella checking My ing. (The "broken there). in a word the lingam. Try the Jew. that is. The handle screw nose. he your only consolation in your misery. Another genital symbolism is revealed by the dream of J. the finger is a symbol of sexual union. see a Polish Jew it with a great cork- the hand to try it out and t& I could on it and think to myself: whether lean umbrella is not so bad as it appears to be. N.) case of need the devil eats is flies. Z. The poor woman had lost her husband (light going out).Sexual Symbolism 79 The ring on riage ring has a wonderful blue stone." related to Perhaps Somewhat more complicated is the next dream. I take in is The umbrella ing it a common phallic symbol.. The minister may puts the ring on the bride's finger . handle" and the "cut" handle are play words on The meaning of the dream is: "In circumcision. another one is like is there with a broken handle. me by X. Open- up corresponds to erection. a philosopher: I dream ( 19) of a triangle supposed to symbolize . Folks going home. a widow: 9 (18) I am in the market shopping. In both dreams we find the bisexual symbol: the globe and the ring. she now become acquainted with the marital act. She has no umbrella any more (my umbrella is not Her best friend is a Jew. We went to the room. Lights are being put out.

on the right. as a sort of support. lead here ity). wishes. He is meaning: schwarzan Austrian and wears on his feet the colors of his emperor (father). that is. More significant yet the gelb. with a married couple. a black one. He suphas murderous thoughts (spear. yellowish-black. the other is dark. the friend dies. The triangle grows gradually smaller and more angular finally it is but a spear and therefore it is no longer fit to serve as a support and I am about to fall into a I awake with a terrible loud outcry terrible abyss. He ship. perhaps others also. upon the path of religious scruples The philosophic thoughts are masked (trinerotic Deeper layers reveal the relationship the child to the parents.80 Sex and Dreams some philosophic principle and which serves me. He basis disappears. The death is posed to have been deliberately induced. lives best friend. and the fall into the abyss is the terrific crime of which his most secret self is dreaming. He loves two women: one is blond. Dalton dreams: (W) I have two different shoes: a yellow one on the left foot. He . of Mr. and all my body is shaking. The lingam after the death of the husband explains the riddle Associations of a unit growing out of a triangle. The man is his He maintains a triangular relationfriend is That the basis of that relationship. Spiess Spiessgesette). The unites himself with the woman.

a out or narcosis out of deep slumber. expressed is passions: jealousy (yellow) and his dark thought of revenge (black). his hand on my shoulder. 99 be here. writer. Sometimes a dream brings to light unusual wish fulfillments. of ing Seeing my husband and the poet. A is prudish woman. now?" I ask. looking at me sympathetically and kindly. my cheeks and I He gazes lovingly is me God! She 91 saved. She has a wonderful . interested in a much young She would like to meet him. His desire (the dark father) and woman (the blond is to satisfy both. . Bending over me and looking me I am comstraight in the eye is the young poet. (21) I am confined to bed after a serious internal operation. I is feel in the dream say to at that the blood rushing to 9 "You here!' the poet: and exclaims: "Thank you. psychic hermaphroditism (Adler) wonderfully well in Also this most powerful his picture. madam. My husband stands at the Jiead of the bed. He vacillates continuously be- tween man mother). The dream She dreams: conjures up the desired opportunity. It mediates transposing sinful wishes into respectable realities. I turn sisted at the operation. . My my my head sideways and hide in the pillows and shut eyes. "I have ascheeks redden. devoted to her husband. All wishes are gratified." "And "I am how do you happen to a physician. His .Sexual Symbolism is 81 a typical skeptic. he says.

Cf. almost motionless. Sex and Dreams The poet He is physician and has seen has operated on her. he is i/mpatiemt for the moment to arrive when he should 1 1 have known for a long time that the post-narcotic neuroses and psychoses are traceable back to such unconscious phantasies involving violence. Three figures stand low. so-called political dream. It is eveHouse square is -feerically ilthe and Assembly ning lumined for the occasion. similar example in my Nervose Angstzustande. The dream symbolism. Her lated at husband was present. p. but the iron man is nervous. Everything occurred during narcosis. Everything occurred in respectable fashion. a each and at the left figure similarly clad in right golden attire. her naked. In the middle stands a gigantic figure dressed as ihe iron man. Tine Thousands of people beis also present. These two are very quiet. Her bashfulness was not vio1 all. awaiting the watch in front of the mam entrance. a At ihe blinding white light emanatmg from him. Emperor The dream of Emperor's departure. clear insight into the a very lively one and permits a most common forms of dream the (Rathaus) Assembly House: Great (8) uproar in the Assembly House. We turn our attention now to the analysis of a is beautiful. One of the following dreams (24) brings up a similar situation under neurotic distortion. . 96.82 white body. he has saved her (both symbolic expressions for sexual congress).

I see very clearly the carriage disappearing in the midst of the crowd. hence their outcries. I become very nervous and I run breathlessly up and down the steps. We shall see the Emperor at close the thought causes my heart to beat fast. as if opened by magic hands. Scared. the Emperor is coming! The people have been waiting for hours. see the burgomaster (mayor) with the great golden chain and the red colored order ribbons hurrying thrown open. he passes very close to me. ter calls excitedly: "Where is the Emperor?" He is told the Emperor had left the Assembly House through a side door and was being carried along the Burg theater (Municipal Theater Building). . I and a few others. the people became more impatient than ever at that. I ask the servant what happened. were* lucky enough to be admitted within. . then I awake. range. he draws me along. I am a prey of undescribable ex- outside. so that I can almost feel his breath. I run after him. an ocean of down the steps. But no sound is now heard .Assembly House Dream 83 cry out to the assembled populace. suddenly I hear a tremendous noise rising like the roar of an oceantide breaking against the wonderful building and echoing within." their post swearing at the At that moment the haU doors are I light assaults my eyes. the great door of the hall springs The burgomasajar. citement. He says: "The three at the door got tired waiting and left Assembly House.

iron is The man which emanates from him his bald tellect. A again the father (iiberlebensgrosse. and apparently dealing with It was dreamed by a young political conditions. of plastic imageries. The dream has shown him a solution.84 Sex and Dreams The dream of a poet. a maris riage ceremony. death stumblingblock wish against the father. man who helpless expects to marry a poor girl. die) will But the father (Emperor) be out of the way. . His father (the Emperor) is now and dependent upon him for support. On the evening before the dream he kept reflecting for a long time how he might extricate himself from the unpleasant situation. unnaturally big) who in spite of his vigor earns nothHence the vigor. The analysis brings up by association a dance. The blinding white light ing. is a scornful reference to pate and his limited. first leave (abfahren. the contrary circumstances. reception). In the girl's house wo er sich gut beraten wdhnt (Rathaus) where he considers himself are against well counseled. The tremendous mass of people. full of dramatic incidents. His parents it. homely. philistine inis The quiet figure in golden accouterments dear mother (also doubled) who does not reproach him. a great reception is being held. the iron man (iron constitution) is nervous and always plays the role of the house his precious. sterben. He getting married (Empthen the must fangniss. Three guardians are watching before at the Assembly House.

both are overcome. because the Emperor represents his greatest obstacle and the burgomaster symbolizes his most cherished ideal. are these dream thoughts linked . that is why the circumstances have become unbearable. analysis finds tie. his beloved. and the red order insignia How does he describe the power to stand for blood. the circumstances speak loudly The father has lost his potheir unfavorable tone. the mistress of his heart. he (she) drags me along. But Emperor and Burgomaster do not affect him.Assembly House Dream 85 tyrant: the Emperor is coming! This remarkable dream structure carries out further the feelings in the breast of the young man. of attraction which the beloved exercises over him? (her) breath. and Burg theater. The Municipal Theater as symbol for the parental home is now conquered region. the golden chain. is The burgomaster (mayor) his sweetheart. Only because here they are symbols. sition as employee (the watchmen at the gate abandon their post). the marriage these. the gate door of the great house springs ajar "I almost feel his as if opened by magic hands. the father must give the deciding word. Now comes the wish fulfillment in glorious form. all obstacles are overcome. An ocean of light blinds his eyes. I follow him (her). Emperor He was in ordinary life tremendously excited in the dream. On that square he saw a few days ago a great funeral procession." across the Municipal The Emperor is carried Theater.

we are lucky to be allowed. the numberless the penis ticles is the "iron man" with the lance. vol. the The burgomaster calls out excitedly: where is the Emperor? That is the very climax of the little drama which is portrayed before us. like most trinities. Naturally she is the one who comes out victorious. only the penis impatient for the "arrival. 142. . The three figures on guard. and for that reason. that ticles is the penis. also the generating one. the observation: great scene between the father and the beloved. II. or it signifies the beloved. the other. quiet.. on the left. The dream shows us the problem of his love affair. symbolize.86 Sex cmd Dreams Very interesting is to such tremendous affects. balls" as testicles: Anthropophyteia. the penis and pair of testicles. 2 One on the right. who shall be the mother of his children. The mass of people signify the re- evil thoughts. The mother bellious receives the father (Emperor) nat- urally evening. He has carried out an identification of his mother with the beloved. The tes- are naturally immovable. the tes- (egg-yellow) are characterized by golden garments. Here wishes. a secret. stands for the mother as well the beloved mother. is It an old dream symbolism that the father means is. But any one who thinks exhaustive is this analysis is at all badly mistaken." / and a few others 'The "golden p. The Assembly House as for the bride . by way of contrast. naturally.

by Thomas Jnman. The The iron man is impatient. Peter Ecker. 3 87 Naturally. The rope breaks.) The The Another's wishes become progressively more pressing. 4 . Interesting material on symbolism is found in the work entitled. One horse is harnessed with a bridle of thin rope. 4 The Emis. it is of Phoenician origin and has nothing to do with the essence of Christianity. In the beginning the cross represented the fusion of trinity and unity. Ancient. (This theme. He does not want to wait so long. (2d ed. study. It is a symbol commonly met in Egyptian art.. peror leaves through a side door (that his carriage disappears in the he dies.D. tion resembles more closely the act of coitus (up and down the steps) and the dreamer wakes up. Another picture: of the Unbridled Life: (23) I am in a street car which is bound for the Franz-Joseph Station. he was within the maternal past becomes the present. Pagan and Modern Christian Symbolism. three become his trinity. maternal body phantasies will preoccupy us at different times in the course of our present body.Assembly House Dream to get in. M. According to this author the cross represents the union of 4 phalli. The birth phantasy naturally commingles with the defloration phantasy. New York. to con- my A tinue the care-free existence of a "grass" widower "There are three children in the family. situacrowd). Publisher). clear wish fulfillment. The Dream This dream I dreamed in the of fall after the return wife through the Franz-Joseph Station from a Summer vacation.

Self-reproaches on account of infantile onanism play a great role in the neuroses and. 112. nevertheless. Of course. hurrah. The death wish also shows itself in the dream thoughts. 5 The thread of life infantile layer is represented through the Franz. I am the draft horse. . in contrast with the woman who is represented preferably as the guardThe ties which bind me to carriage are repian. The guilty conscience on account of shortening one's life thread or span of existence through masturbation (drawing off the life thread) is also a latent dream thought.Joseph Station idea (Emperor Franz Joseph I return again to the realm of youth. II. I had not taken advan- tage of my supposed state of freedom. father). . vol.88 Sex and Dreams (expressed in one of the slang popular songs of a few years ago. life. The I return to mother and . . rope breaks (double meaning: the horse. The Farces cut the thread of breaks off. : was happy for my wife to take again the household affairs in hand so that I could live once more I under orderly conditions. in the sentiment "My wife has gone to the Country. that is. like death thoughts. leave my wife. 6 The "life thread" in the folk thought represents also the penis: Anthropophyteia. That is a common symbol for the husband. are found in most dreams in caricatured forms difficult to unravel. the flighty-minded fellow breaks away). But the secret wish must have been there. hurrah!") obviously the In reality welling up of an unconscious thought. The resented in this dream as being very weak. p.

. For instance. In my work. I have proven in connection with a large number of anxiety dreams. He knew how to control the beast in himself.Infantile Substratum 89 have seen that the dream fulfills our secret or . man. but I thought to myself: I should not really let that weigh very heavily on my . that the cryptic wish of neurotics appears in dream as fear or anxiety.. This man dreams: (24) I am followed in the open a very powerful fellow. Fears and wishes are sisters. I was afraid he might force me by a tramp. . . I structive want to close this chapter with a short but indream which illustrates in very clear manserichil- ner the bearing on anxiety. He to have sexual girl. reveals our secret fears. suffers of a ous perversion. has with him a small -field intercourse with the girl. One of his favorite fancies which indulgence in not seem a sinful was to think up situations in his particular perversion would act. He craves contact only with A dren below ten years of age. about thirty years of age. . There is no fear represented in dreams which was not once a wish. wishes We Nervose Angst zustdnde. He has fought against this weakness with energy and successfully. suppose a He would highwayman should force him to it not be responsible and would stand exculpated before human and divine law alike on the score of vis major (coercion).

The dreamer. He looks for the force majeure of fate. Nervose Angstzustande. p. It illustrates a strange borderland wherein wish and fear commingle in a single affect. the case of a Rabbi in. Cf. in the form of a Pulcher (Viennese expression for "Strolch").90 conscience Sex and Dreams Ms time. is ready to carry out a sinful act under circumstances which would absolve him responsibility. 6 This dream shows the transference of a waking phantasy to the dream life. I ran off and came across some people so that I was saved. thus. 165. . But even this old wish has now from turned into fear on account of inhibitions.

IV SYMBOLISM OF THE SINKING TREE REPEESENTATION OF MOTHER EARTH THE FEAR OF SELF .

die Vernunft auf die Kette hielt. am Tage [The dream penetrates our Epicurean nature. the ferocious wolves which reason keeps enchained during the day.] night we Jean Paul . within us and at it to gruesome depths into lights up see t the Augean stable freely prowling around.Tilrchterlich tief leuchtet der Traum m 'den m die uns gebauten Epikurs wir sehen in der Nacht alle die und Augias stall hinem. the wild beasts. und wilden Grabtiere und Abendwolfe ledig umherstreifen.

And even if a certain meaning has value? been recognized what is has multiple meanings. while others we will learn to later. Generally it imagery. Also. accurate knowledge of dream symbols is all that is necessary to enable one to clear up the meaning of any dream. Now and then it may be possible to recognize the content of a dream merely by a superficial survey of its But only now and then. According to Freud we must two categories of data: the manifest distinguish dream content and the latent dream content. 93 . its Every dream is The dream distorted through various mechanisms. But the matter is not so simple. And anything may serve as a symbol. cannot be done.IV The examples chosen from the Bible and from Artemldoros as well as various other dreams have shown us that symbolism furnishes the key to dream One would think therefore that an interpretation. without the aid of the dreamer. In know many cases the latent content cannot be recognized For the symbols have only conditionally a fixed meaning. the symbolism A violin player uses varies with different persons. with some of which we have already become familiar.

Delta dreams : (25) I was in an open quadrangular space (it was a garden? or a Court? A tree not an enclosure) at one end. the Viennese "Spieser" as the Mayor. Every one draws his symbolisms from his own sphere of In dream.94* Sex and Dreams a different symbolic language than a grocer. the politician as the chair- man. is knowledge. the "religious gentleman" as the Pope. always represented as an authority. I was clever enough to notice that tree and Court alike also underwent a shaking motion: "Here we see how the changes upon 9 the earth surface are brought about. forgotten picture. the tramp as the officer. the peasant as the government official. which ended with a light anxiety feeling. simple analysis of a dream: Mrs. made this point so as to a one sided overvaluation of the guard against dream symbols.'' dream This dream was followed by another. too. We see that the dream represents in fact. the occurrence of an earthquake. although others. may represent the father through the Pope (papa). Now we turn to an apparently I have anticipatively easy. for instance. the perpetual student as the teacher. slowly disappeared before our eyes. and so most persons think of him as the Kaiser. as if gradually sinking into water. Recollections of the . the chorus singer in the opera as the conductor. the father.

which described how a hut sank deeper and deeper into the thus have. apparently. we might quietly maintain that the dream was merely a periodic repetition of a strong Admitting impression received some time before. that this might be the case what have we gained thereby towards the understanding of the dream? We must really try to penetrate more deeply into The woman recalls the symbolism of the dream.Earthquake Dream terrible catastrophe of 95 Messina have had something to do with the excitation of the dream picture (reOn that cent factor uppermost dream layer). with Swoboda* that the woman had read the novel twenty-eight days prethat some multiple of twenty-eight days viously. 1 A . that during an earthquake an island once made its Studien zur Orundlegung der Psychologic. a simple reground. very interesting work in which the proof is brought forth that certain impressions are periodically given expression in the dream. entitled "Der Laufende Berg" (The Moving Mountain). or passed since she read about the earthquake in the newspapers. The dreamer had also read a few days before a novel by Ganghofer. of a newspaper account and of a scene production described in a story and the fear might express the fear of earthquakes which so in the public eye. occasion a village disappeared almost completely during the earthquake. If We many when the Messina and San Francisco persons showed disasters were we could prove. in places the coast lines were altered.

Let us look into that. . The whole dream assumes a different aspect. shakings. . literally. . verspiirte auch einige Stosse. * some shakings. shakes. Note the expression: . when the woman dreamer had observed the She had but act of coitus between the parents. which is also quadrilateral. On that occasion a satirical wit played a joke and sent to the daily paper a scientific sounding but confusing account of the his occurrence as coming from a specialist and ended conglomeration with the remark: Meine Frau literally. birth and death. four-cornered. It represents an infantile scene from the earliest childhood. "table and bed" . heard the rhythmic motions of the bed. "having left table stands for bed.96 appearance Sex and Dreams in midocean. felt " "My wife. What it all mean? The answer not difficult." We are now coming a little closer to the meaning of the dream. the earthto it. A big tree which does disappears. (Trennung von Tisch und Bett). . too. such contrasts being fre- quently represented in dreams through the same symbols. is birth. in other words. . The quadrilateral space was the bedroom of her parents and 2 The the marital bed. Another association of ideas bring to the dreamer's mind the last Vienna earthquake. bed and board". We birth at once that suspect gave quake the theme of the dream revolves around the bipolar contrast.' but the newspaper editor. in German. of course. a ln this sense of "vier-eckig. changed that to "shakes." quadrangular.

that is the birth. the representation of a shaking motion of the bed (or a room). dream raises the positive contention : "My wife was not there" the statement means the exact opposite. abdomen). the penis? the penis. 3 Children come from the water. both are principle. represented through The mother mother earth." If a tive. . a means of fusing room and bed. we adults learn. Changes in the "earth surface" as is a symbolic reference to pregnancy (swelling of the Here we encounter a strange problem: the prob*A subsequent chapter will be devoted to a systematic account of birth dreams. What has that The wellto do with a tree sinking into water? known dream symbolism comes to our aid at this Water always stands for a reference to point. is here represented as the earth.Birth Symbolism 97 further addition. We have here. namely that the presence of the wife was painful and has to be covered up as much as possible. Just as two negatives result in an affirmathe emphasis here (it was not closed) must be looked upon as an affirmation. first infantile theory of sex. "it was not a closed space garden or Court?" serves partly as dream distortion. Infants before birth float in water. And the tree? What! does it signify other than the life-bestowing Birth and death. Freud very properly states: "There is no negation in dream. then. partly as overde termination.

nature appears to be in concordance with our cryptic poet and to ridicule with him our pathetic joys and our joyful pathos. as when she mocks us in our graves at one time. according to a poetic expression. 1840. and when all joyful notes in Nature have a wailing quality and reversely. ingale's wailing j . In fact. Schubert states scientist : "What we find in the language of dreams. somewhat flowery language character4 istic of his day. ^Leipzig.98 lem of life Sex and Dreams and death in the dream. on the day of its death. Death and marriage. joy and sadness. lie so closely associated in naSymbolism of Dreams. every tone of irony. like that nature voice. the air music of Ceylon which sings wonderfully joyful menuets in tones of harrowing. lamenting the rose over the grave. a certain ephemeral bird is said always to celebrate its marriage on the^ grave.^ marriage and death. Is it not re- meaning? veals markable that contraries should carry the same For a further analysis of the dream rethat it is a symbolization of death. thus pairing in wonderful fashion pleasure and pain. wails in our ear when we are in the marital bed at another time. In the peculiar. We shafl revert to that later. heartbreaking sadness. Brockhaus. A. F. Here I want merely to point out that a German has studied this relationship long ago. all that we find preeminently also in the original of the dream world. in nature. It is love time and joy time when the nightsong is at its best. every peculiar association of ideas and the spirit of prophecy.

the pyramid. phosphorus is morning and evening star? alike. and has celebrated the death divinity with ceremonials around the phallus as if every act of a sensuous character contained also the raw indication of a deeper understanding. as in dreams. in nature's language they usually appear as ideas of equal weight. sensory pleasure is a messenger of is pain. often the one seems to signify the other. either of which may. replace the other. Pain and pleasure. cit. are similarly related. another portion is engaged in tearing down. 38). . p. marriage and death candle at the same time. back of the largely comical and joyful festivities there was often discernible a very earnest and tragic note" (Loc. "That strange association seems not to have escaped the attention of the prehistoric race which has raised the phallus. the creation and the last dissolution of our bodies are processes everywhere in nature inti- mately related and identical with reference to the substances and changes involved. or its colossal symbol. to conjure up or to imply the presence of the other. to mark the grave. on occaAs already observed elsesion. .Symbolization of Opposites 99 ture. In the midst of the death ceremonials and mourning wails of the ancient mysteries there resounded also. where. the laughter over Baubo and Jacchus. as in some Shakespearian tragedy. the child of joy is born in pain. and while a portion of the continuously revolving cycle of metabolic processes engaged in building up. reversely. with the highest degree of sensory dysphoria and torture.. even in the midst of fainting and apparent death. pleasure and pain. too. comes the supreme pleasure.

On the great judgment day the graves open up and the dead awaken. Woe! How has she spent her life? Was it Here we anxiety. She lies in the grave. Here the incident of lying bedridden furnishes the associative link between childbirth and dying. gltihend Leben. Heinr. for a deeper meaning. The four-cor- A nered place in which she lies is the grave. such as she has seen in cemeteries." (Da* Leben des Traumes. Em Em She thus lies ewiges Meer. 5 "A woman dreams of going to visit a lady of her acquaintance who was really on her death bed at the time. Sdiindler. in the closed grave. upon her arrival she is not a little surprised to find the woman in childbirth. where flowers bloom (garden) and memorial trees are planted eventually to disappear. is We discover a further sense to it: the a death phantasy. Ein wecluelnd Weben. 1861. too. see the deep feeling of guilt. by Karl Albert Scherner. 147. a thing she cannot understand considering the sick woman's advanced age and her grown up son who was standing nearby. here sinks gradually into the earth. Verl. planted tree. following a prolonged illness. not a chain of sinful thoughts? which must break forth at the end of the dream in the form of That does not yet exhaust the meaning of the The most important feature is yet to be revealed. 5 As the earth spirit announces in Faiwt: Geburt wnd Grab. Berlin.) . p.100 Sex and Dreams must look in We dream our dream. in the cemetery. The fear at the end (anxiety) shows supdream.

She has a single child. mentary healthy girl who had robbed her of her son's ." She was surprised at the freedom with girl which the modern girl she speaks of such things. 6 die suddenly. "That is very convenient. fact a healthy and powerful man. The fear understand the third significance of the tree disappearing in the The ground is man We is. it 101 reveals wishes which being un- unfulfillable. She felt was entirely different. Now we dream. who is to marry during the next few months. etc. fearing the anxiety. that is die. and unsocial turn into discover that her husband. . dream who is in Also picture. .Fear pressed sexuality. the man may die expresses her cryptic wish. They inspected various waist models and the girl favored a shirt which buttons in front. young. I could use just that kind of a waist. may true. has practiced for years coitus interrupts. . can understand the motive: he must not go from her. care and responsibility of children. As a a mo- heart. If I saying: should have to nurse. for the wave of aversion glowing. That fear of preg- We nancy shows itself also in the the fear that her husband. or prove un- Here an association of ideas leads to the most important of the dream thoughts. a son. The a prisoner and must not leave her for a moment alone. reachable. On the evening before the dream her future daughter-in-law came to her and they planned the necessary bridal outfit.

took care of it. That is how times bring on changes. in the dream is often represented as the penis. therefore: love! I foresee the end of my son will marry soon. her phantasies play with the same thought and the feeling of guilt reacts with the expatiation of anxiety. Such a rival once died and because of the off that was four years ago reproaches which she her neurosis developed. He will gradually wean himself away from me. He is becoming entirely absorbed in his love (the sinking tree). . she sees anticipatively her daughter-inlaw's pregnancy. 'She "planted" it. I mean less and less My to him. He will render his wife pregnant. felt Now unconsciously over it. The little son. whose nurse she had been. of course.102 her son.. Here he symbolizes both. She is jealous and that jealousy causes her keen suffering. son.e. How it she frees is That. But from analogy with similar previous dreams of this patient we are dealing with such a one we may infer that the missing part deals with the death of the young rival. The dream means. raised must be her support. The tree. It would be very interesting to find out what the continuation of the dream indicates. it. i. 7 Sex and Dreams She sees him during the bridal night (in her spirit). herself of these difficulties. he will be a father. is the chief theme of the pletely hidden dream and therefore com- from view.

she would see him death. dead. a only with the dead. The so-called "maternal body phantasy." i. Our woman patient is lives rich in spirits (play of words. A Such evil thoughts encounter inhibition and become expressed as anxiety. For she truly loves her son. In every dream the thought of death is also woven m. He should die. There is no dream which does not contain an adumbration of death. It is is the thought of Rather than not begrudge her own beloved son to her future daughter-in-law.e. in this connection. on. She pun on: geistthis reich. the one most deeply hidden. comes here to surface. too. he should be out of the way. 8 The most important thought. spiritual). The dream has already become complicated. She is afraid of "bring buried alive" . She does not want to lose him. the illusion of being within the body (coffin) of the mother and of watching the details of marital experience. the words of Richard III about the terrible dream before the battle. grave is dug and a body is laid in. But there are no simple dreams. 8 Cf. That is for her the most important change in the earth surface. Further associations of dream lead to thoughts of masturbation (shaking motions) and 9 But it might confuse the reader to go bisexuality.Fear of Self 4 103 The anxiety in the last analysis is fear of self..

.

DEEAM MASKS PURSUIT DREAMS THE POLITICAL DREAM ABOUT BISMARCK THE WONDERFUL VILLA THE DREAM ABOUT THE BAKER CONTRARY MEANING OF ABORIGINAL WORDS THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE DON JUAN TYPE SAVINGS BANKBOOK AND LOVE EVIL THOUGHTS OF CHILDHOOD THE SKILLFUL FENCER THE DARK MAN. A SYMBOL FOR DEATH .

[Believe me. des Menschen wahrster Wahn come true. man sees his wildest fancy in his dreams.] Richard Wagner . Wird ihm im Traume aufgetan.Glaubt mir.

a partial explanation only. "Excrement means gold. book dream explained it as meaning birth . These popular attempts at interpretation have been treated with ridicule by some of our scientists . as Freud rightly remarks. One of the most important forms tortion is of dream dis- the transposition into the antithetical. I must underscore again. that the folk mind was nearer the truth in these oldest matters than the learned scientist.Numerous examples have shown us that the dream speaks a symbolic language and that the unraveling of the symbols yields a partial explanation of the dream. because in addition to the symbolism various processes involved in the dream distortion play a role to which I must next call attention. The dream interpreters were already aware of that process and the popular mind has also perIf one dreamed of death. but it appears. Egyptian if one met great misfortune in dreams the ancient interpreters took that to mean the presaging of good luck. that is why the 107 . Gold and excrement are antithetical. the ceived the truth. Many dreams may be interpreted as signifying an antithetical transposition of material.

If we translate the little old ugly woman into the opposite we find that in the dream she is being pursued around the table by a big. delicate man." (Kleinpaul. which really . qma mox post gaudia flebis. The alleged old woman in the dream tears stick off the subject's blouse and wants to her hand between the breasts a procedure wholly illogical on the part of an old woman but perfectly intelligible on the part of a young man in the same situation. But is it a peculi- arity of dreams to represent objects by their contraries. ugly woman chases me around the table. and keen sensu-. woman said to me: A "Dreams are nonsense !" For the fourth time I have had the following ridiculous dream: (27) A little.) : I record now has come to my the most instructive example that attention. an experience which corresponds to a wish on the part of this attractive woman who is married to a very weak. ous pleasure in dreams not infrequently is a forerunner of actual pain vae tibi ridenti. Thus. Sprache ohne Worte. called by the woman only after my interpretation and corroborates the interpretation.108 devil's Sex and Dreams gold turns into excrement. dress. and a wish which through repression account of its "forbidden" character) is turned (on The continuation of the dream is reinto a fear. quarrel it means illness when one is in full when one makes love. I am afraid and wake up with fear. The meaning is very simple. attractive young man. old.

it is depicts a rape phantasy. 1908. Why should she want to tear open the man's waistcoat? Here we learn another dream process. alike. the sexual instinct and the instinct of aggression (Aggressionstrieb) 1 . She has homosexual leanings and wishes the assault which. No. no not a voyeur at the same time. the motive power is generated by two originally disparate instincts which are later drawn together and. dreams what takes place below is represented above and reversely. That is an extraordinarily common form of dream distortion. a process which. She fears the mother. to two instincts. there is fit into one another very well. The dream must bear a meaning also in a positive sense. Der Aggressionstrieb im Leben und in der Neurose. moreover.'* * Thus nature her- no sadist who exhibitionist who is self upholds the law of opposites. the sadistic-masochistic manifestation corresponds. Fortsehritte der Medizin. the perverse. moreover. as a consequence. Alfred Adler. plays also a tremendous role in the symptomatology of the neuroses. 19: "In the healthy. and the neurotics. the aggressive and the defensive. the so-called In many transposition "from below. also conceivable that the picture represents a reverse act.Dream Distortion 109 On the other hand. for is not also a masochist. Both interpretations. Applying the principle of transposition from below above we arrive at the wish to act aggressively and tear apart a man's trousers. signifies a question about her motherhood. that she struggles with a wish to run after a big man. "All instincts appear in pairs. but the end seems to make that illogical. alike.

who in his Symbolik des Traumes (Symbolism of Dream) maintains : "Recent. the soul emphasized the inner organic double sense. the fear of living and the yearning after death. She will never have milk And now we arrive at the most signifilie cant meaning. signifying one concept and at the same time the exact opposite. in bol. This feature of language was known already to Schubert. Every fear is also a fear of death. roundabout ways.110 Sex and Dreams the For in her breast. rather than . An and the fear of death. plays upon various motives. . first She wishes to be again with the The grip on pleasurable contact of infancy. more penetrating linguistic investigaproven everywhere the prevalence of interchangeable terms in the articulated language and the kinship of words. mpther and the breasts at the nurse's breast. these forms of dream distortion are supported by linguistic characteristics. woman is sterile. Moreover. Linguists have pointed out that in man's aboriginal language many words had double meaning. in expressing itself. old is the The dream thus More than that! The the heart is woman who seizes her at ancient symIn fact. commingled. always the fear of death! Thus we see an interplay of the yearning for life the symbol of death. First we frequently find that tions has words having contrary meanings originate from the same root as if.

and in various other languages the words for unity and union and enemy and division are the same. love. both come from the same root . and of lighting) light is played upon in (scorching the jargon of myth everywhere. darkness and light. but within the realm of the same language we find words for warm and for cold derived from the same root (gelu. appeasement. the evil divinity is taken for good. Italian caldo. peace. the heavy metal and the light bird. and Ger. and falsehood. warm). and the God of the tropical South has descended from the cold North. or lying. meaning the opposite . and epts (eris.Life and Death 111 some external particularized manifestation thereof. raging madness. as it is called somewhere. . cold. in some languages are derived from the same root. so man also 'epos (eros). becomes the rapacious wolf. anger. English cold. in That double quality unpleasant connotations. the name of the evil Ahriman and that of the god of light. and caelo. . (Swe- denborg elaborated a theory that sensuous love generates in heaven the crassest hatred. the evil Loghe. Rage and meekness. Just as frequently in myth and language the good divinity is fused with the evil one and reversely. too. after flaring up in a scorching flame. air and iron. Orim-Asdes. Words designating warm and cold are not only similarly sounding in some modern languages: for instance. the symbol of truth. and as expatiation.) Light. because light (the beautiful morning star. as poison. the generating of joy . quarrel. calidus. who elsewhere appears also as dog and bitch. although the corresponding myth makes a strong division between the two principles. kalt. gelidus. too. appears in double sense. Blood. so in Persian.

