Neagu, Gorgoi - 2012 - Dynamic Scheduling in the Holonic Manufacturing Systems | Mathematical Optimization | Pareto Efficiency

2012 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing Lecture Notes in Information Technology, Vol.


Dynamic Scheduling in the Holonic Manufacturing Systems Corneliu Neagu1,a, Mircea Gorgoi2,b,*

Department of Manufacturing Technology, “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest 77206, Romania Department of Manufacturing Technology, “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, 313 Splaiul Independentei, Bucharest 77206, Romania


*Corresponding author.Tel.:+40214029302; e-mail (M. Gorgoi) Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Intelligent Systems Manufacturing, Holonic Manufacturing System, Multi-Agent Systems, heuristic scheduling.

Abstract. Nowadays, the globalization and mass customization manufacturing make the optimization process an important component. Manufacturing scheduling is an optimization process that allocates limited manufacturing resources in constrained conditions, because of this, over time, among parallel and sequential manufacturing activities. The allocation is constrained by the schedule’s optimality with respect of the criteria such as cost, tardiness, lateness, due date or throughput. Scheduling problems are difficult. Finding an optimal solution is impossible without using an essentially enumerative algorithm. The computation time increases exponentially with the problem size. 1. Introduction At the end of the 1970s, a few researchers proposed intelligent manufacturing systems as a solution for the new challenge of the adaptable and reconfigurable systems which are more resilient to disturbances and changes. Furthermore, the limitations of current systems, along with market trend motivated the bird of distributed manufacturing system, where autonomous and flexible manufacturing entities cooperate in a coherent and coordinated manner [1, 2, 3]. The “Intelligent Manufacturing Systems” international research project started at the end of 1980s, with the goal to produce a kind of manufacturing science able to cope with new challenge of the XXI century and provide countries and organizations an independent solution [4, 5]. The IMS project was divided into six feasibility test cases. “Holonic Manufacturing Systems” is a part of these cases [6]. The Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium, is responsible for HMS subproject within the IMS The project. Here was born a holonic assembly station as a feasibility study for the HMS concept [7, 8]. Mainly, problems in manufacturing (e.g. scheduling) are very complex, have a large dimension and are extremely dynamic. This dynamism influences the solution to the problem, leading to the need of achieving a new solution in real time [9]. This type of scenario is a good candidate for distributed computation and artificial intelligence, namely distributed artificial intelligence (DAI) and multi-agent systems (MAS). This last type of systems, MAS, is properly methodology described as function of HMS and it is able to give a solution for complex, flexible, configurable and reorganization structures concept for the flexible manufacturing enterprise. In summary, MAS methodology is a general software technology motivated by fundamental research queries on subjects like autonomy, cooperation, group formation, etc. It is focused on answering questions like “what can be done?” and “how can it be done?”, and is applicable to a
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ABCDE (agent based concurrent design environment). Koestler proposed the word “holon”. using agents for the deliberative layer and function blocks for physical control layer by a data table [14]. developed by Arthur Koestler [10]. control. using the three concurrent layer agent architecture INTERRAP proposed by Muller. The order. [12. holons interconnection. the specialist literature covering the theoretical issue and industrial application created a holon architecture. the project tried to develop these architectures such as: MetaMorph I.1 HMS State-of-the-art A holonic manufacturing system is based on the concept of “holonic systems”. a lot of researchers. in order to reach the task of its goal. etc. using the communication techniques. Brenan and Norrie composed holonic agent architecture. The function of the HMS is realized on the interconnection and operation architectures needed a lot of research. FBIICDE (feature-based integrated and intelligent concurrent design system) and MetaMorph II which use a dynamic virtual cluster in the domain cooperative of architecture. used oriented agents and function blocks. intelligent manufacturing. led to a holonic organization or holarchy. communication and functionality between the basically holons: order. He said that almost everything is both a whole and a part at the same time. scientists and engineers start an international collaboration to build a framework for an Intelligent Manufacturing System (IMS) which is organized as a Holonic Manufacturing System (HMS) consortium. resource holons and order holons. those become an artificial intelligent component using an agent methodology. meaning particle or part. information recovery.large range of domains: e-commerce. algorithms for holonic control and methodology for HMS development. The cooperation between entities called holons. 13] by integrating in the architecture the IEC standards. is defined the Architecture for HMS. In this stage. Holon is an entity which composes the holonic system and arose by putting together two notions “whole” and “parts”. In principal. It started from Christensen’s architecture. which is capable to take a decision by a behavioral control and specific cooperation techniques. Deen and Fletcher proposed a computational model for tasks reorganization. experts. Other architecture is ADACOR (adaptive holonic control architecture) developed as a holonic approach for the dynamic adaptation and agility in the front of the disturbances in FMS’s (flexible manufacturing systems) [17]. These are references at holonic architecture for HMS that has been widely adopted. HCBA defines two main holons: product and resource. The German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) developed an agent-based architecture to implement holonic systems [15]. which is a combination of the Greek word “holos”. product. Here is a development of the basically architecture defined by author’s PROSA. operation. resource and scheduler. as in proton or neutron. like in PROSA architecture (Product-Resource-Order-Staff Architecture) [16] which propose the product holons. In Figure 1 are shown the interconnection. robotics. product and resource holons were described in the work [18]. The next project. meaning whole and the Greek suffix “on”. proposed by The Keele University. Artificial Intelligence methodologies and techniques for the development of intelligent machines and systems 2. He proposed a holon with a two parts. based on temperature equilibrium concepts. In this moment. Also appear types of holons or primary holons. 501 . As a State-of-the-Art of the HMS. The holonic organization was an idea for Suda to introduce the concept of holonic manufacturing system in the early 1990s [11]. a physical processing part and an information processing part. Here appeared the composed holons that are used to manage planning strategies to control level. The similar architecture with PROSA is HCBA (holonic-component-based-architecture) [18] which is derived from CBD (component-based-development) and HMS. DIDE (distributed design environment). 2. In Kostler’s point of view about living and organizational systems is difficult to separate firmly these notions.

