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Pavement engineering in developing countries

by

C. 1. Ellis

1979

I

Digest

SR 537 IN DEVELOPING

PAVEMENT ENGINEERING COUNTRIES

Author

C I Eflis

PAVEMENT ENGINEEMNG

IN DEVELOPING by

COUNTRIES

C I Eflis Since most developing industriafised countries Wst these differences incorporate reasonably countries lie in the tropics or sub-tropics the differences between pavement engineering in temperate and developing countries are often thought of almost exclusively in terms of climatic differences. are substantial, a considerable body of knowledge exists that enables experienced designers to satisfactory provisions within their designs for all but the most extreme effects of tropical climates.

~udy important differences between pavement engineering in developing and industrialised countries are the greater variabfity of construction materials, quality of construction, and the larger fluctuations in the volume and weight of road traffic that are typica~y encountered in developing countries. Because of the large variability of these factors the design of road pavements in developing countries must either include a higher ‘factor of safety’ than is usual in industrialised countries, or a higher risk of failure must be accepted. The latter course is the one most commonly adopted. It is an advantage in that it minimises the demands made by road-building on scarce capital resources and the disadvantages of partial or premature pavement failure are much reduced by the short ‘design tife’ generally adopted and the relative ease with which repairs can be made on the typically uncontested roads. In the few fortunate oil-rich developing countries the pavement engineering situation has, however, radically changed in recent years. Low risks of faflure and long design lives are now often demanded in these countries; designers respond by adopting generous safety factors to compensate for the large uncertainties that remain in the prediction of traffic and the variability of materials and quality of construction. An important aspect of pavement engineering in developing countries that has no parallel in most industrialised countries is the extent to which unsurfaced roads contribute to national road networks. Unsurfaced roads of all types play a vital role in the economic and social fife of many of these countries, and such roads, carrying several hundred vehicles per day, are not uncommon. In this respect consideration is given to the traffic bearing ability of earth roads related to the important factors of route selection and drainage. The design of gravel roads is considered in terms of structural thickness and the selection of suitable gravels. The wide range of pavement design methods for bitumen surfaced roads are described and discussed by reference to the pavement thicknesses recommended by such methods. Such comparisons are expressed in terms of ‘Tropical Structural Number’ (TS~ which is a modified form of the AASHTO Structural Number. The work described in this Digest forms part of the programme carried out for the Overseas Development but any tiews expressed are not necessarily those of the Administration. Administration

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If this information is insufficient for your needs a copy of the full report, SR 537, may be obtained on wn.tten request to the Technical Information and Library Sewices, Transport and Road Research Laborato~, Old Wokingham Road, Qowthorne, Berkshire. Crown Copyright. acknowledged. Extracts from the text may be reproduced, except for commercial purposes, provided the source is

260 k...~..~ Fluid A Fluid B Fluid A

240

o --+
q—0

Markey Test
Markev Test In car tests on track

220

200

G
0_ ~

180

5 % k ; : 160

140

120

100

80

o

1.0

2.0 Percentage of water

3.0

4.0

5.0

Digest Fig. 1 VAPOUR

LOCK TEMPERATURES

OF BRAKE FLUID AT DIFFERENT

WATER CONTENTS

32

-28 24 20 16’ 12 8 4 n

r

National sample– Total 1000 cars (Rear wheel cylinder samples)

.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:. .:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:.:. ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... .......... ..................... . ..................... ..................... ..................... .....................

Over
..................... ..................... ..................... ..................... 7%

Not known

..................... .....................

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Percentage of water in brake fluid Digest Fig. 2 WATER CONTENT IN THE BRAKE SAMPLE OF CARS FLUID OF A NATIONAL

The work described in this Digest was carried out in the Vehicle Safety Division of the Safety Department

of TRRL,

If this information is insufficient for your needs a copy of the fill report, LR 903, may be obtained on written request to the Technical Information and Libra~ Semites, Transport and Road Research Laborato~, Old hbkingham Road, Oo wthome, Berkshire. Crown Copyright. hy views expressed in this Digest are not necessarily those of the Department of the Environment or of the Department of Transport. Extracts from the text may be reproduced, except for commercial purposes, provided the source is acknowledged.

TRANSPORT and ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY Department of the Environment Department of Transport SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT 537 PAVEMENT ENGINEERING IN DEVELOPING by COUNTRIES C I EUS The work described in this Report forms part of the prograrnme carried out for the Overseas Development Administration but any views expressed are not necessarily those of the Administration Overseas Unit Transport and Road Research Laboratory Crowthorne. Berkshire 1979 ISSN0305–1315 .

4 4.2 4.1 6. 6. Bitumen surfaced roads 4. htroduction Highway pavement engineering 2.1 ~rrent 4.3.2 4.3.3.1.3.2 4.1.1.1 4.3 &rth roads Gravel roads Recent developments 4.1 3.5 4.3 4. Concrete roads Assessing risk 6.3 design methods TRRL Road Note 31 CEBTP pavement design manual for tropical countries AASHTO interim guide Shefl modified design charts Other methods Comparison of pavement design methods Recent developments 4. Cost models 1 1 2 3 3 4 4 5 6 6 7 7 8 9 9 9 11 11 13 surfacings for high service temperatures 14 15 15 16 16 16 17 Earth and gravel roads 3.4 4.2 3.3.1.1.1 3.1.5 tie loads Heavy vehicle sirnuktor The design of bituminous Overlay design Impact (square) ro~ers 5.CONTENTS Page Abstract 1.2 Decision mtig hproved forms of contract .3 4. 4. 2.

Page 7. 9. Future needs Achowledgements References 17 18 18 (C) CROWN COPYRIGHT 1979 Extracts from the text may be reproduced. 8. except for commercial purposes. provided the source is actiowledged .

PAVEMENT ENGINEEMNG IN DEVE~PING COUNTRIES ABSTRACT This Report discusses the reasons for the differences between pavement engineering in temperate climates and in developing countries with tropical or sub-tropical cfimates. Recent developments in techniques and equipment for improving construction standards and for assessing road performance are described. and the krger fluctuations countries are the greater variability of construction in the volume and weight of road traffic that are typica~y encountered in developing countries. reasonably satisfactory a considerable body of knowledge exists that enables provisions within their designs for ti but the most cfimatic differences. however. 1 . In the few fortunate ofl-rich developing countries the pavement engineering situation has. and commody used methods of pavement design for bitumen surfaced roads are described and compared. The importance of earth and gravel roads in developtig countries is emphasised. The use of appropriate forms of contract is briefly discussed and the need to improve knowledge of the factors which would enable total transport costs to be minimised is emphasised. radic~y risks of faihrre and long design tives are now often demanded in these countries. In developing countries countries is the extent to which unsurfaced roads contribute unsurfaced roads carrying several hundred vehicles per day are not uncommon. ~u~y important differences between pavement engineering in developing countries and industrirdised materials. The latter course is the one most comody adopted. for the large uncertainties tht remain in changed in recent years. and the disadvantages of partial or premature pavement failure are much reduced by the short ‘design life’ genera~y adopted and the relative ease with which repairs can be made on the typicdy uncontested roads. countries. experienced Wtist designers to incorporate extreme effects of tropical climates. INTRODUCTION Since most developtig temperate industriatised countries lie in the tropics or sub-tropics the differences between pavement engineering in countries and developing countries are often thought of almost exclusively in terms of these differences are substantial. quahty of construction. maintaining unsurfaced roads are thus an important and unsurfaced roads of afl types and The techniques of constructing part of pavement engineering in developing countries. hw designers respond by adopting generous factors of safety to compensate the prediction of traffic and the variability of rnaterirds and quahty of construction. An important aspect of pavement engineering in developing countries that has no para~el in most industrirdised to national road networks. or a higher risk of faflure must be It is an advantage in that it minimises the demands made by road-buflding on scarce capital resources. Because of the large variability of these factors the design of road pavements in developing countries must either include a higher ‘factor of safety’ than is usual in industrialised accepted. ‘ 1. play a vital role in the economic and social hfe of many of these countries.

