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1007/s11768-013-1116-0

Robust nonlinear controller design of wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator by using Hamiltonian energy approach

Bing WANG 1,2 † , Yanping QIAN 1,2 , Yiming ZHANG 1

1.College of Energy and Electrical Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing Jiangsu 211100, China; 2.Renewable Energy Power Generation Technology Engineering Research Center of Education Ministry, Hohai University, Nanjing Jiangsu 211100, China

Abstract: Based on Hamiltonian energy theory, this paper proposes a robust nonlinear controller for the wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), such that the closed-loop system can achieve its stability. Furthermore, in the presence of disturbances, the closed-loop system is ﬁnite-gain L2 stable by the Hamiltonian controller. The Hamiltonian energy approach provides us a physical insight and gives a new way to the controller design. The simulation results illustrate that the proposed method is effective and has its advantage. Keywords: Hamiltonian energy theory; Wind turbine; Doubly fed induction generator; Robust control

1 Introduction

In recent years, with the growing concerns about environment pollution and energy shortage, the demand for renewable energy increases dramatically. A lot of on-shore or off-shore wind farms are being built as a typical result of the policy of good tariff for electricity from natural renewable energy source. At the same time, the research of wind power systems has attracted a lot of attention and made remarkable achievements. The doubly fed induction generation (DFIG) is a common conﬁguration for large and variable-speed wind turbines. The nonlinear control problems of wind turbines with DFIG are studied widely [1–4]. Many advanced design methods are used to design the controller for DFIG-based wind turbines [5–7]. As a new design method, the energy-based control method can thoroughly take advantage of the internal structural properties of systems, and make the control design relatively simple. The Hamiltonian energy approach was put forward in [8] for modelling physical systems. Then, there have been several attempts to extend this approach in theoretical and practical aspects. In [9], a new passivity-based control is developed for port-controlled Hamiltonian (PCH) systems. Moreover, in [10], a generalized Hamiltonian realization problem is investigated and the new methods as well as corresponding sufﬁcient conditions are presented. In the practical application, the energy-based controller design is used for the pendubot [11] and the induction motor [12]. In this paper, the control problem of wind turbines with DFIG is investigated. During the process of design, we construct Hamiltonian energy function and obtain PCH system model. The key procedure in using the energy function method is to transform the nonlinear system into a port-

controlled Hamiltonian system with dissipation (PCH-D), which is referred to as dissipative Hamiltonian realization in [12]. We employ a pre-feedback and shape the Hamiltonian function so that the system has a PCH-D structure. Then, by the main theorem, the plant achieves asymptotical stability. In the practical engineering, the problem of disturbance attenuation is very important. Therefore, in the presence of disturbances, we design the robust controller to guarantee the ﬁnite-gain L2 stability for the system. Finally, the computer simulation and comparison with the other nonlinear controller show the validity and effectiveness of the Hamiltonian energy approach.

2

Hamiltonian energy approach

Consider a nonlinear afﬁne system modelled by equations of the form: x ˙ (t) = f (x(t)) + G(x(t))u(t), (1) y (t) = h(x(t)), where x ∈ Rn is state variable; u ∈ Rm , y ∈ Rp are control input and output variables, respectively; f : Rn → Rn is smooth vector ﬁeld, G : Rn → Rn×m is smooth matrixvalued function, and h : Rn → Rp is smooth vector-valued function. Let xe be equilibrium point, that is, f (xe ) = 0. For the integral statement, we present the deﬁnition of ﬁnitegain L2 stability as follows. Deﬁnition 1 [1] A mapping H : L2e → L2e is ﬁnitegain L2 stable if there exist nonnegative constants γ and β such that (Hu)τ L2 γ uτ L2 + β, ∀u ∈ L2e , (2) where L2e is extended space of L2 , deﬁned by L2e = {u|uτ ∈ L2 , ∀τ 0},

Received 11 June 2011; revised 25 February 2012. † Corresponding author. E-mail: icekingking@hhu.edu.cn. Tel./fax: +86-13675124767. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51007019), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions (Coastal Development Conservancy). c South China University of Technology and Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, CAS and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

