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APPENDIX E Rotation and the General Second-Degree Equation

Rotation of Axes • Invariants Under Rotation
y′ y

Rotation of Axes
In Section 9.1, you learned that equations of conics with axes parallel to one of the coordinate axes can be written in the general form
x′

Ax2 ϩ Cy2 ϩ Dx ϩ Ey ϩ F ϭ 0.

Horizontal or vertical axes

θ

x

Here you will study the equations of conics whose axes are rotated so that they are not parallel to the x-axis or the y-axis. The general equation for such conics contains an xy-term. Ax2 ϩ Bxy ϩ Cy2 ϩ Dx ϩ Ey ϩ F ϭ 0
Equation in xy-plane

After rotation of the x- and y-axes counterclockwise through an angle ␪, the rotated axes are denoted as the xЈ-axis and yЈ-axis. Figure E.1

To eliminate this xy-term, you can use a procedure called rotation of axes. You want to rotate the x- and y-axes until they are parallel to the axes of the conic. (The rotated axes are denoted as the xЈ-axis and the yЈ-axis, as shown in Figure E.1.) After the rotation has been accomplished, the equation of the conic in the new xЈyЈ-plane will have the form AЈ ͑xЈ ͒2 ϩ CЈ ͑ yЈ ͒2 ϩ DЈxЈ ϩ EЈyЈ ϩ FЈ ϭ 0.
Equation in xЈyЈ-plane

Because this equation has no xЈyЈ-term, you can obtain a standard form by completing the square. The following theorem identifies how much to rotate the axes to eliminate an xy-term and also the equations for determining the new coefficients AЈ, CЈ, DЈ, EЈ, and FЈ.

THEOREM A.1

Rotation of Axes

The general equation of the conic Ax2 ϩ Bxy ϩ Cy2 ϩ Dx ϩ Ey ϩ F ϭ 0, where B
2

0, can be rewritten as

AЈ ͑xЈ ͒ ϩ CЈ ͑ yЈ ͒2 ϩ DЈxЈ ϩ EЈyЈ ϩ FЈ ϭ 0 by rotating the coordinate axes through an angle ␪, where cot 2␪ ϭ

〈ϪC . 〉

The coefficients of the new equation are obtained by making the substitutions x ϭ xЈ cos ␪ Ϫ yЈ sin ␪ y ϭ xЈ sin ␪ ϩ yЈ cos ␪. E1

΂C Ϫ B sin 2␪ 0 Rotated: xЈ ϭ r cos͑␣ Ϫ ␪͒ yЈ ϭ r sin͑␣ Ϫ ␪͒ Figure E. xЈ. Thus. in order to eliminate the xЈyЈ-term. Solving this system for x and y yields x ϭ xЈ cos ␪ Ϫ yЈ sin ␪ and y ϭ xЈ sin ␪ ϩ yЈ cos ␪. y͒ in the original system and attempt to find its coordinates ͑xЈ.2 If B ϭ 0. as follows. you obtain the following. no rotation is necessary. and yЈ are those given in Figure E.E2 APPENDIX E Rotation and the General Second-Degree Equation y P = (x. If B 0. you obtain xЈ ϭ r cos͑␣ Ϫ ␪͒ ϭ r ͑cos ␣ cos ␪ ϩ sin ␣ sin ␪͒ ϭ r cos ␣ cos ␪ ϩ r sin ␣ sin ␪ ϭ x cos ␪ ϩ y sin ␪ yЈ ϭ r sin ͑␣ Ϫ ␪͒ ϭ r ͑sin ␣ cos ␪ Ϫ cos ␣ sin ␪͒ ϭ r sin ␣ cos ␪ Ϫ r cos ␣ sin ␪ ϭ y cos ␪ Ϫ x sin ␪. y. the only way to make BЈ ϭ 0 is to let cot 2␪ ϭ AϪC . BЈ ϭ 2͑C Ϫ A͒ sin ␪ cos ␪ ϩ B͑cos2 ␪ Ϫ sin2 ␪͒ ϭ ͑C Ϫ A͒ sin 2␪ ϩ B cos 2␪ ϭ B͑sin 2␪͒ A ϩ cot 2␪΃ ϭ 0. y) r To discover how the coordinates in the xy-system are related to the coordinates in the xЈyЈ-system. AЈ ϭ A cos2 ␪ ϩ B cos ␪ sin ␪ ϩ C sin2 ␪ x′ r CЈ ϭ A sin2 ␪ Ϫ B cos ␪ sin ␪ ϩ C cos2 ␪ DЈ ϭ D cos ␪ ϩ E sin ␪ x α −θ θ EЈ ϭ Ϫ D sin ␪ ϩ E cos ␪ FЈ ϭ F Now. and thus the equations for x. yЈ ͒ in the rotated system. In either system. you must select ␪ such that BЈ ϭ 0.2. Using the formulas for the sine and cosine of the difference of two angles. because the xy-term is not present in the original equation. the distance r between the point P and the origin is the same. . you have established the desired results. B B 0. y ′) Finally. choose a point P ϭ ͑x. by substituting these values for x and y into the original equation and collecting terms. Proof α x Original: x ϭ r cos ␣ y ϭ r sin ␣ y′ y P = (x ′.