should that wfll provide the level of select the combination standard and subsequent maintenance service required over the design life of the road in the most cost +ffective way.The selected statistics shown in Table 1 illustrate the differences between roads and road transport in developing countries and in industritised countries.27 0. 3) 0. TABLE 1 Selected statistics of roads and road transport in developing and industridised countries Country Gross national product per capita us $ (ref. chmate and the required level of service are.78 5. pavements in order to provide a desired ‘level of service’ for traffic.15 0. and because of uncertainty about the provision of so as to minimise when it is needed. Clearly both the initial standard of construction affect the level of service provided by the pavement. 2) 2925 707 331 77 1 409 3 Length of earth or gravel road kmx 103 (ref.49 0.007 Numbers of commercial vehicles* per km of road 4. the designer. in consultation of initial construction with the authority that wifl maintain the road.19 United States France United Kngdom Brazil Sierra Leone India Ethiopia * Trucks and buses. the costs of constructing traffic. For unsurfaced roads the level of maintenance mining the level of service provided. is at least as important as the initial construction standard in deter- Idedy at the design stage. 2. In practice.46 1.4 1.66 1. in developing countries the designer rarely has sufficient information the initial construction maintenance to make a quantified assessment of the appropriate balance between standard and the level of maintenmce.36 0. designers make assumptions about the methods of construction and maintaining highway In the pavement design part of this process. these two factors being very closely interto the interdependence of these factors and the fact that the In the USA Hudson4 has drawn attention design and construction of a road pavement is not a sin~e-phase process. 2) 3215 87 12 1235 6 486 6 Density of road networks km per krn2 (ref. HIGNAY PAVEMENT ENGINEERING Highway pavement engineering may be defined as the process of designing.~ and maintatiing road pavements over a 50 year design life have been andysed5. its design fife.64 0. 1) 6670 5 Ho 3590 920 190 140 100 bngth of bitumenised or concrete road km x 103 (ref.76 0. the influence of maintenance on the level of service provided by the pavement wi~ generally be much stronger than is the case with heavier duty pavements. constructing. he will often tend to enhance the standard of initial construction 2 .10 0. h the case of low-cost roads. that WN be employed and the level of maintenance and the that the pavement wfll receive throughout level of maintenance related. typical of most developing countries. but is merely the beginning of a continuing contributory factors.29 2. In Britain process in which maintenance.

costs’ for road networks rather than just for sin#e road 3. costs. and hence to produce a design and specify a maintenance of construction.future maintenance information requirements. road maintenance into a computer model (RTIM)9. about the interaction A considerable amount of unrecorded bet ween many of these factors efists in developing countries. Subsequently As a first step a computer model was buflt on the basis in East Africa by the Overseas Unit of TRRL7’8 a major study was undertaken h co~aboration with the World Bank to improve knowledge of the effects of road conditions on vehicle operating of road pavements. the traffic. these costs do not by any means represent dl they are by far the most significant costs on non-urban roads in developing 2.10 ~d India 9and from TRRL studies in the Caribbean. road maintenance between road of invest- costs. and the selection and specification of naturrd gravel roads. and w~st The sum of these three costs has been cafled the ‘total transportation the costs involved in road transport. in order to improve the qudty ment decisions in the roads sector in developing countries. model development is being undertaken by the Massachusetts hstitute of Technology with the objective of producing a model capable of evaluating ‘total transport hks. and three of these methods are described below.1 Cost models The initiative for developing cost models for roads in developing countries was taken in the early 1970s by the World Bti. EARTH AND GRAVEL ROADS Not surpristi@y the engineering of earth and gravel roads has received much less attention from highway engineers and research workers thm the engineering of surfaced roads. design to unsurfaced roads is not widely accepted. In recent years there has been a growing awareness of the need to improve knowledge of the relationships between the construction and maintenance standards. the climate. countries. the interaction In recent years models have been produced that Mow designers not ody to quantify and maintenance standards. but also to calculate their combined effect on strategy that @ minimise the sum between construction vehicle operating costs. cost’. Further improvements to these empirical relationships wi~ be forthcoming from World Bank sponsored studies In addition to these field . and vehicle operating costs on planners to improve the quality of investment local knowledge data is very scarce. and vehicle operating costs. The need arises because of the desire of transport decisions in the rural road sector in developing countries. and vehicle operating costs over the ‘design fife’ of the road for a non- urban road project @ a developtig country. Some advances are being made however in providing designers with quantitative and maintenance of roads typical of those on the ‘trade~fP between the standards of construction found in developing countries. of efisthg knowledge 6 . the relevance of the design basis. Several methods have been pubtished for designing the thickness of unsurfaced However. As a result of these field studies empirical relationships This model calculates the sum of road costs and the rates of deterioration were derived that have been incorporated construction costs. maintenance. Most of the technical literature on unsurfaced roads is concerned with the techniques materials for constructing roads on a structural concept of structural and the organisation of maintenance. unsurfaced roads. construction The World Bank recognised the need to improve knowledge of the interaction costs. which are in progress in Brazd studies. but quantified 3 . and vehicle operating costs over the design hfe of the pavement.

normally a selected natural The best service wfll be obtained from earth roads if they are located on the better drained parts of the terrain. but in complex terrain much better results 11. and cutting suitable side-drains. but a commonly accepted distinction tit earth roads are constructed ody of the natural materials that are encountered on the road line or immediately is adjacent to it. at Vicksburgl 6. The other approach to the design of gravel roads is that described by O’Reifly and ~ardl assumption is made that thickness design of gravel roads is unnecessary.2 Gravel roads There are two basic attitudes to the design of the thickness of gravel roads. the results More recently some interesting research on the trafficabitity of which are illustrated by the nomograph of soils has been undertaken shown in Figure 2. This structural design approach. This nomograph indicates the number of repetitions The definition of the of wheel loads of different magnitudes that can be carried by soils of different strengths. clearing trees and shrubs we~ back from the road so that the sun and wind can more readily dry out the road surface when it is wet. if they are ‘engineered’ by such measures as raising the formation in low-lying areas. If the strength of an earth road is known (in terms of its California Bearing Ratio (CBR) value). but sometimes processed gravels maybe used. A comprehensive guide to the construction and maintenance of earth roads has been written by MeUierl 5. gravel material with specified grading and plasticity characteristics and the important 8 in which the issue is the selection of which is placed in a layer of standard thickness (150 to 200 mm). the nomograph of the load carrying abflity of the road.13 assisted by aerial photography and other remotely wdl be obtained by using terrain evaluation techniques sensed ground data. imported material. and the roads built on the ‘red-coffee’ sods in Kenya. In most situations skifl in locating earth roads Often the location of earth roads is under- taken on the basis of a brief reconnaissance of the ground by an engineer. terminal condition in this work was when the rut-depth in the soil exceeded 75 mm.12. In favorable earth roads can carry substantial volumes of traffic. permits predictions to be made 3. This approach is the one usually adopted in developing countries in the tropics in which 4 . since clearly in seasonal climates there wfll be a large change in moisture content and hence the strength of these materials between the wet and dry seasons.3. Gravel roads on the other hand may incorporate gravefly material.1 Earth roads The distinction between earth and gravel roads is rarely well-defined. cambering the surface. The abflity of earth roads to carry traffic can be substantially enhanced moisture conditions. The principles of good construction circumstances and maintenance practice for earth roads are illustrated in Figure 1. and on the more granular sods if any choice of soil type is available. as is evidenced for example by the behaviour of ‘sabkha’ roads 14 in certain arid areas. examples of which are the methods suggested by Mellier 15 and Ha~ttl approach presents the designer with the difficult problem of deciding what moisture content should be assumed for the subgrade soil and the gravel layer. Clearly the traffic-bearing and on the prevatig abflity of earth roads depends heavfly on the type of sod forming the running surface. in the landscape is thus fundamental to their subsequent performance. One of these is the quantitative 7.

In addition. 3. Maintenance has a very strong influence on the performance of gravel roads. TMLE Plasticity characteristics 2 8 preferred for gravel surfacings Ctimate Liquid limit not to exceed (%) and wet Plasticity index range (%) Linear shrinkage range (%) 2. it may not be economically feasible to bufld gravel roads on plastic In these subgrades that are capable of sustaining traffic throughout circumstances the level of service provided can usudy the wet season without excessive deformation. the relationships and maintenance.3 Recent developments The tectiques of designing and constructtig earth and gravel roads have not cbnged that are of some interest. fiowledge standards. be maintained at an acceptable level by increasing the frequency of grading. traffic volume. In either case provision of gravel that is lost over a period of time due to the action of traffic and has to be made for the replacement weather. The terrain evaluation approachl wittin the landscape. At traffic flows of more than 30 to restore or so vehicles per day most gravel roads require grading at regular intervals of time to remove corrugations. and to bring back into the centre of the road gravel that action of trafficl 9. two recent developments among highway planners and engineers in quantifying. the transverse profile. significantly for many years. rate of deterioration. ~ these operations has been thrown to the sides by the of material removed by erosion are necessary if the level of service provided by a gravel road of an adequate camber. roads are closed for short periods after heavy and prolonged rain to prevent traffic causing excessive deformation when the subgrade is saturated. however.subgrades under adequately maintained gravel roads are commody strong enough for the greater part of the year to support the imposed wheel loads with no more than 150 mm of gravel cover. construction One of these is the growing interest between is for a particular cfimatic zone. If it is not. the clearing of side ditches and the restoration are required at regular intervals. the road wti deteriorate rapidly in wet. Table 2 gives values for the plasticity characteristics of gravel surfacing materials typically specified in different climatic zones. of these relationships 5 . 1‘12>13 can be of great assistance in the location of gravel materials In areas with stron~y seasonal chmates. or in some areas where this is not possible. is to be maintained. Camber must be very but perhaps the crucial operation is the maintenance sufficient to prevent rainwater being retained on the surface of the road. There are. and economy in design depends on the sW1 and resources that can be deployed to locate the very best materials that exist within an economic haul distance from the road.5–5 4–lo 8–15 Moist temperate tropical 35 45 55 4–9 6–20 15–30 SeasonMy wet tropical Arid or semi-arid h practice the choice of gravel material is limited by what is avtiable. weather.

