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Skills management is the practice of understanding, developing and deploying people and their skills.

Well-implemented skills management should identify the skills that job roles require, the skills of individual employees, and any gap between the two.

The skills involved can be defined by the organization concerned, or by third party institutions. They are usually defined in terms of a skills framework, also known as a competency framework or skills matrix. This consists of a list of skills, and a grading system, with a definition of what it means to be at particular level for a given skill. To be most useful, skills management must be an ongoing process, where individuals assess and update their recorded skill sets regularly. These updates should occur at least as frequently as employees' regular line manager reviews, and certainly when their skill sets change. Skills management systems record the results of this process in a database, and allow analysis of the data. To perform management functions and assume multiple roles, managers must be skilled. Robert Katz identified three managerial skills essential to successful management: technical, human, and conceptual*. Technical skill involves process or technique knowledge and proficiency. Managers use the processes, techniques and tools of a specific area. Human skill involves the ability to interact effectively with people. Managers interact and cooperate with employees. Conceptual skill involves the formulation of ideas. Managers understand abstract relationships, develop ideas, and solve problems creatively. Thus, technical skill deals with things, human skill concerns people, and conceptual skill has to do with ideas. A manager's level in the organization determines the relative importance of possessing technical, human, and conceptual skills. Top level managers need conceptual skills that let them view the organization as a whole. Conceptual skills are used in planning and dealing with ideas and abstractions. Supervisors need technical skills to manage their area of specialty. All levels of management need human skills so they can interact and communicate with other people successfully. As the pace of change accelerates and diverse technologies converge, new global industries are being created (for example, telecommunications). Technological change alters the fundamental structure of firms and calls for new organizational approaches and management skills. There are different types of skills in the corporate world. Soft Skills, communication skills, business writing, corporate presentation, public speaking, sales, marketing, leadership and managerial skills are few of the skills.

. and to understand the value they bring to the organization (which in turn can boost morale) Line managers Skills management enables managers to know the skill strengths and weaknesses of employees reporting to them. and any skills gaps that they have. to fill a role on a particular job.) Organization executives A rolled-up view of skills and skills gaps across an organization can enable its executives to see areas of skill strength and weakness. This enables them to plan for the future against the current and future abilities of staff. from being able to set personal goals. and gives a common vocabulary for discussing skills. Employees gain from improved identification and understanding of their own strengths and weaknesses. It can also enable them to search for employees with particular skill sets (e. Individual employees As a result of skills management. as well as to priorities areas for skills development.Employees who benefit Skills management provides a structured approach to developing individual and collective skills. employees should be aware of the skills their job requires. it may also result in a personal development plan (PDP) of training to bridge some or all of those skills gaps over a given period. .g. Depending on their employer. As well as this general benefit. three groups of employees receive specific benefits from skills management.

. Kaizen is defined as a continuous effort by each and every employee (from the CEO to field staff) to ensure improvement of all processes and systems of a particular organization.Kaizen” refers to a Japanese word which means “improvement” or “change for the better”. Kaizen works on the following basic principle. The process of Kaizen helps Japanese companies to outshine all other competitors by adhering to certain set policies and rules to eliminate defects and ensure long term superior quality and eventually customer satisfaction. Work for a Japanese company and you would soon realize how much importance they give to the process of Kaizen.

“Change is for good”. Let us understand the five S in Detail: . You would hardly find an individual representing a Japanese company unhappy or dissatisfied. Kaizen brings continuous small improvements in the overall processes and eventually aims towards organization’s success. rules and regulations to give rise to a healthy work culture at the organization. Japanese feel that many small continuous changes in the systems and policies bring effective results than few major changes. Kaizen means “continuous improvement of processes and functions of an organization through change”. In a layman’s language. irrespective of his/her designation or level in the hierarchy needs to contribute by incorporating small improvements and changes in the system. the process of Kaizen plays an important role in employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction through small continuous changes and eliminating defects. Yes. Kaizen tools give rise to a well organized workplace which results in better productivity and yield better results. Kaizen process aims at continuous improvement of processes not only in manufacturing sector but all other departments as well. Japanese employees never speak ill about their organization. It also leads to employees who strongly feel attached towards the organization. Following are the main elements of Six Sigma:      Teamwork Personal Discipline Improved Morale Quality Circles Suggestions for Improvement Five S of Kaizen “Five S” of Kaizen is a systematic approach which leads to foolproof systems. standard policies. Every individual. Implementing Kaizen tools is not the responsibility of a single individual but involves every member who is directly associated with the organization.

