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J.

Mart  nez Tarraz o

Resoluci on de problemas

Resnick, Halliday.

Physics. Wiley, 1966

April 2, 2013

Springer

Contents

1

Particle Dynamics II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Work and Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Conservation of Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 1 3 3 5 5

2

3

Solutions

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

1 Particle Dynamics II

Problems
A block of mass m slides in an inclined right-angled trough as in Fig.1.1. If the coecient of kinetic friction between the block and the material composing the trough is "k , nd the acceleration of the block.
1.1.

Fig. 1.1.

A small coin is placed on a at, horizontal turntable. The turntable is observed to make three revolutions in 3.14 sec. (a ) What is the speed of the coin when it rides without slipping at a distance of 5.0 cm from the center of the turntable? (b ) What is the acceleration (magnitude and direction) of the coin in part (a )? (c ) What is the frictional-force acting on the coin in part (a ) if the coin has a mass m? (d ) What is the coecient of static friction between the coin and the turntable if the coin is observed to slide o the turntable when it is greater than 10 cm from the center of the turntable?
1.2.

A very small cube of mass m is placed in the inside of a funnel (Fig. 1.2) rotating about a vertical axis at a constant rate of # rev/sec. The wall of the funnel makes an angle  with the horizontal. If the coecient of static friction between the cube and the funnel is " and the center of the cube is a distance
1.3.

2

1 Particle Dynamics II

r from the axis of rotation, what are the largest and smallest values of # for
which the block will not move with respect to the funnel?

Fig. 1.2.

2 Work and Energy

Problems
A 100-lb block of ice slides down an incline 5.0 ft long and 3.0 ft high. A man pushses up on the ice parallel to the incline so that it slides down at constant speed. The coefficient of friction between the ice and the incline is 0.10. Find (a ) the force exerted by the man, (b ) the work done by the man on the block, (c ) the work done by gravity on the block, (d ) the work done by the surface of the incline on the block, (e ) the work done by the resultant force on the block, and (f ) the change in kinetic energy of the block.
2.1.

A man pushes a 60-lb block 30 ft along a level oor at constant speed with a force directed 45 below the horizontal. If the coefficient of kinetic friction is 0.20, how much work does the man on the block?
2.2.

A crate weighing 500 lb is suspended from the end of a rope 40 ft long. The crate is then pushed aside 4.0 ft from the vertical and held there. (a ) What is the force needed to keep the crate in this position? (b ) Is work being done in holding it there? (c ) Was work done in moving it aside? If so, how much? (d ) Does the tension in the rope perform any work on the crate?
2.3. 2.4.

A cord is used to lower vertically a block of mass w a distance d at a constant downward acceleration of ga4. Find the work done by the cord on the block.
2.5.

Compute (a ) the total work done on the block; (b ) the work done by the rope on the block; (c ) the work done by friction on the block; (d ) the coefficient of kinetic friction between block and oor.

A block of mass m = 3X57 kg is drawn at constant speed a distance d = 4X06 meters along a horizontal oor by a rope exerting a constant force of magnitude p = 7X68 nt making an angle  = 15X0 with the horizontal.

3 The Conservation of Energy

Problems
3.1.

Show that for the same initial speed v , the speed v of a projectile will be the same at all points at the same elevation, regardless of the angle of projection.
0

3.2. The string in Fig. 3.1 has length l = 4X0 ft. When the ball is released, it will swing down the dotted arc. How fast will it be going when it reaches the lowest point in its swing?

Fig. 3.1.

3.3.

The nail in Fig. 3.1 is located a distance d below the point of suspension, Show that d must be at least 0X6l if the ball is to swing completely around in a circle centered on the nail. Suppose that the string of Fig. 3.1 is very elastic, made of rubber, say, and that the string is unextended at length l when the ball is released. (a) Explain why you would expect the ball to reach a low point greater than a distance l below the point of suspension. (b) Show, using dynamis and energy considerations, that if ¡l is small compared to l the string will stretch by
3.4.