A lot of research was focused on the flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) like in Gou et al.2. and also a specific organization (holarchies) for holons in the systems. How it can be done is presented in the next section.The new entity. assembly lines in Sugimura et al. Leitao and Barbosa use the traditional practice [21] “fail and recover” transformed into “predict and prevent” practice. job-shop [26]. using Lagrangian relaxation. For example. etc [33]. it generates an optimal schedule and it gives this schedule as advice to the individual order holon and to the resource holons. and critical ratio. compare performance results with pure heuristic scheduling and randomly generated mixed heuristic [22]. This problem. this has to implement a different algorithms for scheduling. which makes possible the life in the system. is more appreciated and practical.2 Heuristic Priority Rules Approach 502 .]. All the informations about product. 31]. was NP-complete [32]. 2. the global strategy for entire HMS. For example: dispatching rules. Kotak et al. 2. and more than. Many different heuristic methodologies have been proposed. resource or accessory and the relationships between them is found in this central process sequence planners.2 Scheduling in HMS As a part of basic function. which can obtain a near-optimal solution in a relatively short period. A significant research effort has been dedicated to holonic scheduling algorithms. Gou et al. [27. [24. defined as Scheduler Holon. It has an overview of all resources and all orders. The reason for the large number of activities in this field is the high level of knowledge in the intelligent technique [29] and algorithms for factory distributed control [30. 28]. due to the fact that both of them are similar to the holonic approach. [25]. In a heuristic approach.2. such as first-in-first out. use the JADE platform for the scheduling holonic control [23]. [20] perform scheduling by decomposing the problem into sub-problems. assembly and machining work cell in Heikkila et al. Figure 1 Holonic Manufacturing System Labirint 2. is capable to issue and develop itself strategy by a Contract Net Protocol holon. After the scheduler holon was created. the scheduling process is like the blood in an organism. in its general form. Researchers propose a different approach to realize the scheduling. shortest processing time.1 Scheduler Holon In the PROSA architecture Bongaerts et al [19] is defined that a staff holon notion could be an centralized scheduler of a shop. The scheduling problem consists in defining a schedule that can meet all the timing and logical constraints of the task being scheduled. Walker et al.