4. methods have traditiondy been employed on a large scale for citi construction of roads by labour-intensive other developing count ries. For example. For further amplification see Ministry of Overseas Development – Guide to the Economic Appraisal of Projects in Developing Countries. Other popular methods of pavement design. gradient of the road. however. the longitudinal the rainfa~. though derived empiricdy with temperate in industriahsed countries climates. and also in some cases to the type of gravel surfacing. This is the situation in more road construction have recently than forty countries. the world have been Two exceptions are TRRL Road Note 3122. Recent studies sponsored by the World Bank*” and the hbour Organisation 21 have shown that labour-intensive as equipment-intensive methods can in general produce the same justifiable in countries of construction methods. and that they are economica~y where the shadow ddy wage* for labour is less than about US $1. 1972 (H M Stationery Office). or economic maintenance have been devised in the strategies are to be devised. and will extend them to other materials A second recent development interest in employing labour-intensive hbour-titensive in the field of earth and gravel road construction methods of construction is the widespread renewed In several Asian countries projects. It is this latter which is relevant when comparing labour and capital intensive methods and it is termed the ‘shadow wage’. in several of which national prograrnrnes for labour-intensive been started or are planned. the amount of gravel ‘lost’ from the road surface due to the action of traffic and erosion. the longitudinal roughness of the road surface. In a number of developing countries empirical relationships past that fink the frequency of grading necessary to maintain an acceptable level of service to the volume of traffic. BITUMEN SURFACED ROADS 4. or included quantification of the effect of surface condition on vehicle operating costs. have quantified relationships of of road surface conditions.50 to $2.1 &went desi~ methods Very few of the various methods of pavement design that are in general use throughout devised specific~y for the design of pavements in tropical developing countries.00. and the French CEBTP design manual for tropical countries 23 . the construction undertaken htemationrd qudty methods has not hitherto except on a sma~-scale and piecemeal basis.required if cost-effect decisions are to be made about the construction of unsurfaced roads. * In many developing countries the wages paid often do not reflect the true value of labour to the economy. this kind been based on systematic measurements Only recently. 6 . in the study in East Africa 78 ‘ relationships tig the fo~owing variables were established for several types of gravel road: (a) @) (c) (d) (e) (~ the volume of traffic. Further studies are in pro~ess that WW improve these relationships and cfimatic zones. are nevertheless often used for the design of pavements in the tropics. such as the AASHTO method 24 and its derivatives. however. the depth of ruts formed by the traffic. In many been in developing countries. hndon.

Traffic is categorised into four classes and a catalogue of four basic pavements Subgrade strength is expressed in terms of CBR.1 TRRL Road Note 31: This pavement design guide gives recommendations for the design of bitumen-surfaced The guide roads carrying up to 2.1. The categorisation (1) of the traffic loading can be made in two ways: on the basis of the average volume of traffic per day (all vehicles) assuming a design life of 15 years and 30 per cent ‘heavy’ veticles in the traffic stream. which has been derived empiricdy. Particular attention most developing countries: is given in the guide to two aspects of pavement design that are of special importance in (1) (2) detafled consideration attention is given to the influence of tropical ctimates on moisture conditions in road subgrades. Nevertheless it does offer the designer a wide choice of pavement material options and is suitable for the design of medium and hghtly trafficked roads in any tropical or sub-tropical environment. is recommended to match these.5 mi~on equivalent standard axles per lane in tropical and sub-tropical countries. namely that it cannot be applied with confidence to design situations that lie outside the range of conditions within which it has been derived. on the same basis as that used in the MSHTO method. and the thickness of the base and sub-base of each class of pavement can be varied within timits to take account of differences in subgrade strength. Traffic loading is expressed in terms of equivalent standard axles. The expression used by the Overseas Unit.Comments on the appropriateness are made below.2 CEBTP pavement design manual for tropical countries: Ttis manual is widely used in French-speaking developing countries in the tropics. of these methods for designing pavements in tropical developing countries 4. offers the designer the choice of two simple standard pavements. for defining the equivalence factor of any atie-load traversing typical roads in developing countries is given by: 4. The guide. 4. and provides for the thickness of the sub-base to be varied to suit the strength of the subgrade. TRRL.55 ~= L — k) s of the afle-load L causes the same amount of structural damage as N applications of the standard ie one application tie-load Ls (8160 kg). suffers the disadvantages that afl such methods share. 7 .1. approach to road budding in situations is drawn to the advantages of adopting a stage construction predictions where traffic growth rates are high or longterm are uncertain. The guide expresses the strength of the subgrade sofl in terms of its CBR measured at a moisture content equal to the wettest moisture condition likely to occur in the subgrade’ after the road has been constructed.

the contribution of the layers of the selected pavement materials to the that have been experience. The guide also suggests that if more than 10 per cent of axle loads are greater than 13 tonnes extra pavement thickness may be required. A heavy vehicle is defined as one that has a total weight of more than 3 tonnes. which is an index of the strength of pavement required.(2) on the basis of the cumulative number of ‘heavy’ vehicles passing over the pavement during its design life. and is rather arbitrarily applied. or even on different roads within the one country. This is achieved by the application of ‘equivalence’ factors (see reference 56).2 tonne axle load. between axle loads of different magnitudes. In dry frost- free regions the Regional Factor used can be as low as 0. However. These factors relate the damage done to the pavement by an afle load of any magnitude to the damage done by a standard 8. which is based on empirical relationships derived from the AASHTO Road Test25 . for the design of pavements in developing count ties in the tropics.3 AASHTO interim guide: This guide. layer thicknesses are determined. The AASHTO guide defines subgrade strength in terms of a ‘soil support value’. Finally. is essentially a modification It does not attempt to differentiate of the original CBR method of design.1. then modified by the application of a Regional Factor which adjusts the design to suit local climatic conditions.0. if an a~e load is doubled. not always very appropriately. The manual. that is.5. the damage it wi~ inflict on the pavement wfll be sixteen times greater. to ten for subgrades as strong as crushed rock base material. This concept of atie load equivalence factors is now widely accepted.2 tonne ‘standard’ afles. an empirically derived design method is apphed in conditions outside the range of experience on which it has been based. Nevertheless it is sometimes used. was produced primarily for the design of pavements in the USA. h the guide the predicted distribution of the axle loads that WN t raverse the pavement throughout its design hfe is expressed in terms of the equivalent number of 8. Pavement thickness is expressed in terms of This is a Structural Number (SN). The factors follow approximately a ‘fourth power law’. there is a great deal of uncertainty about the magnitude of the power in the ‘power law’. This range represents an increase 8 . ranging from 1. and in deterThe same problem arises whenever coefficients to apply to the pavement materials available. 4.0. pavement strength is estimated by applying coefficients (sometimes called ‘layer equivalences’) assigned to the commoner materials on the basis of the results of the AASHTO test and subsequent The problem facing a designer applying the AASHTO guide to the design of a pavement in a typical developing country situation is the difficulty in estimating the appropriate mining the appropriate Regional Factor to use. The range of Regional Factors employed in the USA is large. and the extent to which it is influenced by overall pavement strength and the types of materials used in the pavement. whilst in regions where subgrades freeze in the winter but thaw out in the spring the Regional Factor used may be as high as 4. ahd is incorporated into several other methods of pavement design. which is very simple to use. ranging from one for very weak subgrades. and hence it cannot take account of the big differences in damaging power that can exist between similar volumes of traffic in different countries.0 or 5.0 to 6.