H lows: ˙ (x) = −(∇T H )R(∇H ) − 1 γ 2 ω − 1 GT (x)∇H 2 H 2 γ2 1 2 + {γ ω 2 − Υ y (x) 2 } 2 1 2 {γ ω 2 − Υ y (x) 2 }. . which is deﬁned as follows: x ˙ = (J − R)∇H + G(x)v. the closedloop system is asymptotically stable at the equilibrium point xe ∈ S . . . J is a skew-symmetric matrix and R is a positive semideﬁnite matrix. where Γ is a positive deﬁnite matrix. The closed-loop system is stable. when u(t) = 0. (4) where v ∈ Rm is control vector. . . ii) Suppose there exist disturbances and the system is rep- 3 Hamiltonian controller design 3. m) is the eigenvalue. . . the system is asymptotically stable. ⎥ . ⎥ . . Proof i) In the case of no disturbances. the key problem is to convert it into the PCH-D form. . and ii) in the presence of disturbances. 2 ˙ (x) can be rewritten as folUnder the control law (5). the control law (5) guarantees that the closed-loop system is ﬁnite-gain L2 stable with respect to disturbance ω . . the PCH system model for mechano-electrical systems is attainable. ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ . by applying the control (5). there exists an orthogonal matrix Q such that ⎡ ⎤ γ1 0 · · · 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 γ2 · · · 0 ⎥ ⎥. ⎡ where ∇H is the gradient of H (x). QT Γ Q = ⎢ . ⎦ ⎣ . such that no solutions to the closed-loop system can stay identically in ˙ (x) = 0}. y = GT (x)∇H. However.B. . Wang et al. . . t > τ. the point xe is asymptotically stable. 2. . ˙ (x) = H ˜ ˙ (x) = (∇T H )x ˙ H = −(∇T H )R(∇H ) − (∇T H )GΓ GT (∇H ). R is a positive ˙ (x) 0 and H ˜ ˜ (x) semideﬁnite matrix. 2 By integration on both sides of the above inequality. ⎢ . ⎣ 1 ⎦ 0 0 ··· 2γ 2 ⎡ ⎤ 1 0 ··· 0 γ1 − 2 ⎢ ⎥ 2γ ⎢ ⎥ 1 ⎢ ⎥ 0 γ2 − 2 · · · 0 ⎢ ⎥ −1 2γ ⎥Q +Q−T ⎢ ⎢ ⎥ . Then. The drive train of wind turbine system is represented with a one-mass model [14] and the DFIG is modelled by . We conclude that H is a Lyapunov function of this system. τ. Assume that there exists a Hamiltonian function H (x). Then. . . other than the trivial solution. (6) where ω ∈ Rm is unknown disturbance. . Let S = {x ∈ Rn |V no solutions can stay identically in S . Let V : D → R be a continuously differentiable positive deﬁnite function on a ˙ (x) = 0} and suppose that domain D. we have ˙ (x) = −(∇T H )R(∇H ) + (∇T H )G(x)(v + ω ) H 1 1 = −(∇T H )R(∇H ) − γω − GT (x)∇H 2 2 γ 1 1 +(∇T H )G(x)[v + Im + Υ T Υ GT (x)∇H ] 2 γ2 1 + {γ 2 ω 2 − Υ y (x) 2 }. (3) resented by (6). ⎦ ⎣ . . ˙ (x) = 0} can be obThe invariant set S = {x ∈ Rn |H ˙ ˜ tained from H (x) = 0. / J Control Theory Appl 2013 11 (2) 282–287 283 and uτ is a truncation of u deﬁned by uτ (t) = u(t). y = GT (x)∇H. . . 0 0 · · · γm where γi > 0 (i = 1. (5) where Γ is a positive deﬁnite matrix. called PCH system model: x ˙ = Ψ ∇H + G(x)u. G : Rn → Rn×m is smooth function. the system becomes x ˙ = J − R − GΓ GT ∇H. Therefore. ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ 1 ⎦ 0 0 · · · γm − 2 2γ 1 1 T Im + Υ Υ. We improve the relevant results of the former research [1. ⎢ . Hamiltonian function H (x) can be constructed so that ˜ H = H (x) − H (xe ) 0. if the system can be represented in the form of PCH-D system (4). In general. . Lemma 1 [1] Let xe be an equilibrium point for the nonlinear system (1). other than the equilibrium point S = {x ∈ Rn |H xe . . ⎢ ⎥ . Based on Lemma 1. we have an alternative representation of nonlinear systems. . Since Γ is a positive deﬁnite matrix. i) if there exists the following control law v = −Γ GT (x)∇H. we can conclude that the system is ﬁnite-gain L2 stable. ⎢ . Then. . 0 t 0. . Theorem 1 For the PCH-D system (4). . and then. . 2. m). 12–13] into the main theorem. . . 2γ 2 2 1 where γ > 0 is chosen to make γi − > 0 (i = 2γ 2 1.1 Model of wind turbine with DFIG The wind turbine system includes the drive train and DFIG. 0 0 · · · γm ⎤ 1 0 · · · 0 ⎥ ⎢ 2γ 2 ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎢ 0 · · · 0 ⎥ −1 ⎢ 2γ 2 ⎥Q = Q−T ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ . ⎡ ⎤ γ1 0 · · · 0 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 0 γ2 · · · 0 ⎥ −1 ⎥Q Γ = Q−T ⎢ . . . assume that the system can be described by x ˙ = (J − R)∇H + G(x)(v + ω ). In view of system (6).

