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NEGROS NAVIGATION CO. vs. CA Facts: Private respondent Ramon Miranda purchased from the Negros Navigation Co., Inc. four special cabin tickets for his wife, daughter, son and niece who were going to Bacolod City to attend a family reunion boarding the Don Juan. Don Juan collided off the Tablas Strait in Mindoro, with the M/T Tacloban City, an oil tanker owned by the Philippine National Oil Company (PNOC) and the PNOC Shipping and Transport Corporation (PNOC/STC). As a result, the M/V Don Juan sank. Several of her passengers perished in the sea tragedy. The bodies of some of the victims were found and brought to shore, but the four members of private respondents' families were never found. Issue: Whether or not the petitioners exercised the extraordinary diligence required?

Held: No. As with the Mecenas case, this Court found petitioner guilty of negligence in (1) allowing or tolerating the ship captain and crew members in playing mahjong during the voyage, (2) in failing to maintain the vessel seaworthy and (3) in allowing the ship to carry more passengers than it was allowed to carry. Also, the duty to exercise due diligence includes the duty to take passengers or cargoes that are within the carrying capacity of the vessel. +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Trans-Asia Shipping vs. Court of Appeals (254 SCRA 260) Facts: Plaintiff (herein private respondent Atty. Renato Arroyo) bought a ticket from herein petitioner for the voyage of M/V Asia Thailand Vessel to Cagayan de Oro from Cebu City. Arroyo boarded the vessel in the evening of November 12, 1991 at around 5:30. At that instance, plaintiff noticed that some repair works were being undertaken on the evening of the vessel. The vessel departed at around 11:00 in the evening with only one engine running. After an hour of slow voyage, vessel stopped near Kawit Island and dropped its anchor threat. After an hour of stillness, some passenger demanded that they should be allowed to return to Cebu City for they were no longer willing to continue their voyage to Cagayan de Oro City. The captain acceded to their request and thus the vessel headed back to Cebu City. At Cebu City, the plaintiff together with the other passengers who requested to be brought back to Cebu City was allowed to disembark. Thereafter, the vessel proceeded to Cagayan de Oro City. Plaintiff, the next day boarded the M/V Asia Japan for its voyage to Cagayan de Oro City, likewise a vessel of the defendant. On account of this failure of defendant to transport him to the place pf destination on November 12, 1991, plaintiff filed before the trial court a complaint for damages against the defendant. Issue: Whether or not the failure of a common carrier to maintain in seaworthy condition its vessel involved in a contract of carriage a breach of its duty? Held: Undoubtedly, there was, between the petitioner and private respondent a contract of carriage. Under Article 1733 of the Civil Code, the petitioner was bound to observed extraordinary diligence in ensuring the safety of the private respondent. That meant that the petitioner was pursuant to the Article 1755 off the said Code, bound to carry the private respondent safely as far as human care and foresight could provide, using the utmost diligence of very cautious persons, with due regard for all the circumstances. In this case, the Supreme Court is in full accord with the Court of Appeals that the petitioner failed or discharged this obligation. Before commencing the contact of voyage, the petitioner undertook some repairs o n the cylinder head of one of the vessels engines. But even before it could finish these repairs it allowed the vessel to leave the port of origin on only one functioning engine, instead of two. Moreover, even the lone functioning engine was not in perfect condition at sometime after it had run its course, in conked out. Which cause the vessel to stop and remain adrift at sea, thus in order to prevent the ship from capsizing, it had to drop anchor. Plainly, the vessel was unseaworthy even before the voyage begun. For the vessel to be seaworthy, it must be adequately equipped for the voyage and manned with the sufficient number of competent officers and crew. The Failure of the common carrier to maintain in seaworthy condition its vessel involved in a contract of carriage is a clear breach of its duty prescribed in Article 1755 of the Civil Code. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Baliwag Transit vs. CA (GR 116110, 15 May 1996) FACTS: On 31 July 1980, Leticia Garcia, and her 5-year old son, Allan Garcia, boarded Baliwag Transit Bus 2036 bound for Cabanatuan City driven by Jaime Santiago. They took the seat behind the driver. At about 7:30 p.m., in Malimba, Gapan, Nueva Ecija, the bus passengers saw a cargo truck, owned by A & J Trading, parked at the shoulder of the