It gives you a sense of pride and respect for the organization. 2. SEISO . 5. employees should sort out and organize things well. Kanban . Kaizen focuses on continuous small improvements and thus gives immediate results.The word “SEISO” means shine the workplace. Necessary documents should be kept in proper folders and files. .SEIRI stands for Sort Out. Items which are critical and most important should be kept at a safe place. ”Critical”. Keep aside what all is not needed at the moment. SHITSUKE or Self Discipline . SEIRI .Seition means to organize. “Useless and so on. Follow work procedures and do not forget to carry your identity cards to work. a signal is sent to produce and deliver a new shipment as material is consumed. Use cabinets and drawers to store your items. De-clutter your workstation. SEITION . According to Seiri. 3. Label the items as “Necessary”. “Not needed now”. 4.1.Employees need to respect organization’s policies and adhere to rules and regulations. SEIKETSU-SEIKETSU refers to Standardization. These signals are tracked through the replenishment cycle and bring extraordinary visibility to suppliers and buyers. Kanban principles Kanbans maintain inventory levels. ”Most Important”. Every organization needs to have certain standard rules and set policies to ensure superior quality. Every item should have its own space and must be kept at its place only. Do not attend office in casuals. Research says that employees waste half of their precious time searching for items and important documents. Self discipline is essential. Throw what all is useless. The workplace ought to be kept clean.

increase inventory turnover. Kanban was developed by Taiichi Ohno. and it proved to be an excellent way for promoting improvement. In a supermarket. . The customer "process" goes to the store to obtain required components which in turn causes the store to restock. at Toyota. can dramatically reduce inventory levels. Kanban uses the rate of demand to control the rate of production. as in supermarkets. signboards were used to guide "shopping" processes to specific shopping locations within the store. Furthermore.  Origins In the late 1940s. Toyota started studying supermarkets with the idea of applying store and shelfstocking techniques to the factory floor. Kanban aligns inventory levels with actual consumption. Kanban is one method through which JIT is achieved.Purpose Logistic control system Implemented at Toyota Date implemented 1953 Kanban (literally signboard or billboard) is a scheduling system for lean and just-in-time (JIT) production. the supermarket stocks only what it expects to sell within a given time frame. a signal is sent to produce and deliver a new shipment when material is consumed. no more and no less. when combined with unique scheduling tools. enhance supplier/customer relationships and improve the accuracy of manufacturing schedules. Toyota applied this logic in their main plant machine shop. passing demand from the end customer up through the chain of customer-store processes. In 1953. and is not an inventory control system. bringing visibility to both the supplier and the buyer. to find a system to improve and maintain a high level of production. and the preceding processes are viewed as a kind of store. since future supply is assured. customers obtain the required quantity at the required time. This observation led Toyota to view a process as being a customer of one or more preceding processes. A Kanban system. These signals are tracked through the replenishment cycle. Kanban is a system to control the logistical chain from a production point of view. and customers take only what they need. Kanban became an effective tool in support of running a production system as a whole. Originally. Problem areas were highlighted by reducing the number of kanban in circulation.

Kanban cards therefore help create a demand-driven system. by contrast. the kanban will trigger the replenishment of that product. often. the best one can do is to respond quickly to observed demand. for example. Level the production. and close monitoring of these rules is a never-ending task. when received. This ensures that intermediate stocks held in the supply chain are better managed. thereby ensuring that the kanban does what is required. thereby helping companies implementing such systems to be more competitive. parts. Kanban is a means of fine tuning. Produce only the exact quantity that was withdrawn by the subsequent process. is part of an approach where the "pull" comes from the demand. and are usually smaller. Where the supply response is not quick enough to meet actual demand fluctuations. This situation is exactly what a kanban system accomplishes. part. In contexts where supply time is lengthy and demand is difficult to forecast. While this trend is leading to a reduction in the use of kanban cards in aggregate. it is still common in modern lean production facilities to find widespread usage of kanban cards. or inventory. thereby causing significant lost sales. Toyota's Six Rules       Do not send defective products to the subsequent process. The subsequent process comes to withdraw only what is needed. a message that signals that there is a depletion of product. stock building may be deemed more appropriate. and demand for more product is signaled by the kanban card. Kanban. The supply or production is determined according to the actual demand of the customers. Taiichi Ohno stated that to be effective. in that it is used as a demand signal that immediately travels through the supply chain. It is widely held by proponents of lean production and manufacturing that demand-driven systems lead to faster turnarounds in production and lower inventory levels.Operation One important determinant of the success of production scheduling based on demand "pushing" is the ability of the demand-forecast to receive such a "push". When stock of a particular component is depleted by the quantity . or inventory that. Consumption therefore drives demand for more production. kanban must follow strict rules of use. Kanban cards Kanban cards are a key component of kanban and signal the need to move materials within a manufacturing or production facility or move materials from an outside supplier in to the production facility. has six simple rules. The kanban card is. In Oracle ERP (enterprise resource planning). in effect. and is achieved by placing more kanban in the system. Stabilize and rationalize the process. kanban is used for signalling demand to vendors through e-mail notifications. Toyota. In the last few years. systems sending kanban signals electronically have become more widespread.