Ed and Eq are the d and q axis voltages behind the transient reactance. Based on the structure of the system. 0 −sωs ⎥ J = ⎢ 2H ⎥. Kqr μqr (12) By analyzing the form of (10). the model (14) satisﬁes PCHD form. Xs = ωs (Lss − Under this Hamiltonian function. We take K = ⎡ Kdr Kqr − ⎤ Lrr ids Pm ωs Pm iqs ( (Xs − Xs )+ +( − )s) 2T0 iqs 2ids 2Htot ⎥ ⎢ ωs Lm T0 =⎣ ⎦ iqs Pm ωs Pm ids Lrr (− (Xs − Xs )+ −( + )s) ωs Lm T0 2T0 ids 2iqs 2Htot (13) and substitute (13) into (10). we design the prefeedback control K . Transforming PCH system into PCH-D system. Ed and Eq are the states. the output function is given by ⎤ ⎡ Lm Pm ⎢ ωs Lrr (Eq + 2iqs ) ⎥ ⎥. In this paper. the model of the original system (8) can be represented in PCH form: ⎡ ⎤ ids iqs − 0 − ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ 2Htot 2Htot ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ s ⎢ ⎥ d ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 = ⎣ Eq ⎦ ⎢ 0 − −sωs ⎥ ⎥ ∇H dt T0 ⎢ ⎥ Ed ⎣ 1 ⎦ 0 sωs − T0 ⎡ ⎤ 0 ⎢ ids Pm ⎥ Pm ⎢ ⎥ (Xs − Xs ) + + sωs ⎢ + ⎢ T0 2T0 iqs 2ids ⎥ ⎥ ⎣ iqs Pm ⎦ Pm − (Xs − Xs ) + − sωs T0 2T0 ids 2iqs 0 ⎢ Lm ⎢ + ⎢ ωs Lrr ⎣ 0 where ∇H = [ s Eq + ⎡ ⎥ v ⎥ dr . Htot is the total inertia constant of the turbine and the generator. Lrr is the rotor self-inductance. Wang et al. respectively. respectively. μ will be specially design in next step. In order to complete the dissipative Hamiltonian realization. (9) H= 2 2 2iqs 2 2ids where Xs = ωs Lss . The model of the wind turbine system with DFIG can be described by the following form: ⎡ ⎤ ids Pm iqs Eq − E − ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ − 2Htot d 2Htot ⎥ ⎢ 2Htot ⎥ s ⎥ d ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 1 ids ⎢ ⎣ Eq ⎦ = ⎢ − Eq − sωs Ed + (Xs − Xs ) ⎥ ⎥ dt T0 ⎢ T0 ⎥ Ed ⎣ ⎦ 1 iqs (Xs − Xs ) sωs Eq − Ed − T0 T0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 ⎥ v ⎢ Lm ⎥ dr ⎢ 0 . (15) y = GT ∇H = ⎢ ⎣ Lm Pm ⎦ −ωs (Ed + ) Lrr 2ids Showing the asymptotical stability. we modify the model of PCH system through pre-feedback control. Hamiltonian energy function can be chosen as 