Solution Because A ϭ 0. 0͒ in x؅y؅-system ͧ1. ± 1 2 2 ΂ ΃ Standard form Figure E.± ͑ ± Ί3. ± 1͒. 0͒ and ͑0. 0͒ in the xЈyЈ-system. y y 2 Solution )x ) 2 Because A ϭ 7. ± 1͒ in the xЈyЈ-system. ± 1ͨ in x؅y؅-system Ί3 in xy-system .APPENDIX E Rotation and the General Second-Degree Equation E3 EXAMPLE 1 Rotation of a Hyperbola Write the equation xy Ϫ 1 ϭ 0 in standard form. 6 Therefore. and C ϭ 0. you have ͑for 0 < ␪ < ␲͞2͒ 1 A Ϫ C 7 Ϫ 13 ϭ ϭ Ί3 B Ϫ 6Ί3 )2) 2 + )y ) )1) 2 2 =1 x cot 2␪ ϭ ␲ ␪ϭ . B ϭ Ϫ 6Ί3. and C ϭ 13. as shown in Figure E. 4 The equation in the xЈyЈ-system is obtained by making the following substitutions. ͧ؊ 1. ͑ ؊ Ί2. ͑2͒2 ͑1͒2 Vertices: ͧ± 2. 1ͨ.3. ͑ Ί2 ͒ ͑ 2 ͒ ΃΂ ΃ Standard form Sketch the graph of 7x2 Ϫ 6Ί3xy ϩ 13y2 Ϫ 16 ϭ 0. x ϭ xЈ cos xЈ Ϫ yЈ Ί2 Ί2 ␲ ␲ Ϫ yЈ sin ϭ xЈ Ϫ yЈ ϭ Ί2 4 4 2 2 xЈ ϩ yЈ Ί2 Ί2 ␲ ␲ ϩ yЈ cos ϭ xЈ ϩ yЈ ϭ Ί2 4 4 2 2 y 2 x ΂ ΃ ΂ ΃ 1 y ϭ xЈ sin x 1 2 ΂ ΃ ΂ ΃ −2 −1 −1 Substituting these expressions into the equation xy Ϫ 1 ϭ 0 produces xy − 1 = 0 ΂ Vertices: ͑ Ί2. ͧ0. B ϭ 1. ؊ 1ͨ in xy-system Figure E. the equation in the xЈyЈ-system is derived by making the following substitutions. 0ͨ. x −2 2 Ί3 Ί3xЈ Ϫ yЈ ␲ ␲ 1 Ϫ yЈ sin ϭ xЈ Ϫ yЈ ϭ 6 6 2 2 2 Ί3 ␲ ␲ 1 xЈ ϩ Ί3yЈ y ϭ xЈ sin ϩ yЈ cos ϭ xЈ ϩ yЈ ϭ 6 6 2 2 2 x ϭ xЈ cos −2 ΂ ΃ ΂΃ ΂΃ ΂ ΃ 7x 2 − 6 3xy + 13y 2 − 16 = 0 Substituting these expressions into the original equation eventually simplifies (after considerable algebra) to 4͑xЈ ͒2 ϩ 16͑ yЈ ͒2 ϭ 16 ͑xЈ ͒2 ͑ yЈ ͒2 ϩ ϭ 1. EXAMPLE 2 Rotation of an Ellipse xЈ Ϫ yЈ xЈ ϩ yЈ Ϫ1ϭ0 Ί2 Ί2 ͑xЈ ͒2 Ϫ ͑ yЈ ͒2 Ϫ1ϭ0 2 ͑xЈ ͒2 ͑ yЈ ͒2 2 Ϫ Ί 2 ϭ 1. . 0͒.4 This is the equation of an ellipse centered at the origin with vertices at ͑± 2.4.3 This is the equation of a hyperbola centered at the origin with vertices at ͑ ± Ί2. you have ͑for 0 < ␪ < ␲͞2͒ AϪC ϭ0 B 2␪ ϭ cot 2␪ ϭ )x ) 2 )y )2 − =1 2 ) 2) ) 2) 2 y ␲ 2 ␲ ␪ϭ . as shown in Figure E.

