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# Chapter 1.

Introduction

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Chapter 1

Introduction
Holman / Heat Transfer, 10th Edition

Holman / Heat Transfer, 10th Edition

Chapter 1. Introduction

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Heat transfer is thermal energy transfer that is induced by a temperature difference (or gradient) Modes of heat transfer Conduction heat transfer: Occurs when a temperature gradient exists through a solid or a stationary fluid (liquid or gas). Convection heat transfer: Occurs within a moving fluid, or between a solid surface and a moving fluid, when they are at different temperatures Thermal radiation: Heat transfer between two surfaces (that are not in contact), often in the absence of an intervening medium.

Holman / Heat Transfer, 10th Edition

Chapter 1. Introduction

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1‐1. Conduction Heat Transfer

qx ∂T ∼ A ∂x

When the proportionality constant is inserted,
∂T qx = − kA ∂x

[1‐1]

Holman / Heat Transfer, 10th Edition

J/kg ⋅ C Holman / Heat Transfer. 10th Edition . W/m3 c = specific heat of material. Introduction 4 Energy conducted in left face + heat generated within element = change in internal energy + energy conducted out right face These energy quantities are given as follows: Energy in left face = qx = −kA Energy generated within element = qA dx ∂T Change in internal energy = ρ cA dx ∂τ Energy out right face = qx + dx ∂T ⎤ = − kA ⎥ ∂x ⎦ x + dx ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ dx ⎥ ⎠ ⎦ ∂T ∂x ⎡ ∂T ∂ ⎛ ∂T = − A ⎢k + ⎜k ⎣ ∂x ∂x ⎝ ∂x where q = energy generated per unit volume.Chapter 1.

10th Edition . Introduction 5 ρ = density. kg/m3 Combining the relations above gives −kA ∂T ∂T ⎡ ∂T ∂ ⎛ ∂T + qA dx = ρ cA dx − A ⎢ k + ⎜k ∂x ∂τ ⎣ ∂x ∂x ⎝ ∂x ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ dx ⎥ ⎠ ⎦ ∂ ⎛ ∂T ⎞ ∂T k q c ρ + = ⎝ ∂x ⎟ ⎠ or ∂x ⎜ ∂τ qx + q y + qz + qgen [1‐2] dE = qx + dx + q y + dy + qz + dz + dτ Holman / Heat Transfer.Chapter 1.

Introduction 6 ∂T qx = −k dy dz ∂x ⎡ ∂T ∂ ⎛ ∂T qx + dx = − ⎢ k + ⎜k ⎣ ∂x ∂x ⎝ ∂x q y = −k dx dz ∂T ∂y ⎞ ⎤ ⎟ dx ⎥ dy dz ⎠ ⎦ ⎡ ∂T ∂ ⎛ ∂T ⎞ ⎤ q y + dy = − ⎢ k + ⎜k ⎟ dy ⎥ dx dz ⎣ ∂y ∂y ⎝ ∂y ⎠ ⎦ ∂T qz = −k dx dy ∂z ⎡ ∂T ∂ ⎛ ∂T ⎞ ⎤ qz + dz = − ⎢ k + ⎜k ⎟ dz ⎥ dx dy ⎣ ∂z ∂z ⎝ ∂z ⎠ ⎦ qgen = q dx dy dz dE ∂T = ρ c dx dy dz ∂τ dτ Holman / Heat Transfer.Chapter 1. 10th Edition .

Introduction 7 Figure 1‐2 Elemental volume for one‐dimensional heat conduction analysis.Chapter 1. Holman / Heat Transfer. 10th Edition .

10th Edition . Introduction 8 Figure 1‐3 Elemental volume for three‐dimensional heat‐conduction analysis: (a) cartesian coordinates.Chapter 1. (c) spherical coordinates. Holman / Heat Transfer. (b) cylindrical coordinates.

Equation (1‐3) is written ∂ 2T ∂ 2T ∂ 2T q 1 ∂T + 2 + 2 + = 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z k α ∂τ [1−3a] Equation (1‐3a) may be transformed into either cylindrical or spherical coordinates by standard calculus techniques. 10th Edition .Chapter 1. The results are as follows: Cylindrical coordinates: ∂ 2T 1 ∂T 1 ∂ 2T ∂ 2T q 1 ∂T + + 2 2+ 2 + = 2 r ∂r r ∂φ k α ∂τ [1−3b] ∂r ∂z Holman / Heat Transfer. Introduction 9 ∂ ⎛ ∂T ⎜k ∂x ⎝ ∂x ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂T ⎟+ ⎜k ⎠ ∂y ⎝ ∂y ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂T ⎟+ ⎜k ⎠ ∂z ⎝ ∂z ∂T ⎞ ρ + = q c ⎟ ∂τ [1‐3] ⎠ For constant thermal conductivity.