improving product design. which also contains a kanban card. Most factories using kanban use the coloured board system.assigned on kanban card. is then delivered into the factory store. in keeping with the principles of kanban. Do. completing the final step in the system. Quality circle A quality circle is a volunteer group composed of workers (or even students). W. Thus. a purchase order is released with predefined quantity for the vendor defined on the card. The factory store then contacts the supplier’s business and returns the now-empty bin with its kanban card. and improvement in the workplace and manufacturing processes. and motivate and enrich the work of employees. This slotted board was created especially for holding the cards. having gained the confidence of management. with only one spare bin so there will never be an oversupply. true quality circles become self-managing. one bin is in the factory store (the inventory control point). where workers operate in a more narrow scope and compartmentalized functions. simply convey the need for more materials. where there is no in-house manufacturing. They meet regularly on company time and are trained by competent persons (usually designated as facilitators) who may be personnel and . usually under the leadership of their supervisor (or an elected team leader). the empty bin and kanban cards are returned to the factory store (the inventory control point). One bin is on the factory floor (the initial demand point). When matured. Three-bin system An example of a simple kanban system implementation might be a "three-bin system" for the supplied parts. Edwards Deming. and transport that are found in the inventory system. the process will never run out of product. who are trained to identify. This 'spare' bin allows for the uncertainties in supply. with its kanban card. and the vendor is expected to dispatch material within a specified lead time. Typical topics are improving occupational safety and health. When the bin on the factory floor becomes empty (an indication that there was demand for parts). The term quality circles derives from the concept of PDCA (Plan. The factory store then replaces the bin on the factory floor with a full bin from stock. Quality circles are an alternative to the rigid concept of division of labor. The secret to a good kanban system is to calculate just enough kanban cards required for each product. and one bin is at the supplier's business. Kanban cards. Check. A red card lying in an empty parts cart conveys that more parts are needed. The bins usually have a removable card containing the product details and other relevant information — the classic kanban card. a "kanban trigger" is created (which may be manual or automatic). Quality circles are typically more formal groups. and could be described as a closed loop in that it provides the exact amount required. The supplier's full product bin. analyze and solve work-related problems and present their solutions to management in order to improve the performance of the organization. use. Act) circles developed by Dr.

and solution generation. the circle remains intact from project to project. 8D uses composite problem solving methodology. Quality circles are generally free to select any topic they wish (other than those related to salary and terms and conditions of work. What Are the Steps Used in 8D? What is the Relationship Between 8D and FMEA? How Can I Learn More About 8D? What Are the Steps Used in 8D? The 8D steps and tools used are as follows: D0: Prepare for the 8D    Collect the Symptoms Symptoms Checklist Emergency Response Action D1: Form a Team   Core Team Structure Team Preparation . as there are other channels through which these issues are usually considered). information gathering and analysis. by borrowing tools and techniques from various approaches. This is a popular method for problem solving because it is reasonably easy to teach and effective. following the form does not complete the 8D process and will not yield desired results. The process is documented on a form with attachments. (For a comparison to Quality Improvement Teams. basic statistics. The original 8D process was pioneered by Ford Motor Company and called TOPS (Team Oriented Problem Solving). Quality circles have the advantage of continuity. see Juran's Quality by Design)  8D 8D (Eight Disciplines of Problem Solving) is a meticulous process used to solve complex problems.industrial relations specialists trained in human factors and the basic skills of problem identification. however.

D2: Describe the Problem      5 Why Problem Statement Affinity Diagram Is / Is Not Problem Description D3: Interim Containment Action  Verification of Effectiveness D4: RCA (Root Cause Analysis) and Escape Point      Differences and Changes Root Cause Theories Verification Process Flow Diagram Escape Point D5: Permanent Corrective Action      Acceptance Criteria Risk Assessment / FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis) Balanced Choice Control Point Improvement Verification of Effectiveness D6: Implement and Validate   Project Plan Validation of Improvements .