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national highway. Its left rear portion jutted to the outer lane, as the shoulder of the road was too narrow to accommodate the whole truck. A kerosene lamp appeared at the edge of the road obviously to serve as a warning device. The truck driver, and his helper were then replacing a flat tire. Bus driver Santiago was driving at an inordinately fast speed and failed to notice the truck and the kerosene lamp at the edge of the road. Santiagos passengers urged him to slow down but he paid them no heed. Santiago even carried animated conversations with his co-employees while driving. When the danger of collision became imminent, the bus passengers shouted Babangga tayo!. Sant iago stepped on the brake, but it was too late. His bus rammed into the stalled cargo truck killing him instantly and the trucks helper, and injury to several others among them herein respondents. Thus, a suit was filed against Baliwag Transit, Inc., A & J Trading and Julio Recontique for damages in the RTC of Bulacan. The trial court ordered Baliwag, A & J Trading and Recontique to pay jointly and severally the Garcia spouses the following: (1) P25,000.00 hospitalization and medication fee, (2) P450,000.00 loss of earnings in eight (8) years, (3) P2,000.00 for the hospitalization of their son Allan Garcia, (4) P50,000.00 moral damages, and (5) P30,000.00 attorney's fee. On appeal, the Court of Appeals modified the trial court's Decision by absolving A & J Trading from liability and by reducing the award of attorney's fees to P10,000.00 and loss of earnings to P300,000.00, respectively. ISSUE: Is the amount of damages awarded by the Court of Appeals to the Garcia spouses correct? HELD: Yes. The propriety of the amount awarded as hospitalization and medical fees. The award of P25,000.00 is not supported by the evidence on record. The Garcias presented receipts marked as Exhibits "B-1 " to "B-42" but their total amounted only to P5,017.74. To be sure, Leticia testified as to the extra amount spent for her medical needs but without more reliable evidence, her lone testimony cannot justify the award of P25,000.00. To prove actual damages, the best evidence available to the injured party must be presented. The court cannot rely on uncorroborated testimony whose truth is suspect, but must depend upon competent proof that damages have been actually suffered. Thus, we reduce the actual damages for medical and hospitalization expenses to P5,017.74. The award of moral damages is in accord with law. In a breach of contract of carriage, moral damages are recoverable if the carrier, through its agent, acted fraudulently or in bad faith. The evidence shows the gross negligence of the driver of Baliwag bus which amounted to bad faith. Without doubt, Leticia and Allan experienced physical suffering, mental anguish and serious anxiety by reason of the accident. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ LAYUGAN vs. IAC Facts: Pedro T. Layugan filed an action for damages against Godofredo Isidro, alleging that while at Baretbet, Bagabag, Nueva Vizcaya, the Plaintiff and a companion were repairing the tire of their cargo truck which was parked along the right side of the National Highway; that defendant's truck, driven recklessly by Daniel Serrano bumped the plaintiff, that as a result, plaintiff was injured and hospitalized. Defendant countered that the plaintiff was merely a bystander, not a truck helper being a brother-in-law of the driver of said truck and hence must suffer the damages. The trial court decided in favor of the plaintiff, which was reversed by the CA, hence the present petition. Issue: W/N defendant is absolved by virtue of the doctrine of res ipsa loquitur. Held: No. Res ipsa loquitur is a doctrine which states thus: "Where the thing which causes injury is shown to be under the management of the defendant, and the accident is such as in the ordinary course of things does not happen if those who have the management use proper care, it affords reasonable evidence, in the absence of an explanation by the defendant, that the accident arose from want of care. It is clear that the driver did not know his responsibilities because he apparently did not check his vehicle before he took it on the road. If he did he could have discovered earlier that the brake fluid pipe on the right was cut, and could have repaired it and thus the accident could have been avoided. Moreover, to our mind, the fact that the private respondent used to instruct his driver to be careful in his driving, that the driver was licensed, and the fact that he had no record of any accident, as found by the respondent court, are not sufficient to destroy the finding of negligence of the Regional Trial Court given the facts established at the trial The private respondent or his mechanic, who must be competent, should have conducted a thorough inspection of his vehicle before allowing his driver to drive it. In the light of the circumstances obtaining in the case, we hold that Isidro failed to prove that the diligence of a good father of a family in the supervision of his employees which would exculpate him from solidary liability with his driver to the petitioner.

