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CHINESE JOURNAL OF PHYSICS

VOL. 45, NO. 1

FEBRUARY 2007

Chaotic and Fractal Patterns Derived from a Periodic Wave Solution of a Modified Dispersive Water-Wave System in (2+1)-Dimensions Jian-Feng Ye1, 2 and Chun-Long Zheng1, ∗
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College of Mathematics and Physics, Lishui University, Lishui, Zhejiang 323000, China 2 Department of Information and Engineer, Lishui Vocational College, Lishui, Zhejiang 323000, China (Received January 23, 2006)

With the help of an extended mapping method and a linear variable separation method, new families of variable separation solutions (including solitary wave solutions, periodic wave solutions, and rational function solutions) with arbitrary functions for a (2+1)-dimensional modified dispersive water-wave system (MDWW) are derived. Usually, in terms of solitary wave solutions and rational function solutions, one can find some important localized excitations. However, based on the derived periodic wave solution in this paper, we find that some novel and interesting localized coherent excitations, such as stochastic fractal patterns, regular fractal patterns, chaotic line soliton patterns, and chaotic patterns, also exist in the MDWW system considering appropriate boundary conditions and/or initial conditions.
PACS numbers: 05.45.Yv, 03.65.Ge

I. INTRODUCTION

In nonlinearity theory solitons, chaos, and fractals are important ideas a features, which have been widely applied in natural sciences, particularly in many branches of physics such as fluid dynamics, plasma physics, field theory, nonlinear optics, and condensed matter physics [1–6]. For example, chaos is present in mechanical oscillators, electrical circuits, lasers, chemical reactions, nerve cells, heated fluids, and weather systems. These chaotic behaviors show qualitative and quantitative universal features, which are independent of the details of the particular system and correspond to a disappearance of periodic trajectories [7]. Recently, some authors have found solitons and other coherent structures with chaotic and fractal behaviors in integrable nonlinear evolution equations [8–10]. For example, scientists [11–14] have employed the multilinear variable separation method and found that certain characteristic (1+1) and/or (1+0)-dimensional arbitrary functions exist in exact solutions of (2+1)-dimensional integrable models. Since lower-dimensional arbitrary functions are present in the exact solutions of some (2+1)-dimensional integrable models, one can use some lower-dimensional chaotic and/or fractal solution in order to obtain solutions of higher-dimensional integrable models. So some chaotic solutions with their sensitive dependence on the initial conditions, and fractal patterns with their self-similar structures and with their stochastic properties, have been successfully revealed. In this paper we, along the above lines, extend the previous considerations seeking some possible coherent, chaotic and/or fractal solutions in higher-dimensional nonlinear integrable sys-

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etc. . So. vt − vxx − 2(uv )x = 0 . as far as we know. 9]. the mapping method. all the previous found chaotic and/or fractal solitons in (2+1)-dimensions were obtained by a B¨ acklund transformation and a special variable separation method [8. 45 tems. (2) where P is in general a polynomial function of its argument and the subscripts denote the partial derivatives. (1) The MDWW system was used to model nonlinear and dispersive long gravity waves travelling in two horizontal directions on shallow waters of uniform depth. finding more types of solutions to system (1) is of fundamental interest in fluid dynamics. fluid dynamics. (3) . Meanwhile. nonlinear optics. xm ). a good understanding of more solutions of the MDWW system (1) is very helpful. especially for coastal and civil engineers to apply the nonlinear water model in a harbor and coastal design. In the following parts of the paper. VOL. and the asymptotic perturbation (AP) method [10]. In other words.2 CHAOTIC AND FRACTAL PATTERNS DERIVED . · · · ) = 0 . we take the celebrated (2+1)-dimensional modified dispersive water-wave system (MDWW) as a concrete example [21]. x2 . So a subsequent intriguing issue is whether the chaotic and/or fractal soliton solutions of a (2+1)-dimensional integrable system can be derived by another method such as the symmetry reduction method [15–17]. · · · . uxi xj . and can also be derived from the well-known Kadomtsev-Petviashvili(KP) equation using the symmetry constraint [22]. It is worth mentioning that this system has been widely applied in many branches of physics like plasma physics. x1 . Abundant localized excitations were recently derived by Zheng [23] with the help of a Painlev´ e-B¨ acklund transformation and a multilinear variable separation approach. we can exploit different approaches. uyt + uxxy − 2vxx − (u2 )xy = 0 . II. we will discuss its new exact solutions and some novel fractal and chaotic patterns via an extended mapping method. We assume its solution in the following symmetric form [25]. . THE MAIN IDEA OF THE EXTENDED MAPPING APPROACH AND EXACT SOLUTIONS TO THE (2+1)-DIMENSIONAL MDWW SYSTEM As is well known. and dependent variable u P (u. One of the most efficient methods for finding soliton excitations of a physical model is the so-called mapping transformation method [24. 25]. To answer these questions. and so on [18–20]. The basic idea of the algorithm is that: for a given nonlinear partial differential equation(NPDE) with independent variables x ≡ (x0 = t. n u= i=−n αi (x)φi (ω (x)) . uxi . we consider the following issue: whether chaos and/or fractals in higher-dimensional physical models are a quite universal phenomena? Meanwhile. to search for solitary wave solutions for a nonlinear physical model.