a comparison on the basis of the recommended thicknesses of simdar materials would be a measure of the relative ‘efficiency’ or design economy of the different methods. typical of most surfaced roads in developing countries. In developing countries in the tropics the indigenous pavement materials avaflable will often not have any close parallel in North America and designers using the AASHTO method will have to rely on judgement in assigning coefficients to the materials selected. Regional Factor of 0.2 is used in semi-arid situations.1.75 are recornmended26. If common factors of safety and criteria for pavement faflure were shared by au the methods. Qnadian The most significant of these are RRL Road Note 29 29.in thickness of 50 per cent for pavements with a SN of 2. 9 . which form the majority of the surfaced roads in most developing countries. or can be estimated 4.4 Shefl modified design charts: The shell design charts were first pubhshed in 1963 27. the Asphalt Institute method30.2 Compan. they do not have the facility for adjusting designs to take account of different cfimatic environments. which is the basis of both the original Shefl design charts and the more recent more comprehensive method 28. wtist these methods of pavement design can be used to design heavily-trafficked roads in developing countries. a considerable amount of concrete surfacing exists about the commoner pavement materials used in the USA. curve. where a modified form of the AASHTO design method is employed and the climate ranges from moist sub-tropical to arid.son of pavement desi~ methods Vafid comparisons between the different methods of pavement design described above are difficult to make. The analytical approach to pavement design. h Mexico a As regards the appropriate information coefficients to apply to different pavement materials. such as asptitic materials and crushed rock and gravel base materials. Moreover. Simple meteorological with adequate accuracy. 4. but In using the modified She~ charts it is necessary to estimate the weighted mean annurd air temperature of the location in question. but have been on the moduh of bituminous modified subsequently materials28. Regional Factors in the range 0. the tropics. Good Roads Association method 31 . by the evidence of the performance of roads. h South Africa.1. 4. This can be obtained from mean montMy air temperatures information (MAAT) by use of a given weighting of this kind can usua~y be obtained in most countries. to take accollnt of the effects of high road temperatures They are therefore now better suited to the design of road pavements in developing countries in The charts were derived from consideration of the basic properties of bituminous mixes as detertied by mechanical tests in the laboratory.5 or less. and the Mowable strains in the subgrade and asphalt surfacing layer.3 to 0. The original charts are held to have been we~-supported the recently modified charts have yet to be similarly vatidated. None of these methods is well suited to the design of roads carrying less than about 500 vehicles a day.5 Other methods: Various other methods of pavement design are used from time to time in developing and the countries. is fully described in reference 56.

It is also assumed in Figure 4 that the subgrade strengths are assessed in the same way for each of the design methods.10 for CBR 20 subgrades in the hottest climates. a2. to about 0. it can be seen that in tropical chmates the effective layer coefficient for asphalt surfacings ranged from about 0. This minimises the influence on TSN of the value adopted for the coefficient a ~. the faflure criteria and factors of safety inherent in the various methods are all different. but in a typical developing country situation it is assumed is made on the basis mixtures implicit in the modified Shell design charts 28 . coefficients. It is well known that the on the effective coefficient of a pavement layer is not only a function of the type of material but is also dependent thickness of the layer. the subgrade characteristics. and Figure 4 shows how this is related to traffic loading on an average subgrade of CBR 8. sub-base a3 = 0. the modified structural numbers imptied by the different design recommendations are compared in Figure 4. There are thus many reservations about the concept of layer but nevertheless it wifl suffice for the purpose of making a rough comparison between current methods of pavement design. and D3 are layer thicknesses in inches. h calculating the TSN values that are plotted in Figure 4 it was assumed that the pavements had the minimum thickness of bituminous surfacing permitted by each design method. It should be recognised that assigning coefficients to particular materials can only be a very rough guide to the relative contribution different materials can make to the structural strength of a pavement.44 and 0. and D1. simflar in concept to the SN used in the AASHTO design method. coefficients. Using values of 0. of the temperature/stiffness relationship for bituminous from which can be deduced the relations shown in Figure 3 between MAAT and layer coefficient. For convenience the modified structural number is plotted as ‘Tropical Structural Number’ (TS~. and is typical of developing country pavements which rarely have thick bituminous surfacings. From Figure 3 This assumption for the purposes of this comparison that 0. k order to make these comparisons it is helpful to express pavement thicknesses in terms of a ‘structural In the AASHTO method SN is given number’.In fact. and the same values for a2 and a3 as are given in the AASHTO guide (eg granular base a2 = 0.20 would be more appropriate. and other factors. Because the service temperatures much higher than those experienced for bituminous of bituminous surfacings in most developing countries in the tropics are in the AASHO Road Test.14.5 subgrades in sub-tropicrd cfimates. In fact each method su~ests different ways of estimating the appropriate subgrade moisture content and 10 . between 0. Nevertheless some measure of the relative efficiency of the by the various different design methods can be gained by comparing the pavement thicknesses recommended methods for simflar levels of traffic loading and subgrade strength. D2. by: SN = alD1 + a2D2 + a3D3 where al. and a3 are layer. the position of the layer in the pavement.40 for asphdtic concrete surfacings.37 for CBR 2. it is necessary to assume different layer coefficients layers from those given in the AASHTO guide if even rough comparisons between different design The AASHTO guide suggests a coefficient of methods are to be made in the context of tropical environments. and in several methods they are not even clearly defined.11 ). the moduli and thicknesses of the other layers.2 for al.

specifictiy It can dso be seen that the methods of pavement design issued for use in tropical developing countries produce the most economical designs. developing countries. each design method suggests rather different ways of expressing traffic loading. This partly reflects the and failure criteria that are inherent in the different methods.3. This has shown the strong influence that a relatively small number of vehicles with M@ atie loads can have on the rate of pavement damage of a typical main road in a developing country. Simfiarly. Indeed in some countries there is no restriction at au on ade loads. the introduction This is because when overafl volumes of traffic are low and tie of vehicles with 20 tonne tie into the traffic stream of a small proportion loads can double or loads in treble the damaging power of the traffic. As a result of the high rate of growth of traffic loading in developing countries. In has become available about the de loads on the roads in a recent years a considerable amount of information number of developing countries 32’33’34. but it also and the absence of the damaging effect of frost in the tropics. different standards of serviceabfity reflects different modes of ftiure The comparisons made in Figure 4 demonstrate the degree of uncertainty that etists about the design of more heavily trafficked road pavements in the tropics. into an equivalent number of standard ties. country within a few months. It is thus very important to control the upper hrnit of tie This conclusion arises directly from the assumption that an afle load of 20 tonnes is rou@y damaging as one of 5 tonnes. In developing countries the rate of growth of traffic loading has been most dramatic. The TSN is in effect an index of pavement pavements thickness. and it can be seen from Figure 4 that the more conservative design methods recommended rdmost twice as thick as the least conservative. it is not uncommon to fti prematurely for roads because the traffic loading in service is several times greater than was assumed in the design. there are considerable 11 . However. convert the predicted afle load distributions differences in the factors used for this. 300 times as This is the ratio given by atie load equivalence factors derived from the AASHO Road Test that are used in most methods of pavement design in current use. For example. even when the same assumptions of subgrade strength and traffic loading are made.3 Recent developments 4. 4. Most methods but there are considerable Accepting these reservations about the basis of this comparison. and points to the need for more research in this field. These variations increase even further the differences between the designs produced by the different methods shown in Figure 4.density at which to assess the subgrade strength.1 tie loads: In afl countries increases in the volume of traffic and the size and weight of vehicles over the the butiding of much stronger road pavements than those that sufficed In part this is a last two or three decades have necessitated earlier. it can nevertheless be concluded that there are very large differences between the designs produced by the various methods of pavement design. it is possible to envisage a situation in which the regular use of as few as one or two hundred vehicles with 20 tonne tie loads could severely damage a significant proportion of the paved road network of a developing loads are modest. reflection of the relatively sma~ number of commercial vehicles that were in use in Third World countries twenty years ago. but it also reflects the absence of effective control of the weights and afle loads of vehicles in many count ries.

and the heavier the aAe load. (3) Frost was a critical factor in the deterioration factor in most developing countries. ~lst that have been made of the AASHO 36 hddle’s analysis35 is most widely used. road construction. However. this goal of empiricdy is stifl some way off. and in the shorter term research such as that being undertaken vehicle simulators37 problems. the legal ade load hrnit. but it is a ne~igible of the results an attempt was made to separate effects. has prompted re-exarrdne the maximum tie loads permitted of a new governments in many countries to on their national road networks. the cheaper is the tonne -tiometre and industriahsed countries 39 attempts have been made to deduce the optimum axle load at which the combined cost of vehicle operation. from reduced tonne-tiometre 12 . The main reasons for these doubts are: (1) The maximum afle loads used in the AASHO Road Test were 13. the relationships maintenance. it may we~ be that the costs of strengthening structures and adding expensive overlays to existing roads outweigh the benefits that would accrue operating costs. whereas most pavements in developing Clearly there is a need to reduce the uncertainty developing country situations. The influence of the legal tie load limit and the range of afle loads that are actually applied to a road system.6 tonnes for sin@e axles.8 tonnes for tandem axle sets. of the AASHO Road Test pavements. and 21. where consideration that exists about the damaging power of heavy tie loads in typical Eventually the analytical pavement design approach will be developed to the point derived tie load equivalence factors wifl become irrelevant. depending on the degree of Clearly this aspect must be carefufly considered when making an analysis of the and other factors. and the production generation of larger and more powerful commercial vehicles. the larger the vehicle 38 operating cost. but this was not wholly In the interpretation the effects of frost on pavement deterioration successful. In both developing countries Figure 5 indicates the nature of and between axle load and the tonne-tiometre costs of vehicle operation and road construction There are of course big differences between the ideal ‘optimum’ axle load. sin~e ade loads in excess of 20 tonnes are not uncommon. and road maintenance is minimised. from the traffic-induced (4) The Road Test pavements were constructed countries are budt on strong subgrades. merits of a particular legal axle load limit. the analysis made by Shook and Finn give quite different results for the damaging between the various interpretations is also used to a considerable extent and these two interpretations effect of very heavy axle loads. on the actual distribution enforcement of ade loads naturafly varies from country to country. offers the best chance of providingpractical in South Africa using heavy answers to these and other pavement design In recent years the world-wide growth in the movement of freight by road. under-estimate or over-estimate the damaging effect of heavy tie They may loads. Simflarly if an increase in legal afle load fimit is being considered careful thought must be given to the effects on existing bridge structures and roads. In developing countries. hence it is necessary to extrapolate these loads.doubts about the validity of the AASHO Road Test equivalence factors for use in developing countries. In general. on a weak subgrade. well beyond the AASHO test results to derive equivalence factors for (2) There are considerable difference: Road Test results.