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Respondent Isidro posits that any immobile object along the highway, like a parked truck, poses serious danger to a moving vehicle which has the right to be on the highway. He argues that since the parked cargo truck in this case was a threat to life and limb and property, it was incumbent upon the driver as well as the petitioner, who claims to be a helper of the truck driver, to exercise extreme care so that the motorist negotiating the road would be properly forewarned of the peril of a parked vehicle. Isidro submits that the burden of proving that care and diligence were observed is shifted to the petitioner, for, as previously claimed, his (Isidro's) Isuzu truck had a right to be on the road, while the immobile cargo truck had no business, so to speak, to be there. Likewise, Isidro proffers that the petitioner must show to the satisfaction of a reasonable mind that the driver and he (petitioner) himself, provided an early warning device, like that required by law, or, by some other adequate means that would properly forewarn vehicles of the impending danger that the parked vehicle posed considering the time, place, and other peculiar circumstances of the occasion. Absent such proof of care, as in the case at bar, Isidro concludes, would, under the doctrine of Res ipsa loquitur, evoke the presumption of negligence on the part of the driver of the parked cargo truck as well as his helper, the petitioner herein, who was fi xing the flat tire of the said truck. Respondent Isidro's contention is untenable. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ BAYASEN vs. CA Facts: Petitioner was charged of Homicide Thru Reckless Imprudence, being then the driver and person in-charge of Rural health Unit Jeep, drove along Suyo Municipal Road, Sagada, Mountain Province in a negligent, careless and imprudent manner. Said jeep fell over a precipice in the abovementioned place causing thereby the death of Elena Awichen. After trial, the petitioner was found guilty of the charge. The decision was affirmed in CA, hence the instant petition. Issue: Whether or not petitioner is entitled to acquittal on the ground that the finding of the Court of Appeals that the proximate cause of the death of Awichen was the petitioner's "negligence in driving at an unreasonable speed" is openly contrary to the evidence of the prosecution. Held: Yes. It is obvious that the proximate cause of the tragedy was the skidding of the rear wheels of the jeep and not the "unrea sonable speed" of the petitioner because there is no evidence on record to prove or support the finding that the petitioner was driving at "an unreasonable speed". It is a well known physical tact that cars may skid on greasy or slippery roads, as in the instant case, without fault on account of the manner of handling the car. Skidding means partial or complete loss of control of the car under circumstances not necessarily implying negligence. It may occur without fault. No negligence as a matter of law can, therefore, be charged to the petitioner. In fact, the moment he felt that the rear wheels of the jeep skidded, he promptly drove it to the left hand side of the road, parallel to the slope of the mountain, because as he said, he wanted to play safe and avoid the embankment. Under the particular circumstances of the instant case, the petitioner- driver who skidded could not be regarded as negligent, the skidding being an unforeseen event, so that the petitioner had a valid excuse for his departure from his regular course. The negligence of the petitioner not having been sufficiently established, his guilt of the crime charged has not been proven beyond reasonable doubt. He is, therefore, entitled to acquittal. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ DEL CASTILLO vs. JAYMALIN Facts: Mario del Castillo, a deaf-mute, son of plaintiff Severo del Castillo boarded a bus of private respondent bus line. Upon alighting from the bus, he fell and died as a result. Respondents contend that the proximate cause of Mario's death was his recklessness and gross negligence in jumping out of the bus while in motion. Issue: Whether or not respondents exercised extraordinary diligence.