(4) possesses the general solution  √ √  − −σ tanh( −σω ) . t). then eliminate each coefficient to derive a set of partial differential equations of αi (i = 0. t) and v0 = 0 are seed solutions of the MDWW system (1). t). (8) together with Eq. we can straightforwardly obtain a simple relation for u and v : v = uy . ansatz (3) becomes u = f (x. y. y. x1 . y. (8) where f ≡ f (x. σ > 0 . (1) yields a single nonlinear equation: ∂y (ut − uxx − 2uux ) = 0 .VOL. similar to the usual mapping approach. t). as Eq. and Eq. and the prime denotes φ differentiated with respect to ω . y. v = (ln f )xy + v0 . and q ≡ q (x. σ > 0 . (5) into Eq. σ is a constant. In terms of the above extended mapping method. y. y. t)φ−1 (q (x. t) are arbitrary functions of {x. · · · . we have gqy qx (qx + g) = 0 . · · · . and collecting coefficients of polynomials of φ. y. (4) where αi (x) ≡ αi and ω (x) ≡ ω are arbitrary functions of x ≡ (x0 = t. t)) + h(x. y. g ≡ g(x. y.  − √ √ (5) φ= σ tan( σω ) . ω . then setting each coefficient to zero. determine n by balancing the highest nonlinear term and the highest-order partial term in the given NPDE. (7). To determine u explicitly. (7) Now we apply the extended mapping approach to Eq. (6) which can be derived from the standard Painlev´ e truncated expansion. xm ). one may take the following procedure: First. 1. substituting αi . (9) . (4) into Eq. n) and ω . x2 . h ≡ h(x. t)) . 45 JIAN-FENG YE AND CHUN-LONG ZHENG 3 with φ = σ + φ2 . Finally. where the functions u0 = u0 (x. t) + g(x. ω . we first consider the following Painlev´ e-B¨ acklund transformation for u and v in the MDWW system (1): u = (ln f )x + u0 . Inserting v = uy into Eqs. substitute Eqs. Based on Eq.     −1 σ = 0. (6) and the seed solutions. Third.  √ √   − σ cot( σω ) . t} to be determined. Second.   √ √   −σ coth( −σω ) . (3) and (4) into the given NPDE and collect coefficients of polynomials of φ. σ < 0 . solve the system of partial differential equations to obtain αi and ω . y. (7). t)φ(q (x. By balancing the highest nonlinear term and the highest-order partial term. (3). Substituting Eq. one can obtain the exact solutions of the given NPDE. σ < 0 .