6

3 The Conservation of Energy

an amount ¡l = 3mgak, where k is the assumed force constant of the string. Notice that the larger k is, the smaller ¡l is, and the better the approximation ¡l ( l. (c) Show, under these circumstances, that the speed of the ball at p the bottom is v = 2g (l   3mga2k), less than it would be for an inelastic string (k = I). Given a physical explanation for this result using energy considerations.
3.5. (a ) A light rigid rod of length l has a mass m attached to its end, forming a simple pendulum. It is inverted and then released. What is its speed v at the lowest point and what is the tension „ in the suspension at that instant? (b ) The same pendulum is next put in a horizontal position and released from rest. At what angle from the vertical will the tension in the suspension equal the weight in magnitude? 3.6. A simple pendulum of length l , the mass of whose bob is m, is observed to have a speed v when the cord makes the angle  with the vertical (0 `  ` %a2), as in Fig. 3.2. In terms of g and the foregoing given quantities, determine (a ) the total mechanical energy of the system; (b ) the speed v of the bob when it is at its lowest position; (c ) the least value v that v could have if the cord is to achieve a horizontal position during the motion; (d ) the speed v such that if v b v the pendulum will not oscilate but rather will continue to move around in a vertical circle.
0 0 0 1 2 0 3 0 3

Fig. 3.2.

An object is attached to a vertical spring and slowly lowered to its equilibrium position. This stretches the spring by an amount d. If the same object is attached to the same vertical spring but permitted to fall instead, through what distance does it stretch the spring?
3.7.

A 2.0-kg block is dropped from a height of 0.40 meter onto a spring of force constant k = 1960 nt/meter. Find the maximum distance the spring will be compressed (neglect friction).
3.8. 3.9.

A frictionless roller coaster of mass m starts at point e with speed v as in Fig. 3.3. Assume that the roller coaster can be considered as a point particle and that it always remains on the track. (a ) What will be the speed of the
0

3 The Conservation of Energy

7

roller coaster at points f and g ? (b ) What constant deceleration is required to stop it at point i if the brakes are applied at point h? (c ) Suppose v = 0; how long will it take the roller coaster to reach point f ?
0

Fig. 3.3.

A small block of mass m slides along the frictionless loop-a-loop track shown in Fig. 3.4. (a ) If it starts from rest at € , what is the resultant force acting on it at ? (b ) At what height above the bottom of the loop should the block be released so that the force it exerts against the track at the top of the loop is equal to its weight?
3.10.

Fig. 3.4.

The particle m in Fig. 3.5 is moving in a vertical circle of radius ‚ inside a track. There is no friction. When m is at its lowest position, its speed is v . (a ) What is the minimum value vm of v for which m will go completely around the circle without losing contact with the track? (b ) Suppose v is 0X775vm . The particle will move up the track to some point at € at which it lose contact with the track and travel along a path shown roughly by the dashed line. Find the angular position  of point € .
3.11.
0 0 0

3.12.

A point of mass m starts from rest and slides down the surface of a frictionless solid sphere of radius r as in Fig. 3.6. Measure angles from the vertical and potential energy from the top. Find (a ) the change in potential energy of the mass with angle; (b ) the kinetic energy as a function of angle;

8

3 The Conservation of Energy

Fig. 3.5.

(c ) the radial and tangential accelerations as a function of angle; (d ) the angle at which the mass ies o the sphere. (e ) If there is friction between the mass and the sphere, does the mass y o at a greater or lesser angle than in part (d )?

Fig. 3.6.

3.13.

An ideal massless spring ƒ can be compressed 1.0 meter by a force of 100 nt. This same spring is placed at the bottom of a frictionless inclined plane which makes an angle of  = 30 with the horizontal (see Fig. 3.7). A 10-kg mass w is released from rest at the top of the incline and is brought to rest momentarily after compressing the spring 2.0 meters. (a ) Through what distance does the mass slide before coming to rest? (b ) What is the speed of the mass just before it reaches the spring?

Fig. 3.7.