1 Pm 2 1 Pm 2 s2 + (Eq + ) + (Ed + ) . ⎥ Lm ⎦ vqr −ωs Lrr 0 Pm Pm E + ]. (8) + ⎢ ωs Lrr ⎥ ⎣ Lm ⎦ vqr 0 −ωs Lrr 3. Lrr Rr s is the rotor slip.2 Control design of single-machine system Constructing PCH system. s. Moreover. Pm is the mechanical power of the wind turbine. Here. The model of the wind turbine with DFIG (7) is a system with two inputs in the d-q reference frame. Xs is the stator transient reactance. Lm is the mutual inductance. / J Control Theory Appl 2013 11 (2) 282–287 a second-order model when the electromagnetic transients of the stator are neglected [15–16]. Lss is the stator self-inductance. T0 = . the model of the wind turbine with DFIG is a third-order model [6] as follows: ⎧ ds ⎪ ⎪ = Ps − Pm = −Ed ids − Eq iqs − Pm . the control law is employed as follows: u= vdr vqr =K +μ= Kdr μdr + . 2iqs d 2ids 0 ⎤ (10) (11) Since the PCH-D system is required in the following design process. Ps is the output active power of the stator of the DFIG. (14) + ⎢ ωs Lrr ⎥ ⎣ Lm ⎦ μqr 0 −ωs Lrr where ⎡ ⎡ ⎤ iqs ids ⎤ 0 − − 0 0 0 ⎢ 2Htot 2Htot ⎥ ⎢ 1 ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ iqs ⎢0 ⎢ 0 ⎥ ⎥. d t T Lrr ⎪ 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ dEd Lm 1 ⎪ ⎩ = sωs Eq − [Ed +(Xs − Xs )iqs ] − ωs vqr . which makes the system satisfy PCH-D form. 2Htot ⎪ ⎪ dt ⎪ ⎨ dEq Lm 1 = −sωs Ed − [Eq − (Xs − Xs )ids ]+ ωs vdr . The closed-loop system is changed into the PCH-D form: ⎤ ⎡ ids iqs − 0 − ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ 2Htot 2Htot ⎥ ⎥ ⎢ s ⎥ ⎢ d ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ iqs 1 = E ⎣ q⎦ ⎢ − −sωs ⎥ ⎥ ∇H dt 2Htot T0 ⎥ ⎢ Ed ⎣ ids 1 ⎦ sωs − 2Htot T0 ⎤ ⎡ 0 0 ⎥ μ ⎢ Lm ⎥ dr ⎢ 0 . dt T0 Lrr (7) L2 Lrr m ). vdr and vqr are the d and q axis rotor voltages. R = ⎢ ⎢ T0 ⎥ tot ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 1 ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ i 0 0 ds sωs 0 T0 2Htot and J is a skew-symmetric matrix and R is a positive semideﬁne matrix. Xs is the stator reactance. Therefore. ωs is the synchronous angle speed.284 B. and vdr and vqr are the inputs. .