" Not infrequently we are in a position to trace in a remarkable manner precisely how words came to be used in a sense exactly contrary to their original meaning. the Word. sensuality and impotence. at the same time also the tree of contention. also the flower of night at the fountain of life. or. too. or as snake either in a beneficial or in a fearfully evil sense. dove. the acorn. or fig tree becomes the tree of knowledge. itself. from same root) . the fountain of light. too. is identical with the bird The phoenix and with the palm (tree or leaf). as ram expressing the generative principle. which is Finally the tree of knowledge becomes the lingam. and many other concepts of similar antithetical character are traceable likewise to the same roots the lamb as well as the beast. then as representing the grossest sensualism (here. which are often met as symbols of the creative logos first appear . on the other. with the hand signifies the organ of physical generation. lamb and flame. The . palm.112 Sex and Dreams and sadness. becomes on the one side the building. low and high. in other versions of myth. vine. creating hand. the apparatus and symbol of sensuous delights^ In the same manner the seeing eye. The kinship of knowing and generating has been traced already A in a very remarkable manner by Franz Baeder: "In language and myth. few examples will suffice. which as the holy spirit puts in motion the water of life as well as man's cognitive spirit.

falsehood. evil turning into into darkness. entitled the Contrary econd volume of the Jahrbuch fiir psychoanalytisclie und psychopathologische Forschour attention to a pamphlet by Karl Ueber den Gegensinn der Urworte (On Meaning of Aboriginal Words. called Abel. that unique of a primitive world. anger. revenge. the creative. word undergoes a terrible change under the picture of the horrible ram Mendes. hand. . light phes change good into tions. . the holy name. Just as linguistic catastroevil. 113 evil becomes at the same time the the truth-generating. in the ungen. organ that young prudish virgin who in the myth was never touched by the breath of a sensuous wish becomes the sophisticated goddess of the most unrestrained and wildest sensuality. and many examples in myth and language. show evil and poison transformed into lovely figures or beneficial agencies. there are a fairly large . Thus." Freud. oath-yielding (killing) * the of waste. pub- lished in 1889). whose cult includes all the shameful deeds relating to the most bestial animal lust. so the same mechanisms effect the reverse transforma- good. lying. the fish and the snake of indulgence generate also that terrible poison. spiritually cognitive. the law become punish- sensuous ment.Contrary Meanings vitalizing eye eye. In that work Abel points out: "In relic the Egyptian language . which has corrupted the world and life. The word of love.

. not for the purpose of forming a new meaning. reThese spectively. which in spite of their double and antithetical source. in addition to words which cover opposite meanings. . there can be no doubt that there was at least one language containing a multitude of words signifying one thing and at the same time the exact opposite. commanding as well obeying. In that remarkable language there are. formed of a couple of syllables of contrary meaning.. but standing as a unit the meaning of which disregards entirely the sense of one of the component parts. . and there we have a concrete picture of what the Egyptians were accustomed to meet in their daily language. not merely words which signify strong as well as weak. outside-inside. uniting-dividing. "Considering this and many similar instances of antithetical meaning. distant- near. each the exact contrary of the other. deliberately bring together contrary meanings. thus. . there are also composite terms such as old-young. the language contains also compound words. uniting.114* Sex and Dreams number of words with double meaning. in our language. "Among all the eccentricities of the Egyptian lexicon the most extraordinary perhaps is the fact that. signify. Consider the apparent nonsense of having to bear in mind that the word strong. distant. as is done occasionally in the Chinese compound words . for instance. that the noun light means light as well as darkness. . etc. outside. means strong and weak at the same time. old. Strange as it may seem the fact is plain and we must take it into consideration. Who can be blamed for an inclination to shake one's head incredulously? .

if taken by itself. and consequently we would have neither the concept nor the clear. . . . in his interpretative abstract of Abel's essay mentioned above. The most wonderful extremely is peculiarity of human through re- nature. but merely in order* to use the composite term in the sense of one of its antithetical components." meaning. But the Freud. as in the following dream of an artist suffering of a professional neurosis: .. It is on this planet is relative and has independent existence only insofar as it stands in relation to. . also There marks. and specifically through doubt. when the latter would have carried the same . this contrariness is deliberately expressed. Since every concept is thus the twin of its opposite." of the doubter.. "we should not distinguish between light and darkness. . everything word light. on appear "If it were always light. as Freud aptly But in that sense there is The dream divinity is the arch-type In some dreams no "yes. expresses this itself interesting psychic phenomenon. how could it be communiit." states contrasts. other objects. . and differs from.Contrary Meanings 115 language. except its contrast with or opposite?" through comparison In dreams this contrast or antithesis plays a great cated at all to another trying to acquire role. riddle is more easily solved than may Our concepts arise through the surface. how could it be perceived. no "negative" in dreams. man's bipolarity.

of or stairway). We see that both on the other. but if would become the kind of character called a Steiger Juan. who tried to enter the tech- nical school. and in fact it was his habit as a child to run off over the steps and into the room when she threatened to punish him. and he replies it was a colleague. The rooms.116 I Sex and Drearns else am running away from some one. or I pursuing somebody through water. as ing Stiege (steps. Zimmer-Frauenzimmer. the women's In spite of the great distance he swam to his mother. The person he pursued he does not recall. to climb after . he was not accepted and that worried him very much. signify women (in German. whom he nearly reached in a state of exhaustion. He remembers such scenes. The men's dressing cabins were on one side. dream? He is a What is great Don the meaning of this phantasy. a piano player like himself. mostly in his he followed his inclination. into the room. he in Vienna Hence the mean(literally. he recalls also that during the previous year he and his mother bathed together in a river. as an adult As a child he ran he swam across the river to her side. rooms women) . over steps. from his mother. but we know from previous analyses that it can be only his own mother. a "stepper"). usual in dreams. we try to inform ourselves who that could be. It occurs to him that there was some one am else in the dream. one half hour incidents are fixed in the dream.

cepted? the colleague who was not acHis younger brother. does he run after all one? Because he is This brief dream discloses the psychology of the Don Juan. X. He is eternally true to his infan- and because he looks everywhere for this ideal. which im- we prefer. Because of his perpetual fidelity Don Juan is untrue. even the tyro in analysis will have surmised. indeed. he concentrates his whole attention on the task of overcomsistance and. and never finds her. one after preoccupation. that in this case the dream evoked the recollection of the is dreamer's swimming to his mother. ing the resistance and of making the conquest. his chief women. He wishes to be the But who only child in his mother's "technical school. be true to cannot any one. sure of disappointment. usually birth dreams and it was not an accident. and runs after all He women without being true to running away from one woman who cannot be a wife to him his mother. The two opposite tendencies. Mr. or. is also the father (condensation) who thus appears excluded from the . if off. every woman rouses him and promptly disappoints him. But why another." That the master is the father. What interests him in the end is the woman's retile ideal.Colloquial Expressions 117 Frauenzimmer (women) that is. the running plies pursuit. the pursuit. which similarly designates a running away are strikingly Dreams of water are well expressed in this dream. the mother. therefore.

like the brother." like all other acts involving the notion of "playing. and I explain that by the fact that in his tremendously large library a few books more or less makes no difference. . world of high politics are utilized by the dream as let But symbols for commonplace homely thoughts. us not anticipate the interpretation but relate the dream." I continue this series of dreams by giving next a very interesting dream in which transposition This is a so-called political plays a great role. and that is seldom the pression case with dreams. which on first perusal gives the imof something logical. I join lustily. tell I him that our library shows a striking gap whenHe ever we take out a few books on a journey. thinks he never had that feeling. political dream is as fol- first My lows: (29) I am m the Hofburg and see Bismarck. incident . We have here a political dream. . I see Bismarck again. call forth they become noisy and partly as reaction . dream. dream life conceives nothing as The greatest and loftiest personages of the holy. in which some German nationalists persistently acclaim Bismarck. Piano playing is a common for "sexual intercourse" or for "masturbasymbol tion. also about the books which he carries. Several fall on their knees. We speak about the . With others I shout: Hoch! Some one starts the anthem. Indeed.118 Sex and Dreams school.

means the best .. It My was a summer villa residence me immensely. But unOne week fortunately my vacation was disturbed. until like joy. that my little one said: "The Kaiser could not have it any nicer!'* Hofburg. has nothing to do with politics. and then went to P. We before the projected removal to the place I received lives. I found her in A ence near her. with a long veranda permitting a beautiful view across MariaWorth. where I could see also my mother daily. where my aged mother telegram called me to her.. Everything was so pleasant and comfortable. a beautiful rural place at the sea. then. I had the dream in P. was out of question. disquieting news from F. There is no physician I remained for a few days at F. to Abbazia. the people's hymn. I determined quickly to remove my family from P. the Hofburg.) her condition improved somewhat. On the sec- ond night of dream. which I was sorry to have to leave. a serious condition which required my constant presUnder such circumstances vacationing at P. (That actually was the case. my sojourn there I had my "political" And now / am in pleased the analysis.Word the answer of all Associations 119 good patriots. I also thought that the presence of my family would bring joy to the bedridden patient and aid her recovery. And yet! Like most political dreams this dream.. had our summer place there.. too.

lean man plexion is a dark mustache. M. and the beginning of the dream signifies: I am at P. heavy.. tall. of covering up the con- tent by transposition into the opposite. so pleased me the year before that I chose one in the same place. whose summer residence in P. beautifully situated summer residence. The big. M. florid appearing man with Dr.. my friend Dr. And I see Bismarck. another colleague told me of Dr. is my villa. with white mustache and yellowish coma small.120 Sex and Dreams residence. His name Schweinburg. a second Bismarck in his vocation. The thin Bismarck of the dream was a strikingly man with yellowish-muddy complexion and white mustache. which some one called jestingly the Schwein- burg theater. The dream now act as represents the wish that he should skillfully as a Bismarck and help me . He the architect who has built the Burg theater at Vienna. had an un- pleasant controversy with a society to which we both belonged and he adjusted it with such diplomatic skill that I assured him at the time: Bismarck him- self could not have done better! Moreover. in my fine. M. summer name of is A further association is is the the owner. The dream here carries out the wit- ticism so common in dreams.? That is also easy to understand. then. What has Bismarck to do with P. The Hofburg of my dream. that he was very clever and experienced.

He has spent a lot of I jo'm lustily. The absence of a moderate priced inn might interfere with my stay ridiculous Several persons fall on their knees: refers to the deference of some persons towards the proprietor of the establishment. the illness which causes painful experience to a being most dear to me. That is a fact. Let us beware of digressing and continue the interpretation on the . we speak of the Incident. at P.Associations 121 get released of the contract for the summer residence without too great a loss. so that I may be able to return quickly to mother. we praise the bathing. money in a few weeks. etc. S. the clean roads. now well-to-do. Incident is an important word. But that will carry us into another channel of our dream thoughts. Then I see Bismarck again. the charming position of the establish- ment. there are interesting excursion spots. a man of the people. Wech$el Em der den Zug auf andere Geleise bringt: a change It is which makes for a different turn.. Whither one walks one has the impression of moving in a great garden. Mr. With the others I shouted: Hoch! all We are a group praising P. thought the place was very expensive. Some one begins the people's anthem. We love the beautiful place at the sea.

thought that the summer expense six weeks in the had at first intended to spend country would cause a marked gap in our modest resources. Keuschheit und Gesundheit (Prudery and Health) I have stated: "There is no savings box for the spermatozoa.) ." from that standpoint. thinks he never had that feeling. and I explam that his tremendous large library. or less more books few This is a reference to the savings bank account . as if I had said Savings bank account here means also woman. have interpreted the dream thus far. about my difficulty and he promised me his assistance in canceling the contract. thrifty influence in our household.122 Sex and Dreams path on which we have already started. According to the "symbolic parallelism" of which we shall speak at length in the next chapter. M. It is. while I have but one wife. make no difference. I him that our library shows a marked gap whenHd ever we take out a few books on a journey. Dr. M. about the vacation 2 expenses. M. I spoke with Dr. It contains to a certain extent regrets that I had chosen so expensive a a We summer resort. In my monograph. I had spoken to Dr. tell m on which I drew before undertaking the journey.. In fact. always the economical. "spermatic fluid" means also "money. the luxury. M. Also about the books which he carries. My I wife. is well-to-do and can more easily afford The dream plays upon this thought. ." (Consider also the expression "striking gap" and "tremendous large library. . figures as an admirer of the fair sex. I accuse him of maintaining a harem." Dr. a by the fact that. who was also to stay six weeks at the place.

like my mother. "incident. a process called Verdichtung (condensation). The yellowish complexion due to illness also corresponds. mother dear. Applying that key. thin man- stands antithetically for a small. Wisdom is her most striking characteristic. whom father always called his Bismarck. Some . I join other persons shouting. "Kopf hoch Mutterchen. you will get better. in the dream: "Yes. . symbol of that type is also the Emperor in the dream. Hoch! We wish her a speedy recovery. A strikingly tall. That even better. . marck.. for whom a sim- ple country place would be good enough. A who." refers now take up to the change leading in another direction. live at 123 M. keep up your courage. . I have already mentioned that the word Vorfall. as I have already said.Associations to Dr. But let us investigate further. by Freud. the Hofburg becomes my father's residence fits and Bismarck is my mother. represents two persons. the other path. heavy woman. usually represents the father. I found my mother very ill and I was distressed to Bissee her face drawn and distorted with pain. What does it matter if you do make some inroads into your savings bank account? I am a man of the people. Let us There are a number of dream symbols almost regularly permitting a particular translation." I told the dear aged patient when she began talking about a will and about dying. you can afford to the Hofburg. thus.

ries along." The possessing a tremendously large wish fulfillment is clear. While mother was speaking about the distribution of her humble goods. gives the solution to the dream. her about the distribution of which we jewelry spoke cherish not for its monetary value but on account of confessed to mother that I its associations. We . painful thought. Several persons fatt on their knees: that an actual occurrence at the meeting. which I have never entertained in waking life.124 Sex and Dreams It goes: one starts the anthem: keep. : made a great sacrifice She with the journey (savings bank account). who knows what great and valuable inheritance! won't even cover the expenses of my journey You here. may sound approximately as follows: "Why are you talking about your pitiful possessions. But in my dream I see mother as an immensely wealthy woman "library. etc. I . of course. are the heirs. as if you were leaving behind. We. mother ! Gott erhalte Gott beschiitze God God protect" in this case. Instead of relics is we receive tremendous sums of money. . as rich as a The dream reveals to me an unpleasant. ugly. expressed in words. for she Princess (Bismarck).'* . her children. refers to speak of the occurrence: that reproduces a Also about the books he cardaily experience. but which must have been slumbering in my breast. I must have repressed an emotion which.

Die Geschwister. are linked with the most delicate feelings in good men. a thing I often did with my own books. But brother does not enter into am the only heir. It reminds me of The most unpleasant experiences of my childhood. The pretty I political meaning-motivation. a fact which should make us more thoughtful about all those persons whom we are disposed to consider as "bad" without knowing more closely their circumstances. (Sudermann relates a similar experience in his novel. thing but careful in money matters and I am exBut such unconscious thoughts tremely sensitive. this library would be wholly yours!" I ran away shocked. Suddenly the thought came to me: "If your brother should die now. and the caused recollection of this occurrence has often my cheeks to flush with shame. ship one of the connection is there.) I believe that I also struggled at the time with the temptation of stealing some of the books and selling them to the second hand dealer. analysis thus far has not shown the relationBut the of the dream to the infantile root. I thought I was a terrible sinner. which a brother's pride and mine had built up (the brother was six years older). My .Unbidden Thoughts 125 sciousness I need hardly emphasize that my waking conI am anyis unaware of such a thought. I was a small boy and was standing in front of the library. dream thus has also a deeper My mother is wealthy.

I rented a residence at Abbazia where we were in fact rather cramped for space." literally "drink-money." leads back to wet-nurse mem- ories. 3 * Further determination reveals hidden thoughts. . but the latter scornfully disregards the gift. "Trinkgeld. The tip or gratuity. I say. In her reception room we are comfortable. Here the continuation of the dream comes to my mind: W. where there is "comfortable room for all" (?). One of the last houses a is wonderful villa belonging to my mother. A proof that the dream thoughts play variants on the same theme. One cannot be more comfortable than traveling to Neuwaldegg.126 Sex and Dreams the situation. I also secured for mother a room which In the seemed to me not well enough furnished. I ascend a marble stairway and come into a gigantic "Oh" reception room exquisitely furnished in red and gold. (30) I am in Neuwaldegg. a suburb of Vienna. instead of traveling to distant Abbazia. "there is comfortable space for every- body here. in German. My mother is a wealthy lady." The history of the preliminary circumstances of the dream is partly known. Three weeks later in Abbazia I had a dream which was a continuation of the former. dream I am again in Vienna. a longing for the return to the mother-body. wants to give our servant a krone as a tip. The boy's selfish wish has still retained the power of influencing the plastic pictures of the dream (library).

. As it is. The man is arrested (?). 1 say: let me off. lends itself. This dream. rather diminutive man. loudly: police. A pointing downwards. Suddenly we find ourselves in the Liliengasse (street). police! The officer sees us the man s and comes running in our direction. like the other. near my children. A small hallway between The man 9 s able memory has name is Pellmann and his remarkmade an impression in the Court. to lock up. He wants to squeeze me. The Dream about the Confectioner: big no. The dream speaks volumes. this way f squeezes me harder. to a deeper analysis. outcry. But he still squeezes me. . . That very night even our servant refuses that sum as a gratuity. with a black mustache (31) I am on the street. and in the kitchen the dark man who now wears a big black beard. But I must forego the task. Meanwhile I shout again: Police. us. While he into is 1 cannot shut the doors.Interpretation 127 On the the previous day I had lost a crown playing game of Tarok with W. a middlesized. I and my two children in the room. hold me by the hand and does not want to let go. outside I try But he comes my room from be- . or I'll call the policeman standing there. I have already disclosed about myself much of what most persons prefer to keep hidden. I struggle and that and I shake the hand so hard that The man squeezing does not hurt me. of course. I shout The officer does not hear my police.

nonsensical dream. Luft. We A big no. In the Czernin gallery I learned to appreciate the art of painting. / am on the street. Luft. rather diminutive man. a middle-sized. where the Czernin gallery is situThe road leads from my house directly past there and to the Secession Building (an art gallery). is linked to two occurrences of the R. no. So much for the recent inciters. I can't do anything with so good a gymnast.128 hind. Luft. laughingly: "Of course. begin the analysis. also a satirical picture: Sudermann takes up the warfare against critics. Let us penetrate and take apart The dream previous day. Sudermann s 9 "Sokrates der Sturmgeselle". . air!). Sex and Dreams I say to him. My companion exclaimed: this picture has with Professor E." strange. into the gist of the dream thought the warp and woof of its structure. I recall particularly an incident were standing in front of the painting of Paulus Puter. told me that he has looked up the Egyptian dream book because he has found therein many resemblances to Pellmann's system of at a restaurant I saw an illustration of memory culture. atmosphere! (literally. Czernin palace." Socrates He looks like A the "SturmgeseUe. it should be Potter. Now we This brings to my mind the and the spot where the acLandesgerichtsstrasse tion takes place in the little park in front of the ated.

Rummel. a middle-sized. a middle-sized investigator when in truth I am rather a small one. the last time some fifteen years ago. In fact I was busy feuilletonist and confectioner. [Who would But will not read a Lemur No. no. in the present case. whom I have seen only a few This times. I myself. I feared was not "deep" enough. Hummel. confectioner in my old home town. Perhaps I imagine I am a big. no. This! brings to my mind.] And is rather diminutive the meaning of a big." I put my "sugar wares'* before my readers. only "Zueker- . Now I understand the "confectioner. We What all any one praise him? would rather be less read better liked. with my book it on the evening before the dream. man? Clearly a person who fuses these qualities.Associations 129 with a black mustache pointing downwards holds me by the hand and does not want to let go. fellow Hummel had once written a rather shallow femlleton under the pseudonym Lemur (a transposition of Rummel) which stirred me to an imitation of Lesswg's verse: Wer wird nicht einen Lemur lesen Doch wird ihn jemand loben? Nein. Mr. like Mr. Wir wotten weniger gelesen Und mehr belobet sein.

know now something about oil paintings." confectionery I decided to cast off these sweets. and F. / struggle this way and that way and 1 shake the hand so vigorously that the squeezing does not hurt I cover up my superficiality. and Professor I I got along well. The man is arrested: That leads to an overstressing of the dream picture.e. F. She must help me The in get that "Hummel" off my breast. free. these "bonbons. . warmly shake my hand. Very interesting is the recall error Puter instead of Potter. The watchman who stands by my children He does not want to is a watchwoman. My wife my opinion does not pay sufficient attention to my writings. watchman does not hear my outcry. He wants to down of me the level (i. This first part of the dream. then. I get along well that way..130 Sex and Dreams tidbits. tion and the analysis of this point would carry us too far afield. who takes a keen interest in my work and is not easily satisfied. In the forgotten dialect of childhood "Puter" means being rid of. an overdeterminame. I won't mistake a print for an oil painting. portrays the desire to get rid of the petty confectionery tidbits with the aid of the wife and of Professors E. werk. namely my wife. earn money Professor E." as a colleague once called them. that is. And now the next passage: let me go. keep my achievesqueeze ments). .

I before the Court.Associations 131 like every Suddenly we find ourselves in Cz. The dream. Irrational dreams of greatness about my forthcoming book! . stretches its roots down into the I and my two children in the room infantile life. I have now reached a step higher. and in the kitchen the dark man who now wears a big black beard. that I will find my way out of all difficulties. in the watchtower. connected by a subterranean passage with the gymnasium room. I wish to get rid of my self-criticism. For days I have been thinking over a plan to write on the subject of memory. Now Pellmann is changed into Sudermann who takes up the cudgels against critics. His remarkable memory has made an impression A roundabout self-praise. I am a Pellmann possessing a wonderful memory. think a great deal of my last appearance as expert at Court. so that the children should not catch cold during inclement weather. \So skillful brings to my 9 a gymnast can t be kept down: It mind the nursery room of K. dream.. is The criticism openly resented felt in a round- about way. where my testimony engaged the closest attention of those present. for I seem myself in the dream. I am the gymnast and the dream reassures me that I shall free myself of all unpleasantnesses in life. I am Socrates who is also "a drawer of water and hewer of wood". Socrates criticizes the latter.

or three or four in the strands. for they may land one in Court That is why he steals into ! my In the dream all caution and all watchfulness proves useless. room from be suspected already with the recall of the association. is determined. Who holds me down to the affliction The of my unconscious? Naturally my wife. I feel myself held down by the marriage tie. Not only two. are breaking through in the dream. how well suited is the choice of Rummel.132 Infantile. Here the anal complex links itself. Luft. Sex and Bream ! vague sexual reminiscences! Unpleasant Doubts concernexperiences of the last few years ing my personal ability! Endless self -adulation ! All that condensed. wish to be Socrates and at the same time to enjoy the adventurous "storm and stress" life. any number of them may be fused Moreover. The wife and the two children are a stumblingblock I against carrying out the polygamic instincts. that is. the feuilletonist. air! . Why Clearly homosexual leanpracticed gymnastics. That was to behind. Luff. the confectioner! analysis thus far does not include the most important features. Luft! atmosphere. Disregard of all criticism! fused in a single web! Here we see how richly the dream dream. does a big dark man play here a role? That brings to my mind a strikingly handsome colleague with whom I have is Another feature noteworthy. leanings ings against which my wife must protect me.

. That first love truly was an un- happy one. and I suddenly fell in love with her. I revenge myself on women for the scornful rejection I experienced on the occasion of my unforgettable first love affair. Nevertheless I remained faithful to her for years. although she did not let go of my hand. Now dream discloses against I understand the cryptic hatred which the my wife. . I saw her standing am My of in front the confectioner's shop window. She grabs me and does not She holds on to me. thinking of a little blonde girl. Indeed. One can imagine the excitement of a high school boy who produces lyrics by the ream and who is finally lucky enough to have an unfortunate love affair a love unrequited.Associations 133 I have reached thus far without doubling on the Now it occurs to me that the trail of associations. . And. On the very day when the Lemur "fewlleton had appeared. my hero of the day. I never spoke to the lady of my heart But she once turned around to tell me that she finds ! my everlasting dogging her steps foolish. let me off. This process the is illustrated also in the psychology of Don Juan type (in addition to the features al- . There was a sweet sorrow to my passion. Presently I first love! Bertha. The squeezing did not hurt me in the dream. Note the wish fulfillment. pseudonym Lemur is the reverse of Rummel. perhaps I have never outgrown that first love. That lo ! suggests a return to the great dark man.

who wrote an interesting book and of Pekelmann. (Observe the association series: Stekel Mann Pekelmann Pell- mann. Only in that sense can I under- stand the contrast between unconscious attitude towards self my my conscious and wife. with my mother. wife) at home in Cz. and ending with the re- "Her grave The dark man is it waits. of course. wife ! very strongly indicated. when I fell so passionately in love. a boyhood friend. with first That seems to^ me to be For I am (without the love and with my two children. minds me of a psychiatrist by that name. Truly a remarkable my Pellmann re("astonishing memory"). He was a diminutive fellow an actor loyalty of medium ("middle-sized") quality and an ekelhafter excel- lent genial reciter. my my- I say to repeatedly: if you were now once more free to choose. When considering sys- tematically the subject of death symbolism I shall take the opportunity of speaking at greater length . In the unconscious I see myself back in the There is where I lived Liliengasse without her. you would again choose your wife. That. The watchman is by antithesis (of the imperative: watch out!) the command : sleep on.) frain." death. My friend repeatedly recited a ballad by Meissnef called The Jewess. is the highest compliment that can be paid to a woman.Sex and Dreams ready mentioned).

All the persons of the dream are divisions of my selfhood and vitalized with thoughts. Death cannot harm me. They layers of the are ready to break to surface. who is already dead. is to be understood in reverse sense. Now associations overwhelm me. am Richter (Also Richter (Court Street. The process of condensation depends on the capacity of the psyche of Further identifying itself with various persons. The deepest dream But we must abandon the analysis at this point. too.Interpretation 135 I refer about the "black man. Pellmann is the criminal against whom I shut the door to my is heart. I I do not fear death and never feared it. criminal realm." Death wants me. and. officer. draining with philosophic calm the hemlock cup. finally. my . Wachmann. The laughter Judge) lead into the at the end of the dream. Now it strikes me that the great Turner whose picture occurs in the dream was really it brings to my mind a gigantic and school colleague. Bertha. receives the uncomplimentary and undeserved appellation of a Xantippe. are Rummel. Socrates. Pellmann. Let us emphasize first the fact that t}ie dark man is a composite picture of a number of persons. : death. through association with Socrates.) powerful The associations Landesgerichtsstrasse. It a sad dream with depressing thoughts. my own inferiority. Richter. Pekelmann. him to my wife who.

is a proof of "psychic hermaphroditism. this Here acter and dream." .136 Sex and Dreams found in the folwant to point out that has a pronounced bisexual charI only illustrations of that process will be lowing chapters. too.

WARDS SCORN UNDER THE MASK OF GENTILITY A DREAM WHICH MUST BE INTERPRETED IN REVERSE SENSE THE SECOND SYMBOLIC EQUATION THE SYMBOLIZATION OF SCORNFUL LOVE WHY THE CHILD CALLS "PAPA !" A BIOGRAPHIC DREAM MASKS. CONT. FRONT. UPWARDS.VI DREAM TRANSPOSITION FROM AND FROM THE BACKBELOW. .

Je die Hohe und Helle will. the more he strives upwards and towards the light. is like \Man a tree. um so starker streben seine Wurzeln erdwdrts. m dem Menschen me mit dem Bourn. the stronger his roots drag him downwards. ins dunkle.] Nietzsche . abwdrts. ins Base. mto darkness and the abyss. into the pit of evil.Es ist mit mehr er Tiefe. earthwards.

vagina. 139 . *Nabeln for coire. The A preferable means for the substitution is the displacement from below. urethra and navel * may substitute each other. Thus. 13. p. en- the mouth may represent the vagina. Anthropophyteia. A girl dreams: to allow so (32)- Mama has told me not much ing in the nose. 44. first Thus. pretation of dreams. p. vid. These symbolic parallels are a great aid to any one who knows them. may be transposed to the upper part. For instance. vol. the Here we counter symbolic parallel (Gleichung). 428. The vagina is also called the "ear between the legs" das "Ohr zwischen den Beinen": Anthropophyteia. The mouth. p. nasal opening. II. eyes. vol. Also. at times indispensable in the interparallelism reads: All bodily openings (in the dream) are equal to each other and may substitute one another.. ears. I. anus. anus is called the "Cyclopean eye": Ibid. 339. "Cy elope" .VI principle of "transposition into the opposit e" is carried out in various ways in the dream. the "one-eyed affair" das "ein-augige Oeschdft" means homosexuality: Anthropophyteia. morally abhorrent. Fr. VII. An example will illustrate this principle of symbor- bolic parallelism. Anything referring to the bodily region below the umbilicus. vol. p.

and I become aware of the fact that I have a flat fleshly growth at the back of my head and I reach my right hand back I don't get rid of to it. offers to go down and fetch some for me. like its it. L. from below. Let us analyze another dream which shows even more plainly than the former one. cleaning and throwing the soaking cotton into the chamber it pot. But I have the feeling it will shock J. Mr. I >am using for the purpose perhaps a handkerchief in my right hand but what I want is a sufficent quantity of cotton. There must be some in Dr. Stekel's office.'s sense of ." She had the ugly habit of boring her nose. Mr. Here the introitus of the nose replaces the one below. J. which in most cases is a symbolic displacement from below.140 Sex and Dreams and she wonders at the meaningless "allow. L. Theta dreams: this displacement (S3) I am engaged in conversation with J. which stands under the bed. I look around for something to soak up the fluid. presence there and I reflect how to Now ing. it has the appearance of a smooth soft swell- I press on it with the left hand and at first there appears a little bloody drop and on pressing further a bloody fluid trickles forth and the swelling goes down. L. fllled with urine. Meanwhile I am busy with the swelling.