3 The Conservation of Energy
3.14.

9

A body moving along the x-axis is subject to a force repelling it from the origin, given by p = kx. (a ) Find the potential energy function … (x) for the motion and write down the conservation of energy condition. (b ) Describe the motion of the system and show that this is the kind of motion we would expect near a point of unstable equilibrium.
3.15.

m

1

If the magnitude of the force of attraction between a particle of mass and one of mass m is given by
2

where k is a constant and x is the distance between the particles, nd (a ) the potential energy function and (b ) the work required to increase the separation of the masses from x = x to x = x + d.
1 1

p = k mxm
1 2

2

3.16.

e p = kr where e is the charge of the electron, k is a constant, and r is the separation between electron and nucleus. Assume that the nucleus is xed. The electron, initially moving in a circle of radius ‚ about the nucleus, jumps suddenly into a circular orbit of smaller radius ‚ . (a ) Calculate the change in kinetic
2 2 1

The magnitude of the force of attraction between the positively charged nucleus and the negatively charged electron in the hydrogen atom is given by

energy of the electron, using Newton's second law. (b ) Using the relation between force and potential energy, calculate the change of potential energy of the atom. (c ) Show by how much the total energy of the atom has changed in this process. (The total energy will prove to have decreased; this energy is given o in the form of radiation.)
3.17.
1 2 2 2

2

The potential energy corresponding to a certain two-dimensional force eld is given by … (xY y ) = k(x + y ). (a ) Derive px and py and describe the vector force at each point in terms of its Cartesian coordinates x and y . (b ) Derive pr and p and describe the vector force at each point in terms of the polar coordinates r and  of the point. (c ) Can you think of a physical model of such a force?
3.18.

The so-called Yukawa potential

gives a fairly accurate description of the interaction between nucleons (that is, neutrons and protons, the constituents of the nucleus). The constant r is about 1X5 ¢ 10  meter and the constant … is about 50 Mev. (a ) Find the corresponding expression for the force of attraction. (b ) To show the short range of this force, compute the ratio of the force at r = 2r , 4r , and 10r to the force at r = r .
0 15 0 0 0 0 0

… (r) =   rr … e r=r0
0 0

Solutions

Problems of Chapter 1
1.1

N1

N2

mg
Fig. 3.8.

De la Fig. 3.8, las ecuaciones del movimiento son:

Este problema tiene inter es porque es un caso particular del problema siguiente.
2

mg cos  = 2x m— = mg sin    2"k x p de donde — = g (sin    2"k cos ). 2 Las soluciones son: (a ) v = 2% ¡ : ¡ 5 = 30.02 cm/sec. (b ) — = vr = 2 180.18 cm/sec . (c ) fr = mv m dinas. (d ) fr es m axima, por tanto r = 180.18   ¡ pr = "x = "mg, de donde " = 2% ¡ : ¡ 10 = 0X3677.
1.2
3 3 14 2 1 3 2 980 3 14

p

A 

Debemos de distinguir dos casos, a saber: 


Cuando la frecuencia es m nima, #m n , la fuerza de rozamiento adquiere su m aximo valor dirigida hacia arriba Fig. 3.9(a).

12

Solutions 

Cuando la frecuencia es m axima, #max , la fuerza de rozamiento adquiere su m aximo valor dirigida hacia abajo Fig. 3.9(b). 

N fs N fs mg θ
(a)

mg θ
(b) 

m n
Fig. 3.9. 

ma x

De la Fig. 3.9(a), tenemos que las componentes horizontal y vertical de la ecuaci on del movimiento conducen al sistema:

La fuerza de rozamiento toma su m aximo valor, fs = "x , dividiendo la primera ecuaci on entre la segunda y despejando #m n , obtenemos: 


x sin    fs cos  = 4% m#m n r x cos  + fs sin  = mg
2 2  

A

sin    " cos  ¡ #m n = 21% g r cos  + " sin  


s

De la Fig. 3.9(b) por un proceso completamente an alogo, obtenemos:

#max = 21% 

s

g ¡ sin  + " cos  r cos    " sin 
s

Por tanto, si queremos mantener sin deslizar (ni abajo ni arriba) a la part cula, la frecuencia debe mantenerse entre los valores extremos hallados: 1 2%
s

g ¡ sin    " cos  # r cos  + " sin 

1 2%

g ¡ sin  + " cos  r cos    " sin 

Es oportuno se~ nalar que cuando  = 0 se reduce al problema anterior, que podr amos denominar el problema del Tocadiscos y cuando  = 90 al problema The Rotor expuesto en el libro.

Solutions

13

Problems of Chapter 2
2.1

N

F

f mg θ
Fig. 3.10.

