You are on page 1of 35

PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY

Thematic Area 1 Standards and Specifications

CHAPTER 2

HARMONISATION OF ROADWAY GEOMETRIC STANDARDS

BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION

THEMATIC AREA 1

CHAPTER 2 Page 1

PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY

TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................................................... 3 LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................................. 3 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS ................................................................................. 4 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .................................................................................................................. 5 2. INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................... 6 2.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.2 2.3 BACKGROUND .................................................................................................................. 6 Study Objectives ............................................................................................................. 6 Terms of Reference and Scope of Work.......................................................................... 7 Approach and Methodology............................................................................................. 7

OVERVIEW OF ROADWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN STANDARDS ....................................... 8 REVIEW OF ROADWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN STANDARDS ............................................ 9 Geometric Design Standards Adopted by EAC Partner States ........................................ 9 Areas of Commonality and Divergence ........................................................................... 9 Road Classification ....................................................................................................... 10 Design Control and Criteria ........................................................................................... 12 Design Vehicle and Vehicle Characteristics ........................................................... 12 Terrain ................................................................................................................... 14 Driver Performance ................................................................................................ 15 Traffic Characteristics ............................................................................................ 16 Sight Distance ........................................................................................................ 19 Horizontal Alignment .............................................................................................. 20 Vertical Alignment .................................................................................................. 24 Road and Lane Width ............................................................................................ 28 Shoulders ............................................................................................................... 30 Normal Cross Fall .................................................................................................. 31 Side Slope and Back Slope .................................................................................... 31 Drainage Channels ................................................................................................ 31 Clear Zone ............................................................................................................. 32 Multilane Divided Roads......................................................................................... 32 Junctions ................................................................................................................... 34 At Grade Junctions................................................................................................. 34 Grade Separated Junctions.................................................................................... 34

2.3.1 2.3.2 2.4. 2.4.1 2.4.2

POTENTIAL AREAS FOR HARMONISATION AND IMPROVEMENT ................................. 10

2.4.2.1 2.4.2.2 2.4.2.3 2.4.2.4 2.4.3 2.4.3.1 2.4.3.2 2.4.3.3 2.4.4 2.4.4.1 2.4.4.2 2.4.4.3 2.4.4.4 2.4.4.5 2.4.4.6 2.4.4.7 2.4.5 2.4.5.1 2.4.5.2

Design Elements ........................................................................................................... 19

Cross Section Elements ................................................................................................ 28

REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................... 35

BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION

THEMATIC AREA 1

CHAPTER 2 Page 2

PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2. 1: Speed vs accessibility ............................................................................................. 11

LIST OF TABLES
Table 2. 1: Geometric Design Standards in EAC Partner States ...........................................9 Table 2. 2: Road Functional Classification in EAC Partner States.......................................10 Table 2. 3: Comparison of the design vehicle characteristics ..............................................13 Table 2. 4: Comparison of minimum turning radii for the design vehicle outer side .............14 Table 2. 5: Comparison of transverse terrain slope categories............................................14 Table 2. 6: Driver characteristics .........................................................................................15 Table 2. 7: Comparison of design speed for various road class A and terrain.....................17 Table 2. 8: Comparison of design speed for various road class B and terrain.....................17 Table 2. 9: Comparison of design speed for various road class C and terrain.....................17 Table 2. 10: Passenger Car Equivalent Factors ..................................................................18 Table 2. 11: Comparison of values used in estimating sight distances................................19 Table 2. 12: Minimum and Maximum Tangent Length in Other countries............................21 Table 2. 13: Comparison of road and lane width design values ..........................................29 Table 2. 14: Comparison of shoulder width design values (m) ............................................30 Table 2. 15: Clear zone widths ............................................................................................32 Table 2. 16: Median widths ..................................................................................................32

BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION

THEMATIC AREA 1

CHAPTER 2 Page 3

PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS AADT AASHTO ADT BICO CSIR DHV EAC EATTFP P SADC SATCC SU SU+T TANROADS WB Average Annual Daily Traffic American Association of State Highway and Transport Officials Average Daily Traffic Bureau for Industrial Cooperation Centre Daily Hourly Volume East African Community East African Trade and Transport Facilitation Project Passenger Car Southern African Development Cooperation Southern African Transport and Communications Commission Single Unit Single Unit and Trailer Tanzania National Roads Agency Wheel Base BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 4 .

The recommendations on harmonisation regimes and improvements covered the following design aspects:             Road classification Design vehicle Terrain classification system Driver performance parameters Design speed Capacity Road lane width Shoulder width Clear zone Sight distance design parameters Horizontal alignment Vertical alignment BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 5 . the approach and methodology adopted by the study involved initial visits to EAC Partner States for the purpose of collecting design standards and other documents and information related to roadway geometric design practice in each partner state. considering road safety issues and natural and human environmental aspects. Tanzania Mainland and Zanzibar as well as Uganda are using their own standards which were developed largely from the American and English practice. detailed review of design standards and preparation of draft working papers for experts’ views and comments through experts meetings in each EAC Partner State. A comparative assessment of the roadway design standards practised in the EAC region and elsewhere revealed a number of design features which are common and unique to particular countries. The assessment also involved elaboration of the impacts of adopting lower or aboveminimum design standards. design controls and criteria. cross section elements. The study found that geometric road design standards in Burundi and Rwanda are based on the American standards while Kenya.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The principle objective of this study is to make it possible to have a reliable. and junctions. It was noted that the design standards for these countries adopted some design criteria from the geometric design standard of the Southern African Transport and Communications Commission (SATCC). and AASHTO design guide. design elements. which was also derived largely from the American and English practice. preparation and submission of an Inception Report. Each design standard was reviewed in terms of the most important design features for proper roadway geometric design. On the basis of the results of comparative assessment of the various standards. In order to adequately address the scope of work. the study outlined recommendation concerning potential areas for harmonisation and improvement in Chapter four of this report. efficient and safe road transport services in EAC region. This chapter addresses this objective by making recommendations about the roadway geometric design standards for the EAC region such that the optimum balance between road infrastructure construction cost and road user cost is obtained.

efficient and safe road transport services. This chapter is part of the outputs of the harmonisation process of the above thematic areas. 2. ii. BICO was contracted to work on transport facilitation component of the East African Trade and Transport Facilitation Project (EATTFP). iv. v. and more particularly Thematic Area 1: Harmonisation of Standards and Specifications. Several subcomponents were identified to fall under this thematic area as follows: i. iv. 2.1. interconnection within the EAC region and development of legal instrument for overload control Legal and institutional frameworks vi. iii. traffic signals and marking of vehicle safety and fitness of vehicle dimensions and combinations of transportation of abnormal. It can be stated that through harmonisation of roadway geometric design standards the following can be achieved:    Economic and technical efficiency in road transportation within the EAC region through the provision of uniform road networks at optimal cost Provision of the same quality of service throughout the regional road network Improved efficiency of the road transport system by minimisation of road crashes and energy consumption One of the principal objectives of this chapter is to make recommendations about the roadway geometric design standards for the EAC region such that the optimum balance between road BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 6 . As part of the contract. awkward and hazardous loads Therefore this chapter addresses the first subcomponents of thematic area one (1). The component aims at making it possible to have reliable. viii. iii.1 INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND As part of the on going EAC efforts to enhance trade among the Partner States and with outside world thereby improving the region’s economy and competitiveness. therefore BICO was required to review and harmonise the following thematic areas: i. v.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY 2. Harmonisation Harmonisation Harmonisation Harmonisation Harmonisation Harmonisation Harmonisation Harmonisation Harmonisation of road geometric design standards of road pavement and materials design standards of bridge design standards of specifications for road and bridge works of road and bridge maintenance standards of road signs. training curriculum. Standards and specifications Vehicle registration and licensing Environmental standards and regulations Road safety laws and regulations Weighbridge print out certificates. ix.2 Study Objectives The overall objective of the assignment is to make it possible to have a reliable. efficient and safe road transport services in the region. ii. vi. vii.

