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Chaotic and Fractal Patterns in a water-wave system

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FEBRUARY 2007

Chaotic and Fractal Patterns Derived from a Periodic Wave Solution of a Modied Dispersive Water-Wave System in (2+1)-Dimensions Jian-Feng Ye1, 2 and Chun-Long Zheng1,

1

College of Mathematics and Physics, Lishui University, Lishui, Zhejiang 323000, China 2 Department of Information and Engineer, Lishui Vocational College, Lishui, Zhejiang 323000, China (Received January 23, 2006)

With the help of an extended mapping method and a linear variable separation method, new families of variable separation solutions (including solitary wave solutions, periodic wave solutions, and rational function solutions) with arbitrary functions for a (2+1)-dimensional modied dispersive water-wave system (MDWW) are derived. Usually, in terms of solitary wave solutions and rational function solutions, one can nd some important localized excitations. However, based on the derived periodic wave solution in this paper, we nd that some novel and interesting localized coherent excitations, such as stochastic fractal patterns, regular fractal patterns, chaotic line soliton patterns, and chaotic patterns, also exist in the MDWW system considering appropriate boundary conditions and/or initial conditions.

PACS numbers: 05.45.Yv, 03.65.Ge

I. INTRODUCTION

In nonlinearity theory solitons, chaos, and fractals are important ideas a features, which have been widely applied in natural sciences, particularly in many branches of physics such as uid dynamics, plasma physics, eld theory, nonlinear optics, and condensed matter physics [16]. For example, chaos is present in mechanical oscillators, electrical circuits, lasers, chemical reactions, nerve cells, heated uids, and weather systems. These chaotic behaviors show qualitative and quantitative universal features, which are independent of the details of the particular system and correspond to a disappearance of periodic trajectories [7]. Recently, some authors have found solitons and other coherent structures with chaotic and fractal behaviors in integrable nonlinear evolution equations [810]. For example, scientists [1114] have employed the multilinear variable separation method and found that certain characteristic (1+1) and/or (1+0)-dimensional arbitrary functions exist in exact solutions of (2+1)-dimensional integrable models. Since lower-dimensional arbitrary functions are present in the exact solutions of some (2+1)-dimensional integrable models, one can use some lower-dimensional chaotic and/or fractal solution in order to obtain solutions of higher-dimensional integrable models. So some chaotic solutions with their sensitive dependence on the initial conditions, and fractal patterns with their self-similar structures and with their stochastic properties, have been successfully revealed. In this paper we, along the above lines, extend the previous considerations seeking some possible coherent, chaotic and/or fractal solutions in higher-dimensional nonlinear integrable sys-

http://PSROC.phys.ntu.edu.tw/cjp

VOL. 45

tems. In other words, we consider the following issue: whether chaos and/or fractals in higher-dimensional physical models are a quite universal phenomena? Meanwhile, as far as we know, all the previous found chaotic and/or fractal solitons in (2+1)-dimensions were obtained by a B acklund transformation and a special variable separation method [8, 9], and the asymptotic perturbation (AP) method [10]. So a subsequent intriguing issue is whether the chaotic and/or fractal soliton solutions of a (2+1)-dimensional integrable system can be derived by another method such as the symmetry reduction method [1517], the mapping method, and so on [1820]. To answer these questions, we take the celebrated (2+1)-dimensional modied dispersive water-wave system (MDWW) as a concrete example [21], uyt + uxxy 2vxx (u2 )xy = 0 , vt vxx 2(uv )x = 0 . (1)

The MDWW system was used to model nonlinear and dispersive long gravity waves travelling in two horizontal directions on shallow waters of uniform depth, and can also be derived from the well-known Kadomtsev-Petviashvili(KP) equation using the symmetry constraint [22]. Abundant localized excitations were recently derived by Zheng [23] with the help of a Painlev e-B acklund transformation and a multilinear variable separation approach. It is worth mentioning that this system has been widely applied in many branches of physics like plasma physics, uid dynamics, nonlinear optics, etc. So, a good understanding of more solutions of the MDWW system (1) is very helpful, especially for coastal and civil engineers to apply the nonlinear water model in a harbor and coastal design. Meanwhile, nding more types of solutions to system (1) is of fundamental interest in uid dynamics. In the following parts of the paper, we will discuss its new exact solutions and some novel fractal and chaotic patterns via an extended mapping method.