have concluded that raising afle load limits would bring substantial national economic benefits. into TRRL Road for carrying out axle-load surveys. many research models based on laboratory Indeed workers believe that the essential vahdation by fu~-scale experience of theoretical experiments udn be greatly assisted by the use of intermediate forms of testing of the ‘road machine’ type. The HVS proved to be successful for this purpose and it enabled load equivalence factors for a limited number of examples of this type of pavement to be studied 42 . It is probable that simflar conclusions could be reached in several developing countries.0 to 6. of load to a pavement in 20 to 30 days. Several different types of road machine have been used for pavement design research in the past. It was found that a ‘power law’ of 6.0 to 4. as opposed to the power of 4. cracking in cement -treated road- It has been used to verify a model that predicts the initiation of traffic-induced bases. steel frame and can apply up to 1400 repetitions to apply hdf a m~on repetitions The wheel assembly reciprocates in a heavy It is thus possible of load per hour to the pavement under test. The prototype HVS has been in use for some time and some limited but useful results have been obtained.3. some research workers befieve that without this intermediate a reliable mechanistic method of design. in the sub-tropical climate of South Africa. Whilst the contribution machines are Wely to make to the advance of pavement design is of world-wide interest. and that in the future legal axle load limits in the Third World WU tend to rise. using the weighbridge. initiafly at least. on paved roads in 4. notably Austraha w . Repeated loading tests of pavement materials at laboratory part to play in the development scale as described by Brown57 has an important of a dependable analytical method of pavement design.5 that has been generally assumed hitherto. The results of this experience have been incorporated Note 4041. roads as wefl as specia~y-built The HVS can apply a load of up to 100 kN through a dual or singe wheel assembly which is traversed over the pavement for a distance of 8m at a speed of up to 14 km/hour. The Overseas Unit of TRRL has developed a portable weighbridge. step very tittle further progress can be made towards The great asset of ‘road machines’ is that they apply the load to test pavements through a rolling wheel. will be of special interest to those concerned with improving pavement design in developing countries in the tropics.2 Heavy vehicle simulator: An important development in the field of pavement engineering in recent years these has been the buflding of four Heavy Vehicle Simulators (HVS) in South Africa 37 . which gives guidehes developing countries. materials are more commonly used for roadbases than in most industriafised 13 .7 applies to such pavements. but the HVS is the first fun-scale machine that can be moved easfiy from place to place and can be used to load in situ both ordinarily-constructed fu~-scde experimental roads and pilot scale pavements. However. the fact that they will be used.Nevertheless. studies in some countries. and has gained experience with it in tieload surveys in many parts of the World. has considerable This result significance for pavement engineering in tropical developing countries where cement bound countries. but that in pardel there wi~ be stricter enforcement of these fimits. and hence they induce the same sort of changes in the directions and magnitudes of the stresses experienced elements of the pavement as are experienced by all in normal service.

binder distribution are virtually impossible to counter. more flexible. that such It is now design procedures for achieving high stability mixes are well-established.4. The problems of mix design for both gap-graded rolled asphalt and continuously-graded asphaltic concrete are fully discussed in reference 58. of coarse and fme aggregates to produce a continuously h Britain. whilst having a high resistance to deformation. mixes. and the mix Experience has shown. durability and workability y. this is a stone-fdled sand asphalt in which the stiffness of the sand-fdler-binder of the mix. and easier to compact. For situations where impermeability is not required they provide a low-cost mix which is easy to make and lay. years bituminous surfacings of the asphaltic concrete type have been widely used in hot climates. creosote or diesel to suppress dust and to aid adhesion.3 The design of bituminous surfacings for high service temperatures: The large increase in recent years of the surfacing has focused the For many length of road in tropical developing countries that requires a premixed bituminous attention of highway engineers on the need to improve the design of surfacings for tropical conditions. or 40/50 pen if avaflable) than that normally used for asphaltic concrete (80/100 pen). service conditions high stability is not a~-important. mixes have proved to be very satisfactory. The high stability of asphaltic concrete is mainly dependent careful proportioning on aggregate interlock and inter-particle friction which are enhanced by the graded mixture. and interest is growing in the use of such materials for road surfacings It has been found that modified forms of hot-rolled asphalt can be produced with adequate stabihty at high temperatures without sacrificing the advantages of this type of mix 28’M. Some of the effects of these deficiencies can be minimised by such techniques as the pre-treatment Deficiencies in of the chippings with a light coating of tar. which nevertheless require a premix bituminous surfacing. however. in maintaining binder distributors so that they can apply an even film of binder at Similarly it is very difficult to maintain adequate standards of aggregate size. They are thus well suited for overlaying lightly trafficked roads that still retain an impermeable surface but require a levelling or friction course. bitumen-macadams asphaltic-concrete are being used successfully. In many developing countries the most economic and appropriate is a single or multiple surface dressing 45 . in the tropics43. with its temperate bituminous climate. This technique has value whether or not the main binder film has been sprayed satisfactory. such mixes have never been popular and virtua~y all heavy-duty In effect wearing courses are composed of a gap-graded type of mix known as hot rolled asphalt. and cleanness. however. and that more attention should be given in designing mixes to the properties of flexibility. though they can be mitigated to some extent by the applic- ation of a light ‘fog-spray’ of binder and a sprinkling of sand or rock dust after the chippings have been spread on the main binder film. Great difficulty is experienced the required rate of spread. For less-heavdy trafficked roads in developing countries. Dense bitumen-macadam Open-textured is virtua~y the same as bitumen-macadams. ~ilst such mixes are more prone to deformation than continuously mortar provides the overall stability graded mixes. except that it has a rather higher voids content. To enhance to resist deformation the stability of these mixes it is desirable to use a stiffer bitumen (60/70 pen. Unfortunately surfacing for the majority of paved roads in many countries the difficulty in achieving adequate cent rol of the surface-dressing process means that the lives of surface dressings are much shorter than they could be. shape. they are more At British temperatures gap-graded tolerant of variations in mix composition.3. and which has a wide tolerance to variations in mix composition. have a much higher voids content and are permeable. recognised that even for high temperature are prone to cracking and are difficult to compact. 14 .

thus it is necessary to relationships and to select the appropriate standard reference temperature. Athough to compact material in thick layers. provide very satisfactory surfacings for medium and lightly trafficked roads in many developing countries. Tentative deflection criteria relating deflection to the subsequent traffic-carrying abfity of the pavement have been suggested for typical developing country pavements 21 . 4. The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in South Africa52 have studied and solved these problems and have developed a four-sided ‘square’ rofler of 8000 kg or 10000 kg weight. mass of the ro~er. differences in the appropriate methods to use for assessing residual pavement strength and in the stiffnesses of the pavements being strengthened. Further research is needed to extend and vatidate these criteria in different conditions.5 Impact (square) ro~ers: The idea of an impact roller was first considered in the 1930s and five-sided these machines were used successfu~y in the 1960s5 1 prototype machines were built in the early 1950s. More sophist icat ed equipment cost of such equipment such as the deflectograph for assessing the residud strength of existing can equafly we~ be used. It has been found that wefl-trained teams equipped with two deflection beams and a loaded truck can achieve rates of survey adequate for a typical road strengthening programme in a developing country. rarely. corrected to their equivalent value at a standard reference temperature road surface temperatures establish by investigation. if ever. For example. Its compactive effort is derived from the energy of the mass fafling from the corners to the faces w~st This compactive effort is m~y times greater than that obtained from the static being towed at about 12 km/hour. in Britain it is recommended ments are not made when road surface temperatures rise above 30°C. to take account of differences in materials and service 4. WM outweigh the advantages it offers as compared with the use of deflection beams.4 Overlay design: There is no difference in principle between the process of designing strengthening overlays for roads in developing countries and in industriafised countries 47 . the machines were impractical because of the problems created by the widely fluctuating loads at the drawbar.3.Slurry seals46. 15 . but in many cases the and the difficulty of servicing and operating it in remote areas. The effect of temperature undertaking on the stiffness of bituminous materials needs to be carefufly considered when that deflection measureof deflection are deflection surveys in the tropics. There are. and survey techniques have been developed for this purpose48. used either alone or in conjunction with a surface dressing. suitably modified by judgement conditionsso. but if this is lacking the curves derived from British experience49 can be used as a guide. however. The thickness of overlay required to reduce pavement deflections to the required ‘design’ level is best established by local experience. fa~ below this temperature the typical local deflection/temperature In many developing countries in dayfight hours.3. In developing countries Benkelman beams are very appropriate roads. The ro~er can be raised free of the ground onto carrier wheels to pass over bridges or culverts which might be damaged by the impact blows. and all measurements of 20°C.