3 Terms of Reference and Scope of Work The Terms of Reference (TOR) have clearly outlined the background of the project. Meetings were held as follows: o Nairobi. Burundi – 6th July. The visits involved one member of the consultant’s team visiting the contact person in the respective partner state to identify and collect documents relevant to all thematic areas. 2011 o Kigali.1.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY infrastructure construction cost and road user cost is obtained. This step will be followed by the revision of the papers to account for the committee’s comments and preparation of Draft Final Report. and makes recommendations for the EAC. its description and key objectives. 2011 o Kampala. Uganda – 11th to 12th July. Detailed documents review. considering road safety issues and natural and human environmental aspects.1.1. Rwanda – 8th July. BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 7 . Kenya – 4th July. Preparation of an Inception Report and submission of the same to the EAC Secretariat. Tanzania – 25th July. the methodology adopted for the project and therefore preparation of this working paper entailed the following activities:  Visit EAC Partner States for the purpose of collecting documents from each partner state and to make initial contacts with the responsible officials. 2011 o Bujumbura. 2. The chapter therefore discusses established roadway geometric design standards within the EAC member countries as well as applicable SADC and other international standards. Collection of experts’ views and comments on the draft working papers through experts meetings in each EAC Partner State. situational analysis and preparation of draft working papers. the scope of work under thematic area one (1) included: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Review existing documents/ statutes and propose improvements to the same Identify areas of commonality which lend themselves to harmonization Propose and implement the incorporation of areas unique to particular countries into the harmonized regimes Give an indication of the impact of harmonization Conduct stakeholder workshops to gain consensus on the harmonization of different regulations and standards 2. The scope of services to be provided by the consultant is detailed for each of the six thematic areas outlined in Section 1. 2011 o Dar es Salaam.4 Approach and Methodology In order to adequately address the scope of work. Tanzania – 15th July. 2011    The process of collection of experts’ views was concluded by revising the draft working papers so as to prepare Working Papers for submission to the EAC Secretariat for comments by the Technical Committee. 2011 o Zanzibar. As outlined in the TOR.

and driver behaviour. etc. They are joined together to create a facility that serves the traffic in a safe and efficient manner. Physical design standards link physical performance of design elements such as horizontal alignment. and the characteristics of the roadway facility. Geometric design standards cover a wide range of issues such as choice of horizontal and vertical alignment. safe. Road furniture and other facilities. they provide the framework for economic design. horizontal and vertical alignments. environmental. Design elements: these are principal design elements which include sight distance. including acceleration and deceleration characteristics. It is therefore expected that a code of practice for or manual on roadway geometric design should cover the following important aspects for proper roadway geometric design. and thirdly. As noted above. reaction times. weight. standards are intended to provide minimum levels of safety and comfort for drivers. and traffic that act as criteria for the optimisation or improvement in design of the various road classes. road cross section. overtaking provision. and comfort standards. Human capabilities and characteristics important in setting design standards include visual ability. vertical alignment. Intersections. and other elements of geometric design. Firstly. steering behaviour. maximum speed. The planning cannot be done stage wise in this case like that of a pavement. road users. gap acceptance behaviour. Thus. Roadway system characteristics to which design standards apply include:      Minimum radius of curve Maximum rate of superelevation Maximum and minimum grades Minimum cross slopes Minimum length of vertical curves The use of geometric design standards fulfils three inter-related objectives. and various design details. cross section. human characteristics. THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 8     BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION . vehicle size. consistent with the facility’s intended function.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY 2. the physical performance of a roadway is a result of the interaction of vehicular characteristics. Cross section elements. economic and mobility needs. wheelbase. an emphasis has been placed on existing flexibility in design guidelines and the use of creative design in addressing the site-specific project needs has been encouraged. they ensure a consistency of alignment. This philosophy was coined in the USA as context-sensitive design and represents an approach in which balance is sought between safety. secondly. width. During the last years. ability to hear.2 OVERVIEW OF ROADWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN STANDARDS The geometric design of roadways deals with the dimensions and layout of visible features of a roadway with the objective of creating the roadway facility to the characteristic and behaviour of drivers. the design standards adopted must take also into account the environmental road conditions. Vehicular characteristics include physical dimensions such as length. each alignment element should complement others to produce a consistent. height.  Design controls and criteria: these cover the characteristics of vehicles. driver characteristics or some combination of these. traffic characteristics. and efficient design. all geometric road design standards have some underlying basis of vehicle dynamics. but has to be done well in advance. vehicles. superelevation. traffic and terrain. Thus. However.

published seven documents. It should also be noted that countries like Tanzania has adopted some design criteria from the geometric design standard of the Southern African Transport and Communications Commission (SATCC). and 1971. BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 9 .1 Geometric Design Standards Adopted by EAC Partner States The fundamental principles of geometric design were discussed in engineering textbooks as early as 1912. Geometric road design standards in Burundi and Rwanda are based on the American standards while Kenya. vehicle.3. it was not until 1940 when the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO). Table 2. 1: Geometric Design Standards in EAC Partner States Country Geometric design standard Year of latest version of standards 2004 Remarks Burundi AASHTO Geometric design of highways and streets Kenya road design manual: Part 1: Geometric Design of Rural Roads AASHTO Geometric design of highways and streets Tanzania road geometric design manual (Draft): Part 1: Trunk and Regional Roads Tanzania road geometric design manual (Draft): Part 1: Trunk and Regional Roads Uganda road design manual: Vol.1 revealed a number of areas of commonality as well as areas unique to particular countries.1 provides a summary of design standards that are used by EAC Partner States. later the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). most of the basic models are the same as those in the 1940s. which was also derived largely from the American and English practice. Tanzania and Uganda are using their own standards which were developed largely from the American and English practice. 1965. The 1940 AASHO policies were revised and amended in 1954. Although some assumptions have changed. and roadway. They also were revised and amended by AASHTO in 1984. and 1994. 1990. Table 2.3 REVIEW OF ROADWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN STANDARDS 2.2 Areas of Commonality and Divergence A review of the documents listed in Tables 2. AASHTO geometric design policies are based on the laws of physics and conservative assumptions in regard to the driver. These areas are discussed in detail in the following section.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY 2. however. 1: Geometric Design - Kenya 1979 A new design manual is currently under preparation Rwanda 2004 - Tanzania (Mainland) 2010 Draft manual to replace the 1989 design manual Tanzania (Zanzibar) 2010 Draft manual to replace the 1989 design manual Uganda 2005 - 2.3. formally recognizing policies on certain aspects of geometric design.

Further. geometric road cross section parameters and road reserve widths are specified for each road design class. rolling and mountainous terrains as well as capacity in pcu per day.2). other geometric design parameters including cross section dimensions are specified for each design class. On the other hand there are five functional classes and seven design classes of roads in Uganda (Table 2. 2: Road Functional Classification in EAC Partner States Functional class Level access control of Burundi Kenya Country Rwanda Tanzania (Mainland and Zanzibar) Design class Yes / no Design class Uganda Yes / no A: International trunk roads B: National trunk roads C: Regional roads* D: Secondary roads E: Minor roads Full Na Design class Yes/ no Design class Yes/ no Yes/ no Design class Na Yes Na Na Yes 1. 2. 2 & 3 Yes Ia. roads are classified into five functional classes based on their functional characteristics.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY 2. which in turn are classified based on AADT or DHV in year 10 in passenger car units (pcu). II.2). 3. But each partner state has its own road design classification system. The division into road design classes is partly governed by design traffic in the design year and the functional classification of the road. POTENTIAL AREAS FOR HARMONISATION AND IMPROVEMENT 2. III &A gravel II. In Tanzania. & III Ib.2 that EAC Partner States are using the same functional classification system with very slight changes in the definition of class C roads. For design purposes the roads are classified into seven classes upon which typical road crosssections are defined (Table 2. II. Further. Ib. BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 10 . class C roads are termed as Primary Roads It can be noted from Table 2.2). there are three functional classes and five design classes of roads (Table 2.4. The division into road design class is governed by the design speeds in level.1 Road Classification In Kenya. 4 &5 3. Table 2.4. 4 & 5 Yes Full or partial Na Na Yes Na Na Yes Yes Partial Na Na Yes Na Na No Yes Partial or unrestricted Na Na Yes Na Na No - Yes *In Kenya and Uganda. III & B gravel A gravel &B gravel B gravel &C gravel Full Na Na Yes Na Na Yes 1.

1). there will in practice be many overlaps of function. Accordingly. 1: Speed vs accessibility Recommendation For design purposes. The classification is also useful for road management purposes.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY Geometric design standards depend on the functional requirements of the road. roads should be classified based on mobility and accessibility and the following road classes should be considered for adoption: i) Access roads ii) Local roads iii) Arterials iv) Highways v) Expressways vi) Freeways BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 11 . the functional classification of the road system does not automatically lead to the selection of a design speed and cross section for a specific link in the network. and clear distinctions will not always be apparent on functional terms alone. Figure 2. Roads may also be classified based on some other criteria but the classification based on speed and accessibility is the most generic one. the roads can be classified as shown in Figure 2. While this classification is simplistic. It should be noted that as the accessibility of road increases. However. the speed reduces (Figure 2.1 in the order of increased accessibility and reduced speeds.