θ

De la Fig. 3.10, tenemos:

p + f   mg sin  = 0 b a x   mg cos  = 0 b f = "x Y (a ) Del sistema, tenemos p = mg (sin    " cos ) = 100(0X6   0X10 ¢ 0X8) = 52 lb. (b ) ‡F = 52 ¢ 5 ¢ cos 180 =  260 ft-lb. (c ) ‡g = 100 ¢ 0X6 ¢ 5 = 300 ft-lb. (d ) ‡ = ‡N + ‡f = 0 + 0X10 ¢ 100 ¢ 0X8 ¢ 5 ¢ cos 180 =
 40 ft-lb. (e ) 0. (f ) 0.
2.2
surface

W

N

f θ mg
Fig. 3.11.

F

De la Fig. 3.11, tenemos:

14

Solutions

1

  

k k tan 

Del sistema

¢ mgd =   :
1 0

p cos    f = 0 b a x   mg   p sin  = 0 b f = "k x Y k mg tenemos p =    k  , de donde ‡
20 tan 45 0 2

W

:

¢ 60 ¢ 30 ft-lb = 450 ft-lb.

cos

sin

=

p cos  ¡ d

=

2.3

θ0 l θ T d mg F

Fig. 3.12.

De la Fig. 3.12, tenemos:

 

2.4
3

p   „ sin  = 0 „ cos    mg = 0 mg p lb % 50X25 lb. (b ) (a ) p = mg tan  = mg pl2d  d2 = q( d l )2   = ‚ 0 ‚ 0 No, el desplazamiento es nulo. (c ) S , ‡ =  pl cos  d = mgl sin  d =  q  pl2  d2   d¡ mgl(1   cos  ) = mgl 1   l = mgl 1   1   l = 500 ¢ 40 ¢ p ¡   1   0X99 % 100X25 ft-lb. No, la fuerza es normal al desplazamiento. „   wg = w    g ¡, de donde „ = wg. El trabajo es ‡ = wg( d) =
0 500 1 99 0 0 2 0 3 3 4

A

Mgd
4

.

4

4

2.5

De la Fig. 3.13, tenemos:

p cos    f = 0 b a x + p sin    mg = 0 b f = "k x Y

W

Solutions

15

N f θ mg

F

Fig. 3.13.

(a ) 0, pues la resultante es nula (velocidad constante). (b ) ‡F = p cos  ¢ d = 7X68 cos 15 ¢ 4X06 J % 30X12 J. (c ) ‡f =  ‡F %  30X12 J, pues ‡N = ‡g = 0. (d ) Del sistema tenemos "k = mgF F   = : ¢ ::   :   % 0X2248.
cos 7 68 cos 15 9 8 sin 3 57 7 68 sin 15

Problems of Chapter 3
Es obvio por la conservaci on de la energ a mec anica. Prob emoslo directamente, tenemos el siguiente sistema de ecuaciones:
3.1

Tomemos la altura y = h, de la segunda ecuaci on:

x=v y=v vx = v vy = v h=v

0

cos  ¡ t

0

0 0

cos  sin    gt

sin  ¡ t  

1 gt 2

W b b b b b 2a b b b b b Y

0

sin  ¡ t  

1 gt , 2
2

equivalente a

resolviendo para t encontramos los tiempos de vuelo en que el proyectil alcanza la altura h, los tiempos son:

sin  ¡ t + 2gh = 0, t   2v g
2 0 

v sin    2h . t = v sin g ¦ g g
0 2 0 2 2

s

Sustituyendo en la cuarta ecuaci on del sistema, encontramos:
H

vy = v

0

sin    g d

v

0

sin 

g 

  2h e = ¦qv ¦ v sin g g
2 0 2 2

s

I

2 0

sin

2 

  2hg.

16

Solutions

Por tanto:

v = vx + vy = v
2 2

q

q

2 0

cos

2 

+v

0

sin

2 

  2hg = v   2hg.
2 0

q

Que no depende del  angulo de proyecci on. Tomando como referencia para la energ a potencial la horizontal que pasa por el centro de rotaci on, tenemos:
3.2

0=
3.3

1 mv 2

2

  mgl,

de donde

v=
l

p

2gl = 2 ¡ 32 ¡ 4 ft/sec = 16 ft/sec.

p

A T mg

d

Fig. 3.14.