as shown in Figure E. you have AϪC 1Ϫ4 3 ϭ ϭ . Of course. B Ϫ4 4 3 cot2 ␪ Ϫ 1 ϭ 4 2 cot ␪ 4 cot2 ␪ Ϫ 6 cot ␪ Ϫ 4 ϭ 0 cot 2␪ ϭ 5 1 The trigonometric identity cot 2␪ ϭ ͑cot2 ␪ Ϫ 1͒͑͞2 cot ␪͒ produces cot 2␪ ϭ θ 2 from which you can obtain the equation 6 cot ␪ ϭ 4 cot2 ␪ Ϫ 4 Figure E.؊ in xy-system 5Ί5 5Ί5 ΂ ΂ ΃ ΃ ͑ yЈ ϩ 1͒2 ϭ 4 Ϫ Standard form Figure E. you can write the following.5 ͑2 cot ␪ Ϫ 4͒͑2 cot ␪ ϩ 1͒ ϭ 0. 4 Vertex: . . Consequently. and C ϭ 4.E4 APPENDIX E Rotation and the General Second-Degree Equation In writing Examples 1 and 2. Considering 0 < ␪ < ␲͞2. Solution Because A ϭ 1.6Њ. Ϫ 1͒ and its axis parallel to the xЈ-axis in the xЈyЈ-system. it follows that 2 cot ␪ ϭ 4. From the triangle in Figure E. 1 x′ θ ≈ 26. 45Њ. you can obtain the standard form 5͑ yЈ ϩ 1͒2 ϭ Ϫ 5xЈ ϩ 4 1 4 ΂ 4 ΃΂xЈ Ϫ 5 ΃. EXAMPLE 3 Rotation of a Parabola Sketch the graph of x2 Ϫ 4xy ϩ 4y2 ϩ 5Ί5y ϩ 1 ϭ 0. many second-degree equations do not yield such common solutions to the equation cot 2␪ ϭ AϪC . we chose the equations such that ␪ would be one of the common angles 30Њ. By completing the square. B ϭ Ϫ 4. and so forth. ؊ 1 in x؅y؅-system 5 13 6 . you can obtain sin ␪ ϭ 1͞Ί5 and cos ␪ ϭ 2͞Ί5. B Example 3 illustrates such a case.5. x 2 − 4xy + 4y 2 + 5 5y + 1 = 0 y′ 2 y cot ␪ ϭ 2 ␪ Ϸ 26.6° x ΂Ί5΃ Ϫ yЈ ΂Ί5΃ ϭ Ί5 1 2 xЈ ϩ 2yЈ y ϭ xЈ sin ␪ ϩ yЈ cos ␪ ϭ xЈ ΂ ϩ yЈ ΂ ϭ ΃ ΃ Ί5 Ί5 Ί5 x ϭ xЈ cos ␪ Ϫ yЈ sin ␪ ϭ xЈ 2 1 Substituting these expressions into the original equation produces 2xЈ Ϫ yЈ 2 2xЈ Ϫ yЈ Ϫ4 Ί5 Ί5 xЈ ϩ 2yЈ 5Ί5 ϩ1ϭ0 Ί5 2xЈ Ϫ yЈ −1 −2 ΂ ΃ ΂ ΃΂ xЈ ϩ 2yЈ xЈ ϩ 2yЈ ϩ4 Ί5 Ί5 ΃ ΂ ΃ 2 ϩ ΂ ΃ which simplifies to ( y ′ + 1)2 = 4 − 1 x ′− 4 4 5 ( (( ( 5͑ yЈ ͒2 ϩ 5xЈ ϩ 10yЈ ϩ 1 ϭ 0.6. Thus.6 The graph of the equation is a parabola with its vertex at ͑ 4 5 .