However. Single unit trucks and buses have smaller minimum turning radii than most combination vehicles.4. and turning radius. Table 2. design vehicle dimensions adopted by the EAC Partner States vary from one state to another. It thus represents a combination of the critical design features of all the vehicles within a specific class. It is considered that AASHTO vehicle dimensions. Though there are some similarities. As it can be seen from the table. The dimensions of the design vehicles should take into account recent trends in motor vehicle sizes in the market and represent a composite of vehicles currently in operation. Trucks and buses generally require more generous geometric designs than do passenger vehicles. The Tanzania manual specified the use of SATCC minimum turning radii and AASHTO values were adopted by Uganda manual for the outer side of the vehicle to be used in constricted situations where the templates are not appropriate and the radii are only to crawl speeds. These values are shown in Table 2. The boundaries of the turning paths of each design vehicle for its sharpest turns are established by the outer trace of the front overhang and the path of the inner rear wheel. in constricted situations where templates are not appropriate.1 Design Vehicle and Vehicle Characteristics The design vehicle is a composite rather than a single vehicle.2 Design Control and Criteria 2. The source of the design vehicle dimensions specified in the Kenya design manual is not known but it was assumed that they represented the vehicle market conditions in Kenya. Rwanda and Uganda are representative of vehicles generally found in EAC Partner States. However. BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 12 . This assumes that the outer front wheel follows the circular arc defining the minimum centreline turning radius as determined by the vehicle steering mechanism.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY 2. Burundi and Rwanda are using the AASHTO design guide.4. the longer combination vehicles need greater turning path widths.2.4 in comparison with other design standard values. each design manual presented templates for establishing the layout of intersections and median openings that correspond to their design vehicles. design manuals used in the EAC region present different dimensions of design vehicles. The principal dimensions affecting design are the wheelbase. As the result of using different sizes of design vehicles dimensions. The Tanzania manual indicated different dimensions of design vehicle with SATCC Code of Practice for the Geometric Design of Trunk Roads acknowledged as the source for the dimensions while the Uganda manual indicated dimensions of design vehicles with AASHTO Geometric Design Manual of Highway and Streets acknowledged as the source for the dimensions. width. but because of their greater offtracking. the dimensions of design vehicle are intended to represent vehicle sizes that are critical to geometric design and thus are larger than nearly all vehicles belonging to their corresponding vehicle classes.3 presents a summary of the findings. height. which have been in use in Burundi. the capabilities of the design vehicle become critical.

8 2.8 6.8 Burundi (AASHTO) 0.1 4.1 & 12.9 2.8 2.6 - *distance between SU rear wheels and trailer front wheels Table 2.2 2.1 & 12.2 Front overhand (m) Kenya Tanzania Uganda (SATCC) (AASHTO) 0.1 3.1 2.8 2.6 2.5 1.1 1.5 1.2 2.6 2.1 4.1 4.4.8+8.1 & 12.6 0.8 2.9 0.6 2.9 1.6 2. 3: Comparison of the design vehicle characteristics Burundi (AASHTO) Vehicle P SU SU+T BUS WB-15 Interstate semitrailer 3.6 4.1 0.1 0.8 2.1 0.4 0.9 1.1 7.5 2.6 0.5 - Tanzania (SATCC) 1.6 0.8 1.1 0.1 6.6 1.2 Burundi (AASHTO) 1.2 Rwanda (AASHT O) 0.1 4.3: (Continues) Width (m) Vehicle P SU SU+T BUS WB-15 Interstate semi-trailer Burundi (AASHTO) Height (m) Uganda (AASHTO) Rwanda (AASHTO) Burundi (AASHTO) Kenya 1.1 & 9.4 6.2 1.9 1.4 2.6 2.3 3.6 - Uganda (AASHTO) Rwanda (AASHTO) 2.4*+6.9 1.8 Rwanda (AASHTO) 3.8 Kenya Wheel base (m) Tanzania Uganda (SATCC) (AASHTO) 3.5+9.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY Table 2.4 6.9 6.9 1.3 4.5 1.1 4.4 0.1 2.5 4.9 Kenya Rear overhang (m) Tanzania Uganda (SATCC) (AASHTO) 1.6 0.6 2.9 1.5 - Kenya 3.7+3.0 1.8 6.5 2.6 6.6 6.4 2.8 3.4 6.4.1 6.2 4.2 2.5 2.2 2.1 1.6 2.2 4.2 3.4 .3 2.1 6.1 BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 13 .7 1.6 2.4 0.0 0.9 2.6 2.6 1.1 7.4 .4 - 1.5 & 10.5 & 10.6 2.1 2.9 Rwanda (AASHTO) 1.4 3.6 2.5 1.2 0.1 7.1 7.8 - Tanzania (SATCC) 1.9 1.1 3.3 3.6 2.6 4.6 2.

8 13. the range of transverse slopes given does not clearly show.3 12.0 12.60% Above 60% na Uganda Around 5% 5%<slope≤20% na 20%<slope≤70% Slope >70% BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 14 .0 13.10% 10% . construction costs will be greater as the terrain becomes more difficult and higher standards will become less justifiable or achievable in such situations than for roads in either flat or rolling terrain. where a terrain of 20% would fall under the Uganda terrain specification and 10% for the case of Tanzania.8 12.8 12. 4: Comparison of minimum turning radii for the design vehicle outer side Burundi (AASHTO) 7.7 13. Design speed will therefore vary with terrain. With the exception of hilly and escarpment terrains which are just mentioned but not used in defining design standards in some of the design guides. Interestingly.8 11.8 13.7 Rwanda (AASHTO) 7.8 11.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY Table 2.8 7. 2. Tanzania and Uganda have four (see Table 2. Tanzania combines hilly and mountainous terrains into one group in specifying design standards while the Uganda design manual uses only three terrain types to define the associated standards and the escarpment terrain is left out (see Section 3.7 - 13. Kenya has three terrain types.7 Vehicle P SU BUS Articulated vehicle (ARTIC) Semi-trailer combination large Interstate semitrailer 13. Drivers also expect lower standards in such conditions and therefore adjust their driving accordingly.4.2 Terrain The next important factor that affects the geometric design is the terrain.3 12.25% 25% . Table 2. Generally. It is easier to construct roads with required standards for a plain terrain.2. Each EAC country has adopted and defined different classes of terrain and the associated average ground slope. for instance.3 10.2.7 Kenya Minimum turning radius (m) Tanzania Uganda (SATCC) (AASHTO) 6. other terrain types are widely used in the existing design guides of EAC Partner States. however. On the other hand.5).5 12. so minimising crash risk. 5: Comparison of transverse terrain slope categories Terrain Flat Rolling Hilly Mountainous Escarpment Kenya Around 5% Around 20% na Up to 70% na Tanzania 0% .4).7 Recommendation Design vehicle dimensions should be uniform across all EAC Partner States and AASHTO vehicle dimensions should be considered for adoption.