Si la part cula ha de rizar el rizo, tiene que llegar al punto e de la Fig. 3.14 con una velocidad vA acotada inferiormente y cuya m axima cota inferior hemos de determinar. De la ecuaci on para la aceleraci on centr peta en el punto e, tenemos: la velocidad en e viene condicionada por la ligadura „
A mg + „ = lmv   d,
2

! 0, que conduce a:

vA ! g(l   d).
2

Tomando la misma referencia para la energ a potencial que en el problema anterior, tenemos que la conservaci on de la energ a conduce a:

vA = 2g(2d   l), sustituyendo en la desigualdad anterior y cancelando el factor g , tenemos: 3l 2(2d   l) ! l   d de donde d !
 mg l   2(l   d)
+
2 2

 

¡

1 mv = 0 de donde 2 A

5

Solutions
3.4

17

La energ a potencial, al dejar caer la bola, una parte de ella debe transformarse en energ a potencial el astica que, si ¡l es peque~ no, se debe sustraer a la energ a cin etica. De ah , cabe esperarse una disminuci on de la velocidad respecto de la situaci on no el astica. Las ecuaciones din amica y de la conservaci on de la energ a son:
b b a k¡l   mg = l mv + ¡l b 1 1 Y 0 = mv   mg (l + ¡l) + k(¡l) b 2 2
2 2 2

W

siendo la primera ecuaci on una aproximaci on de la ecuaci on del movimiento, mucho m as compleja. Si ponemos ¡l ( l, el anterior sistema se reduce a:
b a k¡l   mg = mv l b 1 1 0 = mv   mgl + k(¡l) Y 2 2
2

W

2

2

Sustituyendo el valor de mv de la primera en la segunda:
2

1 1 0 = (kl¡l   mgl)   mgl + k(¡l) , 2 2 tenemos la ecuaci on de segundo grado en ¡l:
2

(¡l) + l¡l  
2

3mgl

k

= 0,
3

tomando la soluci on positiva:

¡l =
%

Donde se ha supuesto mg ( kl y se ha usado la aproximaci on 1 + x % 1+ x por medio del teorema del binomio generalizado y suponiendo jxj ` 1 y x ( 1. Para obtener la velocidad, introducimos la anterior aproximaci on en la segunda ecuaci on del sistema original (la u nica exacta), obteniendo:
1 2

2  l 1 + 1 ¡ 12mg 2 2 kl

 l + l

q

2

+

12

mgl k

l =

2r

 1 

2 =

1+ 3mg

12mg

kl   1

k

.

p

0= de donde:
r

1 mv 2

2

1 9m g   mg ¡ 3mg + k¡ k 2 k
2 2

2

, 

v=

2gl + 2g ¡

3mg

k   k

9mg

s
2

=

2g 

mg l   32 k

.

18
3.5

Solutions

(a ) Tomando la referencia de energ a potencial en la horizontal que pasa por el punto de suspensi on, tenemos:

de donde v = 2

pgl. De la aceleraci on centr peta:
mgl l

mgl = 1 mv   mgl, 2
2

tenemos „ = mg +

4

= 5mg . (b ) De la Fig. 3.15 tenemos el sistema:
l θ T mg
Fig. 3.15.

„   mg = mv l

2

,

θ

b b „   mg cos  = mv b b l a 1 0 = mv   mgl cos b b 2 b b Y „ = mg
2 2

W

1 i.e.  % 70 31H 44HH . 3 3.6 (a ) Tomando como referencia de energ a potencial la horizontal que pasa por el punto de suspensi on, la energ a mec anica total es mv   mgl cos  ; (b ) de la conservaci o n de la energ  a, mv   mgl = mv   mgl cos  , de p donde, v = v p + 2gl(1   cos  ); (c ) debemos p tener mv   mgl cos  ! 0, por tanto v ! 2gl cos  , i. e. v = 2gl cos  ; (d ) para completar la circunferencia se debe mantener tensa la cuerda lo que exige que la velocidad 2 de la part cula enp su posici on m as alta no sea nula, es decir mv l = mg + „ , con „ b 0, i. e. v b gl, por la conservaci on de la p energ a mv   mgl cos  = mv + mgl b mgl + mgl , de donde v b gl (3 l + 2 cos  ), i. e. v = p gl(3l + 2 cos  ). cos  =
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2 0 0 1 2 0 0 2 1 2 0 0 2 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 2 2 0 0 1 2 1 2 2 0 0 3

de donde:

3.7

En el quilibrio, mg = kd, de donde k = mgad. Si tomamos el origen de energ a potencial y del sistema de coordenadas vertical en la posici on de

0

Solutions
1 2

19

equilibrio del muelle sin carga, por la conservaci on de la energ a, 0 = mv + y , en la posici o n de m a ximo estiramiento del muelle v = 0, de mgy + mg d donde y =  2d. Es decir el muelle se estira una longitud 2d.
2 2 2

Si d es la distancia a la que se comprime el muelle, q q mgh ¢ : ¢ : ¢ : % 0X0894 meter. donde d = = k
3.8
2 2 2 0 9 8 0 40 1960

mgh = 1a2kd , de
2

3.9

(a ) Por la conservaci on de la energ a:
2 2 0

1 mgh + 2 mvB = mgh + 1 mv 2 1 1 mg h + mvC = mgh + mv 2 2 2 (b ) La velocidad en h es:
2

de donde de donde

2 0

vB = v , q vC = v
0

2 0

+ gh.

1 mv = mgh + 1 mv 2 D 2
2 2

2 0

de donde

vD = v
2 +2
2

q

2 0

+ 2gh,

la desaceleraci on, de 0 = vD   2—v, se obtiene — = v0 Lgh . (c ) Para un punto de la trayectoria entre e y f , por la conservaci on de la energ a: 1 mv + mgy = mgh de donde 2
2

v=

p

2g (h   y ).

Es decir: despejando t:

s 

dx  dt
0

2

+ 

dy  dt

2

=

p

2g (h   y ),
2

(a ) mg ¡ 5‚ = mg‚ + mvp , de donde v = 8g‚ on „ = mv R = py la tensi 8mg . Si p es la resultante, p = 64m g + m g = 65mg , el  angulo, , que forma con la horizontal hacia dentro del c rculo, tan  = , o sea,  % 7 7H 30HH . 2 (b ) Por la tercera ley „ = mg y de mg + „ = mv R , de donde v = 2g‚. Si h es la altura buscada, mgh = mg ¡ 2‚ + m ¡ 2g‚, se obtiene h = 2‚ + ‚ = 3‚.
3.10
1 2 2 2

1 + (y H (x)) dx 2g (h   y (x)) el numerador es mayor o igual que 1 y el denominador tiende a cero en los l mites de integraci on, cabe esperar que la integral es divergente.

t=

 t

dt =

 a
0

s

2

2

2

2

2

1

8

2

1

(a ) En la parte m as alta del c rculo tendr amos mg + „ = mv R , la p menor velocidad en este punto („ = 0) es v = g‚.p Por la conservaci on de la energ a mvm = m ¡ g‚ + mg ¡ 2‚, de donde vm = 5g‚. (b ) En el punto € , 2 p P tenemos mv R = „ + mg sin  , como „ = 0, se desprende vP = g‚ sin  . Por la conservaci on de la energ a m ¡ g‚ sin  + mg ¡ ‚(1 + sin ) = ¡ 0X775 ¡ 5g‚, 2  ¡ : de donde  = , el  angulo es  = 19 28H 16HH .
3.11

2

2

1 2

2

1 2

1 2

1 2

2

5 0 775 3

2

20

Solutions

N

θ r

mg

Fig. 3.16.