called “task” agents. etc. Flexibility of the agents means that it is reactive. order. The Contract Net Protocol is a negotiation protocol proposed by Smith in 1980. these criteria could be: makespan.3 Negotiation and Decision Making Process The cooperative negotiation between order holon. precedence constrain or successiveness. The auto-organization of the entire systems is achieved when the holarchies that make up the systems try to maintain temperature equilibrium due to the fact that the holons and holarchies have a recursive property. with the scheduling mechanism activity as the Brownian excitation that causes the items to fall into “low-energy” job slots (jobs to be scheduled for a certain time on a certain resource) [34]. Function of point of view of the Jobs or the Resource is possible to create a “tuples” with criteria weighted of rule. the agents want to get a task from holons. is realized by combining the mediation mechanism based on the Contract Net Protocol for generating and maintaining dynamically production schedules. By combination of these criteria. it awards a contract to the best offer. The implementation system of heuristic and priority rules for scheduling is a complex process and function of constrain. A multi-agent system (MAS) is a computational system where two or more agents interact (cooperate or compete. product. early or tardy dates. When the “principal” agent sends a request message to one or more agents and gets replies. Holarchies are recursive in the sense that a holon may itself be an entire holarchy. LWR (least work remaining). 41]. 2. If there is a “cool” holon that can manage the task in –hand.). mobility. like in the Brownian motion. the last agents. due date. etc. simulated annealing. SPT (shortest processing time). proactive with the following properties: autonomy. When the CNP is used. one of the criterion of constrain could be 503 . When the “principal” agent announces the messages to other agents. rationality. which defined in holarchy as a reorganization of a temperature equilibrium concept [35] with scope to put in balance the scheduling mechanism. social ability. some other heuristic methodologies have been widely adopted. Thus. such as: FIFO (first in-first out). the scheduler holon may experience overloads and this makes the holon to increase temperature. when a holon realizes that its temperature is over a predefined threshold. in order to transfer the task [36]. In recent years. In the holonic systems. resource. resource holon and scheduler holon. The “principal” agent is the agent which is appealed in the “zero” moment or in real-time moment. Those agents are the instrument of work of the Contract Net Protocol (CNP) mechanism and they cooperate between different type of holons (i. it can obtained a various scenarios of priority list. ant colony optimization (ACO). adaptability. hill climbing. such as the shortest processing time rule.e. FCFS (first come-first served). which facilitates distributing subtask among various intelligent agents [38].The implementation of priority rules approach to the scheduling process is to see the system as a number of flexible intervals of time (available resource times) and a number of succeed items (the ordering job time that need to be scheduled). completion time. the Brownian motion excitation has a similar process developed by Deen and Fletcher. For example. or a combination of them) to achieve some individual or collective goals. The achievement of these goals is beyond the individual capabilities and individual knowledge of each agent [36]. where the particle excited emitts the heat. product holon. start to bid mechanism regarding to information about criterion of constraints. as an autonomous and cooperative unit in the enclosing [37]. genetic algorithm (GA) and many others. veracity and benevolence [40. This could be various. In the previously paragraph we mentioned that MAS is the properly methodology. reactivity.2. From experience. pro-activeness. according to its knowledge. When appears a delayed task. LOPNUR (least operations remaining). according to a selection criteria determined by the “principal” agent [42]. due to the fact that the agent concept is similar with holonic conceptual approach. The list of priority rules is created in general by constrains function conditions or criteria rules. as a “hot holon”. An agent is an autonomous and flexible computational system that is able to act in an environment [39]. such as branch and bound. each rule shows different performances according to the state of shop-floor. MOPNR (most operations remaining) [34]. MWKR (most work remaining). Tabu search. informs the other holon in the holarchy of the situation. Although there are many conventional sequencing rules. it starts a negotiation interaction with the hot holon.