10 Na Tanzania Uganda Rwanda (AASHTO) 1.08 2.0 seconds for more complex-choice situations. 6: Driver characteristics Parameter AASHTO SATCC TRL ORN 6 1. it is reasonable to borrow these values with some minor adjustment based upon the experience of using values other than the AASHTO values in the region. In the absence of data on the same and eye height within the EAC region.4 m. a perception reaction time of 2.5 1. and the most appropriate response selected and initiated.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY Terrain categories need to be defined clearly and harmonised so as to remove ambiguity in classifying transverse slopes and to omit terrain categories which are just mentioned in the design guides but are not tied to any design standard. In the Southern Africa region research by Pretorius (1976) and Brafman Bahar (1983) indicated that 95% of passenger car drivers have an eye height of 1.05 2. Table 2.05 m or more. 10 – 25%. Recommendation Adopt terrain categories of flat. stopping sight distance.08 2. The height of the driver’s eye is considered to be 1.5 s is considered adequate for conditions that are more complex than simple conditions used in laboratory and road tests. 2.8 m or more. rolling and mountainous terrains with average ground slopes of 010%. 2001) reported about a study by Lerner (1995) which evaluated the perception reaction time for intersection sight distance. These values have accordingly been adopted for use in the guidelines. NCHRP Synthesis 299 (NCHRP. the values derived for related design elements such as sight distance are affected. and above 25%.8 m to 2. It should be noted that further decreases in passenger car heights corresponds to relatively small increases in the vertical curves lengths.05 2. and 95% of bus or truck drivers an eye height of 1.08 m above the road surface and for large trucks it ranges from 1. Guidance on various design parameters pertaining to deriver characteristics vary among EAC Partner States as shown in Table 2.6. The study found that differences in perception reaction time between age groups were trivial and the current AASHTO perception reaction time values are still adequate. especially for older drivers.07 2.3 Driver Performance Design parameters such as driver-eye height and perception-reaction time vary considerably among drivers as well as vehicle type and driving conditions.5 1.2. As a result. and decision sight distance.08 2. In accordance with the American practice. It also makes provision for a reaction time of 5.5 1. Such guidance should be carefully evaluated in relation to the assumptions made and their applicability to our region. These extended times make provision for the case where more than one external circumstance must be evaluated. respectively.7 to 10.5 Driver eye height (m) Perception reaction time (secs) 1.5 1.4.00 Design guide Burundi Kenya (AASHTO) 1.5 BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 15 .15 2.

given an overall range in design speeds of 20 to 120 km/h used in geometric design.5 secs and consider adopting a driver eye height of 1. it is desirable to select design speeds in increments of 10 km/h. Except for locall streets where speed controls are frequently included intentionally. It can be noted that the minimum design speed in Tanzania for flat terrain for Class A roads is higher compared to Kenya and Uganda. Above-minimum design values should be used. Tables 2. economics. The guide also recommends a design speed of 100 km/hr and 80 km/hr in rolling and mountainous terrains. it can be observed that the design speeds for various classes of roads in various terrain types varies among the Partner States.9 present a summary of design speeds specified in the design manuals used in EAC Partner States. a design speed of 120 km/hr was recommended for flat terrain and this applies as well for the case of trunk roads which may be two-lane two-way. To minimise road user costs. It is desirable that the running speed of a large proportion of drivers be lower than the design speed.4. Additionally. and efficient within the constraints of environmentally quality. respectively. where practical. a longer trip influences greatly the driver’s desire to use higher speeds. it is advised to use as high a design speed as practical to attain a desired degree of safety. Further. such as widths of lanes and shoulders and clearances to walls and rails. SATCC guide noted that the need for a multilane cross-section presumes that traffic volumes are high. and sight distance. 2. Apart from this observation. and social or political impacts. aesthetics. it can be noted from the tables that the maximum design speed in flat terrain is 120 km/hr and 100 km/hr and 80 km/hr in rolling and mountainous terrains. Therefore it is recommended that the design speed used for horizontal curve design be a conservative reflection of the expected speed on the constructed facility. However. Some design elements. mobility. design speed. the adjacent land use. BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 16 . curves with low design speeds (relative to driver expectation) are frequently overdriven and tend to have poor safety records.7 to 2. are directly related to. A pertinent consideration in selecting design speeds is the average trip length.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY Recommendation EAC Partner States should continue to use perception reaction time of 2. Other design features. and vary appreciably with. anticipated operating speed. superelevation.2.08 m. but they do affect vehicle speeds. and the functional classification of highway. are not directly related to design speed. This is not surprising as the there is some variances in the transverse slope values even within the same terrain classification.4 Traffic Characteristics Design Speed AASHTO (2004) guide on geometric design of highway and streets defines design speed as a selected speed used to determine the various geometric design features of the roadway. The assumed design speed should be a logical one with respect to the terrain. Generally. such as curvature. respectively.

BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 17 . The capacity of a roadway varies based upon its geometric characteristics. traffic composition. 2. II. 4 & 5 80 – 110 70 – 80 50 .80 - Table 2. II. Ib & Ia 80 – 120 70 – 100 na 50 . Related to this is the service volume/ flow rate which represents the maximum flow rate that can be accommodated while maintaining a certain level of service. the relationship between highway type and location and the level of service appropriate for design has been used by a number of design guides. the level of service given varies between the manuals. Guidelines for selection of design levels of service for the different classes of rural roads are also given in the manuals. II. Ib & Ia 80 – 110 (90*) 70 – 100 (80*) na 50 – 80 (70*) - *for A Gravel Design Class Table 2. It is recommended to adopt design speed of 120 km/h for multilane roads in flat terrain and two-lane two-way roads. 7: Comparison of design speed for various road class A and terrain Kenya Road design class Flat terrain Rolling terrain Hilly terrain Mountainous terrain Escarpment terrain 100 – 120 70 – 100 na 50 . Thus.60 na Design speed Tanzania 3.60 (70*) - *for A Gravel Design Class Recommendation It is desirable to have same design speed values for road classes that fall under the EAC road networks in the Partner States. Of equal interest is the quantification of level of service or quality of operation for a given roadway. In rolling terrain. 3.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY Table 2.70 na Uganda III.70 na Uganda III. design speed should be 100 km/h and 60 km/h in mountainous terrain. 2 & 3 110 – 120 80 – 90 70 na Uganda III. 4 & 5 80 – 120 70 – 90 50 . and any control actions applied to it.70 na Design speed Tanzania 1. 8: Comparison of design speed for various road class B and terrain Kenya Road design class Flat terrain Rolling terrain Hilly terrain Mountainous terrain Escarpment terrain 100 – 120 70 – 100 na 50 . Ib & Ia 80 – 90 70 (80*) na 50 . Capacity The term is used to denote the maximum hourly rate (design service flow rate) at which traffic can reasonably be expected to traverse a uniform section/point of a roadway during a given time period under prevailing roadway. 9: Comparison of design speed for various road class C and terrain Kenya Road design class Flat terrain Rolling terrain Hilly terrain Mountainous terrain Escarpment terrain 90 – 100 60 – 90 na 40 . However.70 na Design speed Tanzania 1. traffic and control conditions.

0 6. Recommendation Vehicle equivalent factors should be uniform in EAC region. This includes medium goods vehicles equivalent factors and the value of 5.0 0.0 as the vehicle equivalent factor for Medium Goods Vehicles in rolling terrain.0 10. Tanzania and Uganda manuals revealed that these countries are recommending use of same vehicle equivalent factors shown in Table 2.5 Mountainous 1. A comparative assessment of the vehicle equivalent factors given in the Kenya.5 3.5 3.0 1.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY Since the capacity and level of service values are expressed in passenger car units.0 20. Tanzania design manual specified a factor of 3.5 2. 10: Passenger Car Equivalent Factors Vehicle type Passenger cars Light goods vehicles Medium goods vehicles Heavy goods vehicles Buses Motor cycles.10. vehicle equivalent factors are usually used to translate large trucks.0 1.0 1.0 2.0 8. BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 18 .0 for MGV equivalent factor should be adopted by all partner states.5 Terrain Rolling pcu 1.0 1.0 4.0 0.5 NA However. buses and recreational vehicles into passenger car units.0 1. Table 2.5 5. scooters Pedal cycles Level 1.

On the other hand.6 m for stopping sight distance calculations would result in longer crest vertical curves without documented safety benefits and it could substantially increase construction costs because of the additional excavation needed to provide the longer curves.4.08 0. sight distance design parameter values used in EAC are different from one Partner State to another.3 Design Elements 2.60 1.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY 2. Meeting sight distance is the distance required to enable the drivers of two vehicles travelling in opposite directions. Passing sight distances calculated on the basis of object height of 1.05 1.05 0. the height of the driver’s eye and the height of the object to be seen by the driver as given by various geometric design standards are given in Table 2. The application of these values is discussed further in vertical alignment subsection.07 0.3.08 1.08 0.10 1.08 1. 2004).05 0.08 0.08 0.60 1.10 1.60 1. It is of concern on only two-lane roadways.08 0.60 1. but with reasonable narrow ranges. 11: Comparison of values used in estimating sight distances Stopping sight distance Driver eye Object height (m) height (m) 1.08 m are considered adequate for night conditions because headlight beam of an opposing vehicle generally can be seen from a greater distance than a vehicle can be recognised in the daytime (AASHTO.10 0.15 0.15 Decision sight distance Driver eye Object height (m) height (m) 1.08 0. usual consideration is it exist for a sufficient fraction of the highway’s length to prevent driver impatience.60 1.08 1.30 Country/standard Burundi Kenya Tanzania Uganda Rwanda AASHTO SATCC Stopping sight distance Driver eye height and object height design values vary between the countries.8. BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 19 .11.07 1.08 1. on a two-lane rural road. As it can be noted from Table 2. height criteria do not affect design for horizontal curves to fit minimum sight distance requirement except where the obstruction is a cut slope.1 Sight Distance Stopping sight distance is intended to allow drivers to stop safely after sighting an object on the roadway large enough to cause damage to the vehicle or loss of control. Uganda and Tanzania design manuals specify the coefficient of friction used at various design speeds to compute stopping sight distances. AASHTO (2004) observed that object heights of less than 0.08 1.30 1. to bring their vehicles to a safe stop after becoming visible to each other. Table 2. In computing and measuring stopping sight distances.60 1. with insufficient width for passing.10 1.00 Passing sight distance Driver eye Object height (m) height (m) 1. It should always be maintained at all points on the roadway.4. and need not be maintained everywhere on them. Passing sight distance is intended to ensure that a passing manoeuvre can be completed safely under certain assumptions as to vehicle speeds and acceleration capabilities.08 1.15 1. Further.15 1. rather.