if it occurs. subgrades in tropical developing countries are relatively strong. In a series of tests52 to compare the effectiveness of impact and vibratory rollers on a uniform marine sand it was suggested that the depth influence for the impact roller was about 3m compared with 1. that a 15000 kg vibratory The main disadvantage of impact compaction loosening of the top layers in certain materials. whilst in general. Also in developing countries the construction sense. the rapid rise in the price of bitumen in recent years may prompt a renewed interest in concrete road construction in those countries that have adequate supphes of cement. For instance in many countries cement has been in short supply for many years and road construction nearest cement factory. may be buflt if they prove to be well-suited to labour intensive methods of construction. nor indeed in civil engineering as a whole.The main advantage of impact rollers is their ability to compact non-cohesive materials in thick layers and at low moisture contents. in which ‘failure’.8m for the 4500 kg vibratory roHer and 2. is not catastrophic.5m and up to depths of 4m below the surface. 6.5m may sometimes be loosened by the impact In very loose materials compaction be compacted by other machines. different levels of risk of failure can be quantified and should be inherent in the design process. Indeed even the definition of the ‘failure’ of a road 16 . engineering construction. It is also possible that more concrete roads as seems possible. earthworks and subgrade preparation is the surface deformations produced by the roller and the technique is only suitable for For this reason this compaction and not for the compaction of pavement layers. such as the failure of a dam or a major bridge.2m for the 9000 kg vibratory roller. projects are often long distances from the is likely to be relatively very expensive by the time it of roads in stages makes sound economic Furthermore. if it is obtainable. A considerable amount of experience has now been gained in the compaction of uniform Kalahari sands with impact roflers. There are other types of civil and the costs of accepting Highway pavements and seldom however. a structure would be catastrophic. and must subsequently The upper 0. pavements over flexible pavements are most marked on weak subgrades. For these and other reasons very few concrete roads have been built in developing countries. compaction process. ASSESSING RISKS 6. the advantages of concret e to site. It has been shown that these rollers are very effective in compacting material below 0. and concrete construction is not well-suited to stage construction. It has also been su~ested roller may give a performance comparable to a 10000 kg impact ro~er. is transported Hence cement. rather than on This attitude is perfectly legitimate in cases where the failure of design for the optimum use of available resources. are in this category since pavement ‘failures’ rarely have disastrous economic or social consequences. 5.1 Decision wking Formal decision analysis is not widely used in highway engineering. On the other hand. This may be because in most civd construction much emphasis is placed on design against faflure. may have to be carried out through a blanket layer of more cohesive material. CONCRETE ROADS Concrete roads are uncommon in developing countries for a variety of reasons. result in a road becoming completely unusable by vehicles.

and it is tikely to result in a more efficient use of the available resources. The form of contract tends to compel the client to make a detafled appraisal of the true objectives of a project and the risks likely to be encountered Such an approach is likely to focus the client’s attention and the use of low-grade materials. with a view to balancing both vehicle design and road design so as to minimise total transport costs. also merits investigation. 17 . Improved quantification maintenance of the rates of deterioration of earth and gravel roads is necessary in order to assess maintenance strategies. form of contract is likely to be most suitable. W@ risks mean high contract prices. intermediate. assisted by laborato~-scale Initia~y the extension of the existing methods will no studies of pavement materials and full-scale pavement studies In the longer term. In quantifying the rat es needs in economic terms. analytical method of pavement design is required. however. assessments of uncertainties53. a universal the using accelerated loading devices such as the heavy vehicle simulator. Recent research54 is particularly of the target price forms of contract for use in conditions of uncertainty This research indicates that an adaptation relevant to road construction in developing countries. whether plant-intensive. of specifications 7. Formal decision analysis. which provides a means of balancing technical and financial risks. sufficiently well calibrated to enable it to accommodate 55 wide range of environmental conditions and materials that are encountered in developing countries . h the field of paved roads the development of an improved method of pavement design appropriate to developing countries in the tropics is certainly needed. and to plan cost-effective of deterioration of unsurfaced roads it will be necessary to separate the effects of traffic and ctimate. depending on and the size and efficiency of the direct labour organisation maintenance programme. 6. and to define of unpaved roads that have the greatest influence on vehicle operating costs. on policy issues guch as the appropriateness in its execution. Target price contracts are essentially cost-plus contracts with specific incentives buflt into them to encourage afl parties to reduce costs. and clearly it is in the chents’ interest to apply a system of contract that can operate efficiently and fairly in a situation of uncertainty that has been undertaken on appropriate without incurring excessive costs. and is usually expressed in terms of a certain degree of cracking or surface deformation. costs of the method of construction of roads. doubt be undertaken. and the magnitude of the national road construction The tradition forms of contract used in industrialised countries are often inappropriate for road construction” projects in developing countries.pavement is very arbitrary. FUTURE NEEDS There is an urgent need to improve knowledge of the many factors that influence the cost of transport gravel roads in developing countries. where the degree of uncertainty about many aspects of a project may be high.2 Improved forms of contract k most developing countries road construction proportion is undertaken both by direct labour and by contract. Better knowledge is required of the interaction on earth and between vehicles and the roads on which they run. should therefore be part of the pavement design process. better those surface characteristics The influence on total transport or labour-intensive. In the process it may be necessary to make subjective as well as quantitative but this is much better than ignoring entirely the lack of precision that is inherent in pavement engineering. The of the total that is carried out by contract varies considerably from country to country.

construction. 9. 3. H. REFERENCES 1. 6. Investment strate~es for developing areas: andyticd model for choices of strategies in highway transportation. Washington DC. Vicksburg. State of the art in predicting pavement reliability from input variability. ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY.The interaction between initial construction standards and subsequent maintenance merits further attention. TRRL Report LR 672. Ministry of Transport. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The preparation of this Report forms part of the research programme of the Overseas Unit (Head: Mr J N Bulman). S W ABAYNAYAKE. Department of Civil Eng. 11th Edition. Massachusetts Institute of Technolo~. 1976 (United Nations). Road Research bboratory). Crowthorne. 1972 (Massachusetts 7. (Transport 18 and Road Research Laboratory). 1976 world Bank). Watemays Experiment Station Contract Report 5-75-7. Crowthorne. it is necessary for pavement engineers in developing countries to think more in terms of the design. Cambridge. specifications. Department of the Environment. J ROLT and T E JONES.neen. Mississippi. J W. The function of the pavement engineer is to manage this system in such a way that the service the system supphes to the community effective as possible. World Bank Atlas. INTERNATIONAL (hternationd ROAD FEDERATION. . and maintenance of road pavements as being parts of a system. UNITED NATIONS. The Kenya road transport cost study: research on road 1975 (Transport and Department of the Environment. 4. HODGES. Massachusetts.ng Institute of Technology). F. There is dso a need to develop for locafly-occurring road-building materials. Research Report No 72-62. New York. WORLD BANK. hboratory). RRL Report LR 256. 2. US Army En~. Statistical Year Book 1975. all parts of wtich interact with each other and with the vehicles that use the roads. 1976 Road Federation). 5. many of which may not meet existing service. W R. I SAYER and R J WYATT. Geneva. Road and motor vehicle statistics for 1975. HUDSON.neer. Crowthorne. MOAVENZ~EH. deterioration. 8. HIDE. TRRL Report LR 673. over a period of time is as cost- 8. The cost of constructing and maintaining flexible and concrete 1969 (Road Research pavements over 50 years. 1975 (US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station). The Kenya road transport cost study: research 1975 on vehicle operating costs. 27th Edition. but are nevertheless quite capable of providing satisfactory h conclusion. as does the extent to which maintenance appropriate specifications can counter pavement deterioration. of the Transport and Road Research Laboratory.