(11) 2gσqxy (2q + g) + 4σqx qy (f g + g + gx ) + 2gqy σ (2qx + qxx − qt ) 2 − gyt + gxxy + 2gy qx σ + 2fx gy + 2gfxy + 2gx fy + 2f gxy = 0 . . (12) 4hqy qx σ (f + 1) + 2hqxy (2qx σ − h) + 2hqy σ (qxx − qt ) + 2qx hy (qx σ − 2h) + 2fx hy + h2xy − 4hhx qy − hyt + 2hfxy + 2hx fy + 2f hxy = 0 . (10)-(15). (10) 8qy qx gσ (g + qx ) + 2qxy (f g + g + gx ) + qy (2f gx − gt + gxx + 2fx g) + qx (2gxy + 2gfy + 2f gy ) + gqyt + 2gx gy + gqxxy + gy (qxx − qt ) = 0 . VOL. σ + qxy (4hqx σ 2 − 2h2 σ ) + 2hy qx + 2hqx (15) (16) hqx qy σ 2 (h − qx σ ) = 0 . (18). 45 2 4qy qx (g + f g + gx ) + 2qxy (2qx + g2 ) + qy (4gx g + 2gqxx − 2gqt ) + 2gy qx = 0. (9) and (16). 2qx (19) 2 2 3 4 2 2 2 + 2qx qxxt + 3qxx qt + 9qxx − 16σqxx qx + qx qxxxx)qxy − (2qx qxxx − 4qx qxx . (17) by using Eq. 2hxy (g − 2gx ) + 2gxy (h − 2gx σ ) + qxxy (gσ − h) + qxx (gy σ − hy ) − qyt (gσ − h) + qx (2f gy σ + 2gfy σ − 2hfy − 2f hy ) + qxy (2f gσ − 2hx − 2f h + 2gx σ ) 2 2 2 σ − 2hqx σ − 2f hx + 2g2 qx σ 2 + gxx σ − gt σ + 2f gx σ ) + qy (2gqx + gy (−qt σ + 2hx ) + hy (2gx + qt ) − fyt + fxxy + 2f fxy + 2fx fy + 2h2 qx + 2fx gσ − ht − 2fx h − hxx ) = 0 . (17) Based on Eqs. h = qx σ .4 CHAOTIC AND FRACTAL PATTERNS DERIVED . (18) Reducing Eqs. we get f= with 2 2 (−12qxx qt + 4qx qxxx wt − 8qx qxx qxxx − 4qt qx qxt + qx qtt + 8qxx qx qxt qt − qxx . (13) qxy σ (−h − 2f h − 2hx ) + 8qx qy σ (h2 − qx σ ) − qy σ (2fx h + 2f hx − ht + hxx ) − qx σ (2hfy + 2hxy + 2f hy ) + hσqyt − hy q2x σ + 2hhxy + 2hx hy + hy qt σ = 0 . . we have g = −q x . (14) 2hqy σ 2 (2f qx + q2x ) + 4hx qy σ (qx σ − h) − 2qy hqt σ 2 2 2 2 2 σ − 4hqx hy σ = 0 .

2χx −σ coth( −σ (χ + ϕ)) (23) (24) √ [coth2 ( −σ (χ + ϕ)) − 1]2 σχx ϕy . (21) where χ ≡ χ(x. 2χx −σ tanh( −σ (χ + ϕ)) (22) √ [tanh2 ( −σ (χ + ϕ)) − 1]2 σχx ϕy . tan2 ( σ (χ + ϕ)) √ σχ χt − χxx √ √ x + σχx cot( σ (χ + ϕ)) − √ . For σ < 0. and y . 2 2 2 2 2 + 2qt qx qxx + 4qx qxxy + 2qx qxxx − 2qt qx qxx − 2qx qxt )qyt + (2qx qt − 4qx qxx )qxyt (20) Substituting Eqs. Obviously. t. (1). respectively. v2 = √ coth2 ( −σ (χ + ϕ)) (25) with two arbitrary functions. (20). we can obtain the following periodic wave solutions of Eq. Case 1. 45 JIAN-FENG YE AND CHUN-LONG ZHENG 5 2 2 2 2 5 − (9qx qxx + qx qt − 4qx qxxx − 4qx qxt + 16qx σ − 8qx qt qxx )qxxy 2 2 3 + (−2qt qx + 4qxx qx )qxxxy − qx (qxxxxy − 2qxxyt + qytt ) = 0 . in this special case. t). ϕ ≡ ϕ(y ) are two arbitrary variable-separable functions of x. one of the special solutions can be expressed as q = χ(x. χ(x. (1) u1 = √ σχx χt − χxx √ √ + −σχx tanh( −σ (χ + ϕ)) − √ . (20) into Eq. one can obtain the exact solutions of Eq. Fortunately. 2χx σ tan( σ (χ + ϕ)) (26) √ [tan2 ( σ (χ + ϕ)) + 1]2 σχx ϕy √ v3 = − . (7). t) + ϕ(y ) . Case 2. we can obtain the solution of Eq. it is very difficult to obtain the general solution of Eq. we can derive the following solitary wave solutions of Eq. v4 = − cot2 ( σ (χ + ϕ)) (29) .VOL. (18). For σ > 0. (1) u3 = √ χt − χxx √ σχx √ − σχx tan( σ (χ + ϕ)) + √ . 2χx σ cot( σ (χ + ϕ)) (27) u4 = (28) √ [cot2 ( σ (χ + ϕ)) + 1]2 σχx ϕy √ . v1 = √ tanh2 ( −σ (χ + ϕ)) u2 = √ σχx χt − χxx √ √ + −σχx coth( −σ (χ + ϕ)) − √ . t) and ϕ(y ). Based on the solutions of the Riccati equation φ = σ + φ2 . (8). (19). and the solution of Eq.