The maximum superelevation rates really apply only to fairly low design speeds. Decision sight Distance This is the sight distance required at junctions. BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 20 . 2-lane single carriageway roads. although 12% is used in some cases for rural roadways. by the need to keep parking lanes relatively level and to keep the difference in slope between the roadway and any streets or driveways that intersect it with reasonable bounds. SATCC recommends drivers perception reaction time to be 7. long straight sections increase the danger from headlight glare and usually lead to excessive speeding. long tangents have been shown to increase driver fatigue and hence cause accidents. Design guide for Tanzania stated the same as for Uganda but it did not include the 10. it is the sum of the respective stopping sight distances for the two vehicles plus 10. In Uganda. Also. However. All manuals documented PSD but the Uganda manual stated that. rather than a single rate.12 shows the approaches used by other countries to limit the length of straight sections.3. values of maximum side friction vary with design speed. Additionally. there is a tradeoff between the maximum rate of superelevation and the minimum curve radius permitted at any design speed. The straight Straight sections provide better visibility and more passing opportunities and hence enhance safety.4.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY Meeting sight distance Kenya design manual recommends provision of meeting sight distance for all roads with carriageway widths less than 5. Table 2. Recommendation Adopt AASHTO values used for estimating sight distances 2. In hot climate areas. of maximum superelevation should be recognised in establishing design controls for highway curves.0 m.3 m above the road surface.0 m safety distance. the design guides have attempted to limit the length of straight sections. Further.5 s and values for other parameters are indicated in Table 2. and 6% or 4% for urban roads where traffic congestion or extensive marginal development acts to restrict top speeds. in computing passing sight distances. Thus.07 m above the road surface and object height as 1. the minimum passing sight distance for a two-lane road is about four times as great as the minimum stopping sight distance at the same speed. driver’s eye height should be taken as 1. Passing Sight Distance This is applicable to two-way.2 Horizontal Alignment Maximum Superelevation Rates Maximum rates of superelevation are limited by the need to prevent slow-moving vehicles from sliding to the inside of the curve under slippery conditions and .8. AASHTO recommends maximum superelevation rates be limited to 10%. in urban areas. The same approach is proposed by the SATCC guide. It is recommended that several rates.0 m safety distance.

at the commencement of which the two vehicles are still a kilometre apart. It is recommended that this should be considered a desirable length of tangent in the case where vehicles tend to travel at unaltered speed along tangents and around curves.0 km apart at the onset of dazzle.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY Table 2. a long tangent is a significant problem in night driving. under these circumstances. 12: Minimum and Maximum Tangent Length in Other countries Country AASHTO Germany France Swiss highway officials Min. At lower design speeds. a maximum tangent length which. During the last fifteen seconds. drivers should be encouraged to maintain a speed which is close to that selected for design purposes to reduce the possibility of an error of judgment leading to a crash.0 km apart at the commencement of the two minute period referred to and are still 4. a design speed of 80 km/h would suggest that tangents should not be longer than about 1. tangent length . in the second of the two minutes. tangent length Max. when they are both travelling at say 120 km/h. Where the topography is flat. A driver is very aware of approaching lights for as much as two minutes before the vehicles actually pass each other and. achieves this effect. for a design speed of the order of 120 km/h. SATCC design guide observed that American studies have shown that when the distance between successive curves is such that superelevation development is represented by a continuous rollover from one side of the road to the other.0 km respectively. Two vehicles approaching each other.6 km. when measured in metres.(favours long sections for passing purpose) 6 times design speed 20 times design speed 2 to 3 km Sections permitting one minute of driving not permitted Design guide for Kenya recommended two guidelines to be observed and applied for the lengths of straights:   Straights should not have lengths greater than (20xV D) metres (where VD is design speed in km/h) Straights between circular curves following the same direction should have lengths greater than (6xVD) metres (VD in km/h) While design guides for Tanzania and Uganda recommended that the length of straights on a road should not exceed 2 km and 4. the crash rate is high. i. In between these two extreme values the collision rate declines and then increases in a nearly symmetrical parabolic fashion with its minimum value being at a tangent length of about 12 km.e. It has been found that. reference can be made to dazzle which becomes increasingly severe. the drivers can only really guide their vehicles by concentrating on their left road edge at a point which will not be much more than about 50 m in BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 21 . is 20 times the design speed in km/h. are as much as 8. When the distance from the end of one curve to the commencement of the next curve is of the order of 20 km the crash rate is at about the same value as for continuous curvature. Ideally. For example. a tangent of this length would cause speeds to creep up to about 120 km/h or even higher and the driver would have to reduce speed to negotiate the following curve thereafter accelerating again.

1 for high speed roads to over 0. minimum radii or curve lengths for roadways may be established by the need to provide stopping sight distance or by appearance standards. Because light from headlights hit it at a very flat angle. Seeing that. The minimum length of tangent must also allow for the run-off of the super-elevation of the preceding curve followed by the development of that for the following curve. and the necessity to maintain stopping sight distance. and type and condition of tires. Recommendation Straights should not have length greater than (20xVD) m (where VD is design speed in km/h and a minimum length of (6xVD) m should also be adopted between circular curves following the same direction. This distance should actually be calculated during detailed design but. or both. Minimum radius of horizontal curve The minimum radius is a limiting value of curvature for a given design speed and is determined from the maximum rate of superelevation and the maximum side friction factor selected for design. at 120 km/h. it may be necessary to consider tangent lengths shorter than the 12 km proposed above. then R ≥ L (m) CHAPTER 2 Page 22 BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 . Where large volumes of nighttime traffic are expected. maximum superelevation rate for the curve. this is a potentially hazardous situation. road surface condition or texture. a conventional fence is remarkably effective in reducing glare. it may even be necessary to consider including a median in the cross-section and planting shrubs in it or providing some other means of reducing dazzle. Kenya design manual stated that. where the change of direction between two straights (intersection angle) is 8o or less. a vehicle requires a stopping distance of 210 m. the length of the horizontal curve should be at least 200 m otherwise the following guidelines should be applied to avoid sharp curves at the ends of long straights: If L ≤ 500m. Although based on a threshold of driver comfort. The results of empirical studies have indicated 0.5 on lower speed roads. weather conditions. minimum curve radius is limited by maximum allowable side friction. It is also an important control value for determination of superelevation rates for flatter curves. a tangent length of less than 200 m is likely to prove inadequate. minimum horizontal curve lengths may be specified for curves with small deflection angles.22 as a side friction factor above which passengers experience some discomfort. which is usually based on comfort standard. The range is considerable and side friction values found from road measurements have varied from just over 0. where deflection angles are small a short horizontal curve may give the appearance of a kink. For a given design speed. Use of sharper curvature for that design speed would call for superelevation beyond the limit considered practical or for operation with tire friction and lateral acceleration beyond what is considered comfortable by many drivers. In extreme cases.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY advance of their present position. In other cases. the minimum radius of curvature is a significant value in alignment design. as a rough rule of thumb. Side friction factors are dependent on speed. To prevent this. rather than safety.