II. THE MAIN IDEA OF THE EXTENDED MAPPING APPROACH AND EXACT SOLUTIONS TO THE (2+1)-DIMENSIONAL MDWW SYSTEM

As is well known, to search for solitary wave solutions for a nonlinear physical model, we can exploit dierent approaches. One of the most ecient methods for nding soliton excitations of a physical model is the so-called mapping transformation method [24, 25]. The basic idea of the algorithm is that: for a given nonlinear partial dierential equation(NPDE) with independent variables x (x0 = t, x1 , x2 , , xm ), and dependent variable u P (u, uxi , uxi xj , ) = 0 , (2)

where P is in general a polynomial function of its argument and the subscripts denote the partial derivatives. We assume its solution in the following symmetric form [25],

n

u=

i=n

i (x)i ( (x)) ,

(3)

VOL. 45

with = + 2 , (4)

where i (x) i and (x) are arbitrary functions of x (x0 = t, x1 , x2 , , xm ), is a constant, and the prime denotes dierentiated with respect to . To determine u explicitly, one may take the following procedure: First, similar to the usual mapping approach, determine n by balancing the highest nonlinear term and the highest-order partial term in the given NPDE. Second, substitute Eqs. (3) and (4) into the given NPDE and collect coecients of polynomials of , then eliminate each coecient to derive a set of partial dierential equations of i (i = 0, 1, , n) and . Third, solve the system of partial dierential equations to obtain i and . Finally, as Eq. (4) possesses the general solution tanh( ) , < 0 , coth( ) , < 0 , (5) = tan( ) , > 0 , cot( ) , > 0 , 1 = 0, , substituting i , , and Eq. (5) into Eq. (3), one can obtain the exact solutions of the given NPDE. In terms of the above extended mapping method, we rst consider the following Painlev e-B acklund transformation for u and v in the MDWW system (1): u = (ln f )x + u0 , v = (ln f )xy + v0 , (6)

which can be derived from the standard Painlev e truncated expansion, where the functions u0 = u0 (x, t) and v0 = 0 are seed solutions of the MDWW system (1). Based on Eq. (6) and the seed solutions, we can straightforwardly obtain a simple relation for u and v : v = uy . Inserting v = uy into Eqs. (1) yields a single nonlinear equation: y (ut uxx 2uux ) = 0 . (7)

Now we apply the extended mapping approach to Eq. (7). By balancing the highest nonlinear term and the highest-order partial term, ansatz (3) becomes u = f (x, y, t) + g(x, y, t)(q (x, y, t)) + h(x, y, t)1 (q (x, y, t)) , (8)

where f f (x, y, t), g g(x, y, t), h h(x, y, t), and q q (x, y, t) are arbitrary functions of {x, y, t} to be determined. Substituting Eq. (8) together with Eq. (4) into Eq. (7), and collecting coecients of polynomials of , then setting each coecient to zero, we have gqy qx (qx + g) = 0 , (9)

VOL. 45

(10)

(11)

2 gyt + gxxy + 2gy qx + 2fx gy + 2gfxy + 2gx fy + 2f gxy = 0 ,

(12)

4hqy qx (f + 1) + 2hqxy (2qx h) + 2hqy (qxx qt ) + 2qx hy (qx 2h) + 2fx hy + h2xy 4hhx qy hyt + 2hfxy + 2hx fy + 2f hxy = 0 ,

(13)

(14)

(15) (16)

hqx qy 2 (h qx ) = 0 , 2hxy (g 2gx ) + 2gxy (h 2gx ) + qxxy (g h) + qxx (gy hy ) qyt (g h) + qx (2f gy + 2gfy 2hfy 2f hy ) + qxy (2f g 2hx 2f h + 2gx )

2 2 2 2hqx 2f hx + 2g2 qx 2 + gxx gt + 2f gx ) + qy (2gqx

(17)