where is a holon negotiation or coordination or staff holon in holarchies. y Ar Aq y y Ap Ay n Feasible Region Ao y Optimal PARETO frontier f1 The imaginary “GATE” region in the optimal zone Figure 2 Optimal PARETO in the objective solution space of agents candidate In this case. Who are p1 and p2 values? As we mention in the previously paragraph 2. he proposed using FIPA (Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents) [50]. (2) where fi is objective function. In this case the agent An is the best solution which “dominate” other candidates. They bids to occupy the “best of” solution/ position. p1 dominate p2 if fi(p1) ≤ fi(p2). the best place is the slot time (minimum time interval for processing). and is defined if ∃ following two conditions in the same time: A. if ∃ i ∈ {1. etc. while for the high-level control. delayed. the task tardiness treated by weighted cost implemented with a simple Monte Carlo method. the task agent will recombine the resource holons and perform a new negotiation. Functions on the criteria rules or constrain condition. defined a priori 504 . which then offers a time slot and reserves it for scheduling. The bid mechanism is a method of computing “fitness value” by the PARETO domination (or prevalence) relation and then to assign the fitness value [51]. So.z} such as fi(p1) < fi(p2).) [9]. Christensen proposed [47] the agent with Function Block IEC 61499 standards [48. p1 is strict much better than p2 in one less objective.2.processing time and cost.2. f2 The arrow “ “ explain that each agent A} try to minimized their position by minimizing f1 or f2 functions. After that. is denoted by the symbol “≥”. The bids process will evaluate the prioritized list of criteria of negotiation. In the job-shop level. where is a low-level control. to resume. or other optimization method such as Genetic Algorithm (GA)[45] and Simulated Annealing [46]. In our research. If is not possible to schedule the order. The list of the criteria could be based on a different requests of constrain such as cost model [44]. The “domination” relation between two value candidates.2. Those will have a PARETO frontier of solution candidates which will try to occupy the “best of” solution as is shown in Figure 2. In this paper we will suppose that all agents which are “announced” could be a crowded feasible region of the problem space and they try to be a winner by a “bid mechanism”.e. the decision is made by an award message on notice type to the selected agent. A renegotiation may also be necessary if the order’s condition change (i. and fi(p) is solution candidate of “fitness value”. the awards is announced. computing by a domination PARETO relation. This time slot now becomes unavailable to other task [43]. 49].….z} (1) B. ∀ i ∈ {1. anticipate due date. The priority list is created on a criterion rules and constrain condition base.…. where the agent An is the best solution. the solution candidates try to „converge“ to the best place or position.2. the job is waiting to process in the system by under a priority list. the „fitness value“ is the solution candidate between values p1 and p2.

or top and bottom action (hierarchy) and horizontal action (heterarchy) assure a high level of control of the HMS. which fix the hierarchy between agents. we will find an optimal solution of the criteria rules who has a “high” priority to start processing in the system. and efficient use of available resources. 52] and in distributed factory control algorithm [31. In this manner. In the Figure 3 is depicted the “influence” of the agent Ap of the dominated solution and of the dominating solution.2. the agent methodology approach in the HMS can offer a solution for increase the flexibility of the organization. 505 . 53. i. each agent intelligent has information regarding to this criteria by a “tuple” information as is defined in section 2. Constrain condition or criteria rule is represented by the function objective f1 and f2.3 Heterarchy and hierarchy organization As we are able to can observe. by iteration of the computing a value of function objective with “dominance” PARETO relation. In this way. The PARETO domination relation of the “individuals” agents 2. Obviously. This way. 3. The Ap becomes a minimization bi-objective problem. it occur a population of solution candidates to be assigning in a ranking algorithm. 3. The key areas where research has been initiated in holonic scheduling are as follows. Literature review Research in holonic scheduling has its roots in intelligent scheduling techniques [30..2. the Intelligent Agent. or how said Duffie and Prabhu in [32] like as a real-time solution for distributed scheduling. The HMS concept combines the best features of hierarchical and heterarchical organization [31]. in particular the autonomy and so on. f2 Space of “Individuals” agents dominated by Ap { { y Ar { { { { { Aq y y Ap { { { { { { yAo y An Space of “Individuals” agents who dominate Ap f1 Fig. The ranking algorithm is subject of another research work. in manufacturing. the efficiency of the control have been in the real-time how is show in the Figure 1.57]. then criteria rules or constrain condition will be change in a new iteration by a permutation method in the “tuple” list. If is not realized the “domination” condition such as is presented in the Figure 3. 32. taken in part from [55]: flexible manufacturing systems [20. will bid for a “best of” position. which has “precious information”.when is made the order at “zero” moment or in real-time. The aim is to attain the benefits that holonic organization provides to living organisms and societies. and the HMS program concept as one consisting of autonomous holons with distributed control. The combination of the decision making in vertical up and down. stability of the stimulus of changes.e. due to the fact that the agent properties. the agents start to bid in the heterarchic way and the end of bids establish the winner. 54].