Brainstorming information that is already known is not a good use of time or resources. The Quality-One approach uses a core team of three for inductive activities with data driven tools and a larger SME (Subject Matter Expert) team for the deductive activities through brainstorming.D7: Prevention     Similar Products and Process Prevention Systems Prevention Standard Work or Practice Procedures / Policy Updates D8: Closure and Team Celebration     Archive Documents Team Lessons Learned Before and After Comparison Celebrate Successful Completion The 8D process or Global 8D. The Failure Modes in a FMEA are equivalent to the problem statement or description in an 8D. This allows a FMEA to consider actual failures. occurring as failure modes and causes. Data and brainstorming collected during an 8D can be placed into a FMEA for future planning of new product or process quality. An 8D can be completed faster by utilizing easy to locate. The design or process controls in a FMEA can be used in verifying the root cause and Permanent Corrective Action in an 8D. Effects of failure in a FMEA are problem symptoms in an 8D. Possible causes in a FMEA can immediately be used to jump start 8D Fishbone or Ishikawa diagrams. The relationships between 8D and FMEA are outlined below:  The problem statements and descriptions can be linked between both documents. as it is known by Ford.    . alternates inductive and deductive problem solving tools to steadily progress towards a solution. pre-brainstormed information from a FMEA to solve problems. becoming more effective and complete. Causes in a FMEA are equivalent to potential causes in an 8D. What is the Relationship Between 8D and FMEA? FMEA is a tool used in the planning of product or process design.

. yet the Gantt does not represent this difference. If two projects are the same number of days behind schedule. Each FMEA can be used as a database of possible causes of failure as an 8D is developed. Gantt charts were considered revolutionary when first introduced. Larger Gantt charts may not be suitable for most computer displays. A common error made by those who equate Gantt chart design with project design is that they attempt to define the project work breakdown structure at the same time that they define schedule activities. Gantt charts can be used to show current schedule status using percent-complete shadings and a vertical "TODAY" line as shown here. Gantt charts only represent part of the triple constraints (cost. In recognition of Henry Gantt's contributions.The FMEA and 8D should reconcile each failure and cause by cross documenting failure modes. Some Gantt charts also show the dependency (i. Although now regarded as a common charting technique. projects are often considerably more complex than can be communicated effectively with a Gantt chart. then the project schedule can be designed. so they can be understood by a wide audience all over the world. because they focus primarily on schedule management. A Gantt chart is a type of bar chart. Instead the WBS should be fully defined to follow the 100% Rule. therefore the magnitude of a behindschedule condition is easily miscommunicated. Moreover. A related criticism is that Gantt charts communicate relatively little information per unit area of display. problem statements and possible causes. Although a Gantt chart is useful and valuable for small projects that fit on a single sheet or screen. the Henry Laurence Gantt Medal is awarded for distinguished achievement in management and in community service. precedence network) relationships between activities.  Advantages and limitations Gantt charts have become a common technique for representing the phases and activities of a project work breakdown structure (WBS). This practice makes it very difficult to follow the 100% Rule. That is. the larger project has a larger effect on resource utilization. time and scope) on projects.e. developed by Henry Gantt in the 1910s. Gantt charts illustrate the start and finish dates of the terminal elements and summary elements of a project. Terminal elements and summary elements comprise the work breakdown structure of the project. that illustrates a project schedule. they can become quite unwieldy for projects with more than about 30 activities. Gantt charts do not represent the size of a project or the relative size of work elements. This chart is also used in information technology to represent data that has been collected.

Activities E and G appear to be the same size. many activities (especially summary elements) have front-loaded or back-loaded work plans. Flow process chart Subway Fare Card Machine Flow Process Chart.  Symbols Symbol Letter Description . displaying a large number of dependencies may result in a cluttered or unreadable chart.Although project management software can show schedule dependencies as lines between activities. In the example shown in this article. so a Gantt chart with percent-complete shading may actually miscommunicate the true schedule performance status. A related criticism is that all activities of a Gantt chart show planned workload as constant. they can misrepresent the timephased workload (resource requirements) of a project. but in reality they may be different orders of magnitude. Because the horizontal bars of a Gantt chart have a fixed height. The flow process chart in industrial engineering is a graphical and symbolic representation of the processing activities performed on the work piece. In practice. which may cause confusion especially in large projects.

Move: is transporting the material from one place to another. Storage: is when the material is kept in a safe location.   It is used when analyzing the steps in a process. Delay: is when material cannot go to the next activity. to help identify and eliminate waste. It is used when the process is mostly sequential. . containing few decisions. Inspection: is to check the quality or the quantity of the material. When to use it It is used when observing a physical process. to record actions as they happen and thus get an accurate description of the process.Ο Ỻ → D ∇      O I M D S Operation Inspection Move Delay Storage Operation: is to change the physical or chemical characteristics of the material.