叫 STUDIES IN CLASSICS

General Edito"
8ARBARA 田 FOWLER anà WARREN ι
E. A. THOMPSON
刷 阳 如 凹 Dn:/ine 01 tht Wmmr Empirr
JENNIFER TOL8EJ:T a.OBERTS
础 山 in A,htJ1Ùl n 附
H. 1. MARROU
A 町 刷 in 叫
阳 Jt , 也 Jnns 刷 , tnnslmd by Gcorge bmb
(originally publisbed in English hy Shæd and Ward. 1956)
凰 SIMON
Ft1/ivøl! OJ ÂltÎCØ: An 巾 , 由 刷 , ω
C. MICHAEL 阻 。
Roman , 例 四 Pìerre Grimal. tnnslated
and edi ted hy G. Mîchael Woloch, 咿 阳 刚
^ , 缸 且 of Roman CitÎes
hy G. Michael Wo\och
WAJ.RBN G. 。 矶
A. llânrl Cruk A" ønJ 1tonøgrøpny
Festivals of Attica
An Archaeological Commentary
Erika Simon
Iq'{]
The University of Wisconsin Press
WISCONSIN STUDIES IN CLASSICS
General EJitors
8^RBAJlA HUGHES FOWLER attd WAJUtE.N G. MOON
E. A. THOMPSON
反 酬 0 ,", 呻 Tht Dnlint 0/ 刷 , , Empirr
jENNIFER 也 I 0 8E1TS
ACCC1Ullwbility În Âlh'rlUlrI Cowmmrnl
H. 1. 。 ω
A 叮 缸 啕 叫
棚 J, 酬 叫 , tnns1alcd by 曲 Lamb
严 in Englitb by SheecI and Ward. ,
四 倒
FøfÎMl ù 0/ Â triar Å" 巾 啕 , ,
G. 侃 。 也
R""",,, Citìn: us vilks 阳 阳 Crimal. 血
and cdited by G. Michael Woloch. 咕 雷
臼 α Cualoguc of Roman Cities
hy G. Michacl Woloc:h
WARRI!N G. MOON, tdUor
Antitnl Crtrk An IIrtd 咽
Festivals of Attica
An Archaeological Commentary
Erika Simon

The Uni versity of ∞ Press

1JF 乒

;9 二
Published 姐
毡 、 , 、 、 剑 。
鸣 惊 Murra)' Street
Madi50n. Wiscollsin 53715
TIle University 、 忻 段 伽 PTess, Lt d
1 睛 Street
London WCI E 6 HA, England
‘ 蛐
The 时 Regenls of the University of 曲 , 四 、
All 陀 饵 , 、 唱
Fi rs t , 、
Printed in the United 瑞 。 America
For LC CIP 优 曲 问 , 旧
l SBN 曲 田
To Homer and Dorothy Thompson
), F 1", 币
, 户 户
ζ υ
)9'63
缸 里 帽
τ 、 咽 、 川 剧 PI'eliJ
114 North 理 , 且 网 ‘
娟 、 听 到 53715
节 营 、 叭 明 惕 酌 Ltd
I GoY.'er SIn!e1
由 、 , EngJaOO
臼 CI 阻
恤 of Regenls of the Univeni ty 、 、 电 刷 刷
A11 用
Firlõt prinli,‘8
I' rinted in the United States of Amcrlcø
For l..c CIP inronnation see 抱 回 问 阳
ISBN 回 嗣 同
To f10mer and Dorotliy Tlwmpson
CONTENTS
List of Platcs ix
Lisl of Figures XlII
Preface xv
Abbreviations XVII
lntroduction 3
Fcstivals or Zeus 8
Dil>olieia 8
I)iasia and Pompaia 12
Olympieia 15
Theogamia 16
2 Feslivals of Dcmcter 17
Thesmophoria and Stenia 18
Skira 22
The Creat Mysteries 24

3 Festi vals of Athena, Aphrodite, and Hcphaistos 38
Chalkeia 38
Arrephoria 39
mm2

Festivals of Hephaistos 51
4 I'anathenaia and Parthenon 55
5 Festivals of 阳 and Arlemis 73
Thargelîa and Pyanopsia 76
I-liketeria (?) 79
Mounychia 81
Charisteria 82
ßrallronia and Arktcia 83
vn


6 四 of Dionysos
Oschophoria
τ
Lenaia
Rura1 Dionysia and City Dionysia
Conclusions
Indcx
Cont'cnts
89
89
92

lOl

111
PLATES
Followi ng pagc 54
Platc 1
1 and 2. Calendar-fri e7.c
Platc 2
1-3. Calendar-fric7.C. 叩 to Boedromion
Platc 3
1-3. Calcndar-frie7.e. Pyanopsion to Camelion
Plate 4
1 and 2. Calyx-kratcr. Athcni an months
Plate 5
L Panathenaic amphora. Personi f1 cation of the Olympiad
2. Oinochoe (chou.s). Díonysos and Pompe
Plate 6
1-3. Oinochoe. Dipolieia
Platc 7
1. Cup. Boll 7.yges p10wing
2. ßell-kratcr.
Plate 8
1. Bell-krater. Eleusinian scene
2. "Eleu.sinian 佬
Platc 9
Hydria. ElclIsinian goddcsses
Platc 10
L Vusorum." Elcu.sinian scene
2. East 田 of the Parthellon. Eleu.s inian goddesse.s
Plate 11
Pinax ofNiinnion
Platc 12
1. Fragment ofan 町 shape. 四 for Alhena
Ergane
2. Apulian calyx.-kratcr. Athena and the daughters of Kekrops
>x
viii
6 Fcstivals of Dionysos
Oschophoria
Anthesleria