and the second one is the closed-loop system with disturbances.u. the system is asymptotically stable. Fig. 2) is disturbance. Therefore.9 p. the parameters of the wind turbine with DFIG is given as follows: Htot = 3 s./rad.005 p. 2 q -axis voltage Eq .u. Hamiltonian controller is better than the nonlinear controller. Lm = 2. In the presence of disturbances. 5 is under the nonlinear controller.3 Robust control design In the presence of disturbance. according to Lemma 1. Based on Theorem 1. ∇T H G(x) = 0.u. the nonlinear controller can be deγ1 0 . The intersection of them is represented by Pm Pm = 0. x3 + = 0}. 4 is the results under Hamiltonian controller and Fig. the simulation results are shown in Figs. 2). For the convergence time. 4. and Rr = 0. x2 = Eq . / J Control Theory Appl 2013 11 (2) 282–287 285 ˙ (x) = 0. the invariant sets can be written as 1 Pm 2 1 Pm 2 (x2 + ) + (x3 + ) = 0}. Figs. 4 and 5. both of them are effective for DFIG-based wind turbine system. u=K +μ= Kqr μqr the closed-loop system is ﬁnite-gain L2 stable.u. we can conclude that under the control law μdr Kdr + .156 p. Lr = 0. Ls = 0. 1–3 show the dynamic response curves of three state variables (s. {x ∈ R3 : ωs Lrr 2iqs Lrr 2ids where x1 = s. the nonlinear controller becomes invalid when there exist some disturbances in the closed-loop system. it is shown that the closed-loop systems remain stable and the states converge to the equilibrium point quickly under both of the controllers. −ωs (x3 + ) = 0}. Wang et al. Let positive deﬁnite matrix Γ = 0 γ2 γi > 0(i = 1. Therefore. The simulations include two parts: the ﬁrst one is DFIG-based wind turbine closed-loop system. the Hamiltonian controller is implemented in MATLAB. Eq . Designing the control law.14 p. we have Due to H ∇ H R(∇H = 0. Fig. where signed. According to Theorem 1. 4 Simulations In order to illustrate the design results.u. the nonlinear control in [6] is quicker than Hamiltonian control proposed in this paper. it is obvious that Hamiltonian controller is still able to render the system stable in the presence of disturbance by adjusting the parameters in the matrix Γ . In summary. {x ∈ R3 : T0 2iqs T0 2ids and Lm Lm Pm Pm (x2 + ) = 0..171 p. From Fig. T (16) Therefore. To verify its advantage. However in presence of disturbance. In the simulations of closed-loop systems. which is for the same system model (7).. Therefore. Ed ) under two controllers. the simulation results of the Hamiltonian controller are compared with those of the nonlinear controller in [6]. and Hamiltonian controller shows better quality of robustness. (17) {x ∈ R3 : x2 + 2iqs 2ids From f (xe ) = 0. ωs = 3. (19) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ μ + ω qr 2 Lm 0 −ωs Lrr where ωi (i = 1.. . Fig. The control law v is taken as ⎡ Lm Pm ⎤ − γ ω ( E + ) 1 s q μdr ⎢ Lrr 2iqs ⎥ . which comes from modelling simpliﬁcations and modelling error. 1 Rotor slip s. which not only guarantees the stability of wind turbine with DFIG but enhances the ability of disturbance attenuation. x3 = Ed . Fig. = −Γ GT ∇H = ⎣ μ= Lm Pm ⎦ μqr (Ed + ) γ2 ωs Lrr 2ids (18) 3. the system can be described by ⎡ ⎤ ids iqs ⎡ ⎤ − 0 − ⎢ 2Htot 2Htot ⎥ s ⎥ 1 d ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎢ iqs − −sωs ⎥ ⎥ ∇H ⎣ Eq ⎦ = ⎢ 2H T0 ⎢ ⎥ dt tot ⎣ ids Ed 1 ⎦ sωs − 2Htot T0 ⎡ ⎤ 0 0 ⎢ Lm ⎥ μ +ω ⎢ ⎥ dr 1 0 + ⎢ ωs Lrr . it is known that the equilibrium point xe belongs to the above set and xe is the only solution that can stay identically in S . From the ﬁgures.B. 5 shows that the response curves of the state variables diverge and the closed-loop system is unstable under the nonlinear controller.