assembly lines [26]. In contrast to OR – approach to scheduling. and (5) degree of central coordination. With priority scheduling as a job or task – oriented approach. this operation turns out to be quite complex. subject to a number of constraints all these variables must satisfy. the investigation of bottleneck resources and constraint-based scheduling. Kallingbaum and P. (3) cooperative interaction strategy. 8(1). N. Hayashi. such as: (1) central vs distributed problem formation.217-226. [55] McFarlane and Bussmann describe few themes in HMS scheduling research. A Wells and L. 9(3). Silva. “Comparison of Bionic. 5. [4] H.25-41.89-110. Japan Industrial Robot Association. it is sufficient to generate solutions which are accepted by the decision maker. we propose a scheduling mechanism without a central coordinate. continuous process lines [59. 506 . such as is mathematical programming or optimization which consist in finding value. Here is presented a simple and efficient dynamic manufacturing scheduling mechanism combining a mediation mechanism based on heterarchical and hierarchical mediators with a bidding mechanism by a mix of heuristic methodology with a mathematical support and priority rules by a PARETO distribution dominance in a Contract Net Protocol. plant wide maintenance [61] and genetic scheduling methods [62. 58]. examples are the development of priority rules. assembly and machining cells [29. “Aspects of cooperation in distributed manufacturing systems”. AI relies on satisfaction. “ERC research in intelligent manufacturing systems”. job shop [27]. (2) local decision-making/computational techniques. Fractal and Holonic manufacturing concepts”. PP. Studies in Informatics and Control Journal. Valckenaers. Sousa. which are focused on optimization and which were mainly covered in the preceding chapters. In International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing. 1996. Solberg and R. Heikkila.e. (4) interchange mechanism. Conclusion and future work Solution approaches for scheduling problems mainly come from the field of Operations Research (OR) and Artificial Intelligence (AI). 60]. pp. When the number of variables or constraints is too high. 1993. In the paper. and with bottleneck scheduling as a resource-oriented one. i. Kashyap. and the function of the central coordinator is replaced by the agents task. Acknowledgement This work was funded by the “POLITEHNICA” University Bucharest – Romania and financial supported by the FSE – POSDRU/107/1. In Proceedings of the IEEE. In this paper. Tharumarajah. or the maximum possible value. 1993. [63]. [3] A. M. 4. The PARETO distribution dominance method could be an efficient optimization method to find the optimal “best of” solution on “satisfaction”. 2000. two extremes for rule-based schedule generation exist. many efforts of either disciplines for investigating scheduling problems are similar.5/S/76909 – EU Program. “The IMS international collaborative program”.63]. the subsequent principles of work in which this system has heterarchic approach which works in an independent manner. Although the OR-and AI-based solution approaches are different. pp. Nemes. References [1] J. Mix of the heuristic method and mathematical approach by identifying the specified functions with constraint conditions can find an unpredictable solution even if the exact method does not have a solution. [2] P. T. All of these holonic scheduling approaches are being reported of having some degree of central coordination [34]. In Proceedings of the 24th International Symposium on Industrial Robots. 9(2). The new modern methods for scheduling study have a very large domains of research.

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