Rural 臼 City Dionysia
Concl usions
Index
Cont'ents
89
89


lOl
105
111
PLATES
Following page 54
Plale 1
1 and 2. Calcndar. fri eze
Plate 2
1--3. Calendar. frieze. ElaJ>hebolion 10 四
Plate 3
1-3. 扣 Pyanopsion to Camelion
Plale 4
1 and 2. Cal yx. krater. Atheni an months
Plate 5
1. Panat.henaic amphora. 皿 of the Olympiad
皿 盹 旧 and 阳
Plate 6
田 咽
Plate 7
1. Cup. Bouzyges 飞
2. Bell. krater. ßouzyges plowing
Plate 8
1. Bell.krater. Eleusinian scene
2, MEleusinian pe like."
Platc 9
Hydria. Eleusinian goddesses
Platc 10
1. Vasorum," Eleusinian 回
2. Ea.st pedimenl of the Parthenon. Eleusinian goddesses
Plate 11
Pinax of NiinniOIl
Pl ate L2
1. 叫 of an amphom of special sh.. 'tpe. 回 for Athena
Ergane
2. Apulí:1Il calyx. kmter. Athena and the daughters of 叫
"

3‘
Plate 13
Apulian calyx.krater. Athena and the daughters of Kekrops
Platc 14
1. Mycenaean gold ring
2. Cal yx. krater. Athena and Kekrops
Plale 15
1. Sanctuary of Aphrodite Pandemos
2. 肘 , neck. Torch.race for Hephaislos
Platc 16
1. Hydria. Offering to Athena and Pandrosos
2. ßand.cup. Offering to Athena
Pl nte 17
1. "Panat henaic" hydria
2. 吃 Offering 10 Athena
Plate 18
Plates
1. ¥ of the north frieze of the Parthenon, slabs
IV-VI
2. 户 of the Ilorth fri eze of the Parthcnon, slabs
VIJ and VIII
3. 、 friezeofthe Parthenon, slabs XXXV
xxxvn
Platc 19
1. H ydriaphoroi from the north fri eze of the Parthenon
2. OØì cials from t he north frieze of the Parthenon
Plate 20
Centcr of the east fri eze of the Parthenon
Platc 21
Parthenon, west fri eze
Platc 22
1. Marshals and girls from the righl half of Ihe east fri el.e of the
Parthenon
2. ßel1. kraler. Lampadedromia
Platc 23
1. Volute.kraler. Apollo Pyt hios
2. Bell.kmter. Dithyrambic victory.
Plat'c 24
1. Votive relief. Artemis Elaphebolos
2. Krateriskos
Platc 25
1 and 2. Drawing and photograph of krateriskos
Plate 26
Amphora. Dionysos Oschophorm
Plales
Plate 27
Calyx. krater. Dionysos and ^pol1o shaking hands in Delphi
Plate 28
1 and 2. Oinochoe (chorus). Vi ctor and Nike
3. Oinochoe (chorus). Satyr on mule
Platc 29
Bell.krater. Dithyrambic chorus
Plate 30
1. Skyphos. Satyr and 时
2. Skyphos. Ai orn
Plate 31
1. Calyx. krater. Dionysos and bas ili nna
2. Chous. Aiora
Plate 32
1. ∞ of Dionysos
2. Cup. Lenaia
3. Column. krater. Early l ragedy,
"
3‘
Plate 13
ApuHan , Athena and the daughlers of Kekrops
Plale 14
1. 由 gold ring
2. Calyx.krater. Athena and Kekrops
Plnle 15
1. Sanctuary of Aphrodite Pandemos
2. 肘 , neck. Torch. race for Hephaistos
Platc 16
1. Hydria. Offering to Alhena and Pandrosos
2. ßand..cup. 困 10 Athena
Plnte 17
1. "Panathenaic" hydria
2. 心 Offering 10 Athena
Platc 18
Plates
1. ¥ 、 明 of the north 四 of the Parthenon, slabs
IV.VI
2. Carrey's drawing 由 Ilorth frie7,c of the Parthcnon, slabs
VII and VIII
3. Carrey'sdrawingofthe south frie-leofthe Pnrthenon, slabs XXX:V
XXXVII
Platc 19
1. H ydriaphoroi from the north frieze ofthe Parthenon
由 from the north frieze of the Parthenoll
Plate 20
Cenler of the east frieze 出 Parthenon
Plate 21
、 , friezc
Plale 22
1. 川 gi rls from the righl half of the 削 of the
Parthenon
2. 飞 ω
Plate 23
1. Volute-kraler. Apollo Pythios
2. ßell-krater. Dithyrambic 予
Plnt'c 24
、 。 relief. Artemis Elaphebolos
2. Krnteriskos
Plate 25
1 and 2. Drawing and photograph of krateriskos
Plate 26
Amphora. Dionysos Oschophoros
Plates
Plale 27
Calyx-krater. 阳 and Apol1o shaking hands in Delphi
Plate 28
1 and 2. 田 Vi ctor and Nike.
3. Oinochoe (chorus). 5alyr on mule
Plale 29
Bell-krater. 议 chorus
Plale 30
1. Skyphos. 5al yr and basilinna
2. Skyphos. Aiora
Plate 31
1. Calyx-krater. Dionysos and basili nna
2. Chous. Aiora
Plale 32
1. 回 of Dionysos
2. Cup. Lenaia
3. Column-krater. Early tragedy.
..

FIGURES
Figures 1 a-d
田 gems and seal-impressions
wîth bull-offcring, 飞 10
Figurc 2
Votive 飞 叽 man and child in front of a big snake.
probably Zeus Meilichios. 15
Figures 3 n and b
EUffiolpos on skyphos and on "Eleusinian 始 30-31
Figure 4
Sanctuary of Aphrodite and Eros on the north slope of
the 恼 , drawing. 41
Figure 5
飞 relief for 自 Daphni, drawing. 44
Figure 6
Seated Athena, terracotta, from the Acropolis, drawing. 47
Figure 7
ω of the aedicula of Aphrodite Pandemos,
drawing. 49
Figures 8 a and b
Panat henaic prize amphoras. 56-57
Figures 9 a and b
L...te CeometrÎc cup, perhaps dance ot the Thargelîa. 80
Figures 10 a and b
Brauronian arktoi on a 制
Figure 11
Pyxis wi th personi6cation of Oelos (inscribed) ancl Leto,
Apollo, Arlemis, ancl Hermes, 、 川 B5
Figure 12
Shi p-chariot on lale archaic 归
XIII
FIGURES
Figures 岳
Minoan- Mycenaean gems and seal-impressions
明 白 吨 , 飞 10
Figure 2
飞 relief with man and child in front of a big snake.
probably Zeus Mcîlîchios. 15
Figures 3 n nnd b
EUlnolpos on skyphos and 00 "Eleusinian 始 30-31
Figure 4
γ Aphrodite and Eros on the north slope of
the 恼 , drawing. 41
Figure 5
飞 reli ef for 田 from Daphni, drawing. 44
Figure 6
Seated Athena, terracoUa, from the Acropoli s, drawing. 47
Figure 7
∞ of the aedicula of Aphrodite Pandemos
drawing. 49
Figures 8 a and b
Panat henaic prize amphoras. 56-57
Figures 9 a and b
L.tte Ceometric cup, perhaps dance at the Thargelia. 80
Figurcs 10 a and b
8rauronian arktoi on a 制
Figure 11
、 自 of Oelos (inscri bed) and Leto,
Apollo, Artemis, 3nd Hermes, drawing. 85
Figurc 12
Ship-chari ot 011 late archaic 忡 忡 94
XIII