1. Because the sign of AЈCЈ determines the type of graph for the equation AЈ ͑xЈ ͒2 ϩ CЈ ͑ yЈ ͒2 ϩ DЈxЈ ϩ EЈyЈ ϩ FЈ ϭ 0 the sign of B2 Ϫ 4AC must determine the type of graph for the original equation.3 Classification of Conics by the Discriminant The graph of the equation Ax2 ϩ Bxy ϩ Cy2 ϩ Dx ϩ Ey ϩ F ϭ 0 is. Parabola 3. except in degenerate cases. Because of this.APPENDIX E Rotation and the General Second-Degree Equation E5 Invariants Under Rotation In Theorem A. A ϩ C ϭ AЈ ϩ CЈ 3.2 Rotation Invariants The rotation of coordinate axes through an angle ␪ that transforms the equation Ax2 ϩ Bxy ϩ Cy2 ϩ Dx ϩ Ey ϩ F ϭ 0 into the form AЈ ͑xЈ ͒2 ϩ CЈ ͑ yЈ ͒2 ϩ DЈxЈ ϩ EЈyЈ ϩ FЈ ϭ 0 has the following rotation invariants. This result is stated in Theorem A. B2 Ϫ 4AC ϭ ͑BЈ ͒2 Ϫ 4AЈCЈ You can use this theorem to classify the graph of a second-degree equation with an xy-term in much the same way you do for a second-degree equation without an xyterm.2 lists some other rotation invariants. F is said to be invariant under rotation. THEOREM A. note that the constant term FЈ ϭ F is the same in both equations. the invariant B2 Ϫ 4AC reduces to B2 Ϫ 4 AC ϭ Ϫ 4 AЈCЈ Discriminant which is called the discriminant of the equation Ax2 ϩ Bxy ϩ Cy2 ϩ Dx ϩ Ey ϩ F ϭ 0. 1. determined by its discriminant as follows. Hyperbola B2 Ϫ 4AC < 0 B2 Ϫ 4AC ϭ 0 B2 Ϫ 4AC > 0 . 1. F ϭ FЈ 2. THEOREM A. Ellipse or circle 2. The proof of this theorem is left as an exercise (see Exercise 34). Note that because BЈ ϭ 0. Theorem A.3.