141 me thus making I also believe now that he is present in the room. urine. He carries his neurosis like a boil. I must direct him (the room was Incidentally he originally a Direktionsgebaude) wishes an intimate preoccupation with his various . Stekel. L. J. blood. L. . I must free him of that the I must clean I must show away filth (matter. Here we enAll counter the second symbolic parallelism. THE PLAN OP THE ROOM J. who afterwards changes into Dr. Sekreten ("secreta" and "secrets").. hoti.Transposition propriety when he returns and finds use of his chamber pot. His "head is not in order. him another path. Myself 1 Wash basin Bed I Room exit This dream represents chiefly a symbolic account The dreamer is conversing with of the treatment. Our conversation room was originally an office and has changed into a living room while I was busy cleansing my wound.

This symbolic parallelism fully later. The is patient's mouth is his erogenous zone. / become aware of a flat fleshly growth at the back of my head and I reach my right hand back to it. sweat and tears are equal. 249). likes eatables He a "taster" and "mincer. toe." he a refined palate. foot. and penis must be considered equal to one another. are paired organs. etc. Nearly all his dreams are concerned with the nurse (cp. Thus. urine. loin. parallels. milk. 2 thumb. cerumen. find this to represent 1 Bearing in mind the displacement from below we a touch on the posterior parts. we have a transposition from below upwards and backwards. This dreamer has not yet forgotten his nurse. hand. With the exception . Testicles and ears should all of the penis. spermatic fluid. arm. ether. Here the swelling is also the breast. In this connection we become ac- quainted with a third symbolic parallelism: Breast.) blood. will be considered more We shall then take up the particular the We return to our dream.142 secreta Sex and Dreams and excreta are equal to one another. and has Now we proceed further with the analysis. in the chapter on Nurse Dreams the dream No. The soaking up of running matter rouses the suggestion that this rep- resents suckling at the nurse's breast (pus for milk). bowel excreta. also be added. Mucous secretion (nasal.

J. the handkerchief. reflect hots) best to get rid of This part of the dream reveals He "psychic hermaphroditism" would prefer to have no penis. He must go down (TiiniintergeTien) and replace the "Watta" (he He plays both called his role's: father "Atta") with his nurse and nursling. man (his A further condensation is proven by the recall of a serious gonorrheal infection.). . after masturbating (SelbstbeflecJcung). He would like to Castrations phantasies have played be a woman. also blood. He used cotton at the time to avoid spotting the linen. further course of the dream portrays a masturbatory act which was always a "milking" to him. / don't like its presence there and I it. the dreamer's an important role in his mental life. For a long time squeezing the urethra brought forth suppuration and for a time. still penis.'s offering to go down is the critical point. L.Displacement 14<3 This sort of contact plays an important role in the man's rude love life. have repeatedly carried out fellatio on him. the swelling is his too often." This 3 Puellae publicae betrays his fellatio phantasy. But the the wet nurse is He who wish refers specificially to fellatio by a friend J. Taking into consideration also the displacement behind (from the front). The is being "milked. . . L. . which he has thus touched only In spite of his 39 years of age he is masturbating.

The plan of the room is really that of his nursery. I expected to find father As I stepped in I saw mother in the place.144 Sex and Dreams his hand and with and father. L. which I find repulsive and unpleasant to . is the latter's wife. The continuation The "chamber pot" That of J. relatives. I merely wanted to illustrate the problem of displacement. The first traumatic incidents take place in that room. Thought the relatives will imagine under compulsion only because I am In fact I had to force myself to in their presence. (The with the and chamber the cotton pot preoccupation as sanitary napkin. Naturally the well-known infantile constellation of associations are roused at this point. is why he does not want to be seen in the act. Let us now analyze another example of a placement upwards (from below). c.) Here I discontinue the analysis. He filth. am his friend of the dream clearly I am preoccudiscloses scatological phantasies. she was the first one sitting nearest the door t As Then I saw father. mouth. dis- (34) I visited there. wants with his to himself preoccupy pied with mine. am struck with father's red swollen hand kiss. !). Although it was Sum- mer I wore a winter coat. I am doing I it do it. and the father. In this treatment I play I the role of J. I greeted him and greeted her. L. (Moltke's cynical expression: woman is a w. kissed his hand.

Displacement 145 He enters the parental home (visit to relatives). Transposition. that Dr. He hates the father yet must show himself cordial towards him. as in the previous dream. as he hates him. "They affect may think!" The displacement of the . instead of that he is freezing. to carry on fellatio with "he is a man. "Er soil den Penis kilssen" swollen that is a reference to kissing the penis. He should be warm. In the latter instance the dreamer's own feeling of untruthfulness me such and insincerity is ascribed to the relatives. swollen hand pels himself to feel affection. Here. That feeling of disgust now find out that he rouses our suspicion. of shame because he has to such filth") is first tell instance the feeling things ("all transferred upon me. He comfirst the her and greets The red. The mother first was inspires him with disgust. In fact. Here another thought is ascribed to the relatives: "They may think I do this under coercion!*' Both processes In the are displacements. that in is the winter coat Summer the meaning of his wearing time (scornful love). The red loves his father as much We hand is the red swollen (erect) penis (displacement from below). Stekel may feel ashamed. is at the door. this craving is shown in other dreams very plainly and without any masking. He That is why he at the (mother's) door." his suppressed perversion. we find a remarkThere the intimation was raised able displacement. father afterwards.

Parcheles ("Parch" is a Jewish slurring expression for "Grindkopf. The dreamer is sure this is a reference to Baroness Rosenfeld. and speak with him. The dream is vain worship and adAnalysis: miration of Baron Rosenfeld. in fact. The phantasies of revenge are due to unrequited love. too. Jr. unbearable Jewish boy !" dream is a dream of revenge against his physician and the latter's son. "Zimhaus" suggests to Zmsen that is. A patient dreams (35) A palace of the high tower and a park and a lodge of Baron Rosenfeld. expresses the deepest scorn and is intended to cover the feeling: "what a his The fresh.146 Sex and Dreams affect (Affektverschiebungen) and the transference of the are processes to (Affektiibertragungen) will which we have frequently occasion to : refer. who owns a villa auf der hohen Warte. Park evokes the name of a Jewish horse dealer. But the Jewish name is enough to awaken our suspicion. In the park I find Rosenfeld. Ich war ganz verliebt in Him I was wholly smitten on him. arrogant. lice) ." bald pate. : mind Zins. I fell in love with him. But further associations prove his assurance word is Laws" (a pair of Palais brings to his mind that the expressly pronounced Palaiss. Auf der hohen Warte (the high watch tower) the young Rosenfeld. in love with . usury. an old nobility. He is. is a "Parch" (bald pate) in his dream. "ein paar false. meaning here.

f. % The hohe Warte. II). The son is the phallic symbol. vol. park stands for the hairy growth around the genitals. No. also blood. pus. does not want to one!"). air. leads to us another symbolism the palace. This parallelism requires restatement in broader terms. cp. already well known to us. Before discussing that more minutely we must refer again to the second symbolic parallelism (which we may call S. 1902 . 1-2) brings up many examples proving that according to primitive conceptions man looked upon his various secretions soul. I. urine. as follows: All secretions and excreta. every dwelling. He pay any more without com- pensation in the form of physical love. And the Zinsthe lodge? haus. Speaking corresponds to the sexual act. P. This positive sense. . Rhemisches Museum. But the dream must also have a meaning in the He loves Baron Rosenfeld. money and poison. is therefore a reference to the act of erection. They are also to be considered equivalent to the soul. LXII. (breath^ flatus). my extensive abstract in the Zentralblatt Psychoanalyse.Interpretation le 147 "the little son (symbol for the penis. 1910. speech. high tower. water are equal to each other in the dream (and in the unconscious). Bethe (Die Dorische Knabenliebe. like path : The the symbol for the body. The vital and excreta as containing the power resided for him in the urine. vol.

oil. I. 6 The bride receives a gift. tears. unit. P. 143. teia. therefore. the penis is directly designated as money ( Anthropophyteia. vol. The language of the people also takes cognizance of such a relationship. Blood. vol. The Gulden (monetary impotent. etc. I... . spitting (ibid. stands for gold. for coitus. 15) or oil is Ejaculation means: vomiting (Anthropophyteia. 364) Einem Mddchen .. when he out" is ( ausgepumpter Mensch). p. Indeed. . p. . matic The Zms stands for speract of speaking refers to the par- 4 In the fairy story about Little Meta blood drops turn into golden ducats. VI. is or 146). vol. spit a girl in the v or net.. blood. one bleeds for another when becoming poor for his sake. II. Every fluid thropophyteia there are numerous examples of this S. peIn the seven volumes of Antroleum. cap). assumes this equation: Milk. that is. ' A man is said to be "pumped spent. p. 4 usurer is a blood-sucker. 9). I. Elsewhere: the penis weeps (Anthropophy144). money) also the penis. etc.. bon- If we apply fluid. 5 is called Spiess or Speer Similarly "gun" means money and phallus. in die Miitze (literally spucken*. 74. P. With the latwas introduced into the body. or spermatic fluid.148 Sex and Dreams ter the soul excrement. p. vol. To A pump means to borrow money. S. II here. . The analogy with the Ducatenscheisser and with the Golden Ass at once suggest themselves. 142. spermatic fluid the penis is (ibid. for instance. p..

m I call. but so far down that I do not think it possible to reach it with my fingers. and I see a great piece of meat sticking in its throat. in the love act portrayed by the dream.Symbolic Parallels 149 ticipation of the mouth. . and amount seems to be getting unbelievably large satiated. rible distress. dreams of himself in the role of a loving girl. as an important erogenous He zone. Love makes him a woman. One can see the eating does it good. The Dream of the Suffocating Child (36) A strange child comes to me. I let it come The child devours an to the table and give it food. Suddenly the child begins to choke and I notice that a bite is sticking in its throat. It turns the face. Alpha. There is a cooking spoon on the table. its eyes pop out and to my conblue sternation I see the child in greatest danger of sufThe child turns to me for help in its terfocating. The dream (like all dreams) I is bisexual. know there is whom What I can shall I If only Dr. First a dream of Mrs. His hatred wakes in him the male energies (Adler). its livens face up and rounds out and I am pleased over it. want to show here some other forms of trans- position (Umkehrung). in spite of the child's struggles. mouth. no one nearby on Stekel were here! do? Any minute the child may stran- Determinedly I pry open the child's gle to death. It looks badly and gazes at me with sad eyes.

breathes I color. The child calls for papa! It wants a father. child she would feed her vagina means lying gets "meat. quietly and does not seem in pain. A . stitt uneasy over the child's silence. Then the child calls out twice in succession: Papa! and I wake up -from my is ' dream. I want to know whether in pain. phallus How nice it must be to be able to help! is a referI must solve her sexual misery. again in the sense of genhast a virilis)." tic in bed. the phantasy is of a giganwhich gets stuck." "starving child" at last Further. These transparent phantasies are linked with reminiscences about masturbation. in which the "finger" cannot reach the "child" and various objects (cooking spoon) substitute the penis. (father." (male Further details in the female) for the genital organ. ram it with courage the child's throaty so as to at least down push down the streaked with blood and I On withdrawing the spoon I find it am not a little scared that I hurt the But the child regains its natural child. am glad but. ence to me. The "sitting at the table. The "strange" 6 . erating father But the true father. 1 it press it to say something. Finally the dream reveals the transference. Analysis: A is wonderfully well carried out dis- placement from below.150 Sex and Dreams I grab that quickly and obstruction. chapter on The Role of Relatives in Dreams. or common symbolism: the child or "the little one.

." if a strange woman entreated ("How nice it would be to help others. She idenchild.") She helped so energetically that she hurt the child.) telephone. Now "fear has re(Cp. and after the onset of puberty." The I onanistic manipulations ("I shove it in lively push it in") are often accompanied by such re- actions of nausea. is strikingly dis- cally. orously indulged in and sometimes carried on until orgasm was attained twice ("The child cried out 'papa!' twice"). "like a She shows that she could behave energetiman. Masturbation was always vig13. the dream of the pressed in her the love. The past. love. The masturbation ("The is linked with cried various incest phantasies child out 'papa!' twice") during two periods: before the tenth Once she inyear. jured herself during the act. She is a "different kind of man" than tifies She knows at once what her physician. in which the child represents the mouth." No. was the distressed the trouble with herself with her skillful "papa" who is a well-known and surgeon. The "psychic hermaphroditism" played. patient had quit eating meat for some months She has the fear (which naturally corre- sponds to a wish) that "the meat might stick in her throat.Symbolic Parallels 151 as well as too. plays a great role in the neurosis the phantasy of fellatio. if I were a physician.

" 3 Then I held in my right hand a crumpled up white paper. especially as it shows also other important features.152 Sex and Dreams The displacement may go so far that there are dreams which should be read in a reverse sense. or the reverse may be the case." . (37 ) 1 I found myself in a gigantic. For it may happen that the beginning clears up the vague and not easily penetrable end. X. and dimly witnessed a represen- Then I climbed some gigantic stairway in that building and I perceived Mr. it should go smoother. castle-like. apple from me and I fooled them with the ball- shaped paper. he answered curtly and "I must put an coolly and I thought to myself: end to that. he doesn't do anything for me anyway. 2 I greeted him cordially. 7 I record herewith such a dream of Miss Etta. as he loomed into view a few times and wondered that he lived here. I talked haltingly and hysterically actress) about it woman (an when and thought: "I don't really do I told the Rosen it well. Psychoanalytic Society that there are dreams which can be seen only in that sense. Freud once remarked at a meeting of the Vienna. a white apple in my left hand and I enThe folks there wanted to take the tered a room. 7 don't put my whole self into the task" And further: "if I can't protect myself 1 Artemidoros states: "When interpreting the story of a dream one must look it over from beginning to end and again from the end backwards towards the beginning. etc. theatrical building tation.

hissed between my clenched teeth: "/ am aland ways thinking of him kissing her and I cannot bear it. and mother was also angry about it. tried unostentatiously to snuggle up to him. ways along and I that self. threw my arms around her table. Rudolf was there. also the red-haired girl.Reverse Sense 153 against those people. Her husband sat mutely at the I jumped at her. Stekel laughing "again a bit of homosexuality. up though not as formerly. next to Dr. warmed me up it I thought to my- was not nice. . Stekel's grown up son and later next to himself." Then I let go of the young man." 4 Then I sat on a window sill. Then she stepped out and I was impatient to be alone with Mrs. Karl went a at once but. Her she was Rudolph's relative hair was deranged on one and I thought he surely had kissed her there. I held the son in tight embrace. I won't stand for it! That red-haired scarecrow!" Next I had thrown myself. weeping and exhausted. on a divan. 5 And now I was at N's. I'll simply strike my brow a blow and wake up." said Dr. so I walked on all alone and my teeth clattered with the cold. "Aha. Rudolf said to me: "I love you side still." Horrified I so that he should not see my tears. jumped 6 Next clad in white I walked through a garden little feeling bitterly cold. N. A red-haired girl sat next to me and I thought and present lover.

The . Six years previously she was engaged to a young man. who after a few weeks confessed to her that he did not was unhappy. years age. came for a number of weeks to her bed. he know what cannot help her. refers to that experience. is her father who she loved with supreme devotion. kissed her (without doing anything A more to her) until the mother caught him at it and ordered him out of the house. a typical symptom of anxiety neurosis. a musician (Rudolph). In her childhood she had a little erotic adventure with a young boy (Karl). She was twelve years of age and suffered terribly of chills . is dead and whom She became seri- ously neurotic on account of going through these exHow she periences and came to me for treatment.154 Sex and Dreams gives The dream an account of her life history and begins with a phantasy regarding the future. we must read it backwards in order to understand it. boy lodger. and particularly of sexual expectancy. The episode about the white dress (innocence) and the freezing. who lived in their fourteen of house. She looked upon the red-haired girl who was more to him in the dream than she herself as the cause of his cooling off. he did not love her as formerly. fancies the cure in this dream is portrayed in the fourth part of it: she holds in strong embrace my grown-up son (one I do not actually have). The man who sits silently at the table and to do. Events similar to those portrayed in the dream had actually occurred.

or that she is about to out something big. I am part of the dream refers to that. now. she can She is not be possessed only by way of the altar. for I give her no opportunity to clasp tightly my son. is the marriage certificate. she again thinks of marriage . among them also a certain inclination towards my wife. e. which plays a tremendous role. Even my little dog thus became the object of a transference as the result of a displacement from the physiBut the fact cian to a member of the household. The crumpled up white paper in her right hand. the transference ity has a particular significance. A form of transference. many persons are trying to grab.. when she opens her eyes and gazes up to the sky. I was able to prove repeatedly her homosexual inclinations. which. but little upon the physician's family. Consequently. She does not yield to any one the white apple which she holds in her left hand later she thought the apple might have been red until the paper has been first accepted. she regrets that her eyes are too fill small to take in the whole expanse of the sky).Reverse Sense son is 155 naturally my erect phallus (the patient althe feeling that something ponderous is has ways about to descend upon her. satisfied with herself. she has found as yet no suitable substitute for her lost lover: sie legt sich nlcht . the third a man. I do not act like a woman. i. that in the dream I goad her about her homosexualis studied thus far. after her recovery. as she after- wards recollects.

156 ordentlich hinein 8 Sex and Dreams she does not put her whole self into it. legen" wiirde.. wake up life in heaven. She is a man.. rather. . The agent X. She will simply press the revolver against her forehead and never wake up again or. e. manner.. the phantasy which introduces the fourth part of her dream. That in that sense does my . within a year. She legal is in to her overpowering cravings.. then only will her real begin. the latter bear ing a certain definite relationship to hysteria. firmly determined. should she give i. e. 8 able to disregard some of She sees X. without marriage promptly to shoot herself the next day. if she were a man. loom- is why she can "put herself in. that brutal. Naturally we find here also (Anspielungen) references to masturbation. For she has become acquainted with new moral standards a friendly actress thought one could not become an opera singer with her antiquated views. {Psychic hermaphroditism) She is above (Adler). would count for a bashful fellow in contrast with In the end she triumphs. Finally is she climbs up a certain height from which she the moral handicaps." Only accusing her of homosexuality become in dream wie sie She shows me this sick "hineinintelligible. She is a singer and expects to join the opera stage . I. while the revolver phantasy represents also a phantasy of playing with the penis. in an extracertificate. her. cynical man. The last statement in this portion of the dream reveals tragic thoughts ("if I can't protect myself against these people I'll simply strike my brow a blow and wake up"). the agent.

a man who anyway does not seem to her energetic enough. the gigantic Part I contains also a remarkable experience dating back to her earliest years. plishes vision of the unfettered life of an actress. The memory of it is unclear and contains a dim prophecy of the future: she an actress at the Court theater. a behavior on account of which he is to care for her. is now .Interpretation ing up. distrusted by all actresses. The first activities of childhood take place mostly in a "Hoftheater" (Court Theater). although she greets him cordially he acknowledges the greeting curtly and seems not Her waking dream thoughts are with an unmotivated fear of this man's preoccupied raw conduct. And finally she accomher she is an actress. That much she has already accomplished with her exercises in climbing stairway. Here in this dream he behaves with unusual decency. and has a dim end.

.

VII DISPLACEMENT AND FUSION DREAM MASKS CRIMINAL (ASOCIAL) THE BRAVE SERVANT INSTINCTS .

Wie im Auge em in jeder Seele PunJct ist. so 1st em dunkler Punkt. der nicht sieht. der den Keim des innern Verderbens enthdlt. depths of every one's soul there is a dark spot which is the center of all inner corruption. so in the Feuch tersleben .] [As the eye has its blind spot.

Thetcfs dream is as follows (38) I placed on watch within my room. a so-called "first" dream. Usually they have some bearing on the relations between the patient and the analyst and as a rule they portray the whole picture of the neurosis. there was a box but that beyond his observation post. a policeman who I knew had a re: volver. At the left. These first dreams are very important. We We are introducing It is now a very instructive illus- tration. that is.VII Displacement and fusion are among the means revealed distortion. was not enough to cover 161 . The dream ascribes these evil impulses to some other note further that in the dream a perperson. the first dream which a neurotic patient brought up when submitting to analysis. by Freud as part of the process of dream Some dreams represent a murderer. The analysis discloses that the dreamer harbors thoughts of murder and revenge and that he is en- deavoring to repress these unpleasant tendencies. This process is called "fusion" by Freud. at the left of the door. Mr. son is the composite of a number of persons.

as if But he also has an unpleasant feeling whenever officer." He still he meets an darme. I had placed him there for protection agamst any one breaking m. I jumped on top of it. concern over what will happen to the servant. otherwise I should have to go in." liceman." In his childhood an officer stood for We the personality requiring highest respect. . I went to the watt. I must send some one ahead. Then I thought: I could take along a servant or some acquaintance if need be. himself innocent. the fear of the pothe dread of being the first "to Thirdly. cifically "feminine. But the thought flashed through my mind only for a second. obviously a dream speSecondly. dream This portrays various emotions. allow the subject to give his associations to "policeman.162 hiim Sex and Dreams from exposure to the outside. feels He has done nothing wrong. was so low. I reflected: it would be unpleasant for me to be the first to get in there. A The second dream comes to the subject's mind in a supplementary way: (39) There was a great watt fire. Whenever he misbehaved he was threatened with "police- man. whether policeman or genhe were guilty of some wrong doing. get in" and fourthly. It occurred to me that he who would break in first might be shot by the watchman. First the fear of some one breaking in.

his association to the person claiming his highest esteem: the father. this dread of sentatives of law." This "aunt" watched over him very carefully and saw to it that he always kept his hands in sight. he might catch him at his pranks. She. He seized it to play with in a high state of But his it. All "watchful" persons may appear in the dream as "policemen. The high "policeman" here is the father whom he fears: er konnte ihm auf seine Streiche kommen. . a friend of his father's whom they called "aunt. the tutor. An episode dating back to his third year strangely comes to his mind. also the case with our subject. to return to his further associations. etc. "what are you doing?" These are also the words with which a policeman accosted him once when he started father woke up and called severely to him: to pluck some roses surreptitiously in a garden. is 163 officials and repreneurotics. too. fairly common among It betrays That is an uneasy conscience to some extent. called out to him: "what are you doing?" one morning when she caught him masturbating. He was lying in his father's bed when he suddenly came in touch with the membrwm erection. Formerly his father had watched him very rigorously. the strict governess." The hus- band (in the case of a woman) or the wife (in the case of a man).Fusion This occurrence. But. the At this point the subject is led by overseer. He was strongly under the influence of a certain woman.

" as representative of the law. safe to surmise that the first dream has some bearing on the subject's relation to the analyst. We thus ure consists of: "policeman. It occurs to him further that there was another Franz. shall take They are rather with his brother. note that the policeman in the dream is a composite figure consisting of a number of real perThus far we find that the figsons fused together. a shot himself. A sister of his brother's wife. the aunt. of whom one was a physician. The policeman seems to bear to the brother. The policeman also stands for me. the father. a She student at the Conservatory. She is rather Now he discloses some of his phantasies. resemblance strongest We are informed about the recent dream inciters. It a flirt. But this theme we up later. also rooms there.164 Sex and Dreams "Policeman" also reminds him that he was parThe ticularly fond of an uncle. man who his own brother. is preparing herself for the stage. too. He expects to remain in Vienna several weeks. significant. latter was a physician and died of syphilis. a very pretty girl. the brother and two It is always uncles. named Franz. a third Franz. and finally. the occurred to him: "you could start something with But another thought sister-in-law's sister!" made unpleasant: "suppose your Also: "suppose she catches you at it!" this brother is virgo . While here he lives He has been here two days.

a change. Can in it is very cordial towards his be that the latter maintains an affair with her? The sister-in-law is represented by the "box" drawer. (old furniture). literally. It indicates the forbidden character of the relationship. "durch den er dber nach aussen gegen Sicht nicht gedeckt war" includes the terms Sicht (sight) and DecJcung A draft (cover). e. woman (German. Wechsel. 1 like his brother. bedecken begatten. German. of all He is (in his unconscious) his relatives.. cabinet.Dream Thought intacta?" 165 That would make it most unpleasant for reflected. i. He. The That designation has a certain meaning as we shall also room. The expression "not enough to cover him from exposure to the outside" refers to that fact. chest. through. in the original.. hence the dream thought: "I would be unpleasant for me to be the get in. trunk. Decken. box at the brother's left. it means that he has been able to is see no cover possible for that affair. first it him. 1 Draft. is Frauenzimmer!). table. Cover. each carrying a double meaning. are often symbols for see later. at sight must be honored. the dream. too. . wants to love her. furniture Box. or made a change from the wife to the sister-in-law. above The expression. impregnating. There e. i. his brother has drawn a Wechsel." one to He tices is extremely mistrusting. covered at once. carried out. suspicious He no- that his brother sister-in-law.

166 Sex and Dreams frequently a symbol for the penis." In the dream he must send some one into the room a servant. the younger brother. Dienstmann. Dienstbote. Dienstmadchen. a displacement. 41. This is true is The brother Particularly here. All : the various designations for servant. 'Servant for peniS. 1910. Now we understand why he sets up aufstettt the policeman twice and what that individual stands for. That is a common occurrence in dreams. 16. p. He turns the aggression into an act of protection. This dream is bisexual and so are all dreams. is his penis. In his Tagebuch (Diary) Goethe refers to his membrum * virile as follows: in Vid. or Stubervtn'ddchen are symbols for the genitalia. It is a scornful representation. the manner in which homosexual acts are repre- sented. : Der psychische Hermaphroditismus im Leben und der Neurose. 3 This servant. vol. The dreamer protects himself against in- truders and robbers with canes. his heterosexual objective as "room" and as "box. The female The male symbolizes in the dream seeks male ideals. Fortschritte der Medizin. or reall symbols for the membrum. a fact which has been pointed out by Alfred Adler 2 It discloses sexual intentions with in particular. No.: Anthropophyteia. That is volvers. vid. I. again. reference to the brother and the first intimation of a leaning towards me. Diener. umbrellas. or transference. . Knecht.

me unerwecklich liegst du! Und deinen Herrn urns schonste Gluck betrugst du. unverdrossen Und wiederholt bedient vom b raven Knechte! Verfluchter Knecht. portunity for coitus and hopes ouch hier nicht ungelegen zu kommen. One of the first persons that occurred to him associatively syphilis. if need be." is in the same the that girl hopes difficulties are not great. is also the penis. The fear that the brother may be displeased is expressed in the phrase: "The first intruder Eindringling (to be taken literally) might be shot by the watchman!" infection also enters into his A light fear of reflections. there is lesser He ." He has no other oprefers to the charming girl. wo ich mich erfrechte. The He is burn"there was a great fire. vom Rohr umschlossen. Wir waren augenblicklich.Bisexuality 167 Nach Buhlenart wie wir oft sodann im Raub genossen des Ehstands heilige Rechte. It is a clever dream distortion to ascribe the sin to some one else and to represent one's self as exposed to the danger. was the uncle who died of The heat of passion a great state. "Or some acquaintance. An manchem Unort. our servant. Von reifer Saat umwogt. Thus our Dienstmann. fire: is indicated by the notion of ing within. Symbolism can hardly express itself more plainly.

He also communicated with that woman through a messenShe. He had once a liaison with a married woman (box on the left side) who. Our dreamer is decidedly criminal in his trends. . made a confession. . He wanted to go and make personal inquiries but was afraid of Therefore he sent a while he stood messenger who did not know him trembling on a street corner waiting for the answer. too. But the dream permits . sent a messenger to him to exger. a deeper insight into this subject's conflicts. That affair left him for a time somewhat nervous and with a certain dread of legal complications. On his account his advice a on girl once became pregnant and had a midwife bring on an abortion. He jumps on top of the low wall The dream-forming unconscious and conscious thoughts lead us thus far. On that occasion he feared that the After that the jealous husband would shoot him. serious legal complications. 4 The walls also symbolize the protective defenses raised by the phobia against the criminal tendencies. pressed by her husband. .168 resistance Sex and Dreams when the woman is also burning with de4 sire. husband watched his wife at every step. He was worried to distraction over the result of the operation and very impatient. Why the fear of the operation of law? Has he committed no crime? At this point various episodes from his life come to surface under a display of some resistance. But the affair is linked to various other episodes.

his fear of policemen and gendarmes was not unfounded. has a large bald pate. Indeed. a vigorous widower with a better social position. For some time he has been unable to meet a bald pate without reflecting how convenient it would be to knock it with a club.Dream Thought 169 plain away and cancel the effect of a letter which she had written lain at the command of her husband at the moment when she made her confession. we shall have opportunity to refer to a number of similar cases. derived from events long since past. . a guilty conscience. His father and he once went after the same woman and his father. He must protect himself against his lower instincts. He must look out sharply and guard himself. fight During the last few years he has had to down within himself strong murder impulses against his chief (he is a post office clerk) because he has been twice denied promotion. His chief has a large bald pate. Another episode about an abortion enters into the dream thoughts. against his secret cravings. he must watch out for himself. His Here is revealed his deepest conflict. came out the father. The affect It arose was from Now we know who feels the policeman is. Indeed. too. The It is subject an in- stance of so-called "split personality" . he has another reason for watching himself most carefully and for holding himself under control.

The box symbolizes the grave and the coffin. am the police officer to whom he wants to transmit a strange message. That The true also of soldier. bisdem er als der erste eingedrungen and who had to have an abortion in consequence.170 victor. the physician. knight. and finally the Dienstmddchen. servant girl. or officer. gendarme.) In short dream discloses the whole extent of Ms the subject's neurosis. (There is no door. He I was not at to tell me these matters. He does not want to be the first to die off: "it would be unpleasant for me to be the first . i. The pois also the aunt and his sister-in-law so that the dream leads to an ambisexual interpretation. e. They stand for death which watches over us. he himself.. The Dienstmann his penis. he himself. as it were. analysis acquires a new depth when we recall that "watchman" in the dream means death. Every "wall" or smooth partition has the meaning of man. the true Dienstmann. his penis... he proposes not to tell me the most important things. the brother." He wants . The policeman is the father. Sex and Dreams That is a conflict already set in during the all willing infantile life of the neurotic. Thus we see that the dream employs the most extraordinary processes of fusion in order to bring about distortion at the behest of the censorship. The supplementary dream discloses also a homoliceman sexual phantasy. never is leaving us out of sight.

171 send some one to death. i.Interpretation to send in some one else his first. He the most deepest and the most significant meaning of the dream* That. accepts the stumbling block and jumps on the of suicide. indeed.. wall: he struggles with thoughts wants to shoot himself. is . The symbolizes life: the self-consuming flame. e. fire great He The wall is the cemetery wall.

.

THE THE .vni THE SPLITTING OF PERSONALITY IN THE DREAM DREAM OP A JUDGE: VILLA AND PRISON MUSEUM DREAM.

dass wir uns oft im Spiegel sehen.Dass wir uns im Traume selbst sehen. lively while consciousness and thought are subdued. Es ist aber im Traume die VorsteUung lebhafter und das Bewusstsem und Denken germger. dass es ein Spiegel ist. ohne daran zu denken*. kommt daher.} Lichtenberg . [That we see ourselves in the dream is not unlike seeing ourselves in the mirror without reflecting that But in the dream the image is more it is a mirror.

that every dream represents the dreamer himDreams are absolutely egoistic. Vaxn Teslaar. myself appears in the dream. observes "It is an experience to which I know no exception. transby James 8. I am means of this identification from plain view by the op- Cp. Poetry and Neurosis. The dreamer splits up into his good and : his evil self. The dream warns me to trans- pose from that person to myself something belonging to that person. to look in the dream interpretation for to ascribe to myself by certain features hidden * some masked common peculiarity.VIII Splitting of the personality in the dream is a special form of displacement. When some self. lated 175 . I am when rounding out my personality. the situation therein shows that some other person is hidden back of and identified with me. 1 through identification with that person. Among such pairs we have Mephisto and Faust. Zanga and Rustan. in this connection my work. other person than myself appears in the dream I must assume decidedly that my personality figures have always made use of this device. At other times. Literally writers Freud. Franz and Karl Moor. very properly. Skule and Hakon. etc.