Terrain evaluation for highway engineering and Department of the Environ- planning. Kuala Lumpur. (422). G M. Idaho. of Citi Engineers) pp 209–36. Hoceedings of the Conference on Road Engineen”ng in Asia and Australasia. p7.36 (In French). DOWLING. bndon. and Road Research Laboratory). 1976 (Repubhc 11. TANNER. 16. bare base support.. Society of Engineers. count ries. The use of acrid photographs in material surveys and classification 1964 (kstitution of land forms. M P and R S MILLARD. Technical Report S-70-5. Research on the inter-relationship between costs of highway Inception Report. 1970 (US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station). 1975 (National Research Councfl. d’outre mer. USA. Mississippi. ment Department bboratory). BEAVEN. 1968 (Editions EyroUes). ROBINSON. 1978 (Transport and Road Resea~ch 14. Transportation Research Board Special Report 160. A road transport investment TRRL Report LR 674. 10. 11 –1 6 June. and utilization.neen. Crowthorne. had supporting capability of low volume roads. Thickness requirements for unsurfaced roads and airfields.ng Problems Overseas.6 (55). of Transport. (Paper No. Paris. S W ABAYNAYAKA and J ROLT. J W F and F H P WILLIAMS. treatment and prevention. 4–10. Crowthorne. 19 . 13. Kuwait. TRANSPORT transport AND ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY. ELLIS. AHLVIN. 18. RRL Report LR 279. Inds Trav. Malaysia and the Public Works Department. 1975 at Boise. Their formation. 1973. 19. Conference on 1974. West Malaysia. La route en terre. The application of terrain evaluation to road engineetig. REPUBLIC FEDERATIVE construction. G. 25–28 November. 17. on earth and gravel roads: (421). sponsored by the Institution of En@. 1958. Roads. 1958. sponsored by Arab Engineers Federation and Kuwait Society of Engineers). 1975 (Transport Department of the Environment. C I and R B C RUSSELL. Kuwait. US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. 328–33. Kuala Lumpur. P J and C J LAWRANCE. J W HODGES. Transported (GEIPOT). 9) Conference on Civil Enp. model for developing countries.neers. J S. 12. Project 3782-65. Roadmaking materials and pavement design in tropical and sub-tropical 1969 (Road Research hboratory). 32–5. National Academy of Sciences). matitenance DO BRASIL. Empress Bresileira de Planejamento de Federative do Brasfl). Vicksburg. Ministry of Transport. H HIDE. Bras flia. HAMMITT II. R G and G M HAMMITT 11. Boceedings of a Workshop on low-volume roads held June 16–19. Corrugations Rds and Rd Constr. 1974 Kuwait 15. Washington DC. MELLIER. Lo*cost The use of salt-laden sofls (Sabkha) for low-cost roads. 1973 (hstitution of Engineers).9. Crowthorne. R. OREILLY. A technique with particular value for developing countries. TRRL Report SR 448.

CoUege Park. hndon. 1977 (University of Michigan). 24. J M EDWARDS. 1963 (Shefl International Petroleum Company). Shefl 1963 design charts for flexible pavements. 1962 (National Research Council). Manuel de dimensionnement Etrang6res. of the Environment. CLAESSEN. C G. 31. London. Highway Research Board Special Report No. 30. the She~ method. Washington DC. 1970 (Asphalt Institute). Department Office). 1972 (Centre Exp~rimental de Recherches et d’Etudes du B~timent et des Travaux Publics). 28. Transport. 22. 1972. Geneva. Department A guide to the structural design of pavements for new roads.20. 1971 (National Institute for Road Research). 61 G. Michigan. COUNCIL FOR SCIENTIFIC AND INDUSTWAL RESEARCH. Proceedings of the third World Conference on Transport Research. Scope for the substitution of labour and equipment in civd Transport decisions in an age of uncertainty. The Hague. AME~CAN ASSOCIATION OF STATE HIGHWAY AND TRANSPORTATION OFFICIAN. ~GHWAY RESEARCH BOARD. 1970 (H M Stationery Office). A guide to the structural design of flexible and rigid Canadian Good Roads Association Pavement Design and Evaluation Committee. 1977 (H M Stationery (Available in French from the Transport and Road Research bboratory). 21. Road Note 29. SHELL INTERNATIONAL PETROLE~ COMPANY. The AASHO Road Test. Asphalt paving design. roads 1970. 1977 (Martinus Nijhof~. 26–28 April. Ottawa. 1977 (International bbour Manual on the planning of labour-intensive road construction. pavements in Canada. Thickness design – fufl depth asphalt pavement structures for highways and streets. Maryland. 20 . Asphalt pavement design for national for High ways TRH 4. Road Note 31. of the Environment Department Third Edition. National Institute for Road Research Technical Recommendation Pretoria. University of Michigan. ALLAL. ASPHALT INSTITUTE. Ann Arbor. AASHTO interim guide for design of pavement structures State Highway and Transportation Officials). TRANSPORT AND ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY. hndon. Office). P SOMMER and P UGE. ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY. 1965 (Canadian Good Roads Association). fioceedings. 23. Fourth International Conference on the Structural Design of Asphalt Pavements. 1977. M and G A EDMONDS. CENTRE EXPERIMENTAL DE RECHERCHES ET D’ETUDES DU BATIMENT ET DES TWVAUX d’Etat aux Affaires PUBLICS. I K SUD and B P COWS. Summary Report. 1974 (American Association of 25. 1. 29. Rotterdam. Eighth Edition. A I M. HARRAL. Report 7. de chausse~s pour les pays tropicaukSecretariat Paris. construction. A guide to the structural design of bitumenof surfaced roads in tropical and sub-tropical countries. 27. 22–26 August 1977. Washington DC. Third Edition. CANADIAN GOOD ROADS ASSOCIATION. 26. Manual Series No.

Department TRRL Report LR 763. 20–24 August 1962. T E and R ROBINSON. Road Note 40. W J. Copies also avadable from TRRL. JONES. pp 52–83. SHOOK. First International Conference on the Structural Design of Asphalt Pavements. First International Conference on the Structural Design of Asphalt Pavements. Pretoria. of the Australian Road Research Board. France and the Federal Republic of Germany. Vermont. C I and F P POTOCKI. NITRR Technical Report RP/5/76. The NITRR heavy vehicle simulator: and operational logistics. Crowthorne. Research). 1976 (Australian 41. Michigan. Department of the Environment. Ghana. bboratory). 1976. 1966 (Statens Vaginstitut). of the Environment. ETHIOPIAN ROAD AUTHORITY. 36. An evaluation of the heavy vehicle simulator as a tool for measuring pavement behaviour. J F and F N FINN. 38. RICHARDS. BRINCK. JONES. 1977 (Transport of the Environment Department of Transport. 39. developing countries using a portable weighbridge. and implementation. Crowthorne. 1977 (National Institute for Transport and Road 21 . Expressway): tie loading. recommendations STATE ROAD AUTHORITIES. pp 42–5 1. Universiw of Michigan. NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF AUSTRALIAN of road vehicle limits – features. Second Pan African Conference on Highway Maintenance and Rehabilitation. 1973 (Transport 33. Addis Ababa. 1963 (University of Michigan). Application of AASHO Road Test results to the design of flexible pavement structures. 42. 1975 Turkey traffic survey. W D O PATERSON and M D LOESCH. T E.nstitut Meddelande 92. A study of the economics Proceedings of the 8th Conference Road Research Board). A guide to the measurement of afle loads in of Transport. 37. London. University of Michigan. 1976 (Transport and Road Research 34. Stockholm.32. Atie loads on paved roads in Kenya. ELLIS. 1978 (H M Stationery Department of the Environment Department Office). PATERSON. Thickness design relationships for asphalt pavements. Ann Arbor. Proceedings. Crowthorne. Economic Commission for Africa). 35. Proceedings. Me load distribution on loads overseas: Abu Dhabi and Qatar 1970–71. 22–29 November 1977. and Road Research TRRL Report LR 572. 1963 (University of Michigan). Ann Arbor. description Pretoria. The economics of selecting appropriate legal tie load limits. W D O. R G. NITRR Technical Report RP/9/77. Department bboratory). 1977 (National Institute of Transport and Road Research). organised by the Economic Commission for Africa with the cooperation of the Governments of the United Kingdom. Statens Va~. 40. TRANSPORT AND ROAD RESEARCH LABORATORY. Perth. (Ankara-Istanbul TRRL ReportLR713. 1977 (United Nations (Avtiable in French). C E. Optimalt axeltryck (Optimum axle loads). Michigan. LIDDLE. Accra. 20–24 August 1962. and Road Research Laboratory).