De la Fig. 3.16, tenemos (a ) … = ¡… =  mgr(1   cos ); (b ) De la conservaci on de la energ a mec anica ¡u + ¡… = 0, se desprende u = ¡u = mgr(1   cos ); (c ) como —R = vr2 y u = mv = mgr(1   cos ), tenemos —R = 2g(1   cos ), para la aceleraci on tangencial, de m—T = mg sin , tenemos —T = g sin ; (d ) de la segunda ley de Newton para la aceleraci on centr peta
1 2 2

3.12

m—R = mv r

2

= mg cos    x

para que el bloque se desprenda de la esfera, la fuerza normal debe anularse, x = 0, sustituyendo la expresi on de —R en funci on del a ngulo, llegamos a que el  angulo  , en que el bloque se separa de la esfera, cumple la ecuaci on:
1

2g (1   cos  ) = g cos 
1

1

Y

cos  =
1

2 Y 3 

% 48 11H23HH.
1

(e ) Del teorema trabajo-energ a, tenemos:

‡f = ¡u + ¡…
donde ‡f es el trabajo debido a la fuerza de rozamiento que es negativo, pues la fuerza de rozamiento se opone al movimiento, i. e.

‡f ` 0Y

de donde ¡u `  ¡…Y es decir,
2

1 mv 2

2

` mgr(1   cos )

consecuentemente

De la ecuaci on del moviento para la aceleraci on centr peta resulta la desigualdad: mg cos    x ` 2mg(1   cos )

mv ` 2mg(1   cos ) r

Solutions

21

el  angulo de separaci on,  , se obtiene exigiendo x = 0, lo que implica:
2

mg cos  ` 2mg(1   cos  )Y de donde,
2 2

cos 

2

`2 Y es decir,  b  , 3
2 1

la separaci on tiene lugar para un  angulo mayor que el anterior.
3.13

(a ) Llamaremos s a la distancia que se desliza la masa justo antes de alcanzar el muelle, x = 2 m, la distancia que se comprime el muelle y h a la altura del plano inclinado. Tenemos el sistema:

La distacia total, s + x, que recorre la masa es
2

h = (s + x) sin a 1 Y mgh = 2 kx
2

W

(b ) De
3.14

La conservaci on de la energ a es

mv + mgx sin  = mgh, tenemos v = p2gs sin  % 4X52 m/s. ‚ (a ) … (x) =   x kx dx + … (0) =   kx , donde se ha tomado … (0) = 0.
1 2 2 1 2 0 2

kx % 4X08 m s + x = 2mg sin 

1 mv 2

2

 1 kx 2

2

=i .

La gr a ca de la energ a potencial es

… (x) x 

i ` 0. En este caso el movimiento se encuentra con nado a una de dos
2 2 2

(b ) La descripci on del movimiento depende del signo de

i.

semirrectas y hay dos puntos de retorno, veamos, de la conservaci on de la 2 E energ a tenemos v = m + kx , como v ! 0, en nuestro caso m

22

Solutions

  m + kx m ! 0 @A jxj !
2ji j
2 0

r

2ji j

k

lo que nos proporciona las semirrectas donde se encuentra q con nado el jE j y v ` 0 movimiento y los puntos de retorno. Supongamos x b k para t = 0. De la conservaci on de la energ a obtenemos
2 0 0

q

dx

kx2 m

jE j   m
2

=  dt si 0

t t

1

donde v (t ) = 0
1

integrando

 x
x0

q

dx
kx2 m

 t
0

jE j   m
2

dt
3 r

nos proporciona la soluci on
2s

arg cosh

k x   arg cosh 2ji j
2r

3

2s

k x 2ji j k x 2ji j

0

k mt t t
.

despu es de algunos c alculos tenemos

x(t) =

r

2ji j

k

cosh

k t   arg cosh m
2r

2s

33

0

si 0

1

Derivando

v(t) =

r

2ji j

m

sinh

k m t   arg cosh
q

2s

k x 2ji j

33

0

jE j . alcanza el punto de retorno x(t ) = k Para t ! t la velocidad cambia de signo y la ecuaci on de la conservaci on de la energ a es
2 1 1

de la condici on v (t ) = 0 obtenemos
1

t

1

=

pm
k

arg cosh 

q

2

k jE j x , donde
0 

q

dx

kx2 m

jE j   m
2

= dt si

t!t
 t

1

donde v (t ) = 0
1

integrando
 x

q

2j E j

k

q

dx
kx2 m

jE j   m
2

=

pm
k 

q
arg cosh

2jE j x0

k 

dt

la soluci on es

Solutions

23

r k k m arg cosh k x arg cosh t   x   arg cosh 1 = 2ji j m k 2ji j como arg cosh 1 = 0 obtenemos para x(t) la misma f ormula que antes.
0