Similar mental processes are observed among the primitive and simple minded people.176 Sex and Dreams It is therefore possible eration of the censorship. In fact. It seemed to be an uncomfortable situation. as I sat alone in the room looking out through the veranda I saw on the roof a miserable looking. first directly. "The devil did it!" "It is the work of the evil spirit !" But even persons of higher cultural levels cannot resist always the temptation to project outwardly their inner sense of guilt. for myself to appear variously in the dream. Several identifications of this type permit the fusion of an unusually rich of data." 2 amount We now turn our attention ing displacements. the escaped prisoner might break in on us. from there and there was some talk about it. and again through identification with vari- ous other persons. thin emaciated. dieser this pris* Strafling wird sich da hinausschwingen That is virtually an infantile reaction. pale-faced prisoner. . The dream likewise shifts all evil thoughts unto some one else and attempts in that manner to purge the sense of guilt from consciousness. and I had at once the impression. it is illustration of the splitting of the personality in the dream: dream portrayat the same time a fitting to a A it judge has the following dream: (40) I had a villa next to a prison and presently appeared that a room of that villa became a sort of veranda which led to the roof of that prison mNext I knew that an inmate had escaped stitution. he was shaved. At the question: "who did that?" the child always points to "another" person. his eyes were sunk.

He sitting comfortably in his villa. the inconsiderate light-minded individual breaking in and disturbing the peace and hapHe would like to prevent the piness of his home. etc. Next I had the impression that the man attacked me unter Umstanden. / seized a knife lying on the table. locked myself up there and watched through the glass door. that more clearly in the dream than by conjuring see in this dream up a prison next to his villa. This Of is a very characteristic dream for a judge. of his paramours became pregnant as the result of Some of his escapades directly en- He could not express his social position. . he may perhaps break through the glass door and I should have to drive him off with the knife. but he is the man is also the prison inmate. went into a little room separated by a glass door from the first. his adventures. naturally of a sexual character. danger We the splitting of the personality to which I have already referred (Faust. course the neurotic's feeling of guilt breaks through this dream with great energy.Splitting of Personality 177 oner will break away (literally: swing himself out!). Great God! I thought to myself.) and the process is very beautifully illustrated. The dreamer has a number of things on his conscience. Mephisto. his standing fear is that his wife will find out about his erotic adventures and that would disturb their marital happiThis would be particularly the case if one ness.

shaved. ciated.178 Sex and Dreams intruder from breaking in.. the colloquialism: "In andere Umstande kommen" ." That the defense really means an attack is indicated the dream. Moreover In his this office dream there carries also another is mean- a woman. and to Umstanden. with red cheeks. horses or criminals. of rosy appearing. Cp. the dream shows that they can always draw the latch so as not to allow the passions to break through. enables the dreamer to retain his conscious self clear although he is also the prisoner. merely platonic. pale-faced . a picture typically recurring whenever persons are afraid of temptations . This leads to the image of closed door. a small partition still divides them At but he proposes to attack that prisoner with his knife: Hence the expression in the dream: "Great God! he may perhaps break through the glass door . The lat- 8 The expression "unter Umstanden" refers to pregnancy. . well-nourished. the office he is separated from the woman only a Their relations at the time are by glass door. 3 both terms refer to pregnancy. by the course of the wish fulfillment of The splitting of the personality in this it dream becomes of particular importance because and free.. ance. emaeyes sunk. In such instances the passions are represented as wild beasts. with light Basedow-eyes and a rich growth of hair (compare the inversion in the dream: miserable looking. . Sclvww<gen (HwiausscTiwingen) leads to schwangern.

is 179 also the symbol The worthy. must I warn her saying: "One usually sinks Nevertheless she runs ahead. herself against the large City "bog. 1 went) fearlessly ahead. prosecuting officers.1 ) : are a common occurrence. .Splitting of Personality ter with his pale. I see a great boggy field and Miss M. without injury to herself. "becomes down there!" covered with dirt but laughs over it and calls bacJc I know I should not sink and to me: "Try it!" although it did not seem] to me quite right. Such dreams dreams (4. it urges hel not to mind the dirt and to go ahead. fact: judges. considered inversely it is an act of aggression (with his phallus) upon the woman in the office who rouses his passion. I may take this opportunity to point out a remarkable and attorneys bea "criminal complex" in their tray very commonly dreams. bisexual character of the dream is noteis The struggle with the prison inmate a punishable homosexual deed. Finally she does so. a fact very clearly expressed in the dream." but her untrend of her inner conscious makes light of the dangers. deep-seated eyes of death. She struggles with temptation and personifies that She warns self through Miss M. Our judge is really a double personality. A woman cross it. She would like to experience and taste a great deal but she is afraid Her case is a very fitting illusof the consequences.

the crown of virginity." "In the dream it seemed to me that I was looking on thoughtfully leaning on self my arm. are very fittingly expressed in this dream. person men also to drive some nails wanted through ple of my head. so The suffer so much! must and she already young. 4 Or.) Following are two beautiful illustrations of the ! splitting of personality in the dream: (4) I $aiw myself as in a vision which disapthe open. and she would not be pained at its loss. von denen Jungfernkranz. The two souls in her breast. It was smaller much only a crown of thorns. which is fused with phantasies of defloration as a form of expatiation." She sees her- She is still a child. Her severe neuralgia fortifies the phantasy of being nailed to the cross.* The two men are her two sexual ideals. It was m but with the traits of a grown-up A couand hands feet nailed on the cross. neurotic cross in her case is a severe neuralgia in- volving the whole trigeminus and extending across the back. . I saw myself peared rapidly. The Jungfernkranz was for her but a crown of thorns. I said: "That is too much.180 Sex and Dreams tration of the cynical witticism: Morality is the fear that something will happen (Simplicissimus. the strictly moral and the passionate. as she expressed it: bis ins Kreuz (cross). nailed to the cross. a from and are below the head transposition through The crown of thorns is the signify congressus. The nails sie eine Defloration wunscht.

Nageln for coire. passions turn into crimes! I really do not belong ing to the Panoptikum. body looking and lower part) and there was a snake curling within. The snake grew and the split between the two parts (of the body) spread gradually larger. . A man was standing near her he was much more horrible lookan. blue glass eyes. p. I am 6 a criminal. vol. masochistic trend comes also into play These trends are expressed even more plainly in the following dream: (43) I was in a museum (Panoptikum) standing before a glass box containing a very beautiful wom- She said: "You see such are the low depths we drift when we do not control ourselves. vid.: Anthropophyteia. only I have carried out my misdeeds Of among course fancies of being overpowered. II. that was nothing! When only the face. 89. She wants to achieve gratification without guilt and without having to overcome her feeling 6T shame. to which with terrible. I kept like a corpse or wax figure. Here her . yellow He said. An obscene picture roused this phantasy of a congressus d trois. but m the torture chamber. yellowish^ was in two her (an upper and a. . so common "virtuous" girls. sadistic . naturally is a phallic symbol. She loves two men and is passionately yearning for them. 5 These sinful "yearnings" have burdened her with the cross of her neurosis. great. Now I must expose my misery and shame to public gaze!" I looked at her and she turned greenish. also play a rdle.Splitting of Personality 181 A great sin weighs upon her shoulders. More than that: she wants two men at the same time. Nail.

Finger displaces penis: third symbolic equation. and also an eye. She lies stretched in a Eye as symbol for vagina: first symbolic equation. I sank down. Moreover. that is Salome! She held a bumpkin in her hand and as she threw it after me I awoke. 9 among other things. the eye. such a way that no one Is aware. finger and two eyes A = male genitalia. But suddenly I found only I was unable to take hold of the Finally I found myself out-of-doors and I saw a long corridor 7 ran and ran and I I could not move.182 Sex and Dreams m the trophies. I thought to myself: You arts plat z anyway! There was a wax figare on K ure standing below. I could not go on. Analysis : She sees the course of her life. myself near door knob. door which I saw at a distance. vol. The wax figures kept changing size. I was like paralyzed. it saw the wax At last / figures staring at me. continuously. I have kept He shows me a fish bladder like a transparent (like the inflated balloons glass globe The trophies consisted of a finger sold at fairs). 215. they rose high and collapsed again. like most sexual symbols. Suddenly the I made for the hall turned much more spacious. reached the stairway which seemed endless. The museum is the treatment. . becoming alternately larger and smaller. up and down. An eye automatically moving up and down refers to the reflex movements during coitus: displacement from below. I reflected: I am that! Then I said: No. is bisexual and signifies also the scrotum: the Anthropophyteia. I. It was like a glass eye automatically moving its lid. p.

The fish bladder must protect against the danger of pregnancy. too. The name of the beloved man who should Salome again repreis Karl (Karlsplatz). Fertile as she is (bumpkin) she would otherwise have a dozen chil- . an important meaning for secretly dream picture bears She dreams of lost sacrificed." states Hebbel. Our dreamer. But taken virginity. do that sents told her once that Karl.'* Similar expressions are found in Nietzsche and in Shakespeare. weak. She dreams of doing it secretly behind her parents' back. pronounced. but the flesh is the "The human race or human being is like the noble Melusina. sees herself divided through sin (snake) into a noble and an un- moral part. The spirit is symbolizes the split between soul strong. her husband. too. The snake which divides the body in two so that the split grows gradually larger hardly requires inThe division is on a horiterpretation on my part. this the repression. a monstrosity.Interpretation glass box 183 and must allow me to look through her. her. "passably tolerable down to the umbilicus below that. is using fish bladders as a protective measure because they do not want to have any more children. neurosis This division becomes gradually more That points to the tragedy of the literally. zontal plane as it and body. a splitting of herself but stands also for This woman Karl's wife whose wrath she dreads.

The motive for the infantile phantasies of necrophiliac character is found in the defenselessness of the dead: Anthropophyteia. vol. T . p. (3) the masturbator (4) the cruel sadist reveling in bloody phantasies. A proof of the persistence of these phantasies may be seen in the necrophiliac oaths of people standing on a somewhat higher cultural level.: Anthrop. That is also true of the oaths common among the Roumanians. Die Schweindeln symbolisieren die Schweinerei. The man with the fish bladder is vice her seThe "finger" is also playing a role in the seduction. She is a fallen woman. die Wachs- figurenwachsenden Figuren sind Penisse. I. Vid. VI. Necropliiliac trends are very common among neurotics and break forth as a dread of dead bodies or graves and is sublimated as love for statues. vol. have here again a bisexual dream with strong The wax figures. 249. 293. A is birth phantasy is linked with that. (5) the male who turns into a criminal. The wax figures. wax figures and dead objects.. The bumpkin a symbol of fertility. she sinks down. We 7 statues indicate a repressed necrophilia. p. II. The dreamer really sees only herself but under five different forms: (1) the woman whose body is divided by the snake. vol. The automatic eyes are the eyes of a prostitute luring men. She does not go on. Anthropophyteia.184 dren. like love of criminalistic trends." ducer. the Oaths of Croatians. Sex and Dreams She went once with that woman to the opera "Salome. Cf. (2) the experienced prostitute. its It seems the fish bladder has failed to do duty. (the finger) .

IX TEANSFORMATIONS AND BISEXUALITY THE MEANING OF FIVE FINGEES AN OLD DREAM IN A NEW LIGHT BISEXUAL SYMBOLS ALL DREAMS ARE BISEXUAL IN HOW THE DREAMEE THE WOMAN SEEKS THE MALE .

We ordinary living forms the whole of what we call hu- man existence. was wir menschliches Leben nennen. Der Traum ist ein Leben.Es er trdumt gekort unter die Vorzilge des Menschen class und es weiss. [It is part of man's advantages that he dreams. das mit dem unserigen zusammengesetzt das wird.] Lichtenberg . and he knows of the fact. Man hat schwerlich noch den rechten Gebrauch davon gemacht. have hardly made proper use Dreaming is a life which together with it.

The woman changes into a tiger. of a naked Or some one dreams woman. Suddenly the piano is a piano no longer. a gigantic penis. it is a woman. even of things appearing in the dream has alwayf been known as characteristic of the dream. at me. the she exhibits The man is expressed through the woman through the cat (vagina). woman and ! tiger are : to be considered identical. changes into a bearded man. bird (penis). In other words one can is play on this woman as on a piano But she very emotional. In this manner the dream expresses processes of identification. Sometimes through such a change the dream expresses doubt or vacillation between two wishes. Some- The transformations one plays the piano. 187 At the Suddenly emd she . show herself at once a tiger-cat. This association of ideas is expressed through transformations. rather She would minute I should not care to rouse her jealousy. an anxiety hysteric dreams: A bird bit me on changed these two into a cat which Then the bird the finger. When. for (44) instance. Piano. jumped different creatures express psychic her- maphroditism.IX of the various persons and.

too e. Paula was her best friend. N. A woman patient : dreams as follows after the fourth day of treatment (46) Uncle Charles brings Paul home after dark. She trans- . I was tremendously scared and asked whether we ought to put Paul to bed at once. Later it occurred to me. Charles turned around to me but when I looked at him. getting on in years and who yearns for affecHer next strongest attachment is to her brother Paul. I saw instead Dr. I was not sure. with self all the affection of a lonely girl who feels her- tion. Her uncle did bring his wife "Paula" to the house after a serious injury in an automobile accident. He i. An end. Analysis: Part of the situation is true to life. a symbolic sense.. (4&) I saw Mr. On account of the fright I had just gone through I felt exhausted and leaned my head on my arm. her strongest An unhappy love which was soon at an end. concerned. in the dream. X. perhaps it was Mr. StekePs dark face. it was not Paul.188 Sex and Dreams Other dreams express transformation in the form of doubt. Naturally only in He dies so far as her heart is I inherit all the affection. in an external sense. We may profitably examine this phenomenon in connection with a few examples. Charles. is brought to the house serihe dies soon. ously injured. She broke off all reBut inwardly she still loves him lations with him. love.

"and that is for the most part your fault. The transformation of Charles into my person is the symbolic expression of the emotional transferPaul. "See." he said. "And I was very seriously ill.Transformations fers to 189 me all the love she had felt for Charles and I must encourage and uphold her. so as to J think to myself with wenti of being received. nervousness. side We now I sat side by on an upturned sofa. He brought the stranger along. brother (All the wishes of death against the now flare up again." I answered. rible disorder in all the old dwelling. as is shown by another dream with Paul." I contmued. I began to talk with him." am Then I told him about Dr. It looked dusty and bare. He looked incredulously at me. "It is aU non- . Our with Charles and I am identified pictures blend into one. thinking to myself at the sa'me time. "You are wholly changed in ap- make sure Mama me to the front room. denly felt is no longer Then I sud- sorry and began to caress his hair." I said. mama passed by Hugo without a word. almost well." It is Hugo with a strange man. Stekel. "My appearance any concern of yours.) Miss Etha dreams j (47) We are to move from our rooms. ence. terThe servant girl suddenly brings in a couple of calling cards and says: "I have shown the gentlemen to the front room. pearance.

" as representative of death. Once they spooned on the he sit near her. The over- determination of the idea of a strange man is also shown by the fact that he is to be received in the front room. yet that is the chief factor in every case of illness. She would be all astir thinking: what next? But nothing happened. Hugo has never acted towards her as is a real man. too. he changed into a big hound. will be explained later in connection with our systematic account of death symbols. the significance of "strange man. Sometimes he turned wild and be- gan embracing her passionately." or "the stranger. *An additional overdetermination. 2 upturned sofa also But she. She would lie down." . We note a number of transformations in this dream. sofa. "the other physicians pay no attention to the soul. ment. is Hugo is to the changed. * The psychic mechanism of this occurrence is explained more fully in the chapter entitled "The Feeling of Strangeness.190 Sex and Dreams sense" growled Hugo. "So. gradsize and suddenly It was Schary 1 ually shrunk was holding In my arms and caressing. This dream becomes intelligible when we find out that Hugo was the young man to whom she had been engaged and that he had broken the engageHe calls accompanied by a strange man." I said. m That is fact that the manner in which the dream portrays the Hugo has become estranged." I held him in embrace. 1 The stranger here also a phallic symbol. great contrast between the past and the present* testifies The a stranger to her.

Also "Pu- . He needs. . Omikron. The next two dreams are those of Mr. They also show a transformation which is the clearest proof of identification. . sonality." = (Anthropophyteia. dainfully. she says disturns into a big dog (scorn?). dog. 222. Now the situation. Ill. a compulsion neurotic. What for? It is no use lying down either. Stekel presses the emotional transference from the unfaithful young man to me.Transformations 191 Hugo is no man. They both sit on the upturned sofa. (References to "sitzenbleiben" literally to "remain sitting. p. . That Hugo Suddenly he becomes who is present at 3 sents me." a German colloquialism for remaining single and to the "Umsturzen" or upset conditions. vol. The dog repreSpecifically he stands for my animal per- my all The series of transformations Hugo ex- great dog little dog Schary Dr. the dear little Schary the analyses. she is well. She says to me I must Dogs in the dream represent "shameless" sexuality. She had been ill. Next.). I enter into She points out that I am concerned the chief thing. these phantasies are centered: We whom (48) I went down some stairway accompanied "by a girl whom I recently met. is with the soul. Mopseln coire deln. Less now than ever.) Her very illness is a matter of the past. The tient's first part of the dream shows that the pamasturbation is linked with secret incestuous shall presently find out on phantasies. no sofa.

I was about to kiss her but hesitate. according to him means "mit den Fiinfen reiss ich" and also points to masturbation (Sich einen herunterreissen). my sister An apron like that is prob- ably worth about fifteen kreuzer. sister He loves his sister very dearly to this day. She says kiss her. the was eight (35=3 +5 =8) when they were together in bed and were playing with one another. The sister urges him to kiss her. . fact. I coddle up to her. it does not matter. I promise to do so. Jf must be joyous 9 it is all right. Thirty-five. She had then asked him to kiss her.192 Sex and Dreams this will bring Dr. in that moment I see it is my sister. Stekel's servant girl an apron. That was once a He was six years of age ( 15=5 -f. probably be an easy thing for me to do as carries aprons in stock.1=6). his A poem by Paul Heyse comes to mind: Em bruder und ein Schwester Nichts treueres kent die Welt Kein Goldkettlein halt fester Als das zusammenhalt. signifies Zehen five fingers and onanism. I may The lows: toes) figures are explained by the patient fiinf as fol(five 15 funf-zehn (fifteen). the while thinking to myself that such aprons a$ she has in mind cost thirty-jive kreuzer a piece.

that I do not 'know why I himself is the gold worker who wishes to tell the story of his trauma. ScMrze (apron). And (49) I passed by a show window and wholly unaware of what I was doing I opened it up and removed some gold chains. excreta." . He 4 is German. state. a vulgarism for woman. A girl told him about this when he was ten years of age. I feared I would be arrested and at the same time I wished it would happen so that I might be able to did it. Various intimacies had taken place between himself and his sister. childhood he had urinated into her mouth. . The apron 4 has various associations. There is also some history of fellatio. He re- He me calls having been told by his sister that during their (Urine. like the "Americanese" "skirt.) gold: Recollections of passionate kisses and hugging also come to mind.Transformations 193 . . The parents were imprudent enough to allow the children to sleep together for years. I ran into a jewelry store where I found my sister selling something to the gold worker (or was she there to purchase something herself?). presently he brings a second dream which portrays more deeply the sense of guilt linked to certain infantile incestuous episodes. He remembers that he told his sister lewd things. I am scared when I reflect on what I have really done. Second symbolic equation.

. artist. his sister. innocence. It is a typical bi- (50) I walk along through a "joy" street and I approach a girl. the riddle of the choice of an objective. 315. and wondered whether he ought Finally he did so and felt very much relieved after that. . The man seemed which were gray. he wore side whiskers He reminded me of a good friend . serv- My girl (who wears a white apron) attracts him because she reminds him of his sister. The dream records that he has robbed his sister His conscience of the precious jewel.) transposition of my servant girl into his sister shows that back of all his female ideals stands The The dream airs the ideal of his youth. dich doch nicht genieren" oder I am really a man")." or "it surely makes no difference to you (that "Es wird lying on a sofa half undressed. 34. troubles him on that account as well as because of his incestuous analysis cp. (For more detailed Dreams Nos. When I am near her she changes into a man who is He says: "es geniert Sie doch nicht": "It won't discommode you. of papa's. He had to run eral times hourly to the bathroom. 102. elderly.194 was to Sex and Dreams terribly shocked tell his mother. He suffered of a prosev- nounced polyuria at the time. 318. thoughts. an sexual dream. ant I close this account of transformations with a dream by Epsllon. 314. .

illustrated the same thing. have analyzed. thus far. . man and woman is exhibited in the dream through the transformation. Now I propose to give a few examples illustrating itself in the how psychic dream. too. Fortschritte der Medi1910. "Der psychische Hermaphroditismus. the so-called "male protest. fifty dreams. He seeks the father when he identifies His vacillation between himself with the mother. But in every dream where we took the trouble to investigate this point. ible now conclude: Att dreams are bisexu^jh/^J^ Where the^Bisexual character is not visit belongs to the latent dream thought. rather Practical considerations lightly and superficially. We make the it necessary that I should limit myself only to most significant and most pertinent details. into the father shows the The changing mechanism of transformaHe plays the role of the father when he goes tion. bisexuality. hermaphroditism expresses zin." We shall speak of that later. On this point my experience 5 coincides with the view sees of in Alfred Adler who goes farther and who every dream the trend of the female towards the male directive tendency. The bird which changed into a cat. to women.Transformations 195 a friend of his The father's prostitute changes into and then into his father whom he thus surof the girl prises in a bawdy house. we came upon the problem of I termmed.

Beta's neurosis is influenced by active and The bisexual passive phantasies of castration.e. how dimly. undecided whether to put on my blouse or my nightgown. I chip off a piece. We have interpreted that metaphor and found that the dreamer had "taken a chip" out of his divinity. We shall see later how powerfully Mr. (Adler. Dream nine of Mr. was restless and fact could not understand what was m the matter with me.196 Sex and Dreams take first We an old example. a discovery in connection with which Fliess. the genitals. Or else he emasculates his god. Sadger. Miss sion: Gamma had a couple of dreams in succes- (51) I wandered back and forth.) But how masked bisexuality asserts itself in the Let us examine dream. i. Weininger and Swoboda have rendered great services expresses itself in the dreams as plainly as in the "hysterical symptoms" or in the hysterical character. Beta: (9) I see a great wooden image of Christ before me.. character of this dream is implied in this emasculation. It means that he transforms his god into his goddess. But further analysis shows that he chipped off the middle part. Freud. how cryptically ! a few examples. The bisexuality of the neurotic. .

These two dreams show clearly a male protest. . no one t suspects that I am really a man. a trend in the direction of The clearer next. . She is a male. . his office colleague. and look so well the part of a . X. clothes. . How cleverly the dreamer (53) has perceived the .. T. Here we find that blouse stands for woman a female symbol. woman. but I go for a walk dressed in the. maleness. therefore she refuses the proffered penis (cigarette). : a dream of a thirty-year-old sits man is (53) Dr. The statement: "I did not understand what was the matter with me" expresses her vacillation be- tween male and female. X. noon and I had no Blouse or nightgown (Schlafrock) signifies here the restless question: Man or woman? "Do I feel to-day like a man or like a woman?" Her second dream denies her female tendencies. X. sees Dr. stout. dreams also a' girl's suit. in room. I disclose an open secret: all sexual symbols are origmally bisexual.Bisexuality 197 ettes in a Charles came and offered me some cigarbox but I did not take any as it was foredesire to smoke. He wears a gray as a blouse. Mr. girl. dressed in women's and seems very . In the previous dream (fifty-one) blouse was a male symbol. latter : (54) For everyday wear I have male clothes. S.

tour- and bicycle riders in "uniform. we may say: transvestites. There are. Verlag." Dis- regarding the qualification of a "strong inclination" and considering merely the tendency to wear All neurotics are peculiar apparel. Among men. : The other sex shows stage women in rolled down stockings.198 Sex and Dreams feminine character of Dr. therefore: priests.. rodites and is an important why peculiar wearing apparel plays an important role in the neurotic's dreams as well as in his actual life. His dream discloses Dr. Alfred Pulvermacher und Co. . of course. bathing room attendants. as a genuine transvestite. X. The latter is a term introduced by Magnus Hirschfeld." women with a hairy growth on the upper lip. also old women because they These categories include resemble the male type. who calls transvestites "persons who have a strong inclination to dress themselves in wearing apparel of the sex to which they do not physically belong. Die Transvestiten: Eine Untersuchung uber den erotischen Verkleidungstrieb (Mediz. Berlin. 1910). because all alike are psychic hermaph* constit- bisexuality uent of their character. variis 1 That the reason ous transitional phases. X. judges.. lawyers. or with deep voice! and male mannerisms. long clothes have a special significance. and generally the handsome young men who ists resemble the feminine -tjEge. The category includes. also men with long hair or with braids (Chinese) * Magnus Hirschfeld.

(Anthrop. 143-144. VI. Ill.. But Schnecke der form. The latter form is some- times applied to a Schneck!" woman. Anthropophyteia. Snail. Bisexuality is dream. Anthropophyteia. even Where pivotal in the neurosis and in the is there a symbol which may not be used in a male and female sense at the same time if ! the cooperation of the phantasy be ever so slight Let us examine a few examples: The snake is an exquisite male sexual symbol and represents the phallus. the long haired poet and the "emancipated" Mignon with her bobbed curls. p. pp. 141. rat are terms also used in a bisexual (Vid. p. is The used for the penis (Ibid. Shellfish and snail are female symbols. Mouse and sense. 186.) is a term which has also its male gen- der Schneck. vol. p. of lamp and its constituent parts (ibid. Nevertheless 189). moist. vol. 52. p. should be female. p. vol.) Schneck enhaus (cockle.. as a receiver. p. 98. ibid. hair. stands for vulva. p. as in the expression. plural form of this term die Schneckit is bisexual and means: the pudendal I. 50. 26) . er. . "ein But der Schneck also means the penis. Ill. Schnecke.. like But it may also be used as all smooth.Bisexuatity 199 and women with short hair.) This is also true of broom (Anthrop. lieber (Vid. vol.. a female symbol. Ill..shell). slippery creatures and represent the vulva. II.

) as giantesque females with a large penis or as males with full grown breasts. II. psychic hermaphroditism. p. comparisons express "Einem penis melken" means masturbating. he takes great pains to shave him- very smoothly. 132). or are interested in toilette articles. This sexual objective rouses his libido irrespective of the sex. Probably not all dreams The are as transparent as the following. douslyf^Sg^^ectpejn^f^J awake with He This neurotic has a peculiar fixation of his is attracted by large. p. of that early period when divinities were represented (and. libido. These traits may be shown in the dream. etc. I. bisexual divinity is disclosed also in the dream images of the neurotics. in spite of a heavy growth of self hair. Anthrop. vid. The Such details disclose penis is treated as a teat.. Other men wear arm bands. 251) .200 Sex and Dreams 230) . of fish (fishing-coire. etc. bolic Sym- essential identities. He wears women's stockings which must reach at least to the knee and.. thought of. As I move my hand downwards I discover to jny consternation a tremenan outcry. muscular leg calves. Even more interesting is the tracing of the . obtained from a twenty-year-old neurotic: (55) I dream that I lie in bed with mother and I embrace her warmly. use perfumes. of course. of toad and frog (ibid. This widespread double use of sexual symbols is a vestige of pagan hermaphroditism .

that the creature I which increased as realized dread had horns and a "It is tail. Studie fiber die Minderwertigkeit der Organen (Urban-Schwarzenberg. significant fact and he has made thereby an important contribution towards our better understanding of dreams. of a feeling of inferiority 8 and attempt to overcome their trivial female traits by their "male protest. has rendered a great service to science by pointing out this or female. 9 A. p. 16. among others of the kind. No. 7 of Vienna. the following "two dreams of a prostitute" (56) I saw before me a man with a 9 : comb inci- I had a feelvng of dentally sticking in Ms hair. Adler. obvious that we have in this dream-thought the the well-known symbol found in all religions. Fortschritte der Medizin. "Zeitschrift f. 1907). 103. character of the dream. . Sexualwissenschaft. But that does not disclose much about the One does not need to have ''Der psyschische Hermaphroditismus im Leben und in der Neurose. Berlin. (2) the male protest and (3) the formulations which represent the compromise between these two tendencies. He points out that the psychic hermaph- roditism shows itself among male neurotics even physically in the form of a female habitus and that All the reverse is also true of female neurotics. devil.Eisexuality peculiarities of character perceived either as 201 male Dr. Adler has analyzed." Psychoanalysis must be able neurotics suffer to trace in every case (1) the female traits. 1910. Alfred Adler. 1908. Wien.

the tracing out of the wish concealed in the dream. Freud. . life waking point in order to appreciate. the person thus represents a she-devil rather than the devil. at least approximately. the repressed wish belongs to the sexual realm. sets up as the test that the dream anal- ysis has been carried out properly. During the dream the psychic process of dream formation must have been able to overcome that resistance and the accompanying persistent feeling of dread must be viewed as as standing for a wish repressed in the but attaining its maximal intensity in the unconscious. whose conception of the nature of the dream I am able to corroborate in most essentials. We need to bear in mind one more the obverse. refer back to the peculiar incident that the person We in the dream wears a comb in the hair. The anxiety bears only briefly it indicates that partially on that point. In all probability the dream image under consideration may be traced to the repressed Lesbian trend. a positive emblem of femininity. and the wish fulfillment conThe sists in the replacement of man by woman.202 recourse to Sex and Dreams dreaming to conjure up the mental image of the devil. the character of that wish. At the same time the anxiety which accompanied the dream reminds us that we must expect to find the wish fulfill- ment deeply concealed and protected against discovery by a resistance which could not be overcome during the waking state. The explanation of the she-devil is easy.