Held: No, common carriers are responsible for the death of their passengers (Articles 1764 and 2206 of the Civil Code). This liability includes the loss of the earning capacity of the deceased. It appears proven that the defendant corporations failed to exercise the diligence that was their duty to observe according to Articles 1733 and 1755. The conductor was apprised of the fact that Mario del Castillo was deaf and dumb. With this knowledge the conductor should have taken extra-ordinary care for the safety of the said passenger. In this he failed. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Vasquez vs. Court of Appeals (138 SCRA 553) Facts: MV Pioneer Cebu left the port of Manila and bounded for Cebu. Its officers were aware of the upcoming typhoon Klaring that is already building up somewhere in Mindanao. There being no typhoon signals on their route, they proceeded with their voyage. When they reached the island

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of Romblon, the captain decided not to seek shelter since the weather was still good. They continued their journey until the vessel reached the island of Tanguingui, while passing through the island the weather suddenly changed and heavy rains fell. Fearing that they might hit Chocolate island due to zero visibility, the captain ordered to reverse course the vessel so that they could weather out the typhoon by facing the strong winds and waves. Unfortunately, the vessel struck a reef near Malapascua Island, it sustained a leak and eventually sunk. The parents of the passengers who were lost due to that incident filed an action against Filipinas Pioneer Lines for damages. The defendant pleaded force majeure but the Trial Court ruled in favor of the plaintiff. On appeal to the Court of Appeals, it reversed the decision of the lower stating that the incident was a force majeure and absolved the defendants from liability. Issue: Whether of not Filipinas Pioneer Lines is liable for damages and presumed to be at fault for the death of its passenger? Held: The Supreme Court held the Filipinas Pioneer Lines failed to observe that extraordinary diligence required of them by law for the safety of the passengers transported by them with due regard for all necessary circumstance and unnecessarily exposed the vessel to tragic mishap. Despite knowledge of the fact that there was a typhoon, they still proceeded with their voyage relying only on the forecast that the typhoon would weaken upon crossing the island of Samar. The defense of caso fortuito is untenable. To constitute caso fortuito to exempt a person from liability it necessary that the event must be independent from human will, the occurrence must render it impossible for the debtor to fulfill his obligation in a normal manner, the obligor must be free from any participation or aggravation to the injury of the creditor. Filipina Pioneer Lines failed to overcome that presumption o fault or negligence that arises in cases of death or injuries to passengers. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Juntilla vs Fontanar (136 SCRA 624) Facts: Herein plaintiff was a passenger of the public utility jeepney on course from Danao City to Cebu City. The jeepney was driven by driven by defendant Berfol Camoro and registered under the franchise of Clemente Fontanar. When the jeepney reached Mandaue City, the right rear tire exploded causing the vehicle to turn turtle. In the process, the plaintiff who was sitting at the front seat was thrown out of the vehicle. Plaintiff suffered a lacerated wound on his right palm aside from the injuries he suffered on his left arm, right thigh, and on his back. Plaintiff filed a case for breach of contract with damages before the City Court of Cebu City. Defendants, in their answer, alleged that the tire blow out was beyond their control, taking into account that the tire that exploded was newly bought and was only slightly used at the time it blew up. Issue: Whether or not the tire blow-out is a fortuitous event? Held: No. In the case at bar, the cause of the unforeseen and unexpected occurrence was not independent of the human will. The accident was caused either through the negligence of the driver or because of mechanical defects in the tire. Common carriers should teach drivers not to overload their vehicles, not to exceed safe and legal speed limits, and to know the correct measures to take when a tire blows up thus insuring the safety of passengers at all tines. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ PHILIPPINE AIRLINES, INC. vs. CA 185 SCRA 110 Facts: On November 23, 1960, Starlight Flight No. 26 of the Philippine Air Lines took off from Iloilo, on its way to Manila, with 33 persons on board, including the plane's complement. The plane did not reach its destination but crashed on Mt. Baco, Mindoro, one hour and fift een minutes after takeoff .The plane was Identified as PI-C133, a DC-3 type aircraft manufactured in 1942 and acquired by PAL in 1948. It had flown almost 18,000 hours at the time of its illfated flight. It had been certified as airworthy by the Civil Aeronautics Administration. Among the fatalities was Nicanor Padilla. He was 29 years old, single. His mother, Natividad A. Vda. de Padilla, was his only legal heir. As a result of her son's death, Mrs. Padilla filed a complaint (which was amended twice) against PAL, demanding payment of P600,000 as actual and compensatory damages, plus exemplary damages and P60,000 as attorney's fees. In its answer, PAL denied that the accident was caused by its negligence or that of any of the plane's flight crew, and that, moreover, the damages sought were excessive and speculative. On August 31, 1973, the trial court promulgated a decision, ordering the defendant Philippine Air Lines, Inc. to pay the plaintiff Natividad A. Vda. de Padilla the sum of P477,000.00 as award for the expected income of the deceased Nicanor; P10,000.00 as moral damages; P10,000.00 as attorney's fees; and to pay the costs. On Appeal to the Court of Appeals the decision of the trial court was affirmed in toto. Issue: Whether or not the respondent court erred in computing the awarded indemnity on the basis of the life expectancy of the late Nicanor A. Padilla rather than on the life expectancy of private respondent, and thus erred in awarding what appears to the petitioner a s the excessive sum of P477,000 as indemnity for loss of earnings. Held: Petitioner relies on "the principle of law generally recognized and applied by the courts in the United States" that "the controlling element in determining loss of earnings arising from death is, as established by authorities, the life expectancy of the deceased or of the beneficiary, whichever is shorter. However, resort to foreign jurisprudence would be proper only if no law or jurisprudence is available locally to settle a controversy. Even in the absence of local statute and case law, foreign jurisprudence is only persuasive.

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For the settlement of the issue at hand, there are enough applicable local laws and jurisprudence. Under Article 1764 and Article 2206(1) of the Civil Code, the award of damages for death is computed on the basis of the life expectancy of the deceased, not of his beneficiary. The articles provide: Art. 1764. Damages in cases comprised in this Section shall be awarded in accordance with Title XVIII of this Book, concerning Damages. Article 2206 shall also apply to the death of a passenger caused by the breach of contract by a common carrier. Art. 2206. The amount of damages for death caused by a crime or quasi- delict shall be at least three thousand pesos, even though there may have been mitigating circumstances. In addition: (1) The defendant shall be liable for the loss of the earning capacity of the deceased, and the indemnity shall be paid to the heirs of the latter ; such indemnity shall in every case be assessed and awarded by the court, unless the deceased on account of permanent physical disability not caused by the defendant, had no earning capacity at the time of his death. In the case of Davila vs. PAL, 49 SCRA 497 which involved the same tragic plane crash, this Court determined not only PALs liability for negligence or breach of contract, but also the manner of computing the damages due the plaintiff therein which it based on the life expectancy of the deceased, Pedro Davila, Jr. WHEREFORE, the petition is dismissed. The decision of the trial court is affirmed with modification. The petitioner is ordered to pay the private respondent or her heirs death indemnity in the sum of P417,000 (not P477,000), with legal rate of interest of 6% per annum from the date of the judgment on August 31, 1973, until it is fully paid. Costs against the petitioner. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Gatchalian v Delim and Court of Appeals 203 SCRA 126 Facts: Gatchalian boarded the respondents Thames minibus at San Eugenio, Aringay, La Union bound of the s ame province. On the way, a snapping sound was suddenly heard at one part of the bus and shortly thereafter, the vehicle bumped a cement flower pot on th e side of the road, went off the road and fell into a ditch. Several passengers including the petitioner was injured. They were taken into an hospital for treatment. While there, private respondents wife Adela Delim visited and paid for the expenses, hospitalization and transportation fees. Howe ver, before she left, she had the injured passengers including the petitioner sign an already prepared Joint Affidavit constituting a waiver of any future complaint. However, notwithstanding this document, petitioner filed an action Ex