EXERCISES FOR APPENDIX E In Exercises 1–12. x2 ϩ 4xy ϩ 4y2 Ϫ 5x Ϫ y Ϫ 3 ϭ 0 26. 3x2 ϩ 8xy ϩ 4y2 Ϫ 7 ϭ 0 a. ͑2x ϩ y Ϫ 3͒2 ϭ 0 33. 18. b. Explain how you used the utility to obtain the graph. ͑x Ϫ 2y ϩ 1͒͑x ϩ 2y Ϫ 3͒ ϭ 0 32. 2x2 Ϫ 3xy Ϫ 2y2 ϩ 10 ϭ 0 Ϫ 2Ί3xy ϩ Ϫ 24xy ϩ ϩ 24xy ϩ ϩ 24xy ϩ 16x2 9y2 In Exercises 19–26. . x2 Ϫ 6xy ϩ 9y2 Ϫ 2y ϩ 1 ϭ 0 Solution b. 5x2 3x2 9x2 9x2 Ϫ 2xy ϩ 5y2 Ϫ 12 ϭ 0 y2 ϩ 2x ϩ 2Ί3y ϭ 0 Ϫ 60x Ϫ 80y ϩ 100 ϭ 0 ϩ 90x Ϫ 130y ϭ 0 ϩ 80x Ϫ 60y ϭ 0 In Exercises 27–32. 8. 2x2 ϩ 4xy ϩ 5y2 ϩ 3x Ϫ 4y Ϫ 20 ϭ 0 23. xy ϩ 1 ϭ 0 2. The graph is a hyperbola because B2 Ϫ 4AC ϭ 16 Ϫ 0 > 0. x2 ϩ xy ϩ 4y2 ϩ x ϩ y Ϫ 4 ϭ 0 16y2 16y2 In Exercises 13–18. x2 ϩ xy ϩ y2 ϭ 10 14. 13. or a hyperbola. d. Give the resulting equation and sketch its graph showing both sets of axes. 17x2 ϩ 32xy Ϫ 7y2 ϭ 75 16. x2 Ϫ 6xy Ϫ 5y2 ϩ 4x Ϫ 22 ϭ 0 24. xy Ϫ 2y Ϫ 4x ϭ 0 6. The solutions of other exercises may also be facilitated by use of appropriate technology. The graph is a parabola because B2 Ϫ 4AC ϭ 36 Ϫ 36 ϭ 0. an ellipse. 40x2 4x2 ϩ 36xy ϩ 25y2 ϭ 52 17. rotate the axes to eliminate the xy-term. Prove Theorem A. x2 Ϫ 4xy ϩ 2y2 ϭ 6 15. 11. 16x2 Ϫ 24xy ϩ 9y2 Ϫ 30x Ϫ 40y ϭ 0 20. 4xy Ϫ 9 ϭ 0 c. Show that the equation x2 ϩ y2 ϭ r 2 is invariant under rotation of axes. c. a. x2 Ϫ 10xy ϩ y2 ϭ 0 31. The graph is a hyperbola because B2 Ϫ 4AC ϭ 64 Ϫ 48 > 0.E6 APPENDIX E Rotation and the General Second-Degree Equation EXAMPLE 4 Using the Discriminant Classify the graph of each of the following equations. 10. xy Ϫ 4 ϭ 0 3. y2 Ϫ 4x2 ϭ 0 28.2. 1. 2x2 Ϫ 3xy ϩ 2y2 Ϫ 2x ϭ 0 d. use the discriminant to determine whether the graph of the equation is a parabola. sketch the graph (if possible) of the degenerate conic. The graph is a circle or an ellipse because B2 Ϫ 4AC ϭ 9 Ϫ 16 < 0. x2 ϩ 2xy ϩ y2 Ϫ 1 ϭ 0 30. 13x2 Ϫ 8xy ϩ 7y2 Ϫ 45 ϭ 0 22. 19. 32x2 ϩ 50xy ϩ 7y2 ϭ 52 Ϫ 12xy ϩ 9y2 ϩ ͑ 4Ί13 ϩ 12͒x Ϫ ͑ 6Ί13 ϩ 8͒y ϭ 91 The symbol indicates an exercise in which you are instructed to use graphing technology or a symbolic computer algebra system. 36x2 Ϫ 60xy ϩ 25y2 ϩ 9y ϭ 0 25. 34. xy ϩ x Ϫ 2y ϩ 3 ϭ 0 5. 13x2 ϩ 6Ί3xy ϩ 7y2 Ϫ 16 ϭ 0 7. use a graphing utility to graph the conic. Determine the angle ␪ through which the axes are rotated. 12. x2 Ϫ 4xy Ϫ 2y2 Ϫ 6 ϭ 0 21. 9. x2 ϩ y2 Ϫ 2x ϩ 6y ϩ 10 ϭ 0 29. 27. x2 Ϫ 10xy ϩ y2 ϩ1ϭ0 4.