Bisexuality 203 demoniac attributes refer back to the dreamer's childhood when all sexual excitations were consid- by the devil (religion. and a fusion of We woman and religion is presented before our eyes in . It often happens that the physician finds it necessary to explain to some acne subject that he is not a victim of syphilitic infection. the Interesting linking together of religiosity and perversity which here rouses the suspicion that either is ered as roused may stand for the other. images borrowed from the realm of religion . The loss of the nose is explained. confession)." (57 ) I thought that I started to cross a river in a boat. After that I had tery. Or else. I threw myself a feeling of dread. would interpret as meaning syphilis. When we landed 1 ran up the hitt and saw a ceme- down before a monument repthe resenting Holy Mary. when we recall that this dread on the part of syphilitics is not an infrequent complication of tertiary syphilis. any prostitute. and even others. The cemetery where the journey ends signifies the fear of dying through easily luetic infection. With me in the boat there was a young boy whose face was covered with numerous pustules. note again. the physician is urged to cure the trouble as quickly as possible because the patient's acquaintances suspect the acne to be a sign of syphilis. I embraced and kissed her and in the end I bit off her nose. "Numerous pustules on the face.

that fused entirely pears is why the dream portrays what wakink activity holds wholly under repression. next.) For her life of sin she In my is plunged in hell. is bisexual. where she will have to account for her sins. We now ysis turn our attention to a later dream anal- by Adler. A twenty-six-year old man. representing God and. and the boat carries her into eternity. too. "The young boy" is again the prostitute herself.) yse. as follows: patient received from Graz an illustrated postcard on opinion "necrophiliac" trends also break through here." Since the publication of the above dream analyses Adler has applied the principle of bisexuality to all dreams. PsychoanalNo. Vol. The holy mother of God. The dream seems to indicate castration and fellatio-phantasies. (One source of her anxiety state: the fear of hell. at the most I might 10 bite off the nose of my beloved through love. .: Die psychische Behandlung der Trigeminusneuralgie. I.204 Sex and Dreams Here the Lesbian trend apthe statue of Mary. (Vid. If we should ata to formulate out of the revealed synthesis tempt it must be approximately as folpsychic processes lows: As a Lesbian I should not be in such great danger of luetic infection. with the religious trait. suffering of trigem- inal neuralgia dreams: in ( 58) I bites am naked a room with the beloved. 1. I give an outcry and with a severe paroxysm of my neuralgia. up "The had 10 the thigh. inciter to this me on She wake dream was an event which. occurred the previous evening. Zentrble. the father. f.

so to speak. and he suffered a : Concerning the dream he relates sweetheart. she has humiliated him through her relation with his brother. He disliked undressing himself before He particularly avoided exposing his his That. The someperverse ways. bit "She him in the thigh. We have here a patient whose illness aims to cause him to fear pain. This rouses merely the following association: the girl had all sorts of she had also bitten him." : the women. or by insects. since the death. Other data in the course of the analysis revealed a precocious knowledge on his part of the pain involved in child-bearing. the "Naked' 9 father's latter's place to the brother. was due to cryp- torchism.Bisexuality 205 which there were a number of signatures including his brother's dream. But the girl had been one time his he tired of her and in a short time he lost altogether his interest in her. He warned his brother but without any result. That hurt him especially as he otherwise had a strong influence upon his brother and. . he had assumed. undoubtedly." in this connection means practically: she has degraded him to the level of a woman. genitals. And during his childhood that pain was made plausible for him by the idea: the stork has bitten mother in the leg! "She bit him in the thigh. tite and that of the girl who figured in the During the evening meal he had no appeslight attack. with other neurotics: "to be bitten" by a dog. as was shown by the joint signatures on the card. A short time ago his brother became acquainted with her. Similarly." n what suggestive question whether he had ever heard 11 The experienced analyst will have no difficulty to understand this passage.

" 12 While I believe that the analysis of this dream should have been pursued more deeply." but I find Pains here mean." cringe before anybody. he need not but he is that only through the bypath of neuralgic pains. torchism. sometimes to give him a morphine injection. he answered referring to the fable about the stork. his crypmust also give way in this connection. a man. The dream expresses believe that the "We a feeling of being degraded. I want to illustrate in connection with some of my own dream material the viewpoint of Adler which is important for the psychoanalysis of dreams.206 Sex and Dreams of any one being bitten in the thigh. And he secures for himself this feeling of male superiority precisely is He as in the childish morbid situation through pain. that enables him to attain a brings aim: to get close to mother. He Then his does so during severe parmother rushes to his side from the neighboring room to quiet him down. His stigma of unmanliness. dream is sufficiently transand therefore extensive parent attempts at synthesis are hardly necessary. 13 I accept unreservedly the concept of "psychic hermaphroditism. and this will serve to illustrate the foundation as well as the limitations of his method of inquiry. by "7 cried out": oxysms. from a woman (he is being bitten) he turns clearly into a man. so he appears "naked. of course. but it also on an attack. In other symbolic words. . "female" weapons.

Bisexuatity

207

that the principle of the "male protest" has only
partial validity.
.

.

.

When we appreciate the continuous swaying of the neurotic between the male and the female ideal,
many
into

of the transformations of the dreams become

at once clear to us

woman

particularly the change of and the reverse transformation.
:

man The

dreamer who

finds his father as a puella publica No. (dream 50) betrays through that dream his own psychic hermaphroditism. He seeks the male

in

woman

13

and he
is

seeks the

male.

Just as he

woman through the woman at the same and man,
For every
find

time, he seeks a similar ideal in others.

one seeks himself in others.

"To

love

means to

one's self in others," says Hebbel.

unbelievably subtle the expression of psychic hermaphroditism may be, and how clever the search
of

How

the male ideal,

portrayed in the dream,

is

shown by the following dream of Mr. Zamara. The analysis is furnished by the cured subject himself. It is here reported in his own words First, the dream:
:

friend invited me to spend Christmas evening with him. I accepted the invitation. I saw in a hall an exhibition of Christmas gifts for sale,

(59)

A

especially little horses, which were being packed up during the evening. The Christmas trees, too, were
"Finally he triumphs over the father.
(Adier).

For he

is

above

208

Sex and Dreams

loaded with toy horses; I helped packing up the Then, when I thought of looking up my things. friend it turned out that I had lost his address. I

asked a girl in the hall for the man's address; but

I could not understand the

girl's talk,

although she

repeated the address several times. I thought, how very strange, we (Austrians and Germans) speak the same language and still we fail to understand

one another.

and women.

Presently I saw a large group of men I wanted to ask one of these women,

for the address, thinking she must know; but, to my joy, I see my friend among those present. I walk up
t(o

him with the question:
this

"Have you

also

madd
his

your purchases

evening?"

On

receiving

"I would have been affirmative answer I added: unable to look you up because I had forgotten your address." He picked up a box of cigars and offered

me one. The dreamer

writes:

A "Thfi^analysis of this dream is very easy. a friend invites me to spend 'weihevolle Nacht' with him. First I come across some Christmas shopping.
The Christmas
understood as
t*ees

and the

little

horses are to be

representing the male and flemale genitalia; the hall, where I see all these wonderful gifts, refers to incest fancies and to birth phantasies
;

it is

to be regarded as a symbol for the

ma-

ternal body. homosexual trend, weakly intimated at the beginning of the dream, is very adroitly

My

Bisexuality

209

and most

fittingly expressed in the conversation with

the girl: 'how very strange! speak the same we still and fail to understand one anlanguage

We

other/

Thus,

it is

never 'arrive at

a case of misdirected love; I will an understanding' with the girl ; the

link that ties us is nothing less

than the male, for

whom

I yearn with all I look without avail

my

heart and for

whom

alone

through woman.

The dream

does not end at this point ; it carries out openly the thought of homosexuality and at the end it porI am happy trays the complete wish fulfillment. that I am not forced to get in touch first with a woman for my man's address; I need not have re-

course to this round-about manner for sexual gratification, for I see the man I am after, himself, stand-

ing in the

hall.

A

And how can

we,

joyful Christmas now for me! the friend and I, celebrate the

holiday of love more fittingly than by uniting ourselves in love? The homosexual union is actually " carried the friend 'offers me a
out,
cigar.'

Thus far the whole raw side
meets

patient's analysis. of psychic hermaphroditism.

It displays the

He

them. 14

women, an acquaintance among In every woman he looks for the man. He He and asks her for the male friend's address.

many

14 In other words, the women have a familiar face, his beloved mother! The expression "darunter" is to be taken not only as meaning "among them," but literally. The image of the sweetheart covers the overdrawn memory-picture of his own youth.

210
the

Sex and Dreams

stand

woman speak different jargons. We now underwhy this subject never married, indeed he
blos-

had never had a serious love affair. He is a Don Juan wandering from blossom to
som.
self,

continually searching, looking for himbecause he identifies himself with the mother.

He is

He

plays the role of the mother searching for her

only child.

Another point towards the elucidation of the was unaware was the source of it of his homosexuality although
case: before the analysis the subject
his neurotic

symptoms.

Now

he knows his enemy
it.

within and this insight enables him to cope with It is the triumph of light over darkness.

SYMBOLISM OF LEFT AND EIGHT IN DEEAMS THE COUSIN AS SUBSTITUTE FOE INCEST THE FATHEE MUST LEAVE SYMBOLISM OF THE SPIEAL DEEAM ABOUT DIPLOMATIC BEHAVIOE

wahre Symbolik, wo das Besondere das AUgemeinere reprdsentiert, nicht als Trawm und

Das

ist die

Schat ten,

als lebendige des Unerforschlichen. Offenbarung

sondern

augenblickliche

[True symbolism is the representation of the whole by the part, not as dream, or shadow, but as the tivmg momentary revelation of the Uriknow1

able.}

Goethe

. homosexuality. version. signifying of course. For instance. peretc.We find very often that it is of significance whether the dreamer walks to the left or to the The road to the right always right in his dream. 1 Left may mean incest. The legal wife is is at the right. This symbolism of position has been case of a free thinker is who known In his ballad where the for a long time. is the path of crime. intercourse with a prostitute may be symbolized by the left path in the case of a minister of the gospel. left. the membrum virile on that side. angel is represented as standing at the right and "Lass dich vom the devil at the left. The im- plied values always reproduce the subject's own scale of moral standards. while in the repressing incestuous fancies the same relationship may be represented by the right road. 213 loc. the left road. fully dwelt upon by Artemidoros." is a popular belief. *This fact p. while right means marriage. means an cit. Burger says : guten Engel warnen und von dem Bosen nicht umgarnen" "He who gets out of bed with his left foot first will meet with ill luck. means the right road. 50. .

Sometimes this symptom is to be interpreted as signifying lack of confidence in the marital partner or in one's relatives. neurotic vertigo is always to the left and I consider that an important point in differential diagnosis. as I have had occasion to find. . for instance. Ask him towards In left which side and he invariably answers: the left. Whether this may be actually a factor conditioning the psychic determination of left-handedness itself may is a problem which remains to be investigated and further analyses of left-handed persons are required to decide the point.und Schuh. turns to the right and claws the air in the attempt to reach some support. for bisexuality found that the right side means homosexuality. *W. 1909). Wien). Dizziness to the right is suspicious of organic disorder.214 Sex and Dreams I have always found that the irregular liaison. Fliess. Also. the left side heterosexuality. Deuticke.Symbolik und -Erotik (Deutsche Verlagsaktiengesellschaft. Der Ablauf des Lebens (. 2 left-handed persons the symbolism of right and be reversed. Aigremont has some very interesting remarks about the symbolism of right and left in his ex- tremely edifying and fascinating study entitled: Fuss. Leipzig. Fliess 3 who has endeavored to formulate a biologic basis is The perception female. One often hears the neurotic complain that he feels himself drawn to one side. of right as male and of left as even more important (Adler). Occasionally there are variants: the patient. the thought: I have lost all support in life! may be thus dramatized.

the left to my right hand..Right and Left 215 The dream makes right and left. he also bears great respect for his mother: "I greet her with great politeness while passing by." i. If he misbehaved. his mother gave him a little push and shoved him to the middle of the bed. peculiar look. The gentleman and I exchanged a politeness as I pass by. between herself and the father. first The Konig mother. as the "owner. Miss the his goes back to childhood. (King) towards him. K.e. who comes towards me (60) arm in arm with a man. as I shall copious use of the symbolism of now prove by a few ex- A patient (compulsion neurosis) dreams: I meet Miss F.. who comes queen." The gentleman. I greet her with great amples." Further: "It gave me a jolt at first. It gave me a jolt at first and I prepared myself for the greeting at the proper moment. to the time when his mother bathed him and put him to bed. his love carefully is looked over his laundry. His hatred of the father dates back to these early opportunities for observation: "The gentleman and I exchanged a peculiar look. I changed my cane from." . The man who comes to his mind is an employee in Sammenkontrolstation had been erected by his father who also instructed him about the evils of masturbation and the Sammenkontrolstation. which is precisely what he wishes secretly. namely. an observation post which seems well adopted to lay the foundation for neurosis.

. without coming into code. it mouth as if to bite Then grabs my it seems that the animal has only its fore-part. psychoanalytische Forschungen. Having become familiar with the foundation of the neurosis through my treatment. tion. conflict with the laws or with the moral the same thing.216 Sex and Dreams has the right to give a peculiar look.. On the other hand." Here neurotic is : the dream of another. he transfers his cane from the left to the right hand. Abraham. therefore the creature must soon perish" following is another dream of this patient (62) I was paralyzed on the right side of my body. He may thus indulge fancy of carrying out the It is incest. as if the hind quarter or a portion of its hide. Jahrb. finally I swing it to the right with all my might and descend. only he has "transferred the cane from his left to his right hand.e. severe compulsion cycle keeps twisting to the left. the cousin The is girl cousin 4 is typically a com- promise between incest and permissible love attrachis sister's best friend and the two bear the same in the first name. Fritzi King is the only girl that pleases him enough so as to think of acquiring her through marriage. : The 'Vid. I was unable to open my right eye. were missing. My which seems beside finger in the itself with anger and it. Die Stellung der Verwandtenehe in der Psychologic der Neurosen. i. The cycle turns into an animal (61) I ride a cycle. he wants his cousin. f.

. he sees only with the left. Er ist dann unfahig zu The creature which takes his finger in koitieren. 5 He himself is a on a man. . he has recourse for his sexual gratification. she prostitute is not a woman to him. The which turns into a beast. He holds himself "to the right with to prostitutes is all his might. He is like one paralyzed on the right side. cycle. The the opposite of the mother type. the mouth." i. The mother draws him to herself. she is a stranger.Right and Left 217 is still This unfortunate man. He is unable we may to use the right eye. which persistently swings him to the left. Now also understand his dream about cycling. is his passion. fixed on his seventy-year-old mother with all emotions his and yearnings. as if to bite it. cannot marry. Cp. is his mother who had the habit of sucking his bisexual "Lutscher" fellatio little fingers. with a He girl. he has no eye for perceiving the charm of other women. That is why The phantasies 6 Many a mother's boy is a Don Juan with strong homosexual components. the animal's hind part is indistinct. she becomes an acquaintance and reminds him of his mother.e. If he goes to the woman a second time. But he can meet one only once. a certain relationship asserts itself be- tween them. already in the later fifties. One day he falls in love and the next day she becomes wholly indifferent to him. the remarks on the psychology of Don Juanism in connection with case 28. and would readily carry out His most significant infantile phantasies relate to the anal zone.

too. I can even play the piano at the same time. but for his awkwardness. (Cp.. Fell. I meet a young girl at the right. . trot along a shore almost moving and thus I the house. I am afraid that the thing will suddenly break. "Jemanden auf dem Lebenswege eiriholen" is the picture which individual existence suggests to many a fellow traveler on the pathway of life. he is particularly struck are in fact wholly repressed. 6 who is dead and The fear that * tfberholen. is withered . too. once so smooth. a very wealthy girl. or. her skin. The young girl whom he meets. and he . is She once possessed an impressive wellbuilt figure but now her body is shrunk. very common in the sense of uberleben. the creature must soon perish. is some one with whom he was once in love. hide He and fellatio. The end of the "long lane" is death's dark door. to outrun. outlived. to outlive. Ger. and the playing need no explanation. "as if the hind quarter or a portion of is missing. His mother. who always refers to women's skin as their hide. she is now its wrinkled. a painter. could have married her. or trotting. The man he passes by is whom he has therefore his father. to overtake. on the left I come across a man.) The same (63) I sit it patient brings a third dream: astride on an old piano as on a horse It starts to and give a shake. skin.218 Sex and Dreams very old. The old piano is again the mother." has a friend. the shore refers to a birth phantasy the shaking. by the fact that her hips are lean.

But for the preswe must limit ourselves to a brief analysis of portion of the dream. was a governess who had relations with his father. and I were at a place on the southern railroad (Hinterbriihl).) to hurry out of the way but in spite of that they did not move from their spot to the right." is wholly justified. His birth was such a severe labor that his mother nearly lost her life. The dream of another patient is as follows: (64) My -father. but I had been hit only very lightly and I merely felt a roaring in the right now about ear. Again we see the interplay of birth and death. which in the dream. too.Right and Left "the thing will 219 The prospect with suddenly break. I fell down. on which he meets the girl. since he plays had a trementhe more justified father's old ill. Southern this railroad. I urged Miss father (and N. The horse reared and hit me. the mother. In this dream. upon the very piano. We travelled afoot and met a man leading a very ungoverndble horse. she may any day. Miss N. while the man on the left represents the subject's homosexual leaning. who had given him life. die His mother is fragile. denotes deep pas- . ent The dream does not end here. as a child he dous fear of his father. Frdulein N. the right side. heterosexual married relations. is to die. the girl broke up on account of is his incestuous fixation. represents what is permitted. like all southern places.

. Spain. fire. The man they meet is his teacher foot fetichism. mad dogs. partly relating to the posterior parts." Later this patient not move from the spot. who indulged with him in various erotic games . developed an attachment to the father which was . Strict oversight by his father and the governess disturbed his relations with the male teacher. also all wild animals: lions. The expression "we He traveled afoot" refers to his strongest passion. burning).. Sex and Dreams References to sun. who was also his first seducer. suffers of a troublesome itching of the parts and he is a confirmed anal erotic. they were caught by the father and the governess-teacher and That experience inspired him with punished. . Here this is also indicated by The patient's immediate association is bruler (Fr. Uncontrollable horses always mean passion. Through that man he has experienced a number of serious traumata. tigers. with whom another person is also fused: a slightly older playfellow. etc. and these episodes furnished the occasion for his first homosexual pleasurable feelings.220 sion. at it thoughts of revenge against his father and these are expressed in the dream with the thought: "I urged (him) to hurry out of the way but (he) did . a reference to a place where he has made certain intimate observations and where der Hint ere This is (the posterior part) plays a great role: am Abort. Italy indicate the heat of passion. the name of the place: Hinterbruhl.

. Popular belief holds that clanging. the experiences of his youth have disturbed his feeling-attitude towards woman. his anguish was immeasurable. "Did not your ears ring?" is a question sometimes addressed to one who was the subject of a conversation. This dream shows that references to homosexuality are associated with the left side of the body. His injury is on the right side of the breast. i. In the lives too long." is the way the situation is expressed.e. 221 insane when his He was like father died.Right and Left morbidly intense. These com- plexes are unpleasant. But that serious trauma "I fell down is portrayed in the dream as trivial: but I had been hit only very lightly. ringing in the ears has a meaning. he asks his father to hurry off but his father does not stir from his place. The ringing in the right ear means that he must think of the childhood epi- He is (sexually) sode when going with women. We see that his extreme love rested on a foundation of dream the father equally deep hatred and was compensatory. Those occurrences are linked with his pronounced impotence forming a closely knit complex. (This corroborates the observations of Fliess who holds that many homosexAccording to Fliess the left uals are left-handed. lame on the right side. he was severely punished when he was caught (playing erotic "games" with the young man).. for his first act of sexual aggression was prevented by his father.

The patient with the characteristic dream of being injured on the right side by a small horse. This resolution he has carried out to the letter: sleep except lying on the tion dream. But I do not want to dwell here on this dream and its associations . The test dream of this patient showed itself.222 Sex and Dreams always represents that side. in other words he pro*The Interpretation of Dreams. Brill. In a case of neurotic anxiety he found an enlargement of the left pupil. I his compulsion state has been want merely to point out that somewhat anticipated in this test dream. ways means the sexual does not quote my woman. patient resolved to sleep exclusively on the left side. as a typical recurring dream: final examina- (65) He is in high school facing the examinations in physics and mathematics and that causes him great anxiety. also suffered of a compulsion which manifested itself as fol- lows: he solemnly resolved to sleep on the left side until he passed his final examinations.) and In the various compulsions the symbolism of right left plays the same role as in the dreams. translation by A. after the tions. a theme which left side. is he dreads the whole theme of love. Freud 1 view correctly when he states that test with is: my interpretation the patient dreams such a dream because he looks forward to an adventure The fact (sexual) and fears he will not succeed. will now he cannot The examinaal- be taken up later. : The .

what they figuratively suggest. the 10 Some become stereoI consider the dreams Such stereotypic typic.Test 223 posed to have to do only with a man.e. the dreams which recur often in the same or in a similar form usually they Somecontain the pattern-motive of the neurosis. The path of sin 9 is frequently represented subjects have these as a serpentine winding. . a punishment for his Like the flagellants he undertook to punish sins. when he may perhaps discover the path to woman. upon the completion of the high if successfully Maturitatsprufung. 8 the final test. dreams times these dreams penetrate into the consciousness. dreams very often. .. and they often stand for the subject's perversions and for incest. i. Chapter XLII of this work. evil ways.] 'Serpentine paths are also representative of snake as the name 10 implies. [Transl. subject's typical dreams. which passed. final "The school course. symbolism of left Thus the his and right here reproduces The compulsion was peculiar compulsive thought. The symbolism of even and uneven (or. The literal meaning of Matura is obvious. examination. a sort of expiatory deed. specially until the Maturitatsprufung. Cp. Maturitdtstraum. entitles the holder of the respective certificate to join the University and grants him other privileges (especially The dream here is a with reference to military service). straight and crooked) has the same significance as left and Crooked paths in the dream mean precisely right. himself through an act which in turn became a source of gratification for him.

224

Sea:

and Dreams

they appear as day dreams and yield a sense of
gratification.

A

dream of

this type,

which ended in pollution,

is

the following: (66) I dreamed I was climbing a mountain on which there was standing a ruin. When I reached
the top it seemed to me I was but a rice kernel, or a millet seed and the whole mountain seemed made up I let myself slide down and the stuff. an exquisite pleasure so that motion me gave rapid I had a pollution. I was able to rouse this feeling also in the day-time by fixing my gaze on a given point; I would think I am a seed rolling down, in

of the same

serpentine fashion.

The
lows:

patient represented the rolling

down

as fol-

The meaning is Schamberg, Mons
bladder.

simple enough. On an elevation, urine, Veneris, there is the ruin,
is

A

secondary determination

as

fol-

lows: the ruin

the decrepit old father, who has the on top, is ready to tumble down to be there right or fall to pieces, according to the patient's wish, What rolls down is the seed, and it rolls i.e., die.

with lightning rapidity. It is therefore, the representation of a sexual act and naturally ends in a

During the day time, through the autohypnosis induced by staring fixedly at a given point, he is able to bring up the same phantasy and induce the same result.
pollution.

Compulsive Thoughts

225
birth,

Another neurotic, who

lost his

mother at

turned his mind very precociously to reflections on 11 This leads eternity, which he conceived as a spiral.

we must consider later, the representation of life and death in the dream. The analysis showed that the subject was always preoccupied with his birth, which also marked the death of another being. Eternity, death, coitus and birth A compulsive thus became for him fused images. he of which suffered I come was: wherever thought I bring misfortune! He became a murderer in the very act of his coming into the world and he fights off violent fancies which at bottom are nothing but
us to a theme which

In his dreams the representation of sexual act. snakes play a great role, he sees snakes everyso that an acquaintance has facetiously where,

nicknamed him the "snake man."
left

The symbolism of
dreams as well

and right

is

also utilized in his

as in his compulsions.
left,

If he takes a step to the

he must compensate by taking three steps to
life
is

the right.

The theme of death and

in its relation to the
illustrated in a short

symbolism of right and left dream of Mr. Theta:

"I recall an abstinent subject who thought he discovered the solution of the world riddle and of all existence in the In this case, too, the spiral was the symbol of spiral form. the "Ewig Weibliche," the Eternal Feminine. Spiral, screw, winding stairway, etc., express sinfulness and birth. Turning of the spiral brings the s-me side into view. (Neurotic phantasy of the eternal return des Gleich&n! of sameness!)

226
-.

Sex and Dreams
of lanterns (Japanese?) hang one at the left catches fire and burns up.
lanterns

(67 )

A number

m

a row

The

are

a number of women.

This

dreamer is already known to us through his interesting dream about policemen (No. 38; cf. also No. 37). The "burning lanterns" are his sisters-inlaw and sisters, his aunt and the servant girl. The
left

That represents
flame goes dying.)
off,

(in the analysis the sister-in-law) "burns up." The fittingly love and death.

the person

is

dead.

(The aunt

is

The

flame consumes itself: the sister-in-

law loves him.

Lantern (in which a candle is stuck), for woman, like lamp and candles. symbol I bring to an end this series by reproducing the dream of a cultured, aristocratic person of high

standing, whose dreams are so complex that they tax to the utmost the interpreter's ingenuity. His dreams portray the strangest combinations and the

most peculiar transformations. Thus he once had the following dream: (68) He was in a city where everything was topsyturvy: the law of gravity was reversed, the people walked backwards, etc. Having alluded to the difficulties we may be excused for not dwelling at length upon the analysis.

Another dream
(69)
Little

:

German

residential

town.

While

strolling through the wide park stretching across the hitt I meet two women, one is young, the other

Transformations

227

I am a professional diplomat, a the cabinet (perhaps Billow). I regret, member of very deeply that on account of a previous engage-

appears

elderly.

ment I am unable

to escort the ladies.

But we con-

verse standing; I entertain them for about forty or forty-five minutes. Then I pass on to the right, tak-

ing the broad

pathway towards

the temple of the

Muses.
Naples.
.
. .

Climbing up some stone steps.
.
.

Geld (money)

.

schlagen (striking)

.

.

.

Riga. "Sie hat mir ja nle gesagt dass sle mlch lieb hat." "But she never told me that she cared for me."

When he told me the dream, he related first that the ladies had asked him to go to the left instead of going to the right; later he corrected himself: he
was asked to go straight ahead. Subsequently he It led recalled also precisely how the road looked. at first straight through a forest and upon the
heights
ever

branches into a number of winding paths. Serpentine (winding) has a definite meaning whenit

means a "snaky" path; in this case it would be the path to the left, incest; it would be seduction by a daughter of Eve, through the snake, as in paradise. But the biblical story recalls also the temple and the right path leading In thereto, distinctly a reference to marriage.
it

occurs.

It

fact the subject

is

interested in a Jewish
it

woman

and,

being a Christian, he finds

unpleasant.

228
woman's mother
Nauheim,

Sex and Dreams
in particular

and
is

all

her Jewish

relations he finds intolerable.

He

about to go to

the roads about the place remind him of to become formally engaged. serpentine windings He has pronounced resistances against this step.

Billow refers to that.

The day

before he read that

Billow had announced his resignation from office. He too, would like to resign, but only if he could

carry out this step in a very diplomatic manner. This wish is the theme of his dream, for as he recalls, he conducted himself with the utmost courtesy

when he expressed

his inability to join the ladies.

provincial town is Gotha. That place Billow has married an suggests new associations. Italian Countess. For some time he, too, has mainlittle

The

tained intimate relations with an Italian Countess;

they were practically engaged. The Italian Countess would be more acceptable to his family than
the

woman who owes
little

allegiance

to

the

temple.

represents the place provincial where he expects to be called as professor. He expects the brevet of a regular professorship; to be-

The

town

come a regular professor
licher,

he

is

now ausserordent-

depends on his receiving a call. In the dream he is a professional diplomat.

The

depends on the Secretary of the State Department of Education (or minister) who has full discall

cretionary power over his nomination.

Billow also

Interpretation

229

means the musician who was active in Meiningen and who left that town. "Meinige" (mine) is what he calls his bride and he wishes to leave her. But Billow, the musician, found it easier: for Richard Wagner simply took Cosima away from him. Cosima reference to cosinus, angle of 40 to 45 degrees ;
:

here too the question
grees).

is
,

one of Gradminuten, deLiszt,

Cosima Wagner the daughter of

again a reference to diplomacy, zwm Listigen (to stands here in contrast to trickery) cunning,

Mathilde Wessendonk.

Wagner,

too, has renounced

a love ; he abandoned Mathilde Wessendorik when she

grew old and chose another. The subject is also being robbed of a love: one of his sisters, the
favorite

among his sisters we find out who the two ladies were in now Only the dream. They are a fusion of the young woman
!

to

whom

he

is

about to become engaged and the fu-

ture mother-in-law with his sister and mother.

Nat-

urally he cannot join the latter through their path in life. He can only entertain them for a time; he did it standing. Forty to forty-five degrees brings

up by association the thermometric degrees; no

man can
(Celsius)

a degree of forty-five of heat Forty degrees is the proves fatal. he had. wrote him she has His sweetheart highest is feverish; he is thus allowing her to be consumed

stand
it

;

with fever.

He

has allowed himself too, to be con-

230

Sex and Dreams
his youth, with the strong-

sumed with fever during
almost ruined him.

est passion possible: his senseless incestuous

fever

In the dream he does not allow himself to be enticed to the left

path road.

Instead he strikes out

but also more pleasant road upon to the right which leads upwards and towards the There all the muses are waiting. temple of love. He intends to build a home which shall be a home
the
difficult

more

for art.

aims to attain high, lofty, genuine love and to extricate himself out of his present pre-

He

carious sexual situation.

At any

rate the temple

pathway to his highest ardor. The lowermost depths he reaches across the stony steps at Naples. Shall the marriage come to naught after
road
is

also the

all?

Or should he marry the Italian countess? "But she never told me that she cared for me."
.

The words

.

.

seem irrelevant.

Riga striking money But forty degrees brings forth by
. . .

.

.

.

.

.

.

association, Regiomontanus, the thinker of KonigsHe does not know berg, and that leads to Kant.

whether the Ding an

worth the

sacrifice it

the thing-in-itself is involves; he must subject the
sich,

matter to the Kritik der reinen Vernunft, the Criher. tique of pure reason, if he is to be through with

Riga

Rigorosum

Rigoros,

these

associations

lead "diplomatically" to erection, erect, and refer also to potentia, a theme already intimated in the

expression "standing up."

Interpretation

231

The moment he comes
vagina (broad path)

into contact with a large

his potence is at once at

an

He looks perennially for something diminuend. That leads assotive: "a little residential town."
ciatively to the least, the narrowest object he looks the anus. The term Geld, for, and it proves to be

juncture a mass of early reminiscences disclose anal eroticism. The temple bears a definite relation to his anal

money

is

a reference to that.

At

this

eroticism
ill

reminds him of a story a Jew was once with diarrhea. Nothing helped so he had tittim
;

it

:

(psalms) read for him at the temple and that helped at once. The next day his wife was standing at the window looking out and saw another Jewess hasten-

"Where are you running?" ing along the street. she asked. "I am hastening to the temple," to have tiUim said for my poor husband; he has been constipated

now

for the past ten days."
first

"You poor
Don't

woman," shouted the
do
it.

one, "nonsense!

I

know

better: tillim constipates."

In

his case, too, there

was something that had to
specifically his

be loosened up or freed, upon the anus.

fixation

understand why everything in his earlier dream was represented topsy-turvy. He lives in a large city, he is anything but diplomatic, he runs
he meets, escorts her, and he is not always satisfied to entertain her standing; he does not "burn" intensely enough and he is drifting
after every

Now we

woman

232
downgrade.
left,

Sex and Dreams

The right path in the dream is really and the latter leads into the temple through a small opening; and now for the first time we find out the history of an abortion. At Naples he had the chance to secure a boy, and had he not been
the
strict with himself that episode

might easily have

stony steps of to occurs dass er bei/m letzten him, Naples." Koitus unwillkurlich mit dem Finger nach dem Anus
led

him

downwards,

"over

the

Now

it

Es fdUt ihm ein, dass er nie die Vaweil er sie immer tiefer vermutet. kann, gma treffen is he Obviously seeking something else, namely the
gegriffen hat.
anus. Es fattt ihm ferner ew, dass er beim Koitieren wederholt die Empfindung hatte, er befindet sich in einem zu weiten Raume, and whenever that happens

he

is

unable to attain ejaculatio.
experience,
this

professional

According to my form of coitus sine

desire is centered -upon
his actual possession.

ejaculations occurs only when the subject's sexual some other objective than

In der Vagina dachte er an

den Anus.
In this dream, the straight path, the left one, respectively, to which the women want to turn him,

woman

by the incestuous feelings. Every mother or of his one his sisters. part He had to make a turn of forty-five degrees, as was
is

mediated
is

in

indicated already in a previous dream, where the
face about.

turn was fully ninety degrees, i.e., a right angle This time the turn about is but par-

Interpretation
tial, i.e.,

233

what he seeks as

his ideal is

between

man and woman.

a compromise Such a bisexual being

(Mannweib), capable of replacing at once brother and sister in his life, is the bride waiting for him at

Nauheim; therefore, in spite of all resistances, he must marry her and carry her to the temple of the
muses.