PREFACE
The six chapters of this ∞ were Mary Flexner 田 阳 given at
Bryn Mawr Col1ege În the fall of 1978. 1 shall always remember with
pleasure the months 1 spent in the beautiful setting of thi s distin.
guished 四 thanks go to tl!e president , Mary 四 Mc-
Pherson, 10 the dean of the ε ∞ , Phyllis P. Bober, and to
the colleagues who did me the honor of 、 me Flexner lec-
turer. I 3m most deeply indebted to Machteld 1- Mellink and Brunilde
S. Ridgway for their kindness and hospitality which I enjoyed from
the very fìrst day. Together with the other members ofthe department
they gave me the feeling of belonging to the facul ty, and the lectures
profìted greatly from their stimulating suggestions. My thanks go also
10 C. Stephen Jaeger and 飞 , , Slane who spcnt much time in
∞ my English text . 伊 discllssions wit h Richard and
Maria 晤 , 响 James Wright and KathJeen Slane helped to shape
these lectures. The same may be said of the eager students in my
semÎnar on the Athenian gods and festi vaJs; 1 、 , joy their
reports and their interested questions. The manuscript of this ∞
国 in the spring of 1979. Publications 由 date could
not be taken 跑 到 J wish to thank Pericles Georges of The
University of ∞ Press for his editorial assistance
For the iIIustrations of this book 1 am indebted to the museulIl s and
∞ which are named in 国 of the plates. Further-
more I should Iike to thank C. 8érard (Lausanne), A. Bircha11 (Lon-
叶 , B. Borell-Seidel (Hamburg), O. von 80thmer (New York), H. A
Cahn (ÐaseJ), J. Frel 叶 , H. Froning 岳 阳 , M. Hirmer
叶 , 剧 目 时 , C. Melldahl (Göteborg), O. G. Mitten
(Harvard 咐 , M. Stett)er (Steffisburg), and 丁
(Carlsruhe)
Much of my knowledge of ancient Athens J owe to Homer and
Oorothy Tholllpson. To them this book is gratefull y dedicated
,V
PREFACE
The si.t chapters of this ∞ were Mary Flcxner lectures given at
可 Mawr College in the faU of 1978. 1 shall always rernember with
pleas ure the months 1 spent in the beautiful settíng of this
b'uished place. M)' thanks go to the president , Mary Patterson Mc-
Pherson, 10 the dean of Ihe graduale school , 但 , and to
the colleagues who did me the honor 叩 回 me Flexner lec-
lurer. I am most deeply indebted 10 Machteld J. Melli nk and 8runilde
S. 叩 for their kindness and hospitality 、 enjoyed from
the very flrst 邮 而 with the olher members ofthe deparhnent
they gave me the feeling of beJonging to the faculty, and the lectures
profì ted 阳 from their stimulating 回 My thanks go 皿
10 C. Stcphen Jaeger and ¥ Slane who spent much time in
∞ 田 my English text. Many discllssions with Richard and
Maria 恼 , with 田 and KathJeen SJane heJped 10 shape
these lectures. The same may be said of the eager students in my
semÎnar on the Athenian gods and festi vals; 1 、 joy their
reports and their interested η 肉 of this ∞
皿 in the spring of 1979. 加 after that date could
not be taken inlo 四 川 J wish 10 thank 田 of The
UnÎversity of ∞ 田 for his 田 回
For the iIIustrations of this ∞ I am indebted to the museums and
collections which are llamed in the captions of the plates. Further-
more 1 should Iike to thank C. Bérard (Lausanne), A. 町 (Loo-
时 , B. BoreU-Seidel 由 币 , D. von Bothmer(New York), H. A
Cahn (Basel), J. Frel (Malibu), H. Froning 凶 , liinner
时 , M. Ma.us (l\'l unich), C. Melldahl 凶 , D. G. Mitten
(Harvard University), M. Stettler (Steffisburg), and D. Thimme
(Carlsnahe)
Much of my knowledge of ancient Athens I owe to Homer and
Dorothy Thompson. To them thÎs book is gratefuUy declicated
xv

ABBREVIATIONS
1 follow the list of abbreviations published in AJA 82 (1978) 5-lO; AJA
84 叫 Other abbrevial ions used here are
Aristotle. AP Arisloteles, Atllenaion Políteia ("The Consti-
tution ofthe Athenians"), trans. J 飞 怕
叮 Li brary; London and New 巾 ,
1976)
8ianchi U. 8ianchi , The Greek Mysteries. 回
phy of Relig10ns XVII . 3 (Leiden. 1976)
町 "Pompa" F: Bömer, s.v. "Pompa," RE 21. 2 白 白
1974
Brommcr, PF F. Brommer, Der Parlhenorljries (Mainz,
1977)
时 、 ßurkert , "ApeUai lInd Apollon," RhM 118