2 2 (12qxx qt + 4qx qxxx wt 8qx qxx qxxx 4qt qx qxt + qx qtt + 8qxx qx qxt

qt qxx , 2qx

(19)

2 2 3 4 2 2 2 + 2qx qxxt + 3qxx qt + 9qxx 16qxx qx + qx qxxxx)qxy (2qx qxxx 4qx qxx

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2 2 2 2 5 (9qx qxx + qx qt 4qx qxxx 4qx qxt + 16qx 8qx qt qxx )qxxy 2 2 3 + (2qt qx + 4qxx qx )qxxxy qx (qxxxxy 2qxxyt + qytt ) = 0 .

2 2 2 2 2 + 2qt qx qxx + 4qx qxxy + 2qx qxxx 2qt qx qxx 2qx qxt )qyt + (2qx qt 4qx qxx )qxyt

(20)

Substituting Eqs. (18), (19), and the solution of Eq. (20) into Eq. (8), we can obtain the solution of Eq. (7). Obviously, it is very dicult to obtain the general solution of Eq. (20). Fortunately, in this special case, one of the special solutions can be expressed as q = (x, t) + (y ) , (21)

where (x, t), (y ) are two arbitrary variable-separable functions of x, t, and y , respectively. Based on the solutions of the Riccati equation = + 2 , one can obtain the exact solutions of Eq. (1). Case 1. For < 0, we can derive the following solitary wave solutions of Eq. (1) u1 = x t xx + x tanh( ( + )) , 2x tanh( ( + )) (22)

(23)

(24)

(25)

with two arbitrary functions, (x, t) and (y ). Case 2. For > 0, we can obtain the following periodic wave solutions of Eq. (1) u3 = t xx x x tan( ( + )) + , 2x tan( ( + )) (26)

(27)

u4 =

(28)

(29)

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with two arbitrary functions, (x, t) and (y ). Case 3. For = 0, we can derive the following variable-separable solution of Eq. (1) u5 = t xx x + , 2x + x y , ( + )2 (30)

v5 =

(31)

III. FRACTAL AND CHAOTIC PATTERNS DERIVED FROM A PERIODIC WAVE SOLUTION

The arbitrariness of the functions (x, t) and (y ) included in the above solutions implies that the physical quantities u and v possess rich structures. For example, based on the solitary wave solutions of Case 1 and the variable separation solutions of Case 3, one can nd abundant localized excitations such as dromions, breathers, lumps, peakons, campactons, and foldons, which are neglected in the present paper since some similar situations have been reported in the preceeding literature [8, 20, 25]. In terms of the periodic wave solution of Case 2, we have not discussed it in detail since guessing the periodic wave solution would not yield important localized excitations. However, the above conjecture may be inappropriate. In the following part, we will discuss some signicant localized excitations derived from the periodic wave solution, namely v3 , x y (tan2 ( ( + )) + 1)2 , ( > 0) . (32) U v3 = tan2 ( ( + )) where (x, t), (y ) are two arbitrary functions of the indicated variables. III-1. Fractal patterns For instance, when choosing and to be |x + ct|sn(ln(x + ct)2 , 0.4)2 , 1 + (x + ct)4 |y + 0.1|sn(ln(y + 0.1)2 , 0.4)2 , =1+ 1 + (y + 0.1)4 =1+

(33)

where sn denotes a Jacobian elliptic function of the indicated variable, we can derived a regular fractal pattern from the periodic wave solution (32). Fig. 1 shows the localized fractal pattern for the physical eld U (32) with condition (33) and xed parameters = 2. From Fig. 1, we can nd the localized pattern structure possessing a self-similar fractal property. Near the center in Fig. 1(a), there are many peaks which are distributed in a fractal manner. In order to observe the self-similar structure of the fractal pattern clearly, one may enlarge a

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(a) 40 U0 40 3 2 1 x0 1 2 3 3 0.001 0.0008 0.0006 0.0004 50 U0 50 0.0002 x0 0.0002 0.0002 0y 0.0002 (c) 0.0002 y0 0.0002 0.0004 0.0006 0.0008 0.0008 0.0004 0 0.0002 x 1 2 0y 1 3 2 50 U0 50 0.04 0.02 x0 0.02 0.04 0.04 0y 0.02