THE DREAMS OF A DOUBTER THE DREAM ABOUT SWEETS THE DREAM ABOUT STOLEN BOOKS THE SECOND VERSION .

'kerne furchtbaren Wahrheiten. Es die [There are no gruesome truths. truth helpful and refreshing. wohltuend.] is always Swoboda . gibt immer wirkt Wahrheit belebend.

forty years of age.XI Before relating the dreams to be analyzed in the present chapter I must tell something about the subject's preliminary history. he found himself compelled to read a document over ten times before grasping its import. For instance. Mr. had been dictated by his sister. While listening to people he found his mind wandering away from what they were saying or he asked them 237 irrel- . Like all those who have been brought up under modest circumstances he all is anxious to life.) His great worry is that his bride is poor. the engagement. Taking advantage of her absence he wrote her a parting But we learn that this letter. tnd. Sigma. He is a severe neurotic. (Regarding his relations to the sister. breaking up letter. live well. Rose. Dreams 82 and 83. he feels himbound by his engagement to the girl. very punctilious girl self in his professional call- ing. in love with a pretty young who is poor. to enjoy the comforts and joys of Soon after writing to his bride the parting letter he found himself no longer able to give to his professional duties the requisite attention and energy. A typical doubter.

I want to report now the subject's first dreams because these give us a deep insight into the character of this neurosis and of the complex mental processes. which our psychiatrists diagnose as neurasthenia. Suddenly he found that this knowledge had fled from him and he was help- less in the presence of Bohemians. renewal of her engagement to the Though this was actually done. Sex and Dreams He learned the Bohemian lan- guage as an aid to his profession and he had at- tained a high degree of proficiency in understanding and speaking the language. He suffered of sleeplessness and gastric disorder. or for the condition hertetofore called neurasthenia. He reproached his sister so bitterly that the latter finally wrote the girl suggesting brother. All our previous ideas about overwork and hereditary taint are false. Incidentally. his disposition was morose. his In the midst of these worries he began to regret treatment of the bride. continued to feel depressed and his condition grew In this state he came to me. and the notion that excessive venery or massince I have psychic conflicts turbation be responsible for neurasthenia. I may mention that become accustomed to look for the which are responsible for the neuI roses have not seen any neurasthenia.238 evant questions. he feared insanity and sought a psy- chiatrist who diagnosed his condition as neuras- thenia. may . he still a worse.

little The candies look tike great pearls and little stars. I arrange the little stars m a row and say to Mary: now choose! What does the dream represent? He offers can- dies to his bride bidding her to make a choice. The pearls is a bed. seems to me also I have discussed this theme at to be untenable. The pills while supposed to be aphrodisiacs contained poison. But in the dream the whole is tinctured with scorn. white and rose-red in color. This association reveals that the dream thought conceals the idea that the bride 1 The condition which physicians designate as neurasthenia is a composite state. Bruchstiick ciner Hys(cf. In addition to a disturbance of their sexual life. 1 greater length elsewhere. Van Teslaar. The authorized English Version by James persons always display a the deepest root of the Causes of Nervousness. vol. II) little table are spermatic fluid. The conception includes anxiety neurosis. these psychic conflict and that constitutes neurosis. Beit rage zur Neurosenlehre. For the first assopicture ciation which occurs to the dreamer case. Freud. Cf. my monograph. hysteria. The table patient's first dream it is as follows : (70) I am standing with and I drop on Mary in front of a sweets out of a box. 8. He has in fact suggested to her an early marriage and he expected that they will soon taste the joys of married life. lighter forms of melancholia.Conflict 239 in the absence of a psychic conflict. . compulsion Dementia praecox and Cyclothemia. The and candy drops terienanalyse. anxiety neurosis. is the well known Hofrichter an army officer who sent sugared pills to his colleagues to put them out of the way.

240 Sex and Dreams should poison herself through the sweets. the star "with the long tail. the thought of pregnancy. and his doubt. Lastly the most important features of the starlets occur to him: their sharp edges. this is an old symbolism mentioned also in KlempauVs little dream lexicon appended to his interesting work Spraclie ohne Worte (Language without Words). moon as mother and the stars as the children. again. all abundant needle pricks and hurts and that to pay merely for a bit of pleasure (sweets). Mary." Pearls suggest to him tears. therefore.) and Rose. whether to marry or not. The when intent of the dream becomes even subject's clearer we obtain the associations to "pearls" and "little stars. his sister. The rose-red color is important." Next there comes to surface a remarkable symbolism: sun as father. the points and pricks. The dream tears. he entertains unconsciously the idea of extramarital relationship and the thought has also consciously flashed through his mind. Little stars first suggests comet. the fear of pregnancy and of its serious consequences breaks out in the manifest dream content. is the He hesitates between white (the pure bride. in the language of dreams. goes back to the . means becoming pregnant. Poisoning. Rose name of his sister. represents him as if he were saying to his bride: Look what awaits you in marriage: many much worry.

I want to keep the books for myself. (This more fully in the analysis of subsequent dreams. vague idea that perhaps it was my mother who had secured and brought these books for me. the dream he again In army engaged offers her the choice between himself and the army officer. regret riage. thus extricating himself from the dilemma. I sneak along the corridor of V. to choose between and bride. Z. I approach stealthily the box where the records are kept of all outstanding books. In the dream he leaves to his bride the task of choosing. v. Z. and that Reue. he thinks. I reproduce here three additional dreams of this subject: I "have borrowed one or more books from But I also had a the library of deputy V. (71) I. she may yet regret the maris His trouble his inability. rows. like soldiers.) Finally row (arranging the little stars in a row) reminds him that the bonbons are arranged thus in Mary was previously to an officer. Let us now attempt to penetrate more deeply into the psychic mechanism. sister Reihe (row) also brings up by association . and watching for an opportunity when I am unobserved I remove therefrom and tear up the record of the books given to me.'s residence is situated in a great and wonderful apart^ ment building.Indecision inability to decide between conflict will be explained 241 Rose and Mary. I feel I have done something wrong. which . v.

I am summoned to Court. I shall declare before the Court: "I have not destroyed But my mother did that. I ask Mary for the book. She answers: "Yes. you have carried it back to us Moreover I know nothing about the does not concern whole thing. I thought it belonged to you. and I would like to remove the traces of my misdeed. A soldier I tear open the envelope brings and I gather from the summons that I am to appear before the Court to account for my deed. something unspeakably the Reeling of guilt op- presses me. I think they are talking about me and watching me. I want to break into the room (library). or the dramatization in the dream of court . me the summons. she is not guilty. mother has not done it with evil intent. I am trying to think of means of defense." A new person appears in these dreams. it me at all " (73) III. One is at my home. An unexplainable dread holds me back. she does not understand these matters. Whenever we find such a feeling of guilt. but every time. I brought it down to you several times. the other I took to Mary. the library record. But some young boys are standing around along the opposite side of the corridor. or rather I hid in her home without her knowledge. as if he had committed some crime. There are two books. His guilty conscience. pervades strongly the whole dream fabric. his mother.242 Sex and Dreams evil. (72) II.

the books refer to the man's avarice. bank the second meaning of book. He is 9 worried because his bride has no SparkassenbiicTier no Savings Bank books . Here the same interpretation as indicated in the previous dream is applicable. official on another A woman who turns prostitute receives an "record book" from the police department explained also (under the European rules for the regulation of The Viennese expression. Here savings book which any book clearly comes into play: is But that does not seem A one may read is a symbol for prostitute. Finally the term book brings up the word number 2 a very common term in the sexual jargon. . I have already mentioned elsewhere the significance of books. bank account that and has she placed at savings his disposal. is Book as symbol for prostitute basis. In a In a large library every book has its record number. His she has no connection with the bride's poor. mother to explain the dream.Indecision 243 complaints and accusations of theft. moreover he reproaches himself because he is forced to accept the aid of her sav- She has one ings on account of his failing health. the analysis that the subject is reproaching himself for something which strikes him as wrong or 4own~ discloses right criminal. a book" (or "a booklet") when applied to a woman means that she is under the control of the Morals Department of the police. "she has prostitution).

it wipe out the memory of this misfor he thinks that the whole town knew about like to : and made fun of it "Some young boys are standing around along the opposite side of the corridor. is associated man has the reputation of a loose also his wife. this man said to his friends: "I with the fact that the have here two floors." . Rit- von X. His name was something like Reihental. My wife receives on the first and I on the second. They were neighbors. Ritter V. When they life. Z. He would like to wipe out the memory of some occurrence in the mother's past life (den Empfangschein zerreissen). Or. v. and I keep my harem on the sec- ond. Reihe. I drew his attention to this fact. very leading built a new villa. and would deed .244 Sex and Dreams the dream he seems to reproach his mother for something. "my wife has her bordello on the first floor. Once during a terrible quarrel his sister accused the mother of hav- ing repeatedly sneaked over to the "R&tter" at Here he identifies himself with his mother night." Associations lead from this ter y man to another. whose name bears a certain resemblance to the previously mentioned word. I think they are talking about me and are watching me. He once surprised his mother in a rather intimate tete-a-tete with a lodger. A number of traumatic incidents from his childhood come to his mind. with whom his mother was on rather intimate terms.

may prove unfaithful and commit various misdeeds behind his back. 9 ' The unexplainable dread expression has a double mean- "An His compulsive hesitation keeps him back from his mother as well as from his bride . which also plays a great role. too. love of his sister. library with She is is the room. He is dominated by an impulse to break into that room and we may now appreciate the meaning of the last observation in the dream: holds ing. more painful thought. episodes through the person of his bride. preventing him from taking the step of consummating a marriage. On his childhood account of the painful reminiscences of he fears a second edition of the same She.Indecision 245 But the reproaches pertain to another. in contrast with his powerful affects. is his greatest stumbling-block. No matter how often he says to himself that his bride is not responsible for his mother's conduct. namely doubts concerning his bride. Any one reading the dream over carefully must discern at once what . The second dream portrays a second component of his hesitation. They are generated by the incestuous leaning towards the mother. me back. she the the box in which the Empfangsscheinen entries are kept (Empfdngniss is synonymous with gravidity). and its parallel outgrowth. the scorn and doubt generated towards his mother he transfers upon his bride. for love of his mother. the many numbers. his intellect proves weak. All the mistrust.

it stands also for GeThere were ugly rumors current about his mother. was that he had hidden with and her become clear: defense as well as the honesty of her declaration also "Moreover I know nothing about the whole thing. He brings to light terrible family scenes surpassing nearly everything that the master *Gerichte. she is not guilty!" Moreover the "citation into Court" incident in the dream corresponds to an actual threat on the mother's part. rumor. richt is his mother. Court. It would lead us too far to attempt a complete analysis of this dream. terrible family tragedy. such as does not appear improbable in the case of an advanced psychopathic on the tracks of a personality of the type he describes his mother to "But my mother has not done it with evil inbe: tent. The most significant feature is the dramatization of the thought that he must defend himself for the commission of incest (his The Landwehrgestrongest wish) with the mother. EMadung. in a double sense. riicht. The associations disclosed intimate relations with another army officer. it does not concern me at all !" In the third dream he is cited to Court and he must defend himself. some horrible infantile drama. . 3 It seems he corresponds to an invitation. she does not understand these matters.246 it Sex and Dreams his bride. We are is trying to excuse his mother. the Vorladung. citation to court.

Interpretation 247 hand of a Zola has described. He and his sister in the endeavor to put a stop to their mother's scandalous hysterical conduct have had to resort to Horrible fights broke out and his physical force. mother threatened to complain to the police. . . . . Thus appear at close range the persons who sit in judgment over others.

.

XII THE SYMBOLISM OF LIFE AND DEATH IN THE DREAM THE LONG SHARP SWORD IN THE DREAM MASTURBATION REPRESENTED BY POCKET THE MATRICIDE IDEA > BLOOD FOR SPERMATIC FLUID .

c'est mourir. \To Ivoe. enfin.] Maupassant . at bottom. means dying off.Vivre.

fatally wounded. sode. no re- spectable wife thought of resisting the desires of the frantic men. No chaste virgin. He had to draw the hyperemia last made during the Messina earthquake. prescribe drastic cathartics to towards the bowels. The proximity of death had roused in all the instincts of life. pressed around his tent with the request to be given some remedy against painful erections. 251 motive in his Ruf . love indulged in its Similar observations have been most abandoned orgies. spoke up to a pass- A ing workingman: love before I die !" "Kiss me! That I may know last words. While the houses toppled over and the flames broke forth. life 1 These were her Where death looms * forth the instinct of this also d Arthur Schmtzler has dramatized Lebens (The Call of Life). Recently the newspaper related a touching episode. girl.XII In his memoirs of the Russian-Japanese war a Russian military surgeon relates an interesting epiIt was just before a great decisive battle. His regiment was to be among the first to enter the The sleepless soldiers slaughter at early dawn.

in the A very : fine-minded. Wien u. sharp sword." These observations have led Swoboda to formulate a law of "the Conservation of Life. 1904). It means possession raised to the nth degree. painter. "and in virtue of for every sexual act need not neclead to increase of life involves but a temessarily decrease of life. dreams (74) In a primitive forest there stands a tall. Die Periode im menschlichen Organismus (F. who asks for a new flame to replace the declining flame of' his life what does Death answer ? "I cannot do it Some flame must ! go out so that another may be lit. Be- 9 Hermann Swoboda." He porary quotes very properly of sexual cells the dictum of Celsius: Seminis emissio est partis animae jacttira. Sex and Dreams In the fairy story about Old Uncle Death and the Healer." sists 2 "It con- of the equivalence between life it and death. From a branch of the tree spread- mg far out there hangs a long. Deutfcke.252 asserts itself. Leipzig. also the remarkable fact that in the dream murder may be a psychic equivalent of the sexual act. genial woman. Let us turn to these principles as disclosed actual analysis of dreams. . Thus we begin to understand why the dream often represents coitus under the picture of dying. spreading tree." the shedding states Swoboda. exclusive and last possession.

breast. Heart and breast serve as displacement from below. . it slips from his hand and I sink down with pierces me through the heart. . with a powerful grip the sword determined to drag it down. the sword too hastily. begins to live. when she begins to know life. mortally wounded. is represented as a long sharp sword. is "The tall. . The "shadowy dissipation of the figure" relates to a dead person. . spreading tree The erection the penis.Life and Death fore 253 I me there stands a man whom am unable to distinguish clearly. Just as the dream knows no negative in general. she dies. Stronger and warmer grows our mutual longing. In the dream dying it recognizes no denial of life. "Stronger and warmer grows our longing" und nun fuhrt er in the primitive forest" den erigierten Penis in die Vagina. The figure of the in the sword sticking my man dissolves like a shadow and I am alone lying on the ground. Does this dream really portray only death through an accident? Through a man's lack of Not at all. This is not a death dream adroitness ? it is a dream of life. means usually the same as living and often the . . Her greatest love! It is also a raw by-play on ejaculation. man seizes the / shout exult" He has seized ingly and throw both arms in the air. Remarkable picture! At the moment when she . The sword hangs between u* and we cannot therefore see and recognize one an~ other.

254? Sex and Dreams greatest life urge is expressed as a death wish. 4 The well-known thought of Euripides is an excellent illustration: Tfs oZ5e. a big man attacks them or sticks_a_kmfe into relations between Eros their abdomen. Dreams of this character require no further elucidation on my part. 1910 (J. Wiesbaden). A typical dream of young girls: they are standing naked on the street. my statements concerning suicide in: Ueber den Selbstmord. Bergmann. is being killed the death knell of virginity which. Diskussionen. means the inauguration of woman's life. philosophers.>. have dwelt on the intimate and Thanatos. Homosexuals dream of attacking a man whom they knock down with a cane. Similar psychologic considerations hold true also of suicide . 4 In the dream. F. This thought has been repeatedly expressed by the poets . el r6 $r\v ftkv tari KaraSctvelv r6 KctTaSavelv 81 Who knows whether life is not a dying and death living? . I have already analyzed such a In such cases the murderous attack por- trays a forceful defloration. 3 even the choice of the manner of self-deis struction influenced by certain erotic factors. vol. I. He has *Cf. murder is often a crime passionelle representing nothing more than a sexual act with a strongly sadistic coloring. again. I turn now to the representation of death in : dreams (75) My brother is to leave Vienna (?). off irretrievably is the what it is honor. as in actual life. dream. too.

That is the highest happiness." Then he again buttoned the cover on the mattress. I was accompanied by an old watchman who looked like a mu~ seum attendant and who wore a Bordeaux-red uniform. and I felt a strong longing after that promised state of absolute peace and there came over me that feeling of rest which . When we die the cover slips off and what remains is an uninterrupted. I was very deeply moved by his speech. Sleep continues without the least sensation. the cover is life. the covers had white floor. which was very dark. also he carried a bunch of keys. with the knowledge that one is dead but that exist* ence continues beyond our earthly life.Symbolism of Death 255 already packed up his things in a couple of trunks and several hand grips. He explained many things to me in a side room extending backwards. Now the tendant began to talk very animatedly: antnesses and the unpleasantnesses of our existence. He unbuttoned one of the covers. unpleasant or pleasant. the mattress underneath was also red but museum at" "That is like the conception we Norwegians have of life and death. the first mother-of-pearl buttons. Meanwhile. uniform state of absolute peace. there were a number of red covered mattresses. I stepped into the rooms while he was away and found furniture and things stored on the ground and the second floors. Then he was not to leave till late at night he went to the Club. The buttons are the pleasthere were no buttons on it.

that will be done in connection with But the study of the respective neurotic trouble. Meanwhile we climbed up to the next floor. I saw him on the street on a to -find my brother. small square. the wrong packages were brought down. which was the There we found only some old lumber and furniture like the outfit of a carpenter who might be Then we walked down also a collector of antique. The various floors refer to his different erogenous zones: he is a foot fetichist (ground floor). His brother a lively fellow who always keeps one or two women on the string. then finally two my brother's. He envies him for his numerous trunks. But he indulge also accuses his (handgrips). Hence patient is to abandon the treatment. I monocle. said they were mine. or my brother. attic. Club to in members him of masturbation mind is a place where homosexual pleasures. not twice. It happened men brought the baggage down It in a hand wagon. would not be possible to give here a full analysis of the dream.256 Sex and Dreams partakes somewhat of the majesty of death. I found it was late and I wanted the stairs again. anal eroticist . the most important features may be pointed out. The his brother is who lives outside Vienna. then I recognized it was my brother by his I returned to the house and I supervised the loading of my brother's belongings upon a hand wagon. I was in doubt whether it was G. He identifies himself with the wish to leave Vienna.

also. who had mistreated him for years. "extending backwards and very dark. die Vagina. Heine died as the result of a disease which one acquires through sowing wild oats carelessly. . the red (button) head which is especially hyperesthetic in his case. next to the things. The subject suffers of syphilidophobia . there is also a vivid association with the old mattress on which syphilis. "The cover is life": da$. plays an His childhood mem- are represented here by the old furniture. referring to The buttons hemorrhoidal knots but they also suggest the glans penis. also the all-important nipples." refer to that. afraid to draw it back. ist das Leben.Symbolism of Death (first floor) 257 and fellatio important ories role in his dreams. have anal significance. Uberzieher) has The cover or covering (Uberzug. Especially an old nurse. "Ratzen" (Matratzen) suggests a similar train of thought: rats spread the infection of plague. name of a certain French woman. Next there appear anal phantasies which revolve around childhood reminiscences. becomes fused with his servant into the mu- seum attendant. to the prceputium. is He Reference. (second floor) too. The museum attendant's conversation need be ex- plained here but briefly. "he explains side many things to me. room. The noteworthy. was auf den Penis drauf Jcommt." is Mattresses refer to a number of First the name of the servant. The words.

He has wanted to establish a new religion. At this point there came to the subject's his mind homosexual phantasies relating to Well as to myself . e. uniform state of absolute peace. for to-day he is nearly well and he has practically abandoned that ascetic icism is and ideal. so brauchen wir die Vagina nicht und der Penis bleibt slips off is left and there ruhig. One knows "that one is dead but also that exist- ence continues beyond earthly life": the quiescent membrum does not trouble the potent man because he is certain of a resurrection.. for during the treatment he obtains from me new psyI chologic information. when the membrum dead: when we die the cover an uninterrupted. or rather he was. am represented as conclud- . . me . if our libido subsides. . "That is man's highest happiness' 9 : in that way he consoles himself for his impotentia.258 Sex and Dreams also its over-determination in a mechanical device for protection against infection. "The buttons are the pleasantnesses and unpleasantness of our existence": this refers to the pleas- urable feelings and the pain traceable to his penis and to his hemorrhoids. founded on ascetof the same opinion as Tolstoy in these matters. . virile subsides it is like Living: means also erection. respectively. i. brother as in fact the museum attendant owed most of I his features to am his instructor.

Interpretation

259

ing my treatment with a practical demonstration, intimated in the unbuttoning and rebuttoning. .
.

.

And
his

his emotions are

not surprising his enthusiasm,
:

blissful peace, finally his conviction that

boundless yearning for the promised state of death must

means

be something majestic. That kind of death merely living the life of a free man, without infantile
is

inhibitions; it

what he wants to attain and did

attain through the treatment. Further phantasies refer to his brother and his

membrum virile. perceive that inhibitions are the cause of his impotentia; the baggage plays here
a great role; wrong baggage means false moral

We

Another views such as have tortured him for years. of is this genitalia; points to masmeaning baggage
turbation, as intimated in the loading of the baggage

upon a "hand" wagon.

A

woman dreamed:

(76) I was on the street and felt dizzy; very scared I shouted: "Das ist der Riickfall, das ist bestimmt ein Riickfall! I am fatting backwards, I

am

surely falling backwards!

Now

I shall die!"

5

* Ruck fall, of course, means relapse. In the dream the woman shouts: "I am having a relapse!" The literal transla-

is given in the text, "falling backwards" because the dream, as there shown by the analysis, revolves chiefly around But the idea of "relapse," the latter meaning of the term. with the implied greater ease of falling backwards (in contrast to the woman who has not yet "fallen") and with the additional implication of the wished experience being already something fulfilled also lurks in the background of the dream and supports its main theme. [Translator.]

tion

260
This quiet

Sex and Dreams
little

mother,

fifty-five

years of age,

lived very sedately until her only daughter, thirty-

four years of age, suddenly

fell

in love with a

man
This

who reciprocated her

affection

and married.

roused powerful erotic fancies in her which led to severe depressions. She envied her daughter the husband and her sexual joys. She began to suffer

during the spells she tended to fall towards the left side, at least she grasped for support on the right. The attempt to support herself usually failed; she had a feeling that the support
of dizziness
;

was not strong enough: that support was her husband, a wholly impotent man and the dizziness repfall. Falling backa back on one's and this stretching really in a the neurotic of fear simple way many explains women have of slipping backwards. That she will

resented her dread-and-wish to
is

ward

surely die on account of slipping backwards means The really that she is going to live once more.
I go down the street in dream, interpreted, means search of an opportunity to fall into sin, I fall and
:

taste to

my

heart's content
is

!

Mrs. Delta, who
the shop.

under

my

treatment, dreams

:

(77) It is evening, dark.

We

girls want to close hear a great noise, the cry, "Mother-

The

As in the above instance wherever necessary I have not hesitated to translate terms in their literal sense and I have occasionally given preference to a somewhat special rendering whenever the trend of the associations in the original required
it.

(Van

T.)

Symbolism
murderer!" and

261
street.

down

slowly In front the street, carrying strong lights. there are priests, all in white, then there follows a

We

are

many persons run out on the very much afraid; a procession moves

hearse, also covered with white,

on which the murI

derer

is

carried; there follow a throng of people.

am

very badly scared and the fear wakes me. Mrs. Delta is subject to incest phantasies.

has recently married.

dream revolves around her much beloved She witnesses his funeral, she white bier, i. e. she pictures on the sees him stretched

The son who

A

the bride dressed in white. to herself his marriage, in her judgment involves socially marriage which, at any rate it marks the ruination of her the son,

death of their love.

What
;

was Muttermord (naturally murder
sexual, life-affirming act)

she expected from him in the sense of a

of the daughter-in-law. cret, priests in the dream often mean,

hence her powerful hatred Many persons signify a se-

by a

reversal

Belief of implications, sensuality clothed in white. a similar in and the fear of ghosts betrays sym-

bolism.

Usually

the

dear

departed,

dressed

in

white, are the ones cause consternation.

who reappear

as ghosts

and

The girls want to close shop; in addition to the homosexual phantasies which this evokes the remark
also expresses the subject's regret that her daughters are unable to gratify their sexual needs. (Cf.

Dream No.

25.)

262

Sex and Dreams

Transposed the dream is easily interpreted: It is full daylight. My boy shows tenderness towards me and I am pleased, etc. Mrs. Delta's psychic
is expressed also in this dream. are easily lead astray by the affects disBeginners have already seen that played in the dream.

hermaphroditism

We

love

represent hatred, irony wonder, etc. can go further and state: Here, too, symbolic equation is operative as a valid principle. This, the fourth symbolic equation, may be formulated as
follows:

may

We

other and

All affects in the dream are equal to each may substitute one another.
:

Let us analyze a dream illustrating both features representation of life and death and the fourth symbolic equation.

Miss Delta dreams

:

(78) I come to the birthday anniversary of my friend Christine. I have not brought along the
birthday present.
I had no time to purchase
it.

like a wax -figure She is bed, looks very pale, and that makes me wonder. But few words are necessary. Christine is the wife of the man she longs for. The dream means:

m

I come to the burial of

my

friend Christine.

I have

She died so suddenly forgotten the floral wreath. stretched on her was She I had no time for it.
deathbed, pale as

wax and I rejoiced. Here birthday stands for death. The feeling of surprise or wonder stands for joyful satisfaction.

Symbolism

263

woman, thirty-four years of age, obsessed with the fear of apoplexy, relates the following dream: (79) I carried my dead brother, dressed as he was laid in his coffin, with the aid of another person and we were about to place the coffin in the grave I said to the other: with the body still warm. "See, Franz is still alive, we cannot put him down." There were many other burials and many people around. I awoke shuddering. She lost her brother to whom she was attached with all her heart. Her only consolation was an the other person in the dream. She has uncle,
mise ; she
fused brother with uncle, a typical incest comprois so deeply in love with her uncle that she
could. not refuse

A

him a thing.

The

coffin in

which

every person

first lies, is

the maternal body.

The

same symbolism holds true of grave (das Grab) and in this connection "graben" carries plainly a significant meaning, like "bohren" (boring) and "geboren" (born). Thus the grave stands for heaven; hence the close connection between the grave and
heaven in popular Ruckert :
belief.

The

idea

is

expressed by

Du

meine Welt in der ich

lebe,

Mein Himmel du, darein ich schwebe9 O, du mein Grab, in das hinab
Ich ewig meinen

Kummer gab
Schiller:

and even more clearly by

264

Sex and Dreams

Noch kostlicheren Samen bergen Wir trauernd in der Erde Schoss, Und hoffen, dass er aus den Sargen
Erbluhen
soil

zu schb'nerm Los.
sees

In the above dream the patient
the

her brother,

membrum

virile

of her cousin, as

it

was

in the
:

maternal body; (dressed as he was in his coffin) i. e. naked and she wants to put him in the grave
while
fect
still alive,
i.

e.

pertains

to

The accompanying afpotent. the abhorrence roused by the
:

thought of burying some one alive. But the affect has been displaced interpreted it means I do not
;

want to put
uncle.

my

maturely among

prethe dead by changing him for the
living

husband

who

is

still

cannot put him in": this has the double meaning of putting in as well as of betrayal (or un"einen tiichtig hweirilegen," a colloquialism not unlike our "putting something over" on
faithfulness)
;

"We

some one, means to deceive some one. "Many people" means "the secret"; also the challenge to do after all. it, "Many burials" means: everybody lives and tastes the fruits of indulgence und legt die
:

anderen hinein^ why should you alone impose such scruples on yourself?

These dream thoughts are further corroborated through the fact that her present husband did not get along at all well with her deceased brother and

thoroughly deserve the punishment. suffering of depres- dreams: (80) I sat on a stool in my father's study. During recent years he was abstinent. traits . Now cannot get either he is fighting "I with a resolution to have sexual intercourse. from her husband for she knows that he is She wants to get the child from the uncle. in fact. The thing that sticks and farther in or out is his penis. e. abstinent church official.. The effect (shuddering) is the expression of her general feelingattitude (yearning) rather than of horror of death. you "If you do not give Once he masturbated so inveterately that he caused a profuse hemorrhage from the urethra. 6 the meaning of being pregnant An sions. The dream portrays the phantasy far from an infrequent one that she bore and had given birth to her brother. . but he developed serious neurotic anxiety he has a most uncomfortable feeling of pres- sure and of pain in his body and the sensation that something sticks inside of him and can neither get farther in nor out. she wants to "carry" him with another person here child ." "carrying" has (as in English). to be a coffin herself. "tragen. She cannot expect a i. Suddenly I felt pain in my body and vomited a stream of blood. Her most intense desire is to have a child. sterile.'* up the habit.Interpretation 265 he would. until his father I cried: I shall die!" to masturbation For many years he was addicted warned him: will die.

fication.266 shall die" Sex and Dreams : this expression in the dream means. of the vagina is representation is The symnarrow path edged with bushes very clear. straucheln and Strauch. based on semantics. Suddenly I experience enormous gratiI shout: Es lebe das Leben. (Blood for sperma. turned back. I must begin to live. there is thus an additional connection between bushes and stumThe bling in the German. bush. he would consider it This woman was a the devil's work were he to stumble. German. When I saw that. dying for living.) His wish to seek regular sexual intercourse was expressed in a short dream which I reproduce without analyzing the details as it is fairly clear from what we know already : (81) I strolled along a narrow path bordered Some little distance right and left with bushes. prostitute whom he had been Bushes are the for the past six days. my abstinence drags me down. and. This resolution he actually adopted shortly after the dream. With dream equation the is the aid of the second symbolic I am with easily interpreted : a woman. there stood a woman. like Luther. to the right.) woman bolic stood at the edge of the bush. also is But the subject cause of his neurosis homosexual and the chief his leaning towards a sister . from the road. meeting devil's device . I apparently waitmg for me. (To stumble.

later. A few already mentioned. But I cannot do otherwise than record The conscientiously everything that comes to my attention. fact must also be taken into consideration that we are dealing chiefly with subjects burdened with ill health. It * may dwell so much on .Interpretation in 267 trauma. as cause some surprise that I should have occasion to incest. his action belied days the turning back incident at the end of the dream. 7 whose company he has experienced his important The dream shows that he still has a con- siderable amount of resistance to overcome.

.