8urkcrt. 川 , fl omo Necans . Religionsge-
schichtliche Versuche uncl Vorarbeiten 32
(ßerlin, 1972)
Oavies, APF J. K. Davies. Athenian Properlied Famil/es
仪 B.C. (Oxfo,d, 1971)
Deubner L. Deuhner, Attische Fesle (Berlin, 1932)
J. 口 时 in 四 Creek
(2nd edition: Cambridge, 1973)
:<vÎi
ABBREVIATIONS
I foll ow t he li st of nbbreviatíons 缸 in AJA 82 (J978) 5-10; AJA
84 姐 。 3-4. Ot her abbrevialions uscd here are
AristotJe, AP Arislotcles, Atll enaion Polít eia ("The Consti-
tution orthe 创 刊 , trðns. J 、
γ Library: London and Ncw York,
1976)
8ianchi U. 8ianchi, The Creek Mysteries. lconogra-
phy of XVII , 3 (Leiden, 1976)
Bõmcr, "Pompa" F. Bömer, 5.V. , RE 21. 2 由 1878-
1974
Brommer, PF F. 8rommer, Dcr Parlheno,ljries 叽
1977)
Burkert . 飞 ßurkert , "Apellaì lI nd Apollon,H RhM J 18
(1975) 1-21
8urkcrt. 飞 Burkcrt, Homo Necans. Heligionsge-
schichtliche Versuche uncl Vorarbeiten 32
(ße rl in, 1972)
Davies, APF J. K. Davies, Athenian Pmper1ied Families
日 瓦 附 (O,fo,d, 1971)
Deubner L. Deubner. Attische 剧 (ßerlin, 1932)
时 J. 叫 侃 in 句 时 , 它
(2nd edition: Cambridge, 1973)
l( VII

xviii Abbreviations
"EleusO" E. Simon, "Neue Delltung zweier eleusin
ischer Denkmäler des 4. Jh. v. Chr.," AntK 9
锁 施 72-92
Famell L. R. Farnell, The Cu/t s 01 tlle Greek States
1- 5 (Oxfo,d. 叹 曰
Ferguson 飞 飞 S. Ferguson, 'ïñe Salaminioi of 叩
phylai and Sounion," 肘 ï (1938) 1-74
Froning H. Froning, ν und Vasenmalerei
川 (Würzburg, 1971)
Graf, Eleu.is F. Graf, Eleusis und die η , Diclitung
旧 vorhellenistiscll er Zeit . Reli gions
geschichtliche VerslIche und Vorarbeiten 33
(Berlin, 。
Hadzistcliou Price Th 日 时 田 , KOllrot ro"IIos 元
den, 1978)
Judeich W. 由 , , 叩 VOIl Athell (Munich,
1931)
Kahil, "ArtémisAtt" L. Kahil , de I'Arlémis attique," AntK
8 描 20-33
Kahil , "Srauron" L. Kahil , "L' Artémis de Brauron: rites et
mystère," AntK 20 η
Kron U. Kron, Die zelm attischen 四 ,
AthMitt -BH 5 (Berlin, 1976)
Maass, Prohedrie M. Maass, Die Prohedrie des ν
ters ill 飞 , Beiträge zur Alten
Ceschichte 15 (Munich, 1972)
MelldahVFlemberg C. Melldahl and J. Flemberg, "Eine Hydria
des Theseus-Malers mit einer Opferdarstel
lung," From tlle Gustavianwn Collectioll.J in
Uppsala 2 (Acta 陆 时 旬 ,
reas 9: Uppsala 1978) 57-79
Abbreviations xix
MetLger H. Metzger, Recherches sur l'imagerie Athé-
nienne (Paris, 困
Meuli, ee. Sch K. Meuli, Gesammelt e Schriften, ed. Th
四 皿 and Stuttgart , 1975)
自 如 E. Simon, "Attische Monatsbilder," jdl BO
姐 105- 123
Mylonas G. E. Mylonas, Elellsis and the 削
M ysteries 四 , 1961)
Nil sson, GF M. P. Nilsson, 川 Feste (Leipzig,

Nilsson, CCR M. P. Nil sson, Cescllichte der griechischen
Religion 1 (Munich, 阻
甲 E. Simon, "Aphrodite Pandemos aufattischen
Mün:t.en," 时 Numismatische
Rund3chau 49 (1970) 5-19
Parke H. W Parke, Festi oals of the Atll eniana (Lon-
don, 1977)
Pausanias 时 刷 刷 • Descril' tion ofGreece 1, trnns. J. C
Frazer (London, 1898)
Pickard-Cambridge, A. Pickard-Cambridge, The Dramatic Festi-
DFA ",,1. 01 时 , rev. J. Gould a:nd 1). M. Lewis
(2nd edition, Oxford, 锐 边
Princeton Sympo- Athells Comes 01 Age: From SoloFl to Salamis
sium Papers of the 阴 阳 Sponsored by the
町 国 Institute of Ameri ca, 、
Princeton 飞 the Depart ment of
Art and Archaeology, Princeton Uni versity
田 , 1978)
Richardson, ν The Horneric flymn to Demeter, ed. N. J
Ri chardson (Oxford, 1974)
xviii Abbreviations
"ElcusD" E. Simotl . "Neue Deulung Z\veier eJeusin
ischer Oenkmäler des 4. Jh. v. Chr.," AntK 9
留 话 72-92
Famell L. R. Famell. The Culls of tll e Creek St(il es
1- 5 吨 , 锐 回
、 , S. , 吁 SalaminiOÎ of Hepta-
缸 SounÎon," 霄 1 田 1-74
Froning H. Froning, Dithyrambos urul 旧
川 (Würzburg, 1971)
Craf, 臼 Graf, Eleusis und die η , Dichtung
旧 vorhelleni.stiscll er Zeil. Relî gions
geschichtliche VerslIche lI nd Vorarbeiten 33
(Berlin, 1974).
Hadzistcliou 节 、 睛 • 町 , , (Lei-
den, 1978)
刊 , , von Athen (Muniçh.
1931)
Kahil, "ArtémisAtf' L. Kahil , de I'Arlémis 阴 阳
8 锁 丑 , 20-33
Kahil , "Brauron" L. Kahil , "L'Arlémis de Brauron: riles et
mystère," AntK 20 η 胆 回
Kron U. Kron, Die zehn attiscll en Phylenheroen,
AthMiU-BH 5 叽
Maass, Prohedrie M. Maass, Die Proliedrie des Dionysosthea-
归 Vestigia, Beiträge zur A1ten
Ceschichte 15 (Muniçh, 1972)
MelldahllFlemberg C. Melldahl and J. 毡 , "Eine Hydria
de, mil einer Opferdarstel-
, From tlle Gustovionwn Collections in
Uppsala 2 (Acto Universitatis 乱
reas 9: Uppsala 1978) 57-79
Ahbreviations xix
Metzger H. Met.lger, Recherches sur l'imCl gerie Athé-
时 , (Paris. 国
Meuli, Ge, Sch K. Meuli . 肘 。 卢 , ed. Th
四 , 皿 and StuUgart , 1975)
E. Simon, "Attische Monatsbilder:' jdl 80
描 臼
Mylonas C. E. Mylonas, EJclIsis and the 闹
Mysteries (Princetoll . 捕 。
四 GF M. p, NUsson, Crlecllische Feste (Leîpzig,