(b)

0.04 0.02

(d)

0.0006

FIG. 1: (a) A plot of the fractal pattern structure for the eld U given by Eq. (32) with the conditions (33) and = 2 at t = 0. (b) Self-similar structure of the fractal pattern related to (a) in the region {x [0.04, 0.04], y [0.04, 0.04]}. (c) Self-similar structure of the fractal pattern related to (a) in the region {x [0.00032, 0.00032], y [0.00032, 0.00032]}. (d) Density of the fractal structure related to (a) in the region {x [0.0009, 0.0009], y [0.0009, 0.0009]}.

small region near the center of Fig. 1(a). Fig. 1(b) and Fig. 1(c), respectively, show the selfsimilar structure of the fractal pattern in the region {x [0.04, 0.04], y [0.04, 0.04]} and {x [0.00032, 0.00032], y [0.00032, 0.00032]}. From Fig. 1(b) and Fig. 1(c), one can readily nd the self-similar property of the regular fractal pattern. Fig. 1(d) shows the density of the regular fractal pattern (a) in the center region {x [0.0009, 0.0009], y [0.0009, 0.0009]}. Upon enlarging a smaller region near the center of Fig. 1(d), one will amazedly nd a totally similar structure to that presented in Fig. 1(d). In addition to the self-similar regular pattern, the lower-dimensional stochastic fractal functions may also be used to construct high-dimensional stochastic fractal dromions and lumps excitations. For example, one of the most well-known stochastic fractal functions is the Weierstrass function

N

( ) =

(s2)k sin(k ) ,

k =0

N ,

(34)

where the independent variable may be a suitable function of {x + at} and/or {y }, say = x + at and = y in the functions of and , respectively, for the following selections

VOL. 45

(b)

4 2 x0 0y 2 2 4 4

FIG. 2: (a) A plot of a typical stochastic fractal dromion solution determined by Eq. (32) with selections (34), (35) and = s = 1.5 at t = 0. (b) A plot of typical stochastic fractal lump solution determined by Eq. (32) with selections (34), (36), and = s = 1.5 at t = 0.

(35) and (36), = 0.6 + 0.08 tanh(0.3x + at) , = 0.06 tanh(y ) + 0.03 tanh(y + 6) + 0.15 tanh(y 8) , and = 2 0.08 exp[(y + 0.1)(y + )] . = 2 0.08 exp[(x + at)(x + )] , (36) (35)

If the Weierstrass function is included in the dromion and lump excitations, then we can derive the stochastic fractal dromions and lumps. Fig. (2) shows a plot of typical stochastic fractal dromion and lump solutions determined by (32) under the conditions (34), (35), and (36) with xed parameters = 2, = s = 1.5 at t = 0. From Fig. 2, one can nd that the amplitudes of the multi-dromion are stochastically changed, as is the fractal multi-lump structure. III-2. Chaotic patterns Additionally, if the functions and/or are set to be solutions of a chaotic dynamical system, then we can derive some localized excitations with chaotic behaviors. For example, if is xed as a solution of the following nuclear spin generator (NSG) system [26]: m = bm + n ,

2

(37)

where m, n, and l are functions of and a, b, c are model parameters. The nuclear spin generator system is a high-frequency oscillator which generates and controls the oscillations of a nuclear magnetization vector in a magnetic eld. The NSG system exhibits a large variety of chaotic attractors and displays rich structures. One of the typical chaotic attractors

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0.4 0.8 0.7 0.6 l0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.2 0 n 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.2 0 0.1 m 0.004 (c) 0.4 100 200 t 300 (a) 0.2 n0 0.2

(b)

400

150

200 x 250

300

200 y 150

250

300

FIG. 3: (a) A typical attractor plot of the chaotic NSG system (37) with the condition (38). (b) A typical plot of the chaotic solution n in the NSG system (37) related to (a). (c) A chaotic line soliton for the eld U determined by (32) with condition (39) and t = 0, = 2. (d) A chaotic pattern for the eld U expressed by (32) with condition (40) and t = 0, = 2.