Volume 1. BULMAN. C 1. and deflection studies on Malaysian roads. CLIFFORD. HR. J N and H R SMITH. Impact rolling and construction techniques. strengthetig. NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR ROAD RESEARCH. SMITH. Durban. Industry Research and Information 22 . Afr. Pretoria. Crowthorne. ELLIS. J M. organised by the Economic Commission for Afn. Proceedings of Second Conference Pretoria. Sprayed work. 22–26 August 1977. Pavement performance Department of the Environment Department (Transport and Road Research bboratory). Ann Arbor. 29 July – 2 August 1974. Association). 1971 (National Institute for Road Research). 54. Proceedings of the 8th Conference of the Road Research Board).ca. surfacings. 45. 1969. 1974 (United Nations Economic 48. 1975 (National Association of Austrahan State Road 46. 13 (3). 1. 56. TRRL Report LR 525. 49. CLEGG. Risk and pavement design decision in developing countries. 1974 (National on Asphalt Pavements for Southern Africa. NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF AUSTRALIAN bituminous Authorities). 44. GROTH. Civ. Engr S. Michigan. Perth. 1977 (University of of Michigan.43. Principles and practice of Sydney. LISTER. N W and C K KENNEDY. Michigan). Addis A baba. A deflection survey technique for pavement evaluation in developing countries. Construction Indust~ Research and Information Assoctition. Australian Road Research Board. Durban. TRRL Report LR 667. 1975 (Construction Target and cost-reimbursable construction contracts – a study of their Report No. Proceedings of First Conference on Asphalt Pavements for Southern Africa. London. 52. STATE ROAD AUTHORITIES. 1973 (Transport Department of the Environment.neen’ng in Afn.ca with the cooperation of the Bn. 1974. The development and testing of an impact roller. TRRL Report LR 795. 47. Institute for Road Research). J G and P A THOMPSON. Overlay design in Natal.tish and French Governments. A system for the prediction of pavement life and design of pavement Fourth International Conference on the Structural Design of Asphalt Pavements. ELLIS. 1975 (Transport Department of the Environment. PERRY. C I and G LIAUTAUD. pp 629–48. The design and construction of strengthening overlays for roads. Crowthorne. Crowthorne. rural roads. 1969 (National Institute for Road Research). Vol. use and implications. Conference on Highway EnD. 51. MARAIS.. C P. Universip Proceedtigs. Gap-graded asphalt surfacings: the South African Scene. B and A R BERRANGE. bituminous surface treatments for newly constructed Technical recommendations for highways TRH 3. Pretoria. Commission for Africa). 1977 of Transport. and Road Research bboratory). 1976. 1971. Vermont. and Road Research hboratory). Addis Ababa. 1976 (Australian 53. P J. 50.

Asphalt mh design. Developments in highway pavement 1978 (Applied Science Publishers). BROWN. hndon. D and J N BU~AN. Third International Conference on the S~ctiral 11–15 September 1972.neering. D. Volume 1. S F. Flefible pavement design.55. 1978 (Apphed 23 . CRONEY. in highway pavement engineering. The influence of climatic factors on the structural design of fletible Design of Asphalt Pavements. Michigan. 1972 (University of Michigan). 1978 57. Developments (Apphed Science Publishers). 58. pp 67–71 . Ann Arbor. Developments Science Publishers). K R. hndon. PEATTIE. tindon. BRIEN. pavements. for analytical pavement design. Material characteristics engineen. London. in highway pavement en~. 56. Proceedings.ng.

-—------- Properly maintained earth track Fig. 1 CORRECTLY AND INCORRECTLY MAINTAINED EARTH TRACK .Water from ditch and surrounding country draining on to road Typical sunken road Right Earth bladed from side drains .

TYRE PRESSURE AND FOR UNSURFACED SOILS (after Ahlvin and Hammittl 6 ) CBR .—— This scale should be redrawn 27 mm to the right before the nomogram is used. i Cove rages CBR 100 I I I t 1 Sngle or equivalent single wheel load in kips II Yx A /l A 80 E 10000 8000 I I I I I I A/z v I 6000 4000 w r I I I r 2000 I 1000 800 600 400 200 F iOO 80 60 40 \r I 1 1 I 1 I I I I I 1 1 I 15 25 Tyre 50 70 psi pressure r 20 10 8[ E 100 150 200 300 Fig.L . REPETITION. 2 RELATION BEWEEN LOAD.

-c 6 0.20 I I g m < I a. 3 POSSIBLE VARIATIONS IN SURFACE LAYER COEFFICIENTS FOR DIFFERING CONDITIONS .0.25.10 — 0 I 5 I 10 3 1 Ill 1 35 (Shell) ‘C “15--20.4 layers base .14 pavement pavement using information For as layers ~ 0.30 MAAT 40 Fig. al has been calculated thickness thickness of unbound of asphalt is the layer coefficient of unbound 0.3a I m ‘- 0.5( Developing —— countries —— 0. Shell design curves.4C o.6[ These curves have been drawn derived from the modified each design situation al= total total where material 0.

.“” ‘/ / 0“...44) and using UTAH correlation between S and CBR AASHTO method as above but with regional factor R = 0.. .: .. . ..5 PSI = 2.. -.... 5. 6 inches (150 mm) of crushd rock base if neces=ry and the balance of subbase material if required Road Note 31. . . ./ 2.O = 0.. TRRL muntries method for developing Road Note 31 . . TRRL method for U. ..U R = 1.1 0.0 AASHTO (2” AC) / 3. All unbound materials are assumed to be of base quality Shell method as above but assuming wrface dressing + 8 inches (200 mm) mushed rock base + subbase to make up total thickness of unbound material Shell modified design method assuming 2 inches of dense asphalt on a crushed rwk base.5 Traffic 1. 1.. Shell (8” base + SO) .. . .”volved I I 1 I 0.. 4b COMPARISON OF DESIGN METHODS . : AJ 1 / . ..A.’ ‘J < ‘%::..y <. . / / .0 Fig.. jz~Shell . ....... ...K. / .. .A. . ...’.*.5 PSI = 2.. —-— —- R = 0..0 ESAlveh CE8TP Fig.@:~ . . . ..—. All unbound materials are assumed to be of base quality.O PSI=2. Asphalt Institute design method assuming quoted minimum thickness of surfacing asphaltic mncrete.... . .0 ~&.0 for a pavement with 2 inches (50mm) of asphaltic wncrete (al= 0.0 10...0 /: PSI = 2.-.O AASHTO (2’ AC) AASHTO methti with R = 1. - Road Note 29 Asphalt Institute Road Note 29.---------- Shell (all base + 2“) -.05).0 .0 AASHTO (2” AC) / / / /1 L S~ll ]lO.’ / ~’/ .0 AASHTO (2’ AC) Shell (all base + SO) ------------- .0 and PSI = 2.. 4a COMPARISON OF DESIGN METHODS FOR CBR 8 SUBGRADE Notes ———— — R=l.. . .0 ESA/veh CEBTP 2)t (all base+ ad Note 29 hell (all base + SD)t ..0 ESA/veh CEBTP CEBTP method for tropiwl developing muntries assuming that traffic is equivalent to 1.. . .— . .veh (8’ base+ ~EBTp SD)t ‘.5 Shell modified design method assuming surface dressing on a crushed rock base (take al D1 = 0. .0 x 106 standard axles ... —. . . 7 :/ / ...0 standard axle per wmmercial vehicle CEBTP method as above for traffic equivalent to 10 standard axles per mmmercial vehicle 10.

I I I 0 Axle (Optimum) load limit Fig. I .\. \ ..\ .lN ENCLAN~ .. \. \.= CMC (Construction maintenance q and costs) / .500 11/79 HpLtd So’ton G191s P~INTED.~ o~r~ting costs) ‘(Vehicle . \ q U Y i I i I . > ./. 5 THE NATURE OF THE RELATION BEWEEN TONNE-KM COSTS AND AXLE LOAD (2293) Dd0536361 1. . . TC (Total costs) \.

Recent developments in techniques and equipment for improving construction standards and for assessing road performance are described. The importance of earth and gravel roads in developing countries is emphasised. 1979 (Transport and Road Research bboratory). and commonly used methods of pavement design for bitumen surfaced roads are described and compared. ISSN 0305–1 315 . The use of appropriate forms of contract is briefly discussed and the need to improve knowledge of the factors which would enable total transport costs to be minimised is emphasised. TRRL Supplementary Report 537: Crowthorne. Recent developments in techniques and equipment for improving construction standards and for assessing road performance are described. TRRL Supplementary Report 537: Crowthorne. and commonly used methods of pavement design for bitumen surfaced roads are described and compared. This Report discusses the reasons for the differences between pavement engineering in temperate climates and in developing countries with tropical or sub-tropical climates. The use of appropriate forms of contract is briefly discussed and the need to improve knowledge of the factors which would enable total transport costs to be minimised is emphasised. 1979 (Transport and Road Research bboratory). The importance of earth and gravel roads in developing countries is emphasised. ISSN 0305–1315 ABSTRACT PAVEMENT ENGINEERING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: C1 Ellis: Department of the Environment Department of Transport.ABSTRACT PAVEMENT ENGINEERING IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: C Z Ellis: Department of the Environment Department of Transport. This Report discusses the reasons for the differences between pavement engineering in temperate chmates and in developing countries with tropical or sub-tropical climates.