tracking still remains an issue. While the maximum superelevation rates of 4 to 12% and side friction factors of 0. This length applies also to multilane cross-section because. Minimum length of curve For small deflection angles. SATCC design guide recommends a minimum length of curve of 300 m and if space is limited this length may be reduced to 150 m. They are most appropriate for roadways with relatively high design standards. where large-radius curves are used.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY If L > 500m.18 are used in the AASHTO guide (which is used by Burundi and Rwanda). AASHTO design guide as well as the design guide for Uganda recommended both the minimum lengths of circular curves and limiting values of superelevation rates and side friction to be used to compute the minimum radii of curves at various design speeds. it is required that curves should be long enough to avoid the appearance of a kink. V = Design speed in km/hr BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 23 . Design guides for Tanzania and Uganda recommended the application of transition curves to circular curves under the following condition: R V 3 432 Where: R = Radius of curve in metres. side friction ranging from 0. In Kenya transition curves are not required for horizontal curves with radii greater than 2000 m. and R = horizontal radius The manual provided minimum horizontal curve radii with respect to design speeds without specifying limiting values of superelevation rates and side friction.09 to 0. while passing opportunities do not pose a problem.08 to 0. the minimum length of the curve should be increased from 150 m by 30 m for each 1 o decrease in the deflection angle. then R ≥ 500m Where L = length of straight. Maximum length of curve SATCC design guide recommends that the length of a curve should not exceed 1 000 m and the preferred maximum length is 800 m.17 are recommended in the Tanzania and Uganda design manuals and the only difference between these two design manual is in the values adopted for superelevation rates (in Uganda it ranges from 4 to 8% and 6 to 8% for Tanzania). For deflection angles of less than 5o. The same approach is adopted by the Tanzania design guide. Transition curve Transition curves are used both for aesthetic reasons.

AASHTO guide observed that passenger cars can readily negotiate grades as steep as 4% to 5% without an appreciable loss in speed below that normally maintained on level roadways.5% unless special drainage treatments are provided while the recommended minimum gradient in cuttings in order to avoid standing water in the road side ditches is 0. has only a slight effect on passenger car speeds compared to operations on the level. including some compact and subcompact cars.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY 2. maximum gradient is a function of road type and design speed.5% in Uganda. BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 24 . under uncongested conditions. and usually do not constitute an absolute standard. with various countries considering some or all of the following factors: road classification. In Germany. the effect of truck speeds is much more pronounced than on speeds of passenger cars. design speed and terrain. a maximum grade of 5% for design speeds greater than 100 km/h and 5-8% for 60 – 100 km/h design speeds are recommended by the AASHTO guide. dual carriageway (4 %). the minimum gradient for roads in cutting is recommended to be 0. Vertical Alignment Recommendation Adopt maximum grades of 5% for design speeds greater than 100 km/h. The effect of a steep grade is to slow down the heavier vehicles and increasing operating costs and the extent to which any heavier vehicle is slowed depends on both the steepness and length of the grade. Maximum gradient guidelines range in complexity. Studies also show that. The effect the slowing of the heavier vehicle therefore depends on the situation. In Switzerland. topography and design speed. and is therefore more a matter of traffic analysis than simple geometric design. and single carriageway (6 %).3% grade may also be used where there is a high type pavement accurately sloped and supported on firm subgrade. and minimum grades of 0. for main rural roads values range from 8 % for 60 km/h to 4 % for 120 km/h design speed. To avoid standing water in side ditches. For example in the UK. desirable maximum gradient values are specified for road types: motorway (3 %). For Tanzania.4. except for cars with high weight/power ratios.3 to 0.3 Gradients Maximum grades vary. Thus.5% for 60 – 100 km/h design speeds respectively. with the tradeoffs usually being cost of construction versus speed.5%. the maximum grade for a given facility is a matter of judgement.0. Minimum grades are sometimes specified for roadways and are normally intended to provide for drainage on curbed facilities. As a result. maximum gradient is a function of design speed (from 10 % for a 60 km/h to 4 % for 120 km/h design speed). 8 .5% but a 0.5% for Kenya. It is further recommended to check for length of grades or otherwise climbing lane may be justifiable in some cases. Generally. the draft guide proposed minimum grades on cut sections to be 0. However. depending on the type of facility. operation on a 3% upgrade.3.3% . In the USA maximum gradients are based upon road type. AASHTO recommends that a typical minimum grade is 0.

Further. There is no general agreement as to the maximum value of radial acceleration. For sag curves. as defined by K =L/A. the AASHTO ‘K-values’ have been converted to the approximate corresponding radii values and minimum radii for various design speeds are usually given and therefore can be compared. In some cases. For crest vertical curves. or rate of vertical curvature which is used in several countries. Other countries base their design values on driver comfort. The design is based on minimum allowable ‘K-values’. or appearance criteria. Further appearance standards. it necessary to establish a comfort criterion. sight distance or appearance will govern.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY Vertical curves Minimum lengths may be based on sight distance. In this case. Design guide for Kenya recommended that the length of both sag and crest curves should be generally be not less than (2 x VD) metres where VD is the design speed in km/h. the minimum length depends on the sight distance. The minimum values of K in relation to design speed are given for bituminous and gravel roads in the design guides. vary from agency to agency. In order to compare values for vertical curves. stopping sight distance is based on the distance illuminated by the headlight at night. Several countries base their values for minimum sag curves on headlight illumination distances to satisfy stopping sight distance requirements on unlit roadways at night.6 m for sag curves. Uganda design guide recommended headlight sight distance of 0. BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 25 . In Germany. and the height of the object to be seen over the crest of the curve. Sag vertical curves are generally considered as less critical from the safety point of view than crest curves. which aim at avoiding short vertical curves that look like kinks when viewed from a distance. sag curves with a small total grade change can be sharp enough to cause discomfort without violating sight distance standards. Design standards are based on an assumed headlight height of 0.6 m. In most cases. the height of the driver’s eye. on comfort standards involving vertical acceleration.3 m/s2. whereas most of the countries specify the use of parabolic vertical curves. the minimum radius of sag curves is one half the minimum radius of crest curves art a given design speed. According to AASHTO the radius corresponds to the K-value. which involve the maximum radial acceleration permitted without causing discomfort. AASHTO suggests 0. Design guides for Tanzania and Uganda suggest the vertical curves lengths in terms of rate of curvature K as given by: L = KA Where: L= K= A= Minimum length of vertical curve Rate of vertical curvature per change in grade given as meters per percent grade change Algebraic difference between the gradient (%) Minimum radii of crest curves are established to satisfy stopping sight distance requirements.

and (ii) on all D and E class roads even if the AADT exceeds 2000 pcu in design year 10.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY Climbing lanes Design guide for Kenya recommended the following guidelines to warrant the design and provision of climbing lanes: Climbing lanes will not be required on (i) roads with AADT < 2000 pcu in design year 10.00 m in cross-section type III and IV. ii) When the speed of a typical heavy vehicle falls by 20 km/h. The minimum entry and exit tapers length is 100 metres. i) ii) iii) iv) AASHTO 2004 edition is recommending the following criteria to be fulfilled for climbing lane to be introduced. Climbing lanes will normally required on roads with AADT ≥ 6000 pcu in design year 10. While design guide for Uganda recommended that: i) i) Climbing lanes will not be required on (i) roads with AADT < 2000 pcu in design year 10. ii) Where passing opportunities are limited on the gradients. Climbing lanes should be considered if the design truck speed decreases more than 20 km/h under the truck speed limit. and C class roads with traffic flows in design year 10 is in the range of 2000 pcu < AADT < 6000 pcu.24. It further recommended that. iv) Climbing lanes should be considered on A class roads when the speed of a typical heavy vehicle falls by 15 km/h and the corresponding fall in speed applicable to B and C class roads shall be 20 km/h. where climbing lanes are required the widths of the through traffic lanes be reduced to 3. iii) Climbing lanes will normally required on roads with AADT ≥ 6000 pcu in design year 10. A. then climbing lanes must be considered on design class I. then climbing lanes must be considered on design class on A. 3. Design guide for Tanzania recommended the following guidelines to warrant the design and provision of climbing lanes: A traffic volume of ADT ≥ 1500 shall warrant for introduction of climbing lane when the critical length of gradients is exceeded. and (ii) on all design class III.25 m in cross-section type II. normally 80 km/h in rural conditions. Over the sections where climbing lanes are required. iii) It is recommended in the Tanzanian manual that. Where passing opportunities are limited on the gradients. B and C roads even if the AADT exceeds 2000 pcu in design year 10. & II roads with traffic flows in design year 10 is in the range of 2000 pcu < AADT < 6000 pcu. the width of the climbing lanes be the same as the width of the adjacent lane. B. the shoulder widths shall be reduced on both sides of the road to the values tabulated on page 5. The introduction and termination of a climbing lane shall be effected by tapers of length 60 m. i) ii) iii) Upgrade traffic flow rate in excess of 200 vehicles per hour Upgrade truck flow rate in excess of 20 vehicles per hour One of the following conditions exists: BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 26 .

a) Recommendation Adopt AASHTO’s warrants for climbing lanes. BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 27 . In addition safety considerations may justify the addition of a climbing lane regardless of grade or traffic volumes. and above all they include a safety criterion.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY A 15 km/h or greater speed reduction is expected for a typical heavy truck b) Level of service E or F exists on the grade c) A reduction of two or more levels of service is experienced when moving from the approach segment to the grade. AASHTO requirements for climbing lanes are simple and require data which is easily obtainable for site assessment.