for the NSG (37) system is depicted in Fig. 3(a) when a = 0.2 , Now we take (x, t) = 1 + n( ) , = 1 + exp(y ) , (39) b = 1.3 , c = 3, m(0) = 1 , n(0) = 2 , l(0) = 0 . (38)

where n( ) presented in Fig. 3(b) is the solution of the NSG system (37) with the conditions (38) and = x + t. Therewith, the localized pattern is a chaotic line soliton, which presents chaotic behavior in the x direction and localizes in the y direction. Fig. 3(c) shows the corresponding plot of the chaotic line soliton for the eld U (32) with condition (39) at xed time t = 0. Furthermore, if and are all selected as chaotic solutions of some lower dimensional non-integrable models, then the eld U (32) will conduct chaotically in all directions and yield a non-localized chaotic pattern. For example, if and are chosen to be = 1 + n(x + t) , = 1 + n(y ) , (40)

10

VOL. 45

where n is the solution of the NSG system (37) with condition (38). Fig. 3(d) shows the corresponding plot of the chaotic pattern for the eld U (32) with condition (40) at t = 0.

In summary, by means of the extended mapping method and the linear variable separation method, analytical investigation of the nonlinear (2+1)-dimensional MDWW system shows the existence of interacting coherent excitations such as the dromions, lumps, peakons, compactons, ring soliton solutions, and breathers, as well as foldon solutions in terms of the derived solitary solutions or variable separation solutions. Meanwhile, we have obtained some lower-dimensional chaotic patterns, such as chaotic line soliton patterns and chaotic patterns, due to the possibility of selecting appropriately some arbitrary functions. In a similar way, some regular fractal dromion and lump patterns as well as stochastic fractal localized excitations are derived from the periodic wave solutions. In usual cases, based on the solitary wave solutions like Case 1 and the variable separation solutions of Case 3, one can nd abundant localized excitations such as dromions, breathers, lumps, peakons, campactons, foldons, etc. However, in this paper, we have successfully revealed some localized patterns from the periodic wave solution. As far as we know, the localized coherent patterns, such as the chaotic patterns and fractal patterns derived from a periodic wave solution were not reported in the previous literature. It should be mentioned that, since the fractal concept proposed by Mandelbrot in 1975, one can nd remarkable developments in mathematics and important inuences on biology as well as physics, so too chaos science. Actually, fractals and chaos not only belong to the realms of mathematics or computer graphics, but also exist nearly everywhere in nature, such as in uid turbulence, crystal growth patterns, porous media, human veins, fern shapes, galaxy clustering, cloud structures, and in numerous other examples. Just as the authors pointed our in Ref. [8], by selecting dierent types of lower dimensional fractal functions, one may obtain various beautiful higher dimensional fractal patterns for some physical quantities. These beautiful pictures obtained here may be useful in costume design, architecture, and so on. In the future, perhaps the most famous artists will also be the most famous physicists and mathematicians. Similarly, although experimental physicists have not yet found real dromion-type excitations (some patterns localized exponentially in all directions) in any real physical systems, we still believe that there must exist many possible applications for this interesting phenomenon. Once the stable dromions are found, the chaotic dromions will be immediately found by using a chaotic signal. Anyway, we hope these fractal and chaotic patterns related to Jacobian functions and Weierstrass functions etc. would be helpful for some applications in reality.

VOL. 45

11

Acknowledgments

The authors are in debt to Professors J. P. Fang, H. P. Zhu, C. Z. Xu, L. Q. Chen, J. F. Zhang, Doctors Z. Y. Ma, and W. H. Huang for their fruitful discussions, and also expresses sincere thanks to the anonymous referees for their positive comments and constructive suggestions. The project was supported by Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province (Grant No. Y604106), the Foundation of New Century 151 Talent Engineering of Zhejiang Province, the Scientic Research Foundation of Key Discipline of Zhejiang Province, and the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Lishui University (Grant Nos. FC06001 and QN06009).

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