2s

3

r

2

2s

33

Cuya gr a ca conjunta es

x(t)

x
q
2

0

jE j
k 

k

pm

arg cosh 

q

2

jE j x
k 

t
q
2 0

0 

Ej Para v ! 0 el tratamiento es an alogo. Lo mismo si x `   jk . i = 0. Si suponemos x b 0 la descripci on es muy distinta si suponemos v ` 0 o v ! 0. { v ` 0. Suponemos, a partir de la conservaci on de la energ a, que
0 0 0 0 0

v =  kx
i.e. cuya soluci on es cuya gr a ca es

si 0 ` t ` t donde v (t ) = 0
1 1

 x

dx =  k  t dt x0 x
0 0

x(t) = x

exp ( kt)

24

Solutions

x(t) x
de lo que se deduce v b 0. Obtenemos
0 0

{

t

1

= I.

t
0

x(t) = x x(t)

exp (kt)

cuya gr a ca obviamente es

x
{
0

0

i b 0. Si suponemos x b 0 y v ` 0. Por un procedimiento an alogo
al primer caso, obtenemos
0

t

x(t) =   k
cuya gr a ca es

r

2i

2r

sinh

k m t   arg sinh

2r

kx 2i

33

0

Solutions

25

x(t) x
0

t

Si i = 0. x = 0 es un punto de equilibrio pero a poco que se aparte de este lo hace exponencialmente como muestra el segundo subcaso del segundo caso (i = 0Y v b 0).
0

3.15

(a ) Por ser la fuerza atractiva

p =  k mxm
1 2

2

la energ a potencial es

… (I)   … (x) =  



I
x

tomando … (I) = 0 tenemos … (x) =  k m1xm2 . (b ) La fuerza que hace el 1 m2 . El trabajo es trabajo debe ser opuesta a p i.e. p H (x) = k mx 2

 k mxm dx = k m xm
1 2 

1

2

2

‡=
3.16

 x1 +d
x1 

m m k x dx =  km m x
1 2 2 1 2

1

1 1   +d x 

1

=

km m . x (x + d)
1 2 1 1

(a ) Se tiene
2 2

me v ‚ me v ‚
2 1

2 1

e ‚ e =  k ‚
=  k

2

2

W b b 2a b b Y

2 2 1

=A

¡u = u   u
2

1

=

1   m v 2 e

2 2

 v

2 1

¡

=

ke (‚   ‚ ) 2‚ ‚
2 2 1 1 2 1

(b ) (c )

¡… = …   …
2

1

 R2 
R1 

e ‚  ‚ )  k r dr = ke (‚ ‚
2 2 2 2 1 2

26

Solutions
2 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 1

‚   ‚ ) + ke (‚   ‚ ) = 3ke (‚   ‚ ) ` 0 ¡i = ¡u + ¡… = ke ( 2‚ ‚ ‚‚ 2‚ ‚
1 2 1 2 1 2

pues
3.17

‚ `‚ .
2 1

(a )

F

=  r… (xY y ) =  

d…   d… dx dy
i

j

=  kxi   ky j =  kr X

(b )

(c ) Oscilador simple bidimensional, muelle con libertad en el plano siguiendo la ley de Hooke con la misma constante para cada dimensi on.
3.18

p =  k

r

=  krer i.e.

pr =  kr Y p = 0 X

(a )

F r

( )= 

= (b )

d… dr 

d  r … e r=r0  r dr r  1  r=r0 r   r=r0   r… e  r … e
er

=
0 2

0

0

e

0

0

er

=  

r r

0

+1 

1

r… e
0

 r=r0 er X

  p (2r ) = 43 r…e p (4r ) = 165r … e  11   p (10r ) = 100 r…e
0 0 2 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0

p (r ) = r2 … e 
0 0 0

1

W b b b b b b b b b b a

10

p (2r ) = 3 e  % 0X1380 p (r ) 8 p (4r ) 5 = e  % 0X0078 =A b p ( r ) 32 b b b b p (10r ) = 11 e  % 6X7875 ¢ 10  b b b b b p (r ) 200
0 1 0 0 3 0 0 9

6

Y

0