0 m up to 3.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY 2.e. b) For two. BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 28 .5 to 3. AASHTO (2004) reported that lane widths of 2. As shown in Table 2. Lanes less than 3. which must be sufficient to accommodate the design vehicle.7 m wide are appropriate on low volume roads in rural and residential areas.25 m as the narrowest width for national roads.5 m wide. lane widths of 2. right-of-way.6 m right turn lane is considered from the 5.6 m are generally used with a 3. depending on the cross section type.3 m. 3. and lanes 2.1 Road and Lane Width A fundamental feature of roadway cross section is the width of a travel lane.7 m wide.0 m median width.4 Cross Section Elements 2.3 to 3.4 m. the width of the lane is 2. In order to compare the values of different countries.6 m. Restricted clearances have much the same effect.lanes two -way national/international roads.13 lane widths vary between countries.5 m while in Tanzania the widest lane width recommended by the design guide is 3. The selection of lane width is based on traffic volume and vehicle type and speed.0 m lane width is offset to some extent by a reduction in cost of shoulder maintenance and a reduction in surface maintenance due to lessened wheel concentrations at the pavement edges. The narrowest lane width is recommended to be 3. allow for imprecise steering manoeuvres.5 m.75 m and 3.5 m wide. In Uganda.6 m. Table 2. Narrower lanes force drivers to operate their vehicles closer to each other than they would normally desire. SATCC guide recommended that the greatest lane width should be 3.6 m lane provides desirable clearances between large commercial vehicles travelling in opposite directions on two-lane rural highways when high traffic volumes and particularly high percentages of commercial vehicles are expected.80 m for Design Class Paved III and Gravel B to 3.1 m wide giving a clear space of 0.4.65 m for Design Class Paved Ia. over the cost of providing a 3. The extra cost of providing a 3.6 m lane width. It should be noted that the maximum vehicle width is 2. The wider 3.7 m for higher volume roads and speeds. For low traffic volumes roads the lane width is recommended to be 2. For access roads with low volumes of traffic design class E roads. or existing development become stringent controls.0 m.7 to 3.6 m lane predominant on most high-type highways. are used. lane should be 3. can be used in urban areas where pedestrian crossings. for different reasons urban lane widths can be as great as 5. the road design classes are given as well. This lane width can only be used in places where speeds or traffic volumes are expected to be low while intermediate conditions of speeds and traffic volume can be adequately catered for by a lane width of 3. Lane width also affects highway level of service.7 m.3 m on either side of a vehicle that is 2.4. i. single lane operation is adequate with a basic width of 4. In Kenya. When continuous two-way right-turn lanes are provided a lane width of 3. Lanes 3. For road class Paved Ia a 3.6 m could be provided.4.13 shows typical lane width design values for various countries. Recommendation Adopt the following lane widths: a) For multilane cross-section or divided cross-section lanes should be 3. Rwanda and Burundi are using AASHTO standards. Although there is no operational or safety benefit accrued from lane widths wider than 3. but with reasonable narrow ranges.0 to 3.5 m. and provide clearance for opposing flow in adjacent lanes.0 m wide are acceptable on low-speed facilities.

Ib Road reserve Road way width (m) Lane width (m) 2 3 4 IV . of lanes 2 3 4 No.0 6.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY Table 2. 3 . of lanes Road reserve (m) Country Burundi Kenya 2 1 7 14 3.0 7. A Gravel Road reserve (m) Road way width (m) Lane width (m) No. of lanes No.0 3. of lanes No.0 3.0 2 50 5.65 4 60 7.8 2 50 6.6 3. 4 .25 3.0 2 40 Rwanda 5 BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 29 .5 4. 13: Comparison of road and lane width design values Road design class II .25 1 2 60 Tanzania 3 Uganda 4 14.5 4.0 3. 5 . 1 .25 1 2 60 4.0 3. III Road reserve (m) Road way width (m) Lane width (m) 2 3 4 VI .0 6.0 3.5 7. 2 . II Road reserve (m) Road way width (m) Lane width (m) 2 3 4 V .5 2 4 60 6.5 2 60 6.6 2.0 3.5 2 2 60 4. Ia Road way width (m) Lane width (m) 2 3 4 III .5 3.5 3. of lanes No.0 3.75 2 2 60 6.

8 to 2. The lateral clearance outside the paved carriageway provides a safety margin which has to be kept clear of solid obstacles.0 m as the normal shoulder width that should be provided along high-type facilities. shoulders of this width are being impractical. the road design classes are also given in the table. Table 2.4. obstacles situated aside the roadway occur under a certain angle.0 m width and preferably 3. Ib 2 3 4 Road design class 2 3 4 IV . a vehicle stopped on the shoulder should clear the edge of the roadway by at least 0.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY 2.2 Shoulders Shoulders are used for emergency stopping. and a 1. widths greater than 3. BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 30 . 2 . 1.0 m should be regarded as a minimum in EAC roads network.0 m. Shoulders should be wide enough to adequately fulfil their purpose. SATCC recommends that for speeds higher than 60 km/hr a shoulder width of 1. this lateral angle increases by a certain rate.00 2 3 1. There is no international consensus on appropriate shoulder width. For the approaching driver.4 m shoulder width is preferable. Table 2.4. and for lateral support of the subbase.0 may encourage unauthorised use of the shoulder as a travel lane. II V . A 4 Gravel 0.00 2. Heavily travelled.5 m should be regarded as the minimum. A minimum shoulder width of 0.6 m. base. This preference has led to the adoption of 3.50 2. however. but almost all widths are within the ranges of widths specified by SATCC guide as well as AASHTO. Researches have shown that that this rate must be above a certain threshold in order to be perceived by the driver.50 1.00 2. 1 .5 m. high-speed highways and highways carrying large number of trucks should have usable shoulders of at least 3. Ia Country 1 Burundi 2 Kenya 3 Tanzania 4 Uganda 5 Rwanda 2 3 4 III .00 2.50 Recommendation A shoulder width of 2. AASHTO observed that shoulders width varies from 0. III 2 3 4 VI . Desirably.3 m. 5 .14 shows typical shoulder widths for various EAC member countries.50 1.6 m on major roads where the entire shoulder may be stabilised or paved. for parking of disabled vehicles. and 2. A stress-free driving is only given when all lateral obstacles are perceived above this threshold.00 2.0 m for roads with the highest operating speeds and heavy traffic volumes. It suggests three alternative shoulder widths. but excessive width encourages drivers to use them as an additional travel lane. 2. In difficult terrain and on low volume roads.6 m should be considered for low-type highway. But the lateral clearance is not only a safety reserve. Due to the vehicle speed.00 Follows AASHTO standards 0. it is also needed due to the human senses of perception.5 m. It further recommends a shoulder width of 3.50 1. There is a slight variation in widths between the countries.50 2. and preferably by 0. 3 .50 1. In order to compare the values of different countries.6 m on minor rural roads where there is no surfacing to approximately 3. 4 . and surface courses of the travel roadway.6 m wide.50 2. 14: Comparison of shoulder width design values (m) II .00 Follows AASHTO standards 1.