Nilsson, CCR M. P. Ni lsson, Ceschichte der griecllischen
Religion 1 (Munich, 阻
"Pandemos" E. Simon, 叫 Pru‘demos auf attischen
5chwei::.erische Numi.smatische
RUlldscholl 49 创
Parke H. \v. Parke, FestivaJs of the AtI,enians (1..on-
don, 1977)
Pausanias , 刷 , 川 , tr.ms. J. G
Frazer (1..ondon, 1898)
Pickard-Cambridge, A. Pickard-Cambridge, T/l e Dromatic , 仆
。 oo/s 01 时 , rev. J. Could rul<1 D. M. Lewis
(2nd edition, Oxford. 前 边
Princelon Sympo. AthePl s Comes of Age: From 501011'0 Solamis
sium Papers of the 阳 Sponsored by the
Archaeological lnstilule of , η 、
Princeton 机 the Departmenl of
Art nnd Archaeology, Princeton Uni versity
田 , 1978)
Richardson, ν The fl omeric f1 ym1l to Demeter. 00. N. J
阳 、 , , 1974)


, 品
Simon, Gölter
Abbreviations
J. Schelp, 品 , der griecliisclie 0 ,,-
f erkorb 电
E. Simon, Die Götl er der Griechen (Munich,
1969)
Simon/ Hirmcr E. Simon, M. Hirlller, and A. 、 , J) ie
griechisclu!FI Vasell (Munich, 创
Sokolowski . LS F. 、 , , Lois sacrées des cités grecques
(Paris, 1969)
、 H. A. Thompson and R. E 、 , Thc
Icy Athenian Agora 14 (Princeton, 1972)
削 , AC 1. Toepßer, Attiscllc 侣 。 , 皿
町 E. Wycherley, Tlie Stoncs 01 AthclIs
四 , 1978)
Zichcn L. Ziehen, s. v. "Panuthenaia," RE 18.3 (1949)..
457- 489
Festivals of Attica
xx
, κ
Simon, Götter
Abbrevíations
J. , 口 KnIlOlUl, dcr 如 Op-
f erkorb 唱 , 由
E. Simoll , Die GðUer der Crlcclum (Munich.
1969)
SimonJHirmcr E. Simon, M. Hirmer, and A. lI irmer, Die
飞 (Munich, 1976)
Solmlowski , LS F. Sokolowski . Lois s(l créc.J ω 四
(Paris, 心
旷 、 H. A. Thompson and n. E 飞 , Tlw
ley AtJ. CIl ÎOII Agora 14 出 , 1972)
TocpfTcr, AC 1. Toepffer, 四 Geneulogie (Bcrli n, 曲 时 。
、 H. E 、 弘 Stones 01 Athens
四 , 1978)
Ziehcn L. Ziehen, $ .V. "Panathenaia." RE 18.3 (1949)..
457-489
Festivals of Attica

Introduction
节 festivals of Athens are beuer known to us than the festivals of
the other Creek states. The Iiterary tradition is rich and 50 由 of
the monumcnt s, which range from modest Athenian vases to the Par.
thenon fri eze. A treatment of Athenian festi vals without the archaeo-
logical materi a1 would be ∞ , and so 1 shall rcfcr frequcntl y
to the iUustrations in the two maîn ∞ on Attic festívals: Ludwig
Dcubner, Attische Feste (Berlin, 1932) and H. W: Parke, Festi vals of
the 阳 (London, 甘 These books wcre writtcn by philolo
恼 to whose fi eld heortology (from Creek 叫 festi val ) belongs
To understand the monumcnts, however, we need an archaeological
ap!>roach of which Deubncr 巧 use than η 、 va1ue
of Parkc's book, accordingJy, is somewhat diminished, especiall y be..
cause the monuments date from the heyday of Attic festi vals in the
巾 , 自 伐 , and fourth centuries B.C. , whereas most of the literary
evidence ∞ later.
In 阳 to ancient authors and Athenian works of art a third
四 叩 material is important for our 町 the inscriptions
They tell us aboul the time and the form offesti vals and (or) aboul the
ki nd and the number of gifts for the gods. This epigraphical evidence
is for the mosl part contemporary with the artistic monuments. It con-
sists of public inscriptions on stone, which render an ∞ of the
∞ of 自 由 , etc. , 拙 most of the AUic festi vals were not
pri vate but public in character. \Ve are here chieAy concerned with
the 岛 and for this 捕 。 more private ceremonies are
left out.
1
η tenn "state festi va1" does not denote profane celebrations. AII
自 由 of the polis were ∞ in the cult of gods or heroes,1I and
were celebrated with religious rites. For that 圈 。 , Deubner's book
is arranged by gods. We shal1 adopt a similar order here and shall not
1. Thus I do nol speak bere aboul the very Att ic bul more 晴 隅 酬
hemlS: for 饵 Simon, Cðffer σ , pls. 294- 97
丁 、 5tale 剑 for i\tt‘, , 啊 have been 、 俗 them see 阳 ,
224-29; I(ron pa5lim; Parlce 51-52, 81- 82
3
Introduction
The festi vals of Athens are better known to us than the festivaJs of
the other Greek states. 、 litcrary tradilion is rich 四 由 of
the Illonumcnts, which rnnge from modcst Athenian 回 to tbe Par-
thenon fri eze. A treatmcnl of 川 festivals withoul the 四
logical material would be incomplete, and 50 I shaU refcr frequentl y
10 the ilJ ustrations in the two main ∞ 00 AUic festí vals: Ludwig
时 Atlbche Feste (Berlin. 1932) 3nd H. W: Parke. Festiooù 01
",e AthenÎlms (London, 甘 τ books were writtcn by philolo-
血 to whose fì eld heortology (from Creek 叫 festival) belongs
To understand the monuments. however, we need an archaeological
approach of which Oeubner makes greater U5e 皿 币 value
of ¥ ∞ 时 皿 diminished, 妃 , 对 be-
cause the monumcnts date from the heyday of Attic festivals in the
sixth, fìfth, and fourth centuries 8 .C. , whereas most of the Iiterary
时 ∞ Inter.
In addition 10 ancienl alllhoni and Athenian works of art a third
国 of materi aJ is important for ollr purpose: the inscriptions
They tell us about the time and the form 、 and (or) about the
kind and the nllmber of giA:s for the gods. This epigraphica1 evidence
is for the most pnrt contemporary with the arti stic monllments. ∞
sists of public 时 肘 on stone, which render an α of the
∞ 且 时 白 白 etc. , becallsc most of the Attic festivnls were not
private bul public in characlcr. \Ve are here chießy concemed with
the state feslivals and for this reason morc private ceremonies are
left out.
1
ll1e tenn "state fcstivaJ" docs not denote J>rofane celebrations. AII
feslivals of 归 were 回 in the cult of gods or heroes,t: and
四 with religious 田 that reason, 白
is arranged by 、 shall adopt a simi lar order here and shall not
t τ 、 I 。 附 咽 曲 酬 。 阳 the .. but 酣 咱 咄 , ‘ , , , 咱 阳
仇 , 如 。 11 蜒 赠 酣 嗣 、 仿 蛐 皿 , ‘ ← 町
2. 1ñe ltate fðtivalJ ror AIlIc: heroes have been 岛 , 由 赔 回
四 p.ilSslm 阳 刷
3