4)2 . campactons. From Fig. In order to observe the self-similar structure of the fractal pattern clearly. Case 3. 0. 1 shows the localized fractal pattern for the physical field U (32) with condition (33) and fixed parameters σ = 2. χ(x. based on the solitary wave solutions of Case 1 and the variable separation solutions of Case 3. . t) and ϕ(y ). Near the center in Fig. t). III. namely v3 . Fig.1)2 . and foldons. VOL. one may enlarge a . 25]. (1) u5 = χt − χxx χx + . ϕ ≡ ϕ(y ) are two arbitrary functions of the indicated variables. 0. we can derive the following variable-separable solution of Eq. In the following part. For σ = 0. which are neglected in the present paper since some similar situations have been reported in the preceeding literature [8. 1. when choosing χ and ϕ to be |x + ct|sn(ln(x + ct)2 . χ(x. (χ + ϕ)2 (30) v5 = − (31) with two arbitrary functions. t) and ϕ(y ) included in the above solutions implies that the physical quantities u and v possess rich structures. we have not discussed it in detail since guessing the periodic wave solution would not yield important localized excitations. FRACTAL AND CHAOTIC PATTERNS DERIVED FROM A PERIODIC WAVE SOLUTION The arbitrariness of the functions χ(x. we can derived a regular fractal pattern from the periodic wave solution (32). lumps. (σ > 0) . 1 + (x + ct)4 |y + 0. 20.6 CHAOTIC AND FRACTAL PATTERNS DERIVED . t) and ϕ(y ).1)4 χ=1+ (33) where sn denotes a Jacobian elliptic function of the indicated variable. For example. III-1. √ σχx ϕy (tan2 ( σ (χ + ϕ)) + 1)2 √ . 1(a). In terms of the periodic wave solution of Case 2. we can find the localized pattern structure possessing a self-similar fractal property.1|sn(ln(y + 0. the above conjecture may be inappropriate. (32) U ≡ −v3 = tan2 ( σ (χ + ϕ)) where χ ≡ χ(x. breathers. Fractal patterns For instance. one can find abundant localized excitations such as dromions. However. peakons. we will discuss some significant localized excitations derived from the periodic wave solution. . ϕ =1+ 1 + (y + 0. 2χx χ+ϕ χx ϕy . 45 with two arbitrary functions. there are many peaks which are distributed in a fractal manner.4)2 .