Chapter 1. Introduction 10 Spherical coordinates: 1 ∂2 1 ∂ ⎛ ∂T ⎞ 1 ∂ 2T q 1 ∂T (rT ) + 2 + = ⎜ sin θ ⎟+ 2 2 2 2 ∂θ ⎠ r sin θ ∂φ r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ ⎝ k α ∂τ [1−3c] Steady‐state one‐dimensional heat flow (no heat generation): d 2T =0 2 dx [1‐4] Steady‐state one‐dimensional heat flow in cylindrical coordinates (no heat generation): d 2T 1 dT + =0 2 [1‐5] dr r dr Holman / Heat Transfer. 10th Edition .

10th Edition . Introduction 11 Steady‐state one‐dimensional heat flow with heat sources: d 2T q + =0 2 [1‐6] dx k Two‐dimensional steady‐state conduction without heat sources: ∂ 2T ∂ 2T + 2 =0 2 ∂x ∂y [1‐7] Holman / Heat Transfer.Chapter 1.

Chapter 1. Thermal Conductivity Figure 1‐4 Thermal conductivities of some typical gases . Holman / Heat Transfer. 10th Edition . Introduction 12 1‐2.

10th Edition . Holman / Heat Transfer.Chapter 1. Introduction 13 Figure 1‐5 Thermal conductivities of some typical liquids.

Introduction 14 Figure 1‐6 Thermal conductivities of some typical solids.Chapter 1. 10th Edition . Holman / Heat Transfer.

Chapter 1. Introduction 15 1‐3. 10th Edition . we use Newton’s law of cooling: q = hA (Tw − T∞ ) [1‐8] Figure 1‐7 Convection heat transfer from a plate. Convection Heat Transfer To express the overall effect of convection. Holman / Heat Transfer.

10th Edition .Chapter 1. Introduction 16 Convection Energy Balance on a Flow Channel Figure 1-8 Convection in a channel. q = m(ie − ii ) q = mc p (Te − Ti ) q = mc p (Te − Ti ) = hA(Tw. avg − Tfluid . avg ) m = ρ umean Ac [1−8a] Holman / Heat Transfer.

Radiation Heat Transfer qemitted = σ AT 4 qnetexchange A [1‐9] [1‐10] ∝ σ (T14 − T24 ) q = Fε FGσ A (T14 − T24 ) [1‐11] Radiation in an Enclosure q = ε1σ A1 (T14 − T24 ) [1‐12] Holman / Heat Transfer. Introduction 17 1-4. 10th Edition .Chapter 1.

Newton’s second law of motion may be written Force ∼ time rate of change of momentum d (mv) F =k dτ F = kma F= [1‐13] 1 ma gc [1‐14] Holman / Heat Transfer. Dimensions and Units L = length M = mass F = force τ = time T = temperature For example. 10th Edition . Introduction 18 1‐5.Chapter 1.

g c = 1g ⋅ cm/dyn ⋅ s Holman / Heat Transfer.Chapter 1. 1‐pound force will accelerate a 1‐slug mass 1 ft/s 2 .806kg m ⋅ m/kg f ⋅ s 2 2 3. 10th Edition . 3 1‐dyne force will accelerate a 1‐g mass 1 cm/s 2 .17 ft/s 2 . 5. 2. g c = 32. 4. 2. 1‐kilogram force will accelerate a 1‐kg mass 9. 1.17lb m ⋅ ft/lb f ⋅ s 2 g c = 1slug ⋅ ft/lb f ⋅ s 2 g c = 1kg ⋅ m/N ⋅ s 2 g c = 9. 5. 1‐pound force will accelerate a 1‐lb mass 32. 1.806 m/s 2 . 1‐newton force will accelerate a 1‐kg mass 1 m/s 2 . Introduction 19 Some typical systems of units are . 4.

Introduction 20 1. 3. 1 cal will raise 1 g of water 1 C at 20 C . 4. 5. 10th Edition . 1 kcal will raise 1 kg of water 1 C at 20 C .806J In addition. lb f ⋅ ft lb f ⋅ ft dyn ⋅ cm = 1erg N ⋅ m = 1joule(J) kg f ⋅ m = 9. we may use the units of energy that are based on thermal phenomena: 1 Btu will raise 1 lb m of water 1 F at 68 F .Chapter 1. Holman / Heat Transfer. 2.

Chapter 1.356J 1Btu = 252cal W= g m gc [1‐15] kinW/m ⋅ C hinW/m 2 ⋅ C 1N = 1kg ⋅ m/s 2 [1‐16] Holman / Heat Transfer. Introduction 21 Some conversion factors for the various units of work and energy are 1Btu = 778.16lb f ⋅ ft 1Btu = 1055J 1kcal = 4182J 1lb f ⋅ ft = 1. 10th Edition .