4 FestivaJs of 由
follow the order of Parke, who arnlOged the festivaJs 囚 。 10 the
hveJve Illonths of Ihe Athe nian year. It is true that that arrnngellle nt
is c10ser 10 Creek Iife. Bul the Athenian months seelll extrcmcJy for-
eign 10 us. They correspond neil her in chronoJogy nor in name loour
tweJve months, which are based on the reform of the 盯
Juli us Caesar and have t he fami liar Lalin nal1l es. Late r on Ihe Roman
mont hs also came to ROl1l an Creece, 川 then each Creek IXJ Ji s
had it's own nal1l es of months-we know more than three hundred
names.
3
The regions of lonic, 眩 , or Doric populations each have
四 names of months in common, a fact that aJJ ows us to trace the
migrntions 唱 dark ages.
4
The pre- Roman Creek mont hs were lunar mont hs Jasting alter
nateJy twenly-nine and t hirty days. In order 10 prevent these Illonths
from faJJí ng ∞ behind the soJar year, Jeap years were 阻 挡
节 而 同 盯 句 四 of a cycle of eight 罚 。 twelve Illonlhs
each, into which 回 months werc fitt ed. Nilsson has shown
that 田 usíng the "great year" spread from Delphi all over
CreC<.'C and that whe n nonlocal festívaJs such as the Olympic games or
the Creat ∞ Ihe four-year cycle was based on the
halved 剧 year.-
5
In 776 8.C. the refore, Ihe canonical date of the
first OJympic festival and the starting 灿 区 by the Olym-
piads, the μ 的 α 山 τ 、 already established among the Creeks
The great authorit y of the Delphic oracle in the archaic 旺
based on AIXJllo's having measured out ti llle for the Crcek states. Among
them Athens especiall y was linked to Delphi , and for Ihis rea50n haJf
of the Athenian Illonths bear nalllcs referring to AIXJllo or his siste r
叫 shall 、 町 this agai n whe n we consider t he festi vaJs
of these two goos
The pre- Roman Attic ye<ar began ÎII midsumme r with He katom.
恤 , the month of the greatest state festi vaJ, the Panathenaia. Other
Creek ∞ 川 四 t he festival of their main deity in
3. H. ßl scholf, S.V. 捕 , RE 10.2 (1919) 创 A. E. Sarnud, Cruk
衍 阻 ChrorUJlogy. Hllndbuch der Altcr1 umSWÎssenschaft 1:7 (Munich. 1972) τ
138
4. see Inrna pp. , 回
S. Nilsso1l. CCß 644- 47
τ , 姐 a..., 创 昭 创 , Pyllnop5ion, Elaphebolloll. 酬 ,
nychion. Thllrgelion: 5ee I'arke 51. 53. 73. 12.5. 137. 146: fur 川 础 。 乱 Infra
n. 2 to Chlll)lcr 4. For lhe Allic 始 Samuel (supna n. 3) τ for the problems
im'oI.ved: R. 皿 and (). Lewis. A. 巾 ofCruk 町 , 脚 , ,
时 跚 跚 盯 and 瞄
lrlt ,.oc/uctiofl 5
the nrst mont h of their year.
7
Hekatombaion corresponds pa rtl y to
萨 to August and so 00 in the Attic 丁 are
the tweJve Attic months
'i ekatombaion
Me tagei tnion
summer
Boedromion
r.u
PMyaainmoapkStieornion
Poseideon winter
Camelion
Antheste rion
EJaphebolion sprlOg
Mounychion
Thargelion
summer
Skiraphorion
The 四 liked personifìcalions in cult , 可 and the visua1 arts
For instance, they personified Demos ("the people") or Pompe Cthe
田 or Olylllpias ("the Olympiad," pl. 5. 1) or Kairos ('the op.
portune 可 They also pe rsonifìed the months, whom 町
, 描 节 heyday of 陀 皿 四 川 国 国
tury 8.C. Towa rds the end of the first quart er of that century an Attic
vase , 川 、 the Oinomaos Painte r by 民 a
calyx-krate r, fragments of which were found at He rmione in the Pelo
阴 阳 、 and are now in the National Museum in Athcns (pJ. 4). 1
have shown elsewhere that these fragments bear the first representa
ti ons known to us of the Attíc months." They 国 men
c1ad in himatia and \vith the sickJe of the Illoon above their heads
Some of the m carry altributes of the festi val which 副 团 in
the course of the month they 咐 and some are ∞ by
girls who crown the m. These may be named Pompai, 自 由
7. 50 Ihe fìrsl monlh in 响 咽 黯 , wî th 11 fcslivlll of Apollo: 如 同 ,
因 10
8. ..-. W. lIamdorf. Gr'U! chi.rche 阳 阳 呻 7..eit
(Mainl., 田 皿 阳 军 p,.-oMd.w 四 叫 Is 皿 崎
叫 口 臼 η 刷 阳 胆 自 both in lhe 明
MUJeum. New York 四 胁 。 由 Olympiad occun: on the Panathenaic
amphora Harvard 田 皿 剖 弘 申 , , (2nd printing 回 ,
崎 瞄 1)1. 48.2 (hc..., pl. 5. 1). For 蝇 G. Lysippi 5Che
酣 Crøur ßeilrilge 4 】 盹 盹
9. 目 S. 制 ω 19 酶 1
16; 蚀 , 四 , pl. 46
4 Festi vaJs of At tica
follow the order of Parke, who armnged the festi vaJs α to the
twelve Illonths of the Athenian year. It is true that that arrangement
is c10ser t'O Creek Iifc. ßut tbe At henian months seelll extrclllcly for-
eign to 节 corrcspond neithcr in chronoJob"Y nor in name to our
tweJve months. which are based on the reform of the caJendar by
Julius Caesar and lmve the familiar Latin names. L.ater on the Roman
months nJso came to ROlllan Creece, but until then each Creek polis
had it's own names of months-we know more than three hundrcd
names.
3
The regions of lonic. Aeolic, or Doric )>opulations each have
certai n names of months in common. a ro.ct that 明 to trace the
migrntiolls during the dark ages.
4
The pre-Homan Greek 、 四 lunar months lasti ng alter
nately twenty-nine and thirty days. In order 10 prevent these months
from fallí ng 阳 behind the solar year, Jeap years were 出 皿 ,
间 evlUut6ç consisted of a cycJe of eight ycars of 咄 Illonths
础 , into which 四 months were lìtted. 皿 has shO\vn
that 国 唱 山 "great ycar" spread from Delphi alJ over
CreC<.'C and thal whcn 时 festivaJs sllch as the Olympic games or
the 回 Panathcnaia occurred. the fOllr-year cycle W' dS based on the
haJved "great 缸 In 776 u.c. therefore, 隙 臼 咀 datc of the
6rst 眩 目 and the starl"ing poinl of daling by the Olym
piads, μ α , α τ was already established among the Creeks
111e greut authorit y of the Delphic oracle in the archaic 、 阳
且 on AJlol1os ha\'i ng Ul e3SlIred out time for the Creek states. Alllong
them Athens 如 描 to Delphi, and for this 拙 。 balf
of the Athenian months bear names referring to Apol1o or his sisler
叫 shall 响 白 白 agnin when we (:onsider the festi vaJs
of these two gods
The pre. Roman Attic year began in midsulll mer 由
baion, the month of thc greatest state festivaJ, the Panathenaia. Other
Greek 四 t11e festi \'al of their main cl eity in
3. 11 . ßI,;(.' holf, s. v. M KalelH.l er: II E 10.2 阳 侃 A. . E. Sarnllcl. Crcek
lmd ßomnn 时 咱 肌 der 1:7 时 , 肝