A. Proceeding of the 2nd IFAC Symposium on Nonlinear Systems Design. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. 23(2): 613 – 621. China. the robust control problem of single-machine system is investigated. Generalized Hamiltonian realization of time-invariant nonlinear systems. IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control. Khalil. Fig. M. 21(3): 750 – 758. [9] R. 2008. Jenkins. et al. 2000: 4929 – 4944. Piccolo. B. Ekanayake. Control of DFIGbased wind generation for power network support. et al. 3rd ed. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. Zhang. in 1998 and 2006. J. P. 20(4): 1958 – 1966. [6] F. A. X. Automatica. 24(2): 415 – 422. Cheng.cn. [8] B. Fig. Lozano. Xiang. and Ph. Lei. N.edu. Q. Proceedings of the 39th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control. W. J. being worth researching in the future. et al. [3] F. [16] P. Adaptive L2 disturbance attenuation of Hamiltonian systems with parametric perturbation and application to power systems. Holdsworth. Fig. P. Sydney: IEEE. E-mail: icekingking@hhu. Comparison of 5th order and 3rd order machine models for doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbines. Wang. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. Control of a doubly fed induction generation in a wind turbine during grid fault ride-through. 2008. Wuhan. M. 2006. Hohai University. 45(4): 725 – 729. Wu. Nonlinear Systems. 2005. Ortega. G. Doubly fed induction generator model for transient stability analysis. the controller design problem of multimachine system is an impor- [15] J. Lightbody. J. et al. Wang et al. He is currently an associate professor with College of Energy and Electrical Engineering. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. A. During the energy-based design. 2009. The closed-loop system without disturbances is asymptotically stable. 2006. 23(2): 559 – 569. Modeling of the wind turbine with a doubly fed induction generator for grid integration studies. Automatica. A. [7] V. [14] Y. Hefei. O.D. et al. Jenkins. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall. M. [5] L. C. Miao. M. [4] D. Maschke. Galdi.S. the main difﬁculties are in the construction of the Hamiltonian energy function and transformation into the port-controlled Hamiltonian system with dissipation. 6(1): 59 – 68. 2003. Siano. 2006. 4 Simulation results of Hamiltonian control. 2003. China. 20(2): 388 – 397. Cartwright. respectively. R. 21(3): 652 – 662. Energy based control of the pendubot. 21(1): 257 – 264. D. Direct active and reactive power control of DFIG for wind energy generation. P. Fantoni. Ledesma. I. 2000. 2005. Journal of Control Theory and Applications. L. 1992: 282 – 288. while the system with disturbances is ﬁnite-gain L2 stable. Ju. B. Osborn. Bing WANG was born in Jiangsu. Designing a adaptive fuzzy controller for maximum wind energy extraction. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. Shen.286 B. Spong. Maschke. A. Xu. Duarte-Mermoud. M. Control of DFIG-based wind generation to improve interarea oscillation damping. Ortega. Li. [12] H. wind power control and renewable energy. He received his B. Then. 5 Conclusions In this paper. 5 Simulation results of nonlinear control. 38(4): 585 – 596. J. 2002. His research interests include nonlinear control systems. Tavner. [2] Z. Interconnection and damping assignment passivity-based control of port-controlled Hamiltonian systems. van der Schaft. et al. degree from University of Science and Technology of China. K. L. van der Schaft. P. Decentralized nonlinear control of wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator. L. et al. we have proposed the robust nonlinear controller for DFIG-based wind turbines based on Hamiltonian energy theory. Port-controller Hamiltonian systems modeling origins and system theoretic properties. N. 2002. et al. China. degree from Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Fan. R. [10] Y. References [1] H. Electric Power Systems Research. [13] T. Bordeaux: IFAC. 39(8): 1437 – 1443. . Hughes. [11] I. / J Control Theory Appl 2013 11 (2) 282–287 tant issue. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. The Hamiltonian energy approach provides an effective design means to the nonlinear control. Lu. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. In this paper. A novel induction motor control scheme using IDA-PBC. 67(3): 207 – 215. Usaola. Mullance. Gonzalez. Pelissier. IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion. Anaya-Lara. Ran. D. 2008. 3 d-axis voltage Ed .

in 2003 and 2007. China.B. degrees from Southeast University.S. Nanjing. both in Control Theory and Control Engineering. degree candidate at the College of Energy and Electrical Engineering. He received his B. 287 Yiming ZHANG was born in Jilin. and renewable energy systems. His research interest is nonlinear control of wind turbine. — ————– —————– —————– . His research interests include control theory applications for wireless communication systems and networks.S. China. degree from Hohai University in 2010. China.S.cn.com. Hohai University.D. E-mail: zym20062174@163. E-mail: qianyp@hhu. and Ph. respectively. Wang et al. He received his M. / J Control Theory Appl 2013 11 (2) 282–287 Yanping QIAN was born in Zhejiang.edu. He is currently a M. Hohai University. He is currently a lecturer with the College of Energy and Electrical Engineering.

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