one can readily find the self-similar property of the regular fractal pattern. 0. y ∈ [−0. 1(c). Fig. y ∈ [−0. y ∈ [−0. 1: (a) A plot of the fractal pattern structure for the field U given by Eq.0002 x –1 –2 0y 1 3 2 50 U0 –50 0. k =0 N → ∞. small region near the center of Fig. In addition to the self-similar regular pattern.VOL.02 –0. 0. (32) with the conditions (33) and σ = 2 at t = 0. 0. y ∈ [−0.00032.04. 1(b) and Fig.00032. 45 JIAN-FENG YE AND CHUN-LONG ZHENG 7 (a) 40 U0 –40 –3 –2 –1 x0 1 2 3 –3 0.0002 –0.04 0. for the following selections . y ∈ [−0.04. show the selfsimilar structure of the fractal pattern in the region {x ∈ [−0. (34) where the independent variable ξ may be a suitable function of {x + at} and/or {y }. 0. 0.04].04]} and {x ∈ [−0.0002 (c) 0. 0.04 0y 0. 0.001 0. respectively. 1(d).04. 1(a).02 (d) 0.0009].00032].00032]}.02 (b) –0. 0. Upon enlarging a smaller region near the center of Fig.0008 –0.0004 50 U0 –50 0. y ∈ [−0.0006 FIG.0009.0002 x0 –0. 0.04. respectively. (d) Density of the fractal structure related to (a) in the region {x ∈ [−0. 1(c).0008 0.0009.0002 0. (b) Self-similar structure of the fractal pattern related to (a) in the region {x ∈ [−0.0006 –0. 0. Fig. 0.0004 –0.0009.0008 –0. 1(d) shows the density of the regular fractal pattern (a) in the center region {x ∈ [−0.04]}.0009.0002 0y –0.00032.0009]}. 1(b) and Fig. For example. 0.02 x0 –0.0002 y0 –0. say ξ = x + at and ξ = y in the functions of χ and ϕ. one of the most well-known stochastic fractal functions is the Weierstrass function ℘ N ℘ ≡ ℘(ξ ) = λ(s−2)k sin(λk ξ ) .0009]}.0006 0. one will amazedly find a totally similar structure to that presented in Fig.04 –0.00032.04 0.0004 0 0. the lower-dimensional stochastic fractal functions may also be used to construct high-dimensional stochastic fractal dromions and lumps excitations.00032]}. (c) Self-similar structure of the fractal pattern related to (a) in the region {x ∈ [−0.00032].04].0009]. From Fig. 1(d).

one can find that the amplitudes of the multi-dromion are stochastically changed. One of the typical chaotic attractors . lς = b[a(1 − l) − cn ] .08 exp[−(x + at)(x + ℘)] . (35) and (36).3x + at) . χ = 0. . c are model parameters. The nuclear spin generator system is a high-frequency oscillator which generates and controls the oscillations of a nuclear magnetization vector in a magnetic field. 2. n.5 at t = 0. ϕ = 0.08℘ tanh(0. 2 (37) where m. (2) shows a plot of typical stochastic fractal dromion and lump solutions determined by (32) under the conditions (34). as is the fractal multi-lump structure. (36) (35) If the Weierstrass function is included in the dromion and lump excitations. 2: (a) A plot of a typical stochastic fractal dromion solution determined by Eq. Chaotic patterns Additionally. and (36) with fixed parameters σ = 2. then we can derive some localized excitations with chaotic behaviors. (35). From Fig. then we can derive the stochastic fractal dromions and lumps.08 exp[−(y + 0.06 tanh(y ) + 0.03 tanh(y + 6) + 0. (35) and λ = s = 1. (b) A plot of typical stochastic fractal lump solution determined by Eq.5 at t = 0. Fig. (32) with selections (34). (32) with selections (34).1)(y + ℘)] . VOL. if χ is fixed as a solution of the following nuclear spin generator (NSG) system [26]: mς = −bm + n . The NSG system exhibits a large variety of chaotic attractors and displays rich structures. and ϕ = 2 − 0. and l are functions of ς and a. . b. χ = 2 − 0. λ = s = 1. (36).5 at t = 0.6 + 0.8 CHAOTIC AND FRACTAL PATTERNS DERIVED .15 tanh(y − 8) . nς = −m − bn(1 − cl) . if the functions χ and/or ϕ are set to be solutions of a chaotic dynamical system. For example. III-2. and λ = s = 1. 45 (a) 400 100 U0 –100 16 20 x24 28 32 –5 –10 0y 10 5 200 U0 –200 –400 –4 –2 (b) 4 2 x0 0y 2 –2 4 –4 FIG.