唱 inrra pp. 田
5. NiI.'IIon. CCR 644 - ..7
τ months are ω 协 ω ‘ Elaphebolion. Mou.
n)"chion. 栅 l' l.rktl 51. 53. 73. 12.5. 137. 146: rur 崎 Infl1l
n. ω '1. For Ihe 归 阳 Sumuel (SUpnl n. 3) 57- 63; for the problemJ
川 ω 叫 民 and D. 由 仙 峙 。 巾 晒 巾 (0.(
IOrd. 俱 到 171. 212- 15. 闹 OO$sim
11l t ,.oduction 5
the 6rst Illonth of their year.
7
Hekatombaion 时 part1y to
Jul y and partly to August and so 00 in the 四 íhese are
the twelve Attic months
I-I ekatombaion
叫 , 。
summer
romlon
r.n
PMyaaanmoapkStBeOn O on
Poseideon winl'er
Gamelion
Anthesterion
EJaphebolion spring
MOllnychi on
节 。 sllmmer
节 、 , 四 Jiked personilìcalions in cult, 町 and 由 国 arts
For 四 , they personi6ed Demos ("the 叩 丁 胃 口
回 到 or OJylllpias ("the Olympiad," pJ . 5. 1) or Kairos (' t11e op
portul1e momenn .
8
They a1so personilìed the months. whom they
S3w as youl1g men. The heyday of 刘 田 国
町 、 the end of the 6rst quarter 由 century an Attic
va.se puinter, nallled the Oinomaos Paintcr by Beazley, decorated a
田 fragments of which werc found ut Hermione ín the Pelo-
田 and are now in the NatiOl1aJ Museurn il1 Athens (pl. 4). 1
ha\'e shown eJsewhere that these fragmcnts bear the 6rst representa
tions knO\VIl to us of the Attic months. 叩 归 , 国 men
c1ad in himatía and with the sickl e of the moon above their heads
Some of them 叩 of the festi val 、 国 in
the course ofthe month they 四 川 , and some are accompanied by
girls who crown them. 国 may be named Pompai. 自 由
7. 50 the fìrst month in l:kll)hi 晴 wlth • fcstiva.l of A.pollo: , 如
-A. pellnC 10
8. 、 Hamdorf. 阳 加 。 由 der oorhclle..141bche.. 7..611
(Ma.i nz. 届 皿 Maass. , 也 回 呐 同 。 阳 , , , 吨 , 睛 on 啕
kkythol , 阳 明 on. choo.'$ 同 both fn Ihe 同 时 , ...
MUJeum. New , 响 叫 or tbt: 阳 阳 Panathenalc
amphora Harwtd 阻 皿 剖 DeW!t011r1111111 (2nd prinling ω , .... 恤 ,
曲 幽 四 川 (here pl. 5. 1). For 刷 刷 刷 , 飞 回 阴 阳
刷 Cra::.er 而 4 (197ð) 曲
• • 民