S. .XIII SPEECH IN DEEAMS THE SYMBOLISM OF CONVERSATION COLOR SYMBOLISM OF MR.

'] [Sleep means man's withdrawal Hebbel .Scldaf ist ein Hmemkriechen des Menschen in sich Selbst. into himself.

dreams: (82) Mary offers me a breast-pm as a gift. 73). 71. His to suck the breasts (hence the symbolism: breastpin). This have also given that pin to his sister. Rose. decline it 1 saying: "I thank you. 271 . Mary "I cannot do that. warm) get A rule established versation in dreams is by Freud is as follows: Contaken from some actual dayis very true here. The dreamer's bride. The dreamer thought she should time conversation. an act distinctly and typically infantile. You know. 70. Nos.XIII Mr. traceable back to the nursing period. Mary. The dreamer admires handsome greatest pleasure is breasts.'* Another recent dream instigator may be mentioned: at an outing in the woods the bride (after an embrace) remarked that she lost the breast-pin. Moreover you will a needle better from me. brought a number of gifts for his sister. (a living. whom we already know through some analyses (vid. They looked for it but in vain. Sigma. needles bring bad luck as gifts. but she retained for herself a very pretty breast-pin. 72. you know: needles bring said: bad luck as gifts.

1909) us that dreams sometimes portray perience teaches einen Fall von Zwangsneurose. mother and father. Sigma seeks expression for his conflict in the typical con- . mother and aunt. He slept with her in bed. with whose history we are acquainted through the analysis of previous dreams. which may be sub- sumed Rose) J in the simple query: bride or sister ? (Mary or 2 Every detail becomes a theme of doubt Once when he had a cough the nurse gave him her own urine to drink as a remedy. in spite of the rule that speeches in dreams are reproduced from day-time conversations. These themes appear in the dream as conversations. Mr. suffers of a very serious psychic conflict. vol. (Bemerkungen iiber Jahrbuch f Psycho"Exanalytische Forschungen. and fell The The (also consciously entertained) of intercourse with the bride or of proposing fellatio to avoid the danger of pregnancy. : He states the actual theme of the compulsive inhibition. played with her mammae 1 asleep with the nipple in his mouth." Sigma. was placed between two persons to whom he was linked equally with ties of love: mother and nurse or nurse girl. dream portrays the thought Another observation by Freud must be mentioned in this connection. I. a ln all cases of compulsive doubt I have found that the doubter.. oral region is his strongest erogenous zone. . etc. like a cyphered telegram. during childhood. An example of symbolic equation.272 Sex and Dreams Until his fifth years he was in the care of his nurse. un>- which during the waking state is traceable only der the cover of a distortion and displacement.

whether she will be faithful to him. therefore. his bride. you did not get my bride's a prettier. turn over to Rose the needle (obvious symbol). Mary and Rose are cousins. ney to Vienna (to be psychoanalyzed) his sister said to him: "You may marry your Mary. This dream shows us his He wishes that Mary would compulsive thought. whether he will be able to gratify her. living.Compulsive Thought 273 to his mind: he doubts himself. warm one!" The compulsive thought. whether he can be true to her. a typical incest comThe speech applies to Rose and means: promise. True. whether he can support her. needle. bride or sister? is brought up . of which he sister! is a victim. He takes his sister's side. She did not do it. The old theme mother or nurse now under a new form. Is the sister without his neurotic condition? a share of responsibility for the subject's one's One reading over carefully other dreams should be able to form Before he undertook the jour- own judgment. sounds: love thy Against this im- perative he struggles with all his might and the consequences of the struggle is his severe neurosis. but do not be surprised if I should then find a sweetheart for myself and become intimate with him!" This foolish threat on the part of his sister had worried him stellation. he questions whether he can make her happy. but I have another one for you. etc. "Be consoled. his sister.

Er hat seine Braut zum "F res sen" lieb. she (Right side!) a monkey. The only solution he can find is suicide: that would end once for all these tortures. a little yellowish-brown monkey caressing a reddish-gray dove in front of him. to have any one else. He his sister's He is thinks he himself is as ugly as follows first but a monkey. He and now his bride's bidding. tains herself in conversation with other gentlemen. He once said to the "You would drown Mary in a spoonful of sister: water wouldn't you!" Only the previous day his bride wrote him that is visited daily by the sister who is very cordial with her.274 Sea: and Dreams a great deal. "It would be his greatest misfortune:" Die Schwester soil keine andere Nadel erhalten. haunched at the right of ihe window sill. Another dream of the same subject: (83) I see before me. Gazing at them I have a feeling that the monkey will sink its claws into the bird at any minute and I say derisively: "You would like to eat her. She jealous when she entersingle. He would like to hold on to both. wouldn't you?" so The dove is the kind. wishes. either. He does must remain He is not want her. bland Mary who causes him much concern (gray dove). But he knows that his sister hates the poor bride and could "devour" her. He is jeal- . He begrudged her having any one. cravings and doubts. Neither does he want to give up his bride. He wants to marry her.

" Brauner the name of a man who caused an alienation be- tween himself and a sweetheart." Moreover. that his sister. my sister drew my at- We discover. "Don Juan" who brought room. He was very jeal- Gelb is the name of another man This who once lodged with them. The door. too. sich Reddish refers to sadistic trends. to his disturb this man was a great different women to his Once the patient took "Don Juan" special pleasure to after he had taken just room an especially attractive woman.Compulsive Thought 275 eus (yellow) and begrudges his sister as well as his bride another man. further. is Equally significant is "yellowish-brown. ous at the time. How did he know that Gelb was entertaining a woman in his room? "Because the walls were so thin. The singing proved a successful revenge For the caller on the part of brother and sister. was rather intimate with that lodger and this again made him very jealous. too. Er His uncertainty freut whether Mary is virgo Intacta will be solved soon after the marriage ceremony: Sie wird bluten milssen. auf die Defloration. The colors ftave here in this connection special meaning. as loudly love is a wonderful thing!" and other snatches of songs of like character. was not noise proof. supposedly a respectable woman . As he could he sang the refrain: "Indeed. tention to it.

turned twenty thousand Kronen over to his sis- dower out of the money his wife had given him. Taufoer. Mary will first have her and then put her aside. GeJb threatened to beat him until he was black and and yellow. the last association. Roth was a young man who courted Mary ter for her and who wanted to marry her. to poison her. Finally. without his wife's knowledge. to is The thought of giving up his engagement also a part of his own speculations. was an officer with red cuffs (he had previously mentioned that the dove had a red glimmer around the neck). Grauer was an acquaintance who. who saw a great deal of his bride and who had been engaged to her for a short time. Thus the colors "yellowish-brown" ish-red" show various determinations. When the wife found that out she demanded the return of her money and threatened divorce. He His rid of the bride. like 'Hoffichtef* did his com- . He doubts the innocence of his dove. him get about poisoned candy!) sister will help Court dream the (See The words addressed to the sister practically mean: "You would like. best of all. account of his military career he had to break the engagement with Mary. Reddish-gray recalls various associations. and "yellowTauber was without means. That On love was hopeless.276 Sex and Dreams left was so scared that she blue the man's room at once.

not only psychic." 3 The dream intimates all these possibilities. Another man would have put her out of the way long ago. Beating his sister. almost boundening. There are cannibalistic trends slumbering in the depths of his soul. rades. He bites during coitus 3 he could perhaps devour his bride out of often compulsions have back of them imperatives reman consults me on lating to the subject's family circle! account of the torturing compulsive idea that he must put brief analysis discloses that his his wife out of the way." This hypothetical imperative on the mother's part started the torturing compulsive idea. He is like a predatory beast that would fight with its teeth. This sadism is he not only tortures his bride. They grabbed each other by the hair. was prevented from carrying out the deed.Compulsive Thought 277 She Mary wanted to poison herself. And he is afraid he will also beat his soft bride once he makes a start. His mother said to him at the time: "I do not understand how you can get along with your wife. How A A . breaks through in this dream. and dragging her by the hair was a common occurrence. less. mother and his wife dislike each other. tually broken out with physical violence. He has achis sisters and all others around him." Fearful regrets and thoughts of suicide on awak(Lex talionis!) His sadism. Once they had a serious quarrel. free. the latter disappeared after being thus traced to its source. He has beaten and choked his mother. The facetious remark addressed to the sister is really a "Take her off my neck and request and means: or her poison her but make me Strangle yours.

. Sie totend besitzen! Again we come upon the association of life and death. er vollzieht an ihr den Thus revenge becomes for him most letzten Geschlechtsakt. Sex and Dreams He its is the yellowish-brown monkey ready to on the dove: to gratify cannibalistic instincts possess and kill her in the act. When Othello chokes Desdemona he carries out an instinctive urge. others. Our gratifications involve the destruction of pleasurable.278 love. this time an aggressive variant of it: Besitzgreifen wnd Totend 4 1 have no doubt in my own mind that all jealousy murders have a pleasurable affect. We maintain our life through the death of others.

XIV REPRESENTATION OF THE EMOTIONS IN THE DREAM THE DREAM OF "GETTING READY" A CLERGYMAN^ DREAM THE ROOT OF FOOT FETICHISM TRIUMPH OVER THE FATHER DREAM THOUGHTS AND COMPULSIVE IMAGES INFANTILE ROOTS OF THE FEAR OF CONTACT WHY THE DREAMER "WONDERS" .

Em dienst zu Nacht ist unser Leben Genuss ist f aider WdcJiter Trawm: For keinem Hirngespinnste beben. So leicht es klingt. kanns einer kaum! Feuchtersleben .

When the becomes so strong as to rouse our conscious - We we wake up.XIV There are in fact no dreams without affects." In the same Halle Carl way of the dream is not an interplay of thoughts. Affektivitat. as Bleuler is 1 has shown very convincingly. The affects which break clearly through the dream are of particular significance because they are the repressed affects. Bleuler states: "Our actions are probably and of dysinfluenced exclusively by the feelings of pleasure phoria. Suggestibility. shall give a jtures. attention is an affectative state. but a struggle affects. are not remembered. 1906. ffect . Only such dreams enlist our attention. a. logical considerations receive their strength through the effects with which they happen to be linked. In fact. 281 . In the same way we remember only the dreams strongly toned with affects. Paranoia. or but slightly the That dream proc- our eyes seems to few examples in connection with the discussion of hypnagogic picclose moment we Later I me self-evident. Dreams unaccompanied by colored.ess always dream when asleep. (84) 1 A woman dreams her husband is iwfaithful. S. Marhold. ess begins the affects.. The dream but an interplay of images in the service of our affects.

are bipolar. substitution plays a great role: respect for scorn. may be transposed. respect Hate and hand in hand. She seeks some justification for her hatred. go Any affect may appear either ir a ." The dream pictures a justification for her hatred and furnishes her an : excuse for following the trend of her sexual stincts. happy that it was "only a dream. are deceptive. But affects. In the dream this She hurls ugly woman gives free rein to a tre- mendous she is When she wakes up feeling of hatred." But the dream discloses to us the fact that she is mistrusting and that she hates her husband. too. like every human being is moved by conAll symptoms. all the manifestations of feeling. whenever an affect breaks through in the open it always yields a deep insight into mental life. confidence and doubt. Affects. She attacks him with a epithets at him. "If I should This woman once said to her husband ever find that you are unfaithful to me I would promptly revenge myself. and scorn. overvaluation for depreciation. too. More than that. dreams should be plain even without the transposition. human thought and love. The neurotic traries. in- Thus. love I take this opportunity to emphasize that for hate. The two emotional trends coexist.282 Sex and Dreams knife.

this has led to the erroneous view. Freud has discussed this theme very carefully and I must refer to his Traumdeutung (The Interpretation of authorized Dreams. shifting. . still held . and how the affect becomes Trivial linked to irrelevant elements in the dream. Since the disturbance of the affectivity is the deepest cause of the neurosis I put greatest weight on the analysis of the dream affects. another. Incidentally. But as is the case with compulsive acts. English translation by A. etc. In this way we find out how the dream material has been masked through transstart with the affect.Affects positive or in negative form. . . We must here the fourth symbolic equation. I may add corroborate the rule laid down by Freud that in every strongly toned dream the affect is always When interpreting a dream I always justified. position. f Of course. 283 either with a plus is love with a sign or with a minus sign. Brill). they are only apparently devoid of affect. Hatred recall minus sign. data next disclose the character of the affect. only that in many cases the dream affect is extremely treacherous and exposes the psychic I am able to conflict almost in its naked terms. The affects may replace one fit Often the dream displays an affect which does not at all into the content of the dream. there are also dreams apparently devoid of affects (Freud).

is besonders beim Koitus statt. 5-7. various bureau drawers. over.284 Sex and Dreams is by many psychiatrists. Ihre Psychischen ihre Heilwng. that the absence of affect characteristic of compulsions. woman patient has a number of typical recur- A ring dreams: every time she gets tremendously excited over something which she does not quite attain. writing desk. obvious: diese Hetze findet Ihre Angst 1st.. all round of opening and searching begins Finally I stand before the looking-glass and let hair preparing to dress it. I lay out various toilet articles. . 2 The dream following examples will illustrate how the affect enables us to obtain a deeper insight into the structure of the respective neurosis. the Every little while I think The little some additional of thing I had forgotten. dass der Harm friih fertlg wird. to go out visiting. as follows: her perpetual wish einmal zurecht zu This conflict expresses itself in a dream (85) Preparations to go out for the evening. ready and waiting for us. get through with the hair dressing. I open and close the wardrobe. my gloves. Fatigued by the hopeless strain I lower my arms helplessly. No. Zwangszustdnde. : before she attains the libido kommen. I hurry from Wurzela und *Stekel. 1910. Mediz.1 I rush back and forth full of excitement. jewelry and the down my My husband is fully dressed. The symbolism zu . Klinik. but it is useI cannot less.

no no little things. She gets ready her expression: all small things The "the is round of opening and closing begins 3 She cannot ticularly edifying. e. ing. dressing. over again. also means. leads to Empfangniss. over" finish her parhair she is whole hair life is a search for is unable to attain libido. writing KleinigJceiten: alike symbols for the female genitalia.." . She finds that preparations are being made for a private (secret) entertainment (opposite to "Gesellschaft. social call) by her husband. things." but also: "in the front. i. no companionship." society. revert symbolically to this one theme. these are little desk. The meaning is very simple. drawer. Frisieren. jewel. Preparing it one's toilet also means congres- sus (sexualis). a well-known expression for coitus. dressing. pregnancy. most bitter disappointment: she is childless. i Her hus- *"Da# b'fnen und Suchen beginnt von vorn:" "the opening (of drawers) and searching begins . von vorn. is the basic theme expressed in this and in all her other affect atively toned dreams. Finally I wake up ex- hausted. (jewels). ." in contrast to her husband. her All her thoughts libido. to be received: empfangen werden Her again. To go into society..e. undress- Her inability to "get through. . there are no children in the home. i. by contrast. glove. Closet.Affects 285 room to sible to finish room out of breath but I do not find it posmy toilette.

life. ready. I am : worried because my household 4 does not run smooth- I muster courage. of my illness." through She sighs over her husband's impotence der bei der Arbeit Tcaum den Kopf hineinstecht. Everywhere I still see the old disorder. e. The husband is He is. per- haps the frustrated excitations and her phantasies are exhausting her and make her ill? In the next * Symbol for the phallus. The mother who this reproaches her stands for womb In is {Mutter: mother and Gebdrmutter: womb). The effort exhausts me and helplessness for in spite of my I sigh over my labor and care the work does not get done. and disregarding the state ly. "all through. i. HI and inwardly agitated. he through (fertig) before she is. That the curse of her sooner. . too. What is the use of her keeping herself so clean. or rather Another one of her dreams may also serve as example (86) I lie abed.. this eternal not-gettmg-through hangs over me for trying always to do so much. My mother appears and she scolds I beg her to help me.286 band is Sex and Dreams is already waiting. Popular vulgarism: Lass dir deine Wirtschaft ausbiirsten. dream. she cannot get through. I wrap a towel around my head and with duster in hand I brush and clean out every corner. me like a curse. in fact. would it not be better if she were less averse to moral impurity.

my parental home. for she love. goes back beyond would now marry only through great love is it. misunderstand my they whisper among themselves saying that I am jealous of my friend." It is a dream within the dream. big one (German. her en* celebrated. one. Her of her experiences she does not envy her friend. her freedom. dream. present husband was once interested in that girl friend. great and big). I am present. Because A few words will explain this dream. is The dream . not at Most of the persons present behavior.Affects 287 verts back to her premarital state. On the other hand she herself is that friend and she sees herself retrospectively at the time of her own engagement as in a vision: love for which I yearn. by this means she nullifies her "The great hasty marriage. she reShe is again a in a position to choose : young woman tent another po- husband (87) I am again a girl at great feast at the home of gagement all sad. which I reproduce as complementary. She wants to be pose. for I am conscious of my moral superiority and inwardly I resolve to marry only when I shall meet the greaty love for which I yearn. Great the love of a great. A my girl friend. it a very pretty wish gives her back her youth. nor the latter's future joys. She turns her husband over to the friend. I merely smile with an air of aloofness. gross sessed is both. is being but taciturn. by a big fulfillment. i.

word Yes. (88) This subject dreams regularly that he arrives at the station just as the train is putting out. etc. receipts. One of my patients who suffered of a severe neurosis was tortured by the thought that he looked like a Jew. a blank. He thinks that everybody is looking at him. dreams in which the dreamer finds himself unable to get through. He was also afraid that his mother might be killed during his absence. repeatedly the most painful conflicts. In order to be ready with an alibi he gathered all sorts of memoranda. Her husband was single. winner in the marriage lottery. The dreamer arrives at the theater too late or he misses the train just as These dreams form a contrast to the it rushes by. hastily spoken has brought her lasting This time she wants to draw a great unhappiness. Analysis proved that the foundation of his neurosis was his still persisting passionate attachment to his mother. Dreams type mentioned above. car transfer checks. in which the subjects "do not get are through" very common. One word. Jew meant to recognize his senTherefore he is subject to most uncomhis for a : fortable feelings when he walks through the streets. mind synonymous with sensuous. . that and this has caused him the faces show mistrust.288 it Sex and Dreams She is enables her once again to choose her love. the little taciturn. Jewish was to To mark him suality. einsilbig.

All these thoughts are based on the fact that his mother is twenty-eight years older than he. In the dream the moral inhibitions are also represented as baggage. Like the pilgrims in "Gar schwer drilcJct mich .**) On account of his heavy baggage he arrives late. Every time he arrives at the station with so much baggage that he cannot get through. This is the tremendous gap which he is unable to cover. der Siinden Last" Tannhauser who sing: ("The burden of sin weighs heavily on me. in order to dreamed: (90) that he was following an automobile in a wagon and could not reach it. he said. She is ill: he knows that she may die any day and that he will never possess her. he runs after an electric car and cannot reach it. street cars. (89) Or. Nearly always although there are no fixed symbols and under certain circumstances a symbol may mean something else it signifies the moral burden which one carries on one's shoulders.Affects 289 He hurries excitedly to be on time but he nevei succeeds. In addition to that he was always obsessed by the Another time he desire to catch a car on the run. His wish was: "Oh! if I were the father! Oh! if His I had known mother when she was young!" father took her away from under his nose. This baggage is particularly typical. He had the habit of jumping on moving dodge his pursuers.

Going towards the train I found Unfortunately. tak- ing life means granting cussed this theme. First I thought I could not use this coin. t that I had entirely too things I did not need at much baggage. to do. Then I decide it is att right.290 Sex and Dreams that he The thought is may be taken for a murderer to his justified. the bagI to was leave behind was notf that willing cfaffi it was left standing at one end of within my reach. ten years older than the subject: (91) I am at a railway station and worried because I do not know whether it is the right one. at some distance. worry was over. This refers feeling-attitude towards His favorite reading is DosRaskolnikow (Crime and Punishment). large 10 on it. We have already dis- Another subject's dream dealing with the same theme is the following. tojevsky's his mother. I thought of buying a In a pocketbook I find a gold com with a ticket. all. But here the objective is a married sister. Murder also refers to the symbolic representation of a dagger being stuck into the victim's body . life. I did not know what Finally I signaled to a porter and told him to take and check my baggage at the "hand-grip" division. At the same time After this I begin to worry whether I should catch the train for I had lost time. 'As I shall reclaim it there upon my return* it soon as 1 was through I rushed to the tram but late. was too the train had just started. . Some of the the station.

his moral scru- he is a theologian prevent him from carrying our ordinary sexual intercourse. when he was twelve years of age. ples coin. Hence his worry whether he is at the right station. He is Indeed. end of the station" refers to that." ten here has an additional significance: the ten commandments. which the subject has not carried out till then. except his sister. (b) whether he ought to spend Ten also refers to the hands and signifies masturbation. finger. once. penis and 0. . The number 10 symbolizes sexual union.Affects 291 (1) The baggage here is used in a double sense: the genitalia and (2) the various inhibitions. but there was no immissio The expression "was left standing at one penis. In popular jargon the penis is actually called the "eleventh As this dream belongs to a member of the clergy. He has never touched a woman. his doubt whether he can or should use the too moral to commit incest. His scruples are clearly expressed in the dream (doubt) (a) through : his worry whether he his hesitation is through at the right station. among the numbers. ten years older. for he was a masturbator. In connection with the great significance of religion in the determination of the neurotic symptoms. 5 That is the reason why he looks for the coin in a pocketbook. is always important. has been taken away from him through marriage. We shall have opportunity to revert to the meaning of the number 10 in numbers: connection with our analysis of the symbolism of this number consists of 1. He thinks first of his sister's. the figure 10. His sister. symbol of the representing the vagina.

Hand-grip refers to the sexual meaning of 6 "baggage" for genitalia. Masturbation cest.292 Sex and Dreams that coin. towards man. Tasche and Handtasche are vulgarisms for the female genitalia. It should be very edifying to turn now to a dream in which the affects are covered up (or distorted). In the same way. also. Sack. Korb. (c) through the typical expression: "I did not know what to do." He is burdened too heavily with sexual cravter. II. Kofer. That is the reason (hang-grip division) replaces inwhy he avoids women. . He reverts to masturbation. Ranzen." is This dream already informs us that the subject unable to give up his masturbation habit and to is assume regular intercourse with women: that foundation of his conflict. The expression "baggage^" used in a sexual sense. dot Gemdchte. He overcomes his scruples. The practice of masturbation being linked with incestuous thoughts is for him more pleasurable than any other erotic experience. das Oepdck (the baggage) and finally. vol. The male genitalia are called popularly das Pdckchen. the psychic blocked for him also through his incestuous leanings which cause him to lean to the The path towards woman is The missed opposite direction. is mostly a scornful term. and. weight or burden: Anthropophyteia. train has the same meaning here as in the dreams He will never reach his sispreviously analyzed. He has "too much baggage. Rucksack. das Gewicht. Kiste. ings.

There were three counts in the indictment and Weihrich was found guilty only on sandals and of the third count which accused him of walking in somethmg else. the high-school principal. Assothe ciation with X (-feet) Wei and Gessmann. called in Vienna Bosniak. enjoyment-value of his perversions. if He has similar pains followed by diarrhea he eats soft pears. He feels as . who passed away that very day. loja. well-known antisemite. Wei (woe). He thought it was due to acids. against Weihrich. that: baffles Here we have the opposite of in a dream which something apparently the dreamer: (92) I read of a complaint by Mr. I could not under- stand that. with him about The evening before the dream Beta ate dark but- tered rolls. Later: I saw a photo of Gessmann and spoke it.Nonsense 293 Sometimes things which the dreamer understands perfectly well in the dream appear mere nonsense in the waking state. All acids cause him to vomit. Weihe. Weiher. or Hadschileader. The Weihrich. after the name of a Bosnian insurgent Shortly thereafter he vomited and felt pain in the kidney region. His plaint is that the latter has robbed him of the scorn against his physician. X. analysis discloses important associations to First the associations: school principal Weihrich.

294 if Sex and Dreams plunged into a dizzy. Gessmann "guess. Bosniak is a Viennese colloquialism for a Bosnian Hadschi-loja leads him to hatschen trampHis vomiting. White. The photo (my picture) looked to be a very poor one. pains and the diarrhea lead back ing. This leads to perversion (fellatio) and the nurse complex. a part of this condition. Toe-suck- ing out by Adler. boy he was once rocked on the knee by a soldier. weiss again light. sticking. something to be ashamed of. as has been pointed subject yearns to take into his mouth a The especially the great toe. the toe into the mouth and swallowing the perspiration (butylic soldier. sweat and to his idiosynleads him to Schweiss. foot the for hand. great symbolic equation displaces toe for the The thumb which in its turn stands for penis or nipple. to an old phantasy. cloudy state (smoke). : = Waking has been taught to regard the penis as something disgusting. who is merely guessing. That is is the root of his foot fetichism. falling asleep swallowing Another determination of the foot fetichism: he acid butter). DizHe recalls that as a small ziness leads to rocking. . phantasies just before a big foot. dirty." I leads back to the English term am the one who knows nothing. It was altogether too Gessmann is dark. sweaty foot. He transposed all the libido to the erogenously endowed foot.

spermatic language. stands it his The moment he under- compulsive neurosis is over. and this again to suer. Sue's Wandering Jew. void of affect. air. pus. or of some other wandering hero. saliva. flat feet. It discloses great scorn of the analyst. His phantasies about foot are masochistic. in the There are three features English woman.Nonsense 295 crasy against juicy roast beef. One of his fav- was the story of Ahasverus. But all this is so covered up that the dream apparently dead. now I am about to take him through away from the last. etc.. (c) foot perspira- the first two I have already weaned him the analysis . tion. (fc) his dream: (a) his brother. From hence the reproach: foot. But he himself orite phantasies is the Ahasverus. money. perspiration. I am He relegates me to the ranks . The dream is contains a number of deep affects. Hence the scornful attitude. sandals. sweat. Roast beef also reminds him of perspiration. What he "cannot" understand is what he learns through psychoanalysis. Finally. But the infantile compulsions secure for him much pleasure.). Weigeschrien Further associations lead t6 Eugene (outcry). of the Flying Dutchman. fluid. In the hunter's jargon blood means sweat. avoidable by the wearing of (Symbolic equation: blood. Fr. He does not want to give them up. revolving around the idea of expiation.

brought me a certain measure of satisfaction.e. I am rendering him potent. The disappointment. depression was not without its pleasurable feeling. Er ist ihm etwas zu geistreich. I am masochistic. ghost (Gesstmann I have too much color to suit him. the setback. Sex and Dreams Walking in sandals means joining Sometimes he does not understand me.296 of the deceased. although I find the postponement of the hunting trip. eternity. self as suffering unjustly. a holy man. has caused me considerable depression. tainment. But I exist pale. active. up a serious offence out of for irrelevant troubles. on the whole. I am the devil for him. is Woman why is passive. I have also become a Geistmann). That opens a new path of associations his belief in the reality of : the devil. A ghost is white. He is continually dwelling on situations in which he is dealt with unfairly. And man the masochist is is passive. The thing called off. even the ing always makes me nervous. and wants a man . He wants to remain an ascete. i. He likes to He is looking think of him- tainment was called interesting letter: off After the evening enterhe wrote me th following "The cancellation of the entertainment which was due to-morrow. rather pleasing. that change followed closely by another change of plans. connecting him with woman. builds He is invited to is an evening enterImmediately he it.. That the reason the maso- chist has the feelings of a woman. for him only in a picture (photo). for huntIndeed.

sentence with the calm of one who. His behavior in gaol is so wonderful that even the gaol guards look upon him as a holy man.Day Dreams 297 to dominate over him. that he hardly defended himself and he heard the must be an angel. I shut myself up more and more away from everybody. I even have moments when I wish nothing better than to die off and be wholly forgotten: the highest masochism." During these deep impressions he has a very remarkable day dream phantasy: (93) There was a man who was sentenced on a The strange thing was false charge of murder. "And.e. fication of the masochist is the 'pati. After years and years the story of the man's reaches the gaol commissioner who character holy . action. he seeks an active person. hence the preference for a soldier. nevertheless. heals them. his worst Unlust. he almost works wonders.* the 'passion. the theater. engrossed in my books. gave me pleasure. an active solThe chief passive pleasure. in fact. He is sentenced for life. have I not renounced everything worth while? My illness is an expression of comIch koitiere nicht. must have been the victim of some great injustice which. and now I am evidently always trying to reprochild I "As a duce the situation. I do not go to hardly ually.' hence the ideas of expiation. I live asexplete self denial. i. he consoles those who are ill. the chief gratidier. if not guilty.. I meet a companion. My feel- ing of dread protects me against gratification. coitus.

Through his asceticism is He he means to earn for himself a higher place in heaven. This phantasy discloses the roots of his asceticism.298 Sex and Dreams pardons him. He complains that he is leading a sinful life (Weihr-4ch). The term Weihrich the unconscious. sioner (or director) stands for the father. The news is brought to the man. This The commisThe latis the in- fantile situation which he reproduces in later life: "Blessed are they who are persecuted for righteousness' sake. he is Christ him- his greatest triumph is that he has lost his is sexuality through saintliness. it (The But. he sexless and like an ray of light drawing heavenwards. he continues his existence in his own way.) and smell- complex. He wants to be a woman. and all sense of its pettiness. He is transfigured. wants to reach his father. is very ingeniously chosen by It refers to his devildevil stinks. but without lifting the sentence. But these female trends merely serve the purpose of enabling him to triumph over . as Weihrauch. to possess no penis. also leads to the holiness-complex. For theirs is the kingdom of heaven. But the saintly man has lost all contact with life. The commissioner is speechless. ter has once punished him unjustly.'* He longing for the kingdom of heaven. At this point we find that Adler's conception is corroborated. self. unable to approach' infinite him at all.