03 0. c = 3. n(0) = 2 .2 0.2 0.4 0.2 –0.7 0.5 0. then the field U (32) will conduct chaotically in all directions and yield a non-localized chaotic pattern. 3(c) shows the corresponding plot of the chaotic line soliton for the field U (32) with condition (39) at fixed time t = 0.2 n0 –0. 3(b) is the solution of the NSG system (37) with the conditions (38) and ς = x + κt. Fig. if χ and ϕ are chosen to be χ = 1 + n(x + κt) .02 –8 –6 –4 –2 0 x 120 y 100 140 160 (d) 0. 3: (a) A typical attractor plot of the chaotic NSG system (37) with the condition (38).6 l0.01 –0.004 (c) –0.8 0. For example. for the NSG (37) system is depicted in Fig. m(0) = 1 .4 –0. (d) A chaotic pattern for the field U expressed by (32) with condition (40) and t = 0.01 U 0 –0.2 (b) 400 0. σ = 2. (38) where n(ς ) presented in Fig. 3(a) when a = 0.02 0.4 100 200 t 300 (a) 0. ϕ = 1 + n(y ) . (40) . Furthermore.VOL. the localized pattern is a chaotic line soliton.4 0. σ = 2. 45 JIAN-FENG YE AND CHUN-LONG ZHENG 9 0. (39) b = 1. Now we take χ(x.3 .2 0 0.4 –0. which presents chaotic behavior in the x direction and localizes in the y direction. (b) A typical plot of the chaotic solution n in the NSG system (37) related to (a). (c) A chaotic line soliton for the field U determined by (32) with condition (39) and t = 0. Therewith.002 U0 –0.2 . t) = 1 + n(ς ) .3 0. ϕ = 1 + exp(y ) .002 100 150 2 4 200 x 250 300 200 y 150 250 300 FIG. if χ and ϕ are all selected as chaotic solutions of some lower dimensional non-integrable models.1 m 0. l(0) = 0 .2 0 n 0.

and in numerous other examples. Similarly. since the fractal concept proposed by Mandelbrot in 1975. Once the stable dromions are found. Fig. However. human veins. such as the chaotic patterns and fractal patterns derived from a periodic wave solution were not reported in the previous literature. These beautiful pictures obtained here may be useful in costume design. Meanwhile. we have successfully revealed some localized patterns from the periodic wave solution. fern shapes.10 CHAOTIC AND FRACTAL PATTERNS DERIVED . so too chaos science. the localized coherent patterns. breathers. ring soliton solutions. foldons. by means of the extended mapping method and the linear variable separation method. some regular fractal dromion and lump patterns as well as stochastic fractal localized excitations are derived from the periodic wave solutions. although experimental physicists have not yet found real dromion-type excitations (some patterns localized exponentially in all directions) in any real physical systems. crystal growth patterns. in this paper. [8]. by selecting different types of lower dimensional fractal functions. such as chaotic line soliton patterns and chaotic patterns. and breathers. one can find remarkable developments in mathematics and important influences on biology as well as physics. As far as we know. 45 where n is the solution of the NSG system (37) with condition (38). Actually. etc. lumps. would be helpful for some applications in reality. campactons. peakons. we hope these fractal and chaotic patterns related to Jacobian functions and Weierstrass functions etc. fractals and chaos not only belong to the realms of mathematics or computer graphics. lumps. such as in fluid turbulence. It should be mentioned that. . we still believe that there must exist many possible applications for this interesting phenomenon. . and so on. IV. 3(d) shows the corresponding plot of the chaotic pattern for the field U (32) with condition (40) at t = 0. In the future. VOL. cloud structures. peakons. porous media. . due to the possibility of selecting appropriately some arbitrary functions. as well as foldon solutions in terms of the derived solitary solutions or variable separation solutions. one may obtain various beautiful higher dimensional fractal patterns for some physical quantities. but also exist nearly everywhere in nature. perhaps the most famous artists will also be the most famous physicists and mathematicians. based on the solitary wave solutions like Case 1 and the variable separation solutions of Case 3. one can find abundant localized excitations such as dromions. galaxy clustering. compactons. In usual cases. SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION In summary. In a similar way. we have obtained some lower-dimensional chaotic patterns. the chaotic dromions will be immediately found by using a chaotic signal. analytical investigation of the nonlinear (2+1)-dimensional MDWW system shows the existence of interacting coherent excitations such as the dromions. Just as the authors pointed our in Ref. Anyway. architecture.

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