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1 We have Britain to thank for starting the Industrial Revolution, and all its many effects.

This is because Britain had all the necessary requirements for such a feat; a good supply of natural resources, strategic sea location and good transport network, a relatively strong bank and limited liability business practice, a market monopoly, and so many more other reasons. It also did not hurt that Britain had been one of the safest places for the Scientific Revolution to occur, and so was open to more innovation. It then eventually spread throughout the Western

Hemisphere and the United States and led to long-lasting ripples of political liberalism (originating in France) and economic liberalism (from Britain) in one way or the other throughout the world. It also led to Western domination of the world by the end of the nineteenth century. It is my impression that although the intent was to encourage economic liberalism, once situations did not work out in their favor, the more industrialized countries resorted to rearranging and monopolizing their new markets. India is a perfect example of this situation. Britain had already been its imperial power before the Industrial Revolution through the British East India Company, so it made sense that it would want to sell its finished products like cotton cloth in India’s large market. Turns out that India, not only produced it, but was also one of the largest exporters of cotton cloth in the world, and that was a problem. Britain then brought in less expensive cloth from its factories, lowered demand for Indian cloth among Indians, and led to the decline of the Indian textile industry. The now unemployed Indian workers resorted to working farms, harvesting raw materials like cotton, and Britain benefitted from that too by exporting home. Latin Americans resented the Spanish and Portuguese rule they were subjected to because powers drained them of their economic resources, and dominated their trade. Haiti was the first

January 1861. Britain woefully lost . but by 1865. and placed Archduke Maximilian of Austria on the Mexican throne. Chinese officials asked Queen Victoria to stop supplying the illegal drug to its people. Once they won. Spain and France. they made India grow opium. He got killed and the people of Mexico returned to liberal nationalism. and when that did not work. a very addictive drug. when President Benito Juarez rose to power. it got involved. India would have to be westernized so they craved British goods even more than before. Once more. and Britain decided that for that to happen. The problem this time around was how to maximize revenue with the most minimal cost.1 successful rebellion towards freedom. Spain and Britain were there to protect their financial interests. British and French troops landed in Vera Cruz. The British also got the island of Hong Kong. we return to the economic-turned-political issue between Britain and India. Despite their overwhelming success against China. including British subjects. and in order to fill the revenue gap. he realized is because the treasury was practically empty. Spanish. The French troops fought for two years. leaving Emperor Maximilian in Mexico to fend for himself. Britain. and cover a substantial amount of the wars cost. the British got China to open up five trading ports for them. and so could not practice the Monroe Doctrine. This takeover had been facilitated because North America had been involved in the Civil War. the Chinese government set out aggressive measures to punish whoever was involved in the trade. That too. and so decided to suspend all payments for a two year period to the foreign investors in his country. eventually captured Mexico City in June 1863. In Mexico. and nothing changed concerning the sale of opium in Chinai. and France had conquest in mind. The effect was that it scared the French troops off. Britain then used that as an excuse to start the Opium wars (1839-1842) against China. turned out to be costly. limit tariffs on imported British goods. and it was sent to China for sale.

and British reinforcements arrived quickly. On the other hand. the French overthrew him. Politically. As far as liberalism goes. two groups of conservatives arose. there were the moderate conservatives (especially in Britain). Belgium revolted against the Dutch Republic to establish a constitutional monarchy in 1815.1 all but one of its men in the Afghan wars (1839-1842). they wanted to go back to the old system. Austrian foreign minister. For examples. The British then decided to take complete control of India from the British East India Company. This was quickly contained in the North of the country. This desire threatened the existing political order and led to a few revolts. created a new constitution. A good representative of this group was Prince Klemens von Metternich. In France. Edmund Burke was a big supporter of this. religious toleration for all. and wanted changes to happen slowly. and later. and a laissez-faire economy. Nationalism was simply a desire for each people to obtain their own state. separation of Church and State. among other religious reasons inspired the Indian mutiny of 1857. both moderate and radical liberalists believed in the protection of civil rights. the period after Waterloo also led to the creation of political factions and ideologies in Europe. On the other hand. the Concert of Europe. there were the reactionary conservatives who feared the changes that nationalism and liberalism were bringing. and the creation of a constitutional monarchy under Louis-Philippe (1830-1848). he converted . who disliked the bloodshed of the French Revolution. and this. universal male suffrage. and elected Louis Napoleon Bonaparte as their President. and triumphed against the Indians. and then be in unity with other states. This turned out to be a bad move because four short years later. who was a leader at the Congress of Vienna. this resulted in the overthrow of the Bourbon dynasty. bring unity to it. When his government did not make changes appropriate with their current economic situation.

especially in the second half of the Industrial Revolution period. all these things led to a lot of deaths. There were a lot of effects from the Industrial Revolution. six days a week. and especially Britain suppressing the economic and political aspects of its colonies for its own personal gain. in a poorly ventilated and dangerous environment. so not only did factory workers have to work hard. but a lot had been sacrificed to get there. and some of the pros and cons of liberalism have just been examined. and the only way the work force was kept constant was through more people moving to the city. There was the drama between France and Haiti. . but children received as little as one third of what an adult worker will earn in the same shift. There was no minimum wage set. Britain and other countries really started reaping the rewards of their effort. Even though personal hygiene improved. Economic liberalism was good because it improved lives. On the other hand. sanitary issues arose as people had no proper means of garbage disposal. a large number of people were forced to live in cramped quarters. The work hours were typically twelve to sixteen hours a day. for example in India. it also led to Western Europe dominion over the world. Unfortunately. and enabled even clearer decision on how a country wanted to handle its politics.1 himself from President to Emperor. This led to sometimes whole families working. including children as young as seven years old. Of course. and took his reign from a presidency to an authoritarian regime. there was not enough space to accommodate this sudden influx of people. led to many inventions. employees wanted to maximize profit so they needed a constant supply of labor. and Mexico. ii Another huge impact of economic liberalism was the rapid growth of populations in the cities due to job opportunities in the factories.

“World History Volume II: Since 1500”. Jackson Speilvogel.1 and there were a lot of revolts as countries such as Germany. or their imperial controllers for political stability. and the Hapsburgs of Prussia fought either among themselves. End Notes i William Duiker. 739 ii . Italy. “World History Volume II: Since 1500”. Hungary. Jackson Speilvogel. 649 William Duiker.