She could not be friendly with any one else.Interpretation the father. But with some poison he might easily on his enemies. His masochistic thoughts are compensations for the criminal tendencies of his childhood. the before father (director) But what is the reason for his antagonism wants to raise towards the father? his It is the old rivalry. After the nurse. A little child is helpless against the adults. love. a holy man. his father his voice against his divine stool. That made him mad. the governess was the dearest person to him. 299 He wants He to join eternal triumph over his father. it roused in His Mary kissing some one else? It hurt him bitter thoughts and fancies of revenge. life and therein He. latter over was his greatest English governess. The father was a Pasha. which made his blood boil. Furthermore. His father was rather more than The warm in his attitude towards the English governess. is His hatred . be? his feelings. loja. small and How could that big. Hence the nausea himself revenge and vomiting and the diarrhea after eating Hadschihe owned a harem. Beta has had opportunity to observe and listen to a number of things. Who would have suspected this array of affects back of that dream? homosexuality. a sinner. I complains. (or count) : the director against whom he Chiefly on account of the third point third sex III III point III illness am = unrequited love.

is a murder. I am in uniform and I come upon a Many little boy who presses a big dagger in my hand. instead. He wears his uni- form. it reminds him of his military service when he had severe crises of illness and so that he was account of neurasthenia. people run around scared. but. dream ghost. for nudity all is dream means bemg the only uniform which makes in the Clean underwear is also equal uniform. but cannot. finally discharged on Wearing the uniform naked. dream in the represented During his military service period he also had the men . The affect of the dream expressed by the many people runterrible is ning around and shouting: "Something know that "many people" means happening!" a secret. shouting: something terrible is happening! I feel the same way.300 Sex and Dreams is The next dream also rich in affective coloring and belongs to a compulsion neurotic. as a speckled uniform. away from this memory. namely to the right. he is given a dagger by the boy. Gino: (94) A steamboat arrives in our harbor. During his early child- We hood he had overheard coitus between his parents (Entry of the steamer into port) he wanted to fly . Mr. I go to the left." he promptly disappears. Terrified I shout: "away with you. on a country road. I want to dodge to the right. little fellow's is And The name is Teller. he drifted to the left. He has the same feeling! The horrible thing that is about to happen.

female breasts . whose name was der Teller. therefore in the dream it is portrayed as a dream ghost. the slayer of Gessler.Interpretation 301 compulsive thought of knifing some one. Tell is linked also with Johann Parricida. a dream occurrence which we have consid- ered already in connection with some illustrations. The dream also discloses the influence of a castration fear. Teller first recalls to his mind the act of cutting meat on a plate . and that leads him to an English fairy story about some clever little tailors who bound down a giant with their tapes. later as representing the penis. Teller= plate) plate . also he had sewhere uniforms a of manufacturer Tiller. tailor (English) . das Heinzelmannchen. He had already thought of Wilhelm Tell. The great burden of his compulsion was the murder of his brother or of his father. Daumling ( and finally as the Schneiderlein. He is a man continually harboring murderous . He wants to retaliate with bloody revenge.A painful thought. further. Since the terrible deed that he was about to commit was nothing less than murder the dream affect appears thoroughly justified. dream ghost !" 'means he does not at all entertain the thought. "Away with you. . it was only a dream. also a maid-servant who broke a cured his uniform. also to tell (English): Tut t el. He had been threatened with castration on account of masturbation. he at identifies as Amor. The first little fellow.

murder represents symbolically the expression of He expiates for these murder violent possession. stormy weather. I shall jump at him. Once his father and his brothers nearly encountered just such an accident. I want to give one additional example. The steamer may run down a little boat. Because such a girl child. A patient. of course. every horse is a possible death messenger. I shall jump at him and knock him down !" The feeling: anal- ysis disclosed the vestiges of a powerful infantile attachment to that brother. Always unconsciously. street. all poison. while at a health resort with his brother had the feeling: "I cannot stand it any longer. Formerly he entertained thoughts of murder. automobile. stand it The "I cannot any longer. He thought of attacking his mother and of knifing her. a instincts with his neurotic tortures. Out of revenge.302 thoughts Sex and Dreams against his people. Bicycle. Every electric car. every local train. One may meet robbers on the country road. Freud has repeatedly emphasized the identity of the dream thoughts with the various neurotic compulsions. He finds him- self in the attitude of a murderer grasping a knife and he does not want to contemplate the picture. Because she turned her love to Through yearning. knock him . these served his murderous But his wish has turned into anxiety: he fears he might hurt others infect his injure them perhaps hands and thus spread poison. infection ideas.

whom is I consider rereally sponsible for my misfortune. are victims of an excessive Another example. a temper. is bound to me by certain moral obligaI try to give him to understand in an indirect way that since we are such close acquaintances tions. A medical student fails at an examination and acquires a great hatred against his examiner. has the following dream: (95) I find that Prof. need only remind the man of his debt of gratitude. This patient." Fear.. fury and doubt may substitute and vicariously replace one another. Z. The agoraphobiacs lose their fear of open Here we note "Any affect places while angry. Children who fly easily into fear. anger. Among the various ways in which his wild fancies : lowing he footing. Professor Zuckerkandl. I am certain that Z. Zenta. " is here turned Fear (of self) is often? turned into anger. the fol- on equal and asks him that er ihm durchkommen He also harbors the fancy that the professor He under obligation to 'him for some service. anger. and in view of the fact that he 7 is under obligation tion: the biologic root of the fourth symbolic equamay replace any other affect in the dream.Interpretation 303 into down wnd per annum benu tzen. This conversion is particularly clear in the infantile form of anxiety 7 neurosis. that is is. is is intimate with conceive revenge tlie man. . I meet him and he treats me in a very friendly and obliging manner. a close acquaintance of mme. lasse.

social position I have avoided in my conversation with him all references to his examination failure. misfortune with reference to the true An acquaintreally a close acquaintance. test) is i. and has preoccupied himself to a suspicious extent with his son's anal functions. or something).. I had behaved very hintertowards me. He is very courteous in his attitude towards his father but at the same time regards him as the original cause of his neuThe father is obviously anal erotic rotic trouble. for he is impotent with woman and a masturbator. for misfortune? is not the father responsible for his The 1 . "He treats me zuvorkommender Weise".e. father's moral duty to take care of him. In the dream he finds that the examiner to whom he ascribes his misfortune (misfortune at trial with woman. his conduct ought to be did not disclose that listig tricky more pleasing. duty and my Durchf all The dream was strongly At once we social standing recognize that this person of high is none but the father with whom his relations are very cordial. But he showed me }ie further reaction whereas I spoke to him as I would to a person holding a great social position (Cabinet On account of his high officer. emotional.304 Sex and Dreams to me. ance who has once bribed him with sweets and to whom he owes all sorts of early erotic pleasures. that is litHe has a vague notion that it is his erally true.

his fear is 1 that he will carry and spread to others the diseased . and coprolagnia. infection The if fact is I am afraid of spreading some I should not first wash my hands. I see that Tier nose and wrapped up in white bandages. also associated in the sense of the term "hmterlistig" (cunning) some one lusting (lustemd) for the posterior parts. a compulsion neurotic who dreads unfaithfulness. first I visit Frau Strabo and her fingers are sister. The high social position refers to the father. some indirect way. Gino. At part-* I offer her my hand but I think to myself I caning not go to a prostitute for I have to go home first and wash my handy and there is no time for all that to-day. treason and dirt. behavior. This subject has had dream No. popo. Mr. 94. dreams: (96) I am going to a prostitute. while Durchfall (failure. a "falling or passing through") links anal functions to the result of The situation: "treating very who some one is actually being hated" breaks gently forth very plainly and it contains the roots of the neurosis the latter is centered chiefly on urolagnia the examination. but literally. em He expects a kulanteres The associakulanteres Benehmen. .Interpretation SOS at dream least in discloses the wish to tell his father so. and who is burdened with a compensatory washing mania. His fear of contact is grounded on altruistic motives: he is not afraid to catch the infection himself. with which is tions are: cut.

This lex talionis is illustrated in the belief that looking into the mirror precisely at the midnight hour brings on blindness and in the belief of pious Jews that it is not permissible to look at the Kohanim^ or priests. No. Freud expresses the punishing power of the conscience as follows: "Because you wanted to misuse your sight for evil sensuality. eight years of age. 9. Aerztliche Standeszeitung. Die psychogene Sehstorung in psychoanalytischer Auffassung. 9 His mother took to *One of my patients relates that his mother once called out him while she was urinating: "don't look this way or you be blinded!" *Cf. This fear is expressed plainly in the dream. Freud. 1910. I recall an ocular trouble in a boy. which the attending oculists were unable to explain and which was due to the fact that the boy had witnessed something he should not have seen.306 Sex and Dreams germs. The patient carries out upon himself the lex talionis. while they offer the benediction. he is a physician strabismus gests to this subject and he talks about squint. He himself once had a In this connection I may men- number of disturbances of vision are due to self-imposed punishment for seeing what is forbidden. it serves you right not to be able to see at all!" will . that. tion that a internal. whose hand was bandaged. Frau Strabo sugStrabo. note that the fear is roused through the fact We that he had shaken hands with a woman. 8 This patient's squinting sister's was also a neurotic his symptom: he has "squinted" too eagerly at mother's and his charms.

darin zur Dirne gemacht wurde. requiring con- siderable The wound not heal readily and this twenty-year-old boy was bandaged The touch of her delicate daily by his mother. Also in his masturbation phantasies. his penis. he will carry on digital manipulations. In the dream. .Interpretation 307 care of him after he underwent a nasal operation and her tremendous self-sacrifice made an unforgettable impression on him. out the manias As Freud has very fittingly pointed itself but they pertain to the In this case the phantasies were of such a character that the mother refer not to the habit accompanying phantasies. Naturally his reason in the . Thus the prostitute be- comes unnecessary. if he be impotent. that is the manner in which the . Also of the thought that. On account of the latter habit he considered himself unclean and the whole washing mania was traceable back to his masturbation habit. . before going to the prostitute he visits Frau Strabo. also But ten years did later he had an operation on after-care. dream expresses the thought phantasy that he is calling on Frau Strabo and that the latter is a prostitute: Strabo he identifies with a prostitute. In his Familienroman the phantasy of the mother as Dirne played a great role. Offer- ing her the hand at parting is a reminder of the contact of his mother's hand with his penis and here the fingers are the symbol of the penis. hands roused very pleasurable sensations.

she had just started for home the previous evening. also the notion of knocking them down. feels He like constrained to wash continually because. the affect stands out as the real valid feature. distorted. And reduced to form the anxiety state means: its elementary "I fear that my . indeed. means "this phantasy has made me so unclean that I ought to go home and wash my hands !" "No more time for all that" refers to the fact that on the night of the dream his mother was not there. fingers. bit of : after a visit of several days. But the affect retains its justification even under trans- may formation. has particular reason to fear the danger from which he And would protect others. The fact is he harbors the thought of poisoning his father and brothers. Lady Macbeth. whenever present." is a dream distortion which. affect Everything that centers around the be changed. transposed.308 Sex and Dreams dream "he must go home to wash his hands. In the dream too. he wants to remove the blood stain off his hands. nose The reminds him of a destructive luetic lesion of the But Freud part. infection through prostitute or mother. here we discover that this subject. fear he might spread some infection is obvious. of psoriasis palmarum. when read inversely. these fears are decidedly justified on the part of our patients. has taught us that. a phantasy which has played a tremendous role in his youth.

Anthropophyteia. finger into the hollow of his left hand. 73. carrying out a rotary motion and he rotates his hand in a Moreover he has. 83). . for he is now cured. Thus we uncover here a new determination for the anal-erotic avarice.Interpretation 309 criminal passion for mother might induce me to injure father and the other members of the family. VI. p. 71. 15. money for penis: vid. vol. because he masturbated while bathof syphilis ing. devised and this too was cleared away through the psychoanalysis after notations. Oino had the same fear.) One of my patients was afraid that his sister would become pregnant through the water in the bath tub. 70. a most a strict ritual he had peculiar washing ceremonial. 72. A dream of Sigma (vid. 10 it was reduced to its wish con- minor example for a conclusion. 82. peculiar fashion in the water. Dreams Nos. I fear this especially as I have repeatedly wished Just as his washing mania is a protection against the moral contamination to which them dead!" he felt himself bolizes his cleansing off his exposed and at the same time symhands the blood of the victims. (97) I am standing in an open place. so he carries out other remarkable compulsive acts which indicate very plainly that these Abwehrhandlungen are compromises between withHe sticks the right index holding and yielding. (Extension of the second symbolic equation. money. I am forced A 10 Poisoning has a deeper determination in the significance of poison as spermatic fluid and of poisoning as pregnancy. The widespread fear Poison stands also for is largely motivated in the same way. or rather has had.

suicide.310 out or rate I it. He She was on the point of became engaged a second Shortly after this second engagement his severe neurosis broke out. why he is appar"not minding it" is It should be: "I am imhis . place. but I do not mind Analysis: The dreamer has proposed marriage A to a certain girl." holds on fast to him and would not let him my His psychic conflict formulates itself as follows: should he keep his word and marry a poor break his word to be so. Sex and Dreams else am compelled to keep my place (f). or become free and It shows also a competitive struggle between two his women wish? for his love: sister and bride. girl. His bride Also true. He took up a "free spot" is His In sister compelled him to give up the engagement. He wants to be led to a decision. a step he has since often regretted. "Or perhaps comliterally true. That is the reason ently so unconcerned. committing time. He is forced out. All that is expressed in the short dream. At any under some compulsion. "freier Platz" is The open space also satire. else but Any one was wel(lit- come to eral his bride. But the greatest hypocrisy. fact she dictated the letter in which he apprised the girl of his change of mind. What is He is not self-reliant. is his bride. meaning of the term). short time afterwards he wrote her a letter break- ing up the engagement. That pelled to keep now free.

He This Herr Springer represents his father. Let us analyze a dream of this type: (98) In Weihburg street I saw Mr. One had a dark mustache. This illustrates affects. Springer sitcoach-box of a carriage ting on the Kutschbock. It seemed vulgar and degrading. Any one who has read the previous dream analysis pertaining to this case will see at once that this apparent indifference is a cover for affects so tremendous that they have actually led the subject to the brink of committing suicide. . the true character of dreams apparently free of The absence of affectivity in this case represents a wish fulfillment in the midst of tremen- dous affects. The big one with the heavy the sexual trinity.Interpretation 311 The uncertainty!" feigned affect of indifference is a pure wish fulfill"Forced ment. in conversation with three Hungarian infantrymen. the two others had only little blond beards. How clearly his doubt is expressed mensely worried over this ! out" or "kept down" and with a question mark. own adventures. I wondered about Mr. Sprin- ger's conduct.) father was intiis the Englishwoman with whom the But who are the three infantrymen? The mate. dreamer's associations lead to the male genitalia. bespringen. (Springen. with his father his reproaches The carriage begatten. Often the dreamer wonders about some occurrence in the dream.

But another infantilistic reminiscence occurs to him. in a flesh-colored tights and he called out: "Abel has no ( pipi." greatest degradation to him was to have no He indulged in revenge fancies in which he pictured himself as tearing off his father's genitals. Only smooth limbs. Hence his boundless jealousy. The Hungarian soldiers with their narrow trousers reminds him that he has once played with dolls. Why? Because his father had threatened him with castration to cure him of handling his private parts as a child." That surprised him very much." For years afterwards he remembered and repeated that incident. He saw a ballet dancer once. No opening anywhere. The "pipi. He came to the conclusion that dolls and women had no "pipi. and fancies was a psychic impotence of which he was cured only through the analysis. He only found sawdust within. He wanted to revenge himself by castrating his father. Abel. is Sex and Dreams the penis. That is the true theme of his surprise. Next. the other two symbolize the His father had given too much thought to his genitalia. He examined anatomically each doll and was surprised to find no genitalia. He was also tremendously attached to the Englishwoman. he tore apart the dolls* bodies. result of these experiences The .312 mustache testicles.

Why that? of Freud's finds an easy interwhich explains satisfactorily the absence pretation A gruesome dream of affectivity.) It stands here for anger and means: "I am terribly ing." The apparent lack of affectivity in a dream is al- ways an interesting problem. The affect of wonderis spurious. "The dream about ''which confronts own pelvis is the old bridge'* says Freud. with the task of sectioning my characterized by the absence of the me awe proper to the situation. worried over Mr. The sectioning represents the self analysis which I carry out with the publication of my book on the Interpretation of "Drearns y a task so unpleasant that I have delayed for over a year the printing of the finished manuThe wish is that I lift myself above this script. handicapping feeling. and to trauma. that is why I experience no awe in the dream. too. 92). Springer's conduct. too.Interpretation 313 Wundern (wondering) leads here also to wound. a theme which we have already dealt with previously. the result of castration. is Many dreams of most horrible content seem emotionally colorless. my hair is turning . That is a wish fulfillment in more than one sense. I wish to to avoid Grauen feeling of aversion. overcome my In another sense. Observe the similarity of Weihburg street and Weihrich (Dream No. (Symbolic equation of affects. Wunde. (Literal sense: turning gray).

1910) arrive at the same conclusion: "La logique des reves est entierement affective" ." (The Interpretation of Dreams. Translated by A. Macmillan Company. New York. Les reves et leur interpretation (Blend et Cie." Thus even the emotionally colorless dreams corroborate the principle which I am propounding There is no dream without powerful affects. 11 "P. Paris. The power of : dreams to penetrate consciousness depends on the strength of the dream-building affects as well as on the depth of the slumber. Meunier and R.314< Sex and Dreams also reminds gray and that longer. We know I must delay no that towards the end the thought me that breaks forth in the dream. overcome the "inhibiting emotions..) The absence of affectivity in this dream of the founder of the new science of dream interpretation It shows Freud's wish to is also a wish fulfillment. Brill. that if I pursue a vacillating policy towards my aim I may have to leave the task to the new generation. Masselon.

163. 29. 251. 258. 314 Aggression. 103. 254 Defence. 195. 98 passim. 299 Anthropophyteia. 303 Antagonism. 80. Anxiety. 21 112. 243 Consciousness. 272. 123. 107. 103. 103. 102.INDEX OF SUBJECTS Affect. 103. 292 Conscience. 163. 200 315 . 219. 308 Divinity. 97. 184. 82. 100 wish. 312 Censorship. 75 Contrary meaning. 308. 140. 272 Distortion. 18 Consolation. 170. 179. 24. 97. 198. 282 Birth. 220. 152 passim. 294. 120. 201 Disappointment. 301 dream. 135. 107. 309 Coitus interruptus. 304. 263 Art. 199. 290. 18. 115. 219 Bisexuality. 101. 222 Apoplexy (fear of). 89 phantasy. 144. 21 Authority. 101 Colloquialism. 150. 17 Bible. 96. 154. 175. 293. 166. 257. 161. 149. 205. 306 Antithesis. 89. 110. 139. 198 Defloration. 166. 132. 295. 100. 276. 66. 179. 240. 170. 243. 191. 109. 222. 217. 143 Conflict. 239. 170 Character traits. 204. 201 Compulsion. 225. 196. 79. 117. 302 Concepts. 202. 221. 179 Anal eroticism. 169. 165. 24. 36. 184. 24. 298 Associations. 311. 44 Anger. 169 passim. 283 passim. 117 Displacement. 113 Criminality. 148. 313. 184. 296 Cannibalistic trend. 264. 26 Asceticism. 233 Death. 199. 30. 97. 13. 48. 93 Bipolarity. 109. 188. 262. 161. 277 Castration. 155. 281. 109. 182. 196 passim. 143. 296. 23 Belief (in dreams). 115 Condensation. 79 Coercion. 302 Culture. 115 88. 179. 35 Complex. 284. 208 phantasy. 15 Devil symbolism. 55. 107. 257. 201 Circumcision. 135. 292. 220. 231. 98 passim. 18. 87. 150. 96. 181. 224. 93. 83 Demons. passim Craving. 220 Compromise. 301.

195. 143. 198. 81. 87 Future. 164. 261. Law Grandeur. 319 Jesus. 308 Fellatio. 200 Lingam. 43 Faust. 24 Itching. 40 Expatiation. 18. 214. 209 Guilt. 208. 32 Fixation. 25. 175. 214. 143. 201 Inhibition. 265. 103 Instinct. 220. 33 Impotence. 65. 112 Linguistics. 314 Envy. 151. 170. 210 Doubt. 100. feeling of. 294 Don Juan. 197. 166. 117. 34. 109 Interpretation. 103. 133. 215. 272 Dramatization. 151. 225 of time. 216. 156 Ideal. 191. 219. 258. 263. 215. 262 Manifest dream content. 292 Inciters. 187. 177. 17. 18. 220. 19. 195 56. 93 Masturbation. 167. 207. 40 Gratification. 245. 271. 21. 291. 193. 56. 57 Dress symbolism. 125. 151. 230. 208. 145. 34 Dream thoughts. 31 Inversion. 18 Hatred. 79 Eroticism. 201. 19 Fusion. 136. 259. 312 Inferiority. 151. 93. 188. 219. dream. 274. 165 work. 115. 306. 21. 204 Lex talionis. 283 Hermaphroditism. 209 Male "protest. 260 Erectio. 294 Flesh symbolism. 217 Fetichism. 170. 164. 306 Libido. 89 Excitation. 241 Emasculation. 245. 292. 109 Left-handedness. 156. 117 Identification. 296. 21 Fear. 156. 215. 131. psychic. 260. 261. 223 Indulgence. 19 Latent dream thought. 103. 191 Dizziness. sexual. 201 Hallucination. 266 Hysteria. 217. 170. 135. 161. 207. 110 Love. 23 Infantile root. 232." 195. 231. 293 passim Lesbian trend. 272 passim. 302 Even and uneven. 110. 231 Flagellation. 17 Joseph's dreams. 177 Habitus. 89. 155. 30 Language. sexual. 221. 162. 223 Function (of dream). 198 passim Impatience. 200. 302. of father. 17 Job. 312 Incest phantasies. 144. 217. 191. 196 Emotions. 74. 151. 192. 194. 291 compulsive. 220 Jealousy. 109.316 Index of Subjects Homosexuality. 202. 126. 206. 271 Indecision. 307 . 209. 299 of opposites. inhibiting. 178 Fairy story. 282. 222. emotional.

sexual. 282 Suicide (thoughts of). 166. 102 Selfishness of dreams. 23 Transference. 16 Religion. 169 Squint. 107. 317 Revenge. 109 Overdetermination. 194 from below. 93. 174 Surprise. 311 Nonsense (in dreams). 220. 95 Time. 17 Periodicity. 36. 34. 23. 140 Nurse complex. 125 56. 222 passim Sadism. neurotic. 97. 67 Pleasure. 155. 257 Parallel. 167. 66 Necrophilia. 108. 56. homosexual. 26 passim. Personality (splitting 175. 223 Substitution. 116. 165. 49 Twilight state. 18 Poetry. 46 passim Narcissism. 28. 90 Vomiting. 46. 45 bisexuality of sexual. 290 Myth. 238 Neurosis. 171. 41 Test dream. 58 Pollution dreams. 203 Reminiscence. 184 Negation. 222 Opposites (law of). 202. 258 Phantasy dream. symbolic. 245 Repression. 147 Splitting of personality. 17. 176 passim. 245 Morality. 40 Psychoanalysis. symptomatic. 125 Unpleasure. 139 Parsifal.Index of Subjects Maternal body phantasies. 19. 74. 175 Shame. 93. 109 Trend. neurotic. 214 Virginity. neurotic. 224 Potence. 146. 145 Soul. 74 Mistrust. 302 Right-sidedness. 23 / Meaning (of dreams). 180 / / Murder phantasy. 294 293 Symbol. 24 Warning. 48. passim Nose boring. 45. 204 Neurasthenia. 146. 100. 139. 253 Neuralgia. early. 180 passim 296 Perversion. 225 Tension. 189 47. Misophilia. 183 Resistance. 97. 145. 170 reproach. Phantasies. 306 Stereotypic dreams. 39. 197 Symbolism. 18 Vertigo. 239 Self-control. 149. 180 trigeminal. 24 Washing ceremonial. 277 Scorn. 74. 201 Transposition. 150. of). 267 Responsibility. 49 58 thought. 49 Unconscious. 103 83. 309 . criminal. 183 Reality of dream. 294 Waking. 89.

272.. 214. 313 Fliess.. 115. 192 Hirschfeld. 49. 183 Freud.. 33 Burger. 33 Euripides. 138. 89. Wonder.. 47. 31. 196. 294. 239. 26. 308. 133. A. 214. 20.. 314 Miillendorf. 298 Aigremont. 263 Ganghofer. 311 INDEX OF NAMES Abel. R. 75. 17 Nassr-ed-din. 21. 14 314 Buadem. 196. 152. 108. 43. 163 Wit. 183 . 23. 113 Abraham. 30. 15. 87 Jones. S. 228. S.. 263 Schnitzler. 27.318 Water dreams. 48. 281 Brill. 202. 43. Rank. 112 Baumbach. 81. 206.. 45 283. 166. 19. 48 Kiirnburger. 113. 49 19. 271. 134 Meunier.. 209. 240 Krauss. 110 Shakespeare. 45 Gross. 35. 254 Masselon. 311 Watchful persons. 147 Binet-Sangle". 221 Ritterhaus. 314 Maupassant. P. O. 162. 129 Lichtenberg. 204. 30. 33 Celsius. 100 Schiller. 202. 250 Meissner. 123. 174. 213 Lessing. 98. E. 55. 175. 160. 40. 57. 72 Cardanus. R. Th. 201. F.. 37. 156.. 57. 50 Sadger. 37. 216 Adler. 97. 109. 81. 33 Nietzsche. 67.. 93. 207. 50. F... 302. 306. 36. 214 Artemidoros (of Daldos). 117 Will to sleep. 38 Baeder. 95 Goethe. 183. 61 Bechstein.. 25 Grimm. A. 44 Bethe. 283. 152 Hebbel. 196 Schemer. 50 Inmann. 36 Bleuler. Wish fulfillment. 44. 26. 74. 222. 195. 107. 27. O.. 252 Eulenspiegel. A. 48 Riklin.. 251 Schubert. M. 45 Ruckert. K. 20 Index of Names 24. 26. A. 270 Heyse. 85. Kleinpaul. 280 France. 40. 212 Grillparzer. P.. 198 Hitschmann. 32. 222. F. 186 Marcus Aurelius. 287. 161. 33 Feuchtersleben.

183 Automatic phone. 190 Bird. 80 Blinding Light. 229 Broken Handle. 271 Broad Path. 187 Baron Rosenfeld. 196. 66 Air. 41 Buelow (Diplomat). 84 Blood. 162 Breast. 263 Comb. 40 Climbing. 253 Breast pin. 239 Sudermann. 285 Closed Door. 215 Cross. 289. 284 319 Van Teslaar. 178 Closing Shop. 262 Black Shoe. 252 Wagner. 58. 264. 165. 208 Cigarette. 120 Bite (on Thigh). 217 Big Dog. 88 Carrying. 165. 112 Actress. 148. 203 Certificate. 165 Chip. 187 Cemetery. 246 Cousin. 95. 80 . 79 Boat. 196 Christ. 141 Books. 146 Bismarck. 300 Brown. 259. 193 Assault. 129 Cover. 239 Carriage ties. 125. 144 Changes (in earth surface). 254 Automatic Eye. 25. 84. 199 Brush. 134 Death. 295 Crowd. 236. 170 Candy. 198 Blue Grass. 84 Attack.Index of Symbols Stekel. 239. 204 Boil. 65 Baggage. 266 Buttons. 202 Confectioner. 155 Chamber Pot. 111 Swoboda. O. 180 Dagger. 84 Burials (many). 183 Dark Man. 256 Assembly House. 196 INDEX OF SYMBOLS Acorn. 295 Blouse. 266. 205 Birthday. 165. 106 Weininger. 261 Club. 197 Clarinet. 79 Brother. 300 Crown of Thorns. 264. 180 Breaking in. 227 Bumpkin. 261. 64 Bicycle. 264 Bushes. 156 Closet. 291 Bass. 256. 256 Court Citation. 30. 97 Chest. 132 Apron. 120. 108 Burgomaster. 265 Cat. 36 Cigar.. 128 Swedenborg. 256 Coffin. 243 Box.

142 Guardians. 257 Dirty Linen. 66 Earth. 256 Heart. 256 Growth. 148 Food. 80 Friend. 76 Don Juan. 218 Emperor's Colors. 261. 73 Dog. 204 Indifference. 80 Fig Leaf. 112 Hand. 285 Jewish Looking. 84 Index of Symbols Frog. 42 English Ground Floor. Father's. 266 Eagle. 175. 78 Gloves. 220 Iris. 156 Hole. 38 Holy Mother. 65 Evening Time. 97 Eating. 84 Grave. 256 Fluids (bodily). 228 Friend. 304 High Tower. 310 Forty Degrees. 295 Even and Uneven. 261 Funeral Procession. 84 Evil Eye. 182. 154 Emperor. 112 Examination Test. 120 Inspection. 220 First (to get in). 285 Gold. 253 High Official. 112 Finger. 65 Elevation. 183 Fire. 208 Woman. 84 Gate Opening. 292 Hand Grips. 42 Fig Tree. 120 Hofftheater. 195 Jeweller. 165 Draft Horse. 263 Girl. 107 Eye. 310 Incident. 140 Funeral. 169. 285 Dying.320 Departure. 120 . 84 Hair Dressing. 300 Globe. 150. 165. 200 Fur. 84 Golden Garments. 162 Fish. 295 Forced out (?). Three. 285 Hall. 252. 305 Excrement. 112. 308 Intruder. 80 Ends. 288 Kneeling. 193 Jewels. 275 Draft. 84 Ghosts. 223 Evening Meal. 260 Falling (into Abyss). 220 Hand Baggage. 38 Dove. 88 Drawer. 296. 178 38 Iron Man. 200 Fish Bladder. 183 Flame. 226 Floors. 228 Italy. Foot Perspiration. 107 Gold Chain. 224 Embrace. 182 Falling (down or backwards). 146 Hoffburg. 84 Italian Countess.

80 Left and Right. 38 Office 243. Right and Left. 199 Municipal Theatre. 312 Playing. 82 Outcry. 278 Moon. 185. 150 Menstruation. 223 Left Side. 197 Nose (eaten away). 195 Pustules. Blouse. 145 Revolver. 120 Phoenix Bird. 82 Piano. peculiar. 291 Room. 84 Museum. 205 Narcosis. 305 Road Open Space. 228 Roast Beef. 132. 209 Laundry Bag. 78. 310 Operation (surgical). 229 Monk. 206 Pain. 64. 96 Quiet Figure. 182 Nails. 224 Old Acquaintance. 66 Reception. Nun. 180 Naked. 286 Mouse. 78 Mother. 82 Night Gown vs. 113 Pocket. 82 Poisoning. 73 Lanterns (Burning). 240 Row. 73 Miss "King. 73 Pipe.Index of Symbols language. 170 Preparations. 210 Life Thread. 291 Poet. 144 Rope Bridle. 215 321 Palm. 218 Man (uncertain size). 112 Physician. 40 Pi-pi. 240 Pellmann. 285 Priests. 88 Rose. 291 Pocketbook. 141 Red (swollen). 226 Left Foot. 135 People's Anthem. 41 Pearls. 112 Partition. 84 Recital. 218 Piano Playing. 275 Red Order Insignia. 263 Numbers. 309 Policeman. 252 Quadrangle. 170 Peak. 147 Look. 186 Room. Hands. 199 Receiver (phone). 88 Little Horses. 239. 84 Murder. 129 Meat. 65 Man. 84 Left. 79 to Temple. 113 Pillow Cases. 169. 295 Rolling down." 215 Missing train. 241 . 66 Red. 210 Right Side. 208 Little Things. 35. 206 Palais. 285 Lodge. 261 Prostitute. 38 Monkey. 203 Money. 156 Right. 226 Leaving. 240 Reddish. 264 Nakedness. 84 Rat. 217 Ring. 162.

218 Trunk. 112 Writing Desk. 78 Three. 154 Sinking down. 286 Toe. 204 . 41 Understanding. 148 Spear. 266 Sun. 112 Vomiting. 150 Struggle. 219 Spain. 108 Umbrella. 229 Wall. 148 "What are you doing?" 163 Wheel. 80 Yellowish-Brown. 64 Thirty-Five. 224 Serpentine Paths. 171 Washing Hands. 38 Spiral. 298 Throngs of People. 142 Table. 79 Watchman Wax ' White. 291 Tenor. 220 Speaking. 285 Xmas Tree. 285 Seed. 262 Swelling. 218 Shellfish. 186. 193 Vine. 285 Tower. 189 Shore. 148 Snaky Path. 240 Strange Child. 80 Spindle. 228 Stars (Little). 129 Stairway Climbing. 113 Telephoning. 190 Son (the Little One). 113 Stamp. 199. 220 Underbrush. 165 Ugly Woman. 186 Shaking. 150 Strange Man. 145 Word. 84 Figures. 239 Tailor. 224 Running Matter. 155 Wild Animals. 170 (at Gate). 199 Snake. 275 Yolk (Egg). 183. 170. 170 Setting up. 84 Ruin. 64 Temple. 253 Triangle. 146 Son-in-Law. 22T Sofa. 218 Silent Man. 80 Trotting. 79 Uncontrollable Horses. 97. 301 Tears. 184 Weeping. 44 Technical School. 209 Uniform. 200 Toilette. 134. 183 Searching. 308 Watchman. 150 Squeezing. 141 Salome. 300 Urine. 208 Yellow Shoe. 220 Winter Coat. 76 Southern. 78 Young Boy. 38 Standing up. 41 Tree. 223 Servant. 240 White Apple.322 Index of Symbols Ten. 84 Snail. 223 Through (done). 190 Strangulation. 192 Thread. 225 Spoon. 220 Surprise. 179 Stumble.

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