How much heat is transferred through the plate? Solution From Appendix A.Chapter 1. 10th Edition . the thermal conductivity for copper is 370 W/m ⋅ C at 250 C . Introduction 22 Example 1‐1 Conduction Through Copper Plate One face of a copper plate 3 cm thick is maintained at 400 C . From Fourier’s law q dT = −k A dx Integrating gives q ΔT −(370)(100 − 400) = −k = = 3.173 ×106 Btu/h ⋅ ft 2 ] −2 Δx A 3 ×10 Holman / Heat Transfer. and the other face is maintained at 100 C .7MW/m 2 [1.

Solution From Newton’s law of cooling q = hA (Tw − T∞ ) = (25)(0. 10th Edition . The convection heat‐transfer coefficient is 25 W/m ⋅ C .75)(250 − 20) = 2.156kW[7356Btu/h] Holman / Heat Transfer. Introduction 23 Example 1‐2 Convection Calculation Air at 20 C blows over a hot plate 50 by 75 cm maintained at 2 250 C .50)(0. Calculate the heat transfer.Chapter 1.

5)(0.3=2.Chapter 1.75)(43) where the value of k is taken from Table 1‐1.49 F] (0. Introduction 24 Example 1‐3 Multimode Heat Transfer Assuming that the plate in Example 1‐2 is made of carbon steel (1%) 2 cm thick and that 300 W is lost from the plate surface by radiation.02) ΔT = = −3.05 C[−5.05 C Holman / Heat Transfer.156+0. The inside plate temperature is therefore Ti = 250 + 3. Solution The heat conducted through the plate must be equal to the sum of convection and radiation heat losses: qcond = qconv + qrad −kA ΔT =2. 10th Edition .456kW Δx (−2456)(0.05 = 253. calculate the inside plate temperature.

Chapter 1. and the current is increased until the water boils. Holman / Heat Transfer. Introduction 25 Example 1‐4 Heat Source and Convection An electric current is passed through a wire 1 mm in diameter and 10 cm long.142 ×10−4 m 2 The heat transfer is therefore q = (5000W/m 2 ⋅ C)(3.99W[75. How much electric power must be supplied to the wire to maintain the wire surface at 114 C ? Solution 2 The total convection loss is given by Equation (1‐8): q = hA (Tw − T∞ ) For this problem the surface area of the wire is A = π dL = π (1× 10−3 )(10 ×10−2 ) = 3. 10th Edition .03Btu/h] and this is equal to the electric power that must be applied. and the water temperature will be 100 C .142 × 10−4 m 2 )(114 − 100) = 21. The wire is submerged in liquid water at atmospheric pressure. For this situation h = 5000W/m ⋅ C .

03kW/m 2 [21. Solution Equation (1‐10) may be employed for this problem.669 ×10−8 )(10734 − 5734 ) = 69.Chapter 1. Calculate the heat transfer per unit area. 884Btu/h ⋅ ft 2 ] Holman / Heat Transfer. 10th Edition . Introduction 26 Example 1‐5 Radiation Heat Transfer Two infinite black plates at 800 C and 300 C exchange heat by radiation. so we find immediately q/ A = σ (T14 − T24 ) = (5.

Using the data of Table 1‐3.63W/m The pipe is a body surrounded by a large enclosure so the radiation heat transfer can be calculated from Equation (1‐12). so the convection loss per unit length is q/L]conv = h(π d )(Tw − T∞ ) = (6. Holman / Heat Transfer. The surface area is π dL . From Table 1‐3 we see that an estimate for the heat‐transfer coefficient 2 for free convection with this geometry and air is h = 6. Introduction 27 Example 1‐6 Total Heat Loss by Convection and Radiation A horizontal steel pipe having a diameter of 5 cm is maintained at a temperature of 50 C in a large room where the air and wall temperature are at 20 C .5)(π )(0. 10th Edition .Chapter 1.05)(50 − 20) = 30.5W/m ⋅ C . calculate the total heat lost by the pipe per unit length. Solution The total heat loss is the sum of convection and radiation.8. The surface emissivity of the steel may be taken as 0.

Introduction 28 With T1 = 50 C = 323 K and T2 = 20 C = 293 K .04=55. 10th Edition .8)(π )(0.04W/m The total heat loss is therefore q/L]tot = q/L]conv + q/L]rad =30.05)(5. we have q/L]rad = ε1 (π d1 )σ (T14 − T24 ) = (0.67W/m In this example we see that the convection and radiation are about the same.669 × 10−8 )(3234 − 2934 ) = 25.63+25. Holman / Heat Transfer.Chapter 1. To neglect either would be a serious mistake.

10th Edition . Introduction 29 1‐6.Chapter 1. Summary dT ⎤ −kA ⎥ = hA (Tw − T∞ ) + Fε FGσ A (Tw4 − Ts4 ) dy ⎦ wall Ts = temperature of surroundings Tw = surface temperature T∞ = fluid temperature Holman / Heat Transfer.

Introduction 30 Figure 1‐9 Combination of conduction. Holman / Heat Transfer.Chapter 1. convection. and radiation heat transfer. 10th Edition .