SATCC guide suggests slopes of 2% and a maximum of 3% in areas where heavy rainfall is common or where longitudinal gradient is zero.0 m and the maximum of 2. Uganda manual recommends that the normal cross fall for paved carriageway on tangent sections and on very flat curves with larger radius. 2.6 m in mountainous and escarpment terrain.5% and for rural roads with gravel pavements 4.0% Shoulder slopes should normally be of the same slope as the carriageway.4. In Kenya.5 m are recommended.10 to 1:4 depending on the height of cut and the type of materials. For areas with expansive clay soils the side drains should be kept at a minimum distance of 1 m up to a greater or equal to 5 m from the toe of the embankment.3 Normal Cross Fall AASHTO (2004) provides a range of cross slopes applicable to different surface type. the manual recommended the minimum depth of ditches to be 0.4.4. The value of 1. The Tanzania manual proposed the following normal cross fall for paved carriageway on tangent sections and on very flat curves with larger radii:  Asphalt concrete surfaces 2.4.4 m and maximum of 1.6 to 2. the values vary between 1:0. 2. and 1. The shoulder should have the same slope as the carriageway.4.5 Drainage Channels In Kenya. On high type two-lane carriageway the crown slope of as low as 2 percent is accepted for all other conditions.5% maximum. should be 2. For Tanzania.0%  Gravel and earth surfaces 4. For areas of intense rainfall the cross fall of 3% may be accepted.5%  Stone paved surfaces 3.5 m are recommended.5%  Surface dressing surfaces 2. For Uganda. BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 31 .5 m and minimum bottom width of 0. The side drains are proposed to be provided at least 6 m away from the toe of the cutting.0 m and minimum bed width of 1. For areas with expansive clay soils the side drains are to be kept at a minimum distance of 4 m to 6 m from the toe of the embankment. Unsurfaced shoulders should have a cross fall of 4%. Kenya manual recommended that for rural roads with bituminous pavements the minimum cross fall should be 2. the minimum depth of ditches to be 0.5 m.4. and where shoulders are surfaced the camber should be taken to the edge of the outer shoulder. the minimum ditch depth of 0. The normal cross fall for unpaved roads should be 4%.0%.0 m elsewhere with bed width of 0.4 Side Slope and Back Slope The recommended maximum rates of side slopes for embankment (fills) and for back slope are the same in the Tanzania and Uganda.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY 2.5 to 2% is suggested for high surface type and 2 to 6% for low surface type.

The recommended median design widths on high-speed rural dual carriageway roads in Tanzania and Uganda are as shown in the Table 2. and embankment slope. It includes any shoulders or auxiliary lanes. 2.6 Clear Zone The term clear zone is used to designate the unobstructed. The need for clear zones increases with speed and curvature. At existing pipe culverts. 15: Clear zone widths Speed limit 70 80 100 Desired (m) 5 6 9 Standard Minimum (m) 3 4 6 Recommendation Clear zone width design values that are currently used in relation to speed limits should be adopted for EAC road network.4. both manuals proposed clearance not to be less than the roadway width. In Uganda a minimum median width is required to allow the provision of right-turning lanes outside of the adjacent carriageway. Design guides for Tanzania and Uganda suggested clear zone widths design values in relation to speed limits as shown in the Table 2. box culverts and bridges.8 m.0 m could be introduced to serve as median in Uganda. 16: Median widths Median Widths Desirable (m) Minimum (m) Tanzania Uganda Tanzania Uganda 12 9 6 6 9 6 4 4 Speed limit 100 80 BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 32 . Clear zone widths are related to speed.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY 2.8 – 5.2 to 1.4. Table 2. The design guide for Kenya reported a clear zone of 3 m or more from the edge of the carriageway. The minimum width of median is as narrow as 1.8 m.4. installation of a median barrier is required where the median is less than 9. Table 2. Where provision for right turn lane is required the minimum width of median will be 4.16. The manual for Kenya does not cover minimum median width design values. relatively flat are provided beyond the edge of the roadway for the recovery of errant vehicles. In some cases for future upgrading of the road a central reserve of minimum 12. volume.15.4.0 m wide and the speed is high. Four lanes and divided roads are required when the design traffic volume is sufficient to justify their use.2 to 1.0 m.7 Multilane Divided Roads In Tanzania. The minimum width of median is as narrow as 1.

The minimum headroom over footways and cycle ways is 2.2 m while for Uganda is 1. The minimum headroom over footways and cycle ways should be 2. Single lane roads In Uganda the low traffic volume roads are defined as those roads with <50ADT while in Kenya is the one with AADT<150. Cross Section over Bridges and Culverts Design guides for Tanzania and Uganda discussed and presented the same materials for crosssection over bridges and culverts except that. respectively. Various cross section are provided that depend on pedestrians and cyclists.0 metres width will do for the lowest design classes in Uganda while in Kenya the minimum width is 5.5 m – 1.0 m for class A and B roads and 4. an additional clearance of 0. B and C roads and 4.0 m with a shoulder width of 1.0 m.75 m to 3. the manual for Tanzania reported the height of pedestrian parapet to be 1. The minimum headroom requirement for footways and cycle ways is set to be 2.5 m. and the few passing manoeuvres can be undertaken at much reduced speeds using either the shoulder or passing bays.0 m wide while this design aspect is not covered in Kenya design guide. Headroom and Lateral Clearance Headroom is the required height to allow traffic to pass safely under objects restricting the height.5 m In Uganda. Service Roads Design manuals for Tanzania and Uganda proposed that for the larger trading centres and towns service roads should be provided and typically be of 6. The headroom under high-power cables is 7 m and 6 m under low-power cables.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY Recommendation Adopt 4 to 6 m as a minimum median width for speed limits of 80 km/h and 100 km/h. For these roads single lane operation is adequate as there will be only a small probability of vehicles meeting. the cross section over bridges where footways are provided the width ranges between 0. A minimum of 6.1 m may be provided. The minimum lateral clearance recommended by design manuals for Tanzania and Uganda is the same. D and E roads and unclassified roads.5 m as headroom under bridge structures and the minimum requirement to be 5.0 m depending upon the amount of traffic and if shoulders are provided its width range between 0.0 m and the maximum is 7.5 m for Tanzania while in Uganda is 2.2 m.5 m. Single lane roads are not discussed in the manual for Tanzania. Design manual for Tanzania suggested a value of 5. and the minimum width of footway is 1. The design manual for Kenya recommended headroom under bridges or tunnels structures to be 5.5 m on lower road classes. BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 33 .5 m. In Kenya.0 m on class A. If in future the road may be raised as the result of maintenance.5 m.0 m. The headroom should be 6 m under high-power cables and 5 m under low-power cables.5 m for class C. the recommended headroom under bridge structures is 5.

4. Additionally.5. and ability to serve traffic. care must be taken to ensure that building setbacks and landscaping provide adequate sight distance for vehicles approaching the junction.1 At Grade Junctions At grade junctions pose a number of special problems. AASHTO 2004 observed that there are no set rules for design of vertical alignment and cross section through intersections. rather each case must be analysed individually in order to provide the best possible combination of smooth ride and drainage within whatever constraints may be present.5.PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY 2. Pavement edges in junctions must be rounded to accommodate the wheel tracking paths of large vehicles. This is normally done by using templates for particular design vehicles. right-of-way costs. 2.2 Grade Separated Junctions Interchange configurations are selected on the basis of structural costs.4. BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 34 .4. and pavement crowns must be flattened and warped so as to allow drainage while at the same time providing as smooth a crossing as possible.5 Junctions 2.

PADECO Co. Geometric design of highways and streets (AASHTO. Road geometric design manual (Draft): Part 1: Trunk and Regional Roads. Pretoria. Draft code of practice for the geometric design of truck roads. the East African Trade and Transport Facilitation Project. Brafman Bahar. in Pretoria. SATCC (2001). National Institute for Transport and Road Research. Report RF/3/83. National Institute for Transport and Road Research Report RF/3/76. DRTT. A need for revised geometric standards based on truck stopping distance and driver eye height. The United Republic of Tanzania. Ministry of Works and Housing and Communications (2005). Department of Transport. Roads Department. Pretorius. Eye-heights of drivers of cars and vans. 2004). TANROADS (2010). Pretoria. CSIR. CSIR.. (2011). G (1983). Ministry of Infrastructure Development. CSIR. East African Community. the Republic of Uganda. Study for the harmonisation of vehicle overload control in the East African Community. Ltd. Ministry of Work (1979).PREPARATION OF THE EAST AFRICAN TRANSPORT FACILITATION STRATEGY REFERENCES AASHTO (2004). Republic of Kenya. BUREAU FOR INDUSTRIAL COOPERATION THEMATIC AREA 1 CHAPTER 2 Page 35 . H B (1976). 1: Geometric Design. Road design manual: Part 1: Geometric Design of Rural Roads. Road design manual: Vol.