Contractu to recover compensatory and Actual Damages. Private respondent denied liability on the ground that it was an accident and the Joint which constitutes as a waiver. The trial court dismissed the complaint based on the waiver and the CA affirmed. Issue: Whether or not the private respondent has successfully proved that he exercised extraordinary diligence. Held: The court held that they failed to prove extraordinary diligence. After a snapping sound was suddenly heard at one part of the bus, the driver didnt even bother to stop and look f anything had gone wrong with the bus. With regard to the waiver, it must to be valid and effective, couched in clear and unequivocal terms which leave no doubt as to the intention of the person to give up a right or benefit which legally pertains to him. In this case, such waiver is not clear and unequivocal. When petitioner signed the waiver, she was reeling from the effects of the accident and while reading the paper, she experienced dizziness but upon seeing other passengers sign the document, she too signed which bothering to read to its entirety. There appears substantial doubt whether the petitioner fully understood the joint affidavit. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ PHILIPPINE NATIONAL RAILWAYS vs. CA Facts: Winifredo Tupang, husband of plaintiff, boarded a train of appellant at Libmanan, Camarines Sur, as a paying passenger bound for Manila. Due to some mechanical defect, the train stopped at Sipocot, Camarines Sur, for repairs. Unfortunately, upon passing Iyam Bridge at Lucena, Quezon, Winifredo Tupang fell off the train resulting in his death.The train did not stop despite the alarm raised by the oth er passengers that somebody fell from the train. Upon complaint filed by Rosario the lower court after trial, held PNR liable for damages for breach of contract of carriage. The decision was sustained by the appellate court hence the present petition, wherein PNR raised for the first time, as a defense, the doctrine of state immunity from suit. It alleged that it is a mere agency of the Philippine government without distinct or separate personality of its own, and that its funds are governmental in character and, therefore, not subject to garnishment or execution.

Issue: Whether or not PNR can raise the defense of doctrine of state immunity from suit.

Held: No. The PNR was created under Rep. Act 4156, as amended. Section 4 of the said Act provides: The Philippine national Railways shall have the following powers:

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a. To do all such other things and to transact all such business directly or indirectly necessary, incidental or conducive to the attainment of the purpose of the corporation; and b. Generally, to exercise all powers of a corporation under the Corporation Law. Under the foregoing section, the PNR has all the powers, the characteristics and attributes of a corporation under the Corporation Law. There can be no question then that the PNR may sue and be sued and may be subjected to court processes just like any other corporation. Now, is PNR negligent? Yes. The appellate court found, the petitioner does not deny, that the train boarded by the deceased Winifredo Tupang was so over-crowded that he and many other passengers had no choice but to sit on the open platforms between the coaches of the train. It is likewise undisputed that the train did not even slow down when it approached the Iyam Bridge which was under repair at the time, Neither did the train stop, despite the alarm raised by other passengers that a person had fallen off the train at lyam Bridge. The petitioner has the obligation to transport its passengers to their destinations and to observe extraordinary diligence in doing so. Death or any injury suffered by any of its passengers gives rise to the presumption that it was negligent in the performance of its obligation under the contract of carriage. Thus, as correctly ruled by the respondent court, the petitioner failed to overthrow such presumption of negligence with clear and convincing evidence. But while petitioner failed to exercise extraordinary diligence as required by law, it appears that the deceased was chargeable with contributory negligence. Since he opted to sit on the open platform between the coaches of the train, he should have held tightly and tenaciously on the upright metal bar found at the side of said platform to avoid falling off from the speeding train. Such contributory negligence, while not exempting the PNR from liability, nevertheless justified the deletion of the amount adjudicated as moral damages and exemplary damages. Exemplary damages may be allowed only in cases where the defendant acted in a wanton, fraudulent, reckless, oppressive or malevolent manner. ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++