106- 23: other 酬 S. KarotI7DU. Dr. lllon 19 蝇 付 ,
16: 伽 102--.ð. 120- 21, pl. 46

6 Festivals of 国
ofthe processions , 由 shall see, were a part of many 队 飞
The fragments of the Hermione krater are wit hout inscriptions, but
the famous Pompe on the Attíc oinochoe in the Metropolitan Museum
川 York of the same period is 仙 5.2). LO
Another representation of the Attic months is well known. They
皿 国 or men in a fri eze reused above the main entrance
10 the Li ttle 恼 , a Middle BY-L.antine church in Athens (pls
1-3). IIlustrated with a 叩 Oeubner, LL it tell s a lot
about Athenian festivals. It needs a stylisti c analysis 到 its date
is not yet established, but there is no 咀 give to one here. I do
not think that it was 川 配 or 四 A. D. as
Cerhard Rodenwaldt maintained. Ll With Hans Cundel and others 1
prefer a late Hellenistic date, pe rhaps in the middle of the fìrst cen-
町 L3 In its encyc!opedic spirit this cnJendar-fri e7.e seems related
10 the reliefs on the Tower of the Winds in Athens, which belong to
that peri od. TIlere is no trace of the cult of the Roman empe rors,
which would be inevitabJe if the frieze dated from the Empire. And
last but not least, what are represented are the Athenial1 months and
not t he Roman ones
四 ∞ of two blocks which were too long for the sma11
8 yzantine church. One 国 on the left , 皿 result the
month Anlhesterion 田 off. The other was shortened 01\ the 吭 ,
阳 of the month 、 咀 cut off. It is a pity that each of
them was not shortened on its other end, where there is an unfìnished
fìgureless zone. In the 1eft half three Byzantine crosses were inserted;
四 of these crosses obliterates the ship of the Panathenaic
procession. How 归 捕 、 originall y used we do I\ot know. But
、 can state that the representation did 110t begin with the fìrst Attic
month, l-Iekatombaiol\ , which uppears in the area ofthe 四
tml cross. Hekatombaion is a young man c1ad in a hilllatiol1 and ac
∞ by POlllpe, the personifìcntion of the 回 at the
Panathenaia.
The 由 the months in their new Byzantine context lIlakes
10. 目 如 曲 18, 60, with 邸 , 叩 忡 ßõmer, 抽 困
制 -Monallbilde,- 121 , fìg. 12: Schelp. 附 阳 目 48. pl. 4.2: Simonlll inncr pl . 235
11. Oeubner 248-54, p\s. 34- 40: 112- 1.5, fìgs. 6- 10; Picbrd
时 DFA .51; H. Cundet, '.v. , 皿 ^ (l 972) 623
12. 111 Oeubner 248
13. F. 川 刷 剖 Cundel {supra n. 11)
14. Oeubner 皿 foHowlng C. Robert cal led her 回 由 四 川 of
behokli ng. 1 havl'! previously 叩 this 巾 刷 刷 酬 飞


but Pompe now seems 10 me thl'! better explõmation: for Pomll"'" see IIII>ra nn. 8. 10
7
sense, because the year starts on the left with spring and ends on the
right 、 叽 节 Christian observers certainl y díd not under-
stand the pagan 曲 川 understood the sígns of the zodiac,
which are likewise represented here.
15
They start with Aries on the
left (pls. 1. 1, 2. l). Taurus is destroyed by a cross. Gemini ure two
young men embracing. Ahove the sacri6cial ox dedicated to Zeus PO-
lieus-we shall soon retunl to 凹 陷 Cancer (pls. 1. 1, 2.2). To
the right of the next cross Leo springs into the air. Virgo appears near
Boedromion, and to Ihe 1eft of the third cross Libra is rendered in the
shape of the 响 。 Scorpio (p1s. 1. 1, 坷 , whi ch is 、 the
right half or the fri e7.e withollt them (p1s. 1. 2, 3. 1). Sagittarius is
the familiar centaur-archer and Capriconl is the forepart of a goat with
a fì shtail (pls. 1. 2, 3.3). Aquarius and Pisces were cut off at either end
when the 、 reused. These signs sllrely he1ped to determine
the prope r sequence or the blocks and the order in which they have
been preservoo
15. see Cundel (sullra n 川 as for Virgo and Li bra. 1 do nol follow Cundel. but
prefer Oeubner 臼
6 咀 of 回
ofthe 回 , 由 shaU see, were a part of man)' festivals
丁 川 由 Hermione kraler are 川 、 inscriptions, but
the famous Pompe on the Attic oinochoe in the Metropolilan 川
川 York of the sarne 叫 inscribed {pl. 四
由 represenlation of the Attic months is well 丁
国 or men in a fri e1.e reused above the rnain entrance
IÕ -the Li ttle Metropolis, a Middle 8ymntine Chllrch in Athens (p1s
1-3). JIIustral'ed with a ∞ in Oeubner,lI it leUs a 101
about Athenian festívals. lt needs a stylisti c anal ysís because its date
is not yet established, but there is no , give to one here. I do
not t hink that it was carved in thc second or third centllry ,. ..,. as
Cerhard 但 maintained.
11
Wilh t-Ians Cundel and others I
prefer a late Hellenistic dale, pe rhaps in the middle of the f1 rst cen.
叩 C. 13 I n its encyclopedic spirit this caJendar.frieze seems related
出 reliefs on the Tower of the Winds in Athens, which bclong to
Ihat period. There is no trace of the cult of Ihe Roman emperors,
which wouJd be inevitable if the friew dated from the Empire. And
las! but Ilot leasl, what are represented are the Athenían rnonths and
not the Roman ones
τ ∞ 时 of hvo blocks which were ∞ for the sma11
ι church. One was shortened 011 the , 削 皿 reslllt the
month 归 国 The other 描 血 。 此 011 the right,
and part of the monlh 、 吨 cut 08'. It is a pity that each of
them was 110t shortened 011 Îts other end, where Ihere is an 配
f1 gureless zone, In the left half three By .. .antine crosses were inserted
the central of these crosses oblitemtes the ship of the Panathenaic
咽 How 归 国 lIsed we do not knO\Y. But
we can state that the 田 did not begin with the f1 rsl Attic
month. Hekatomooion, which appears 、 area of the 且 时 出
tml cross. Hekatombaiol1 is a young man clad in a himution and ac
∞ by Pompe. the 四 of the 田 鬼 al the
Pal1alhenaia.
111e 曲 the months in their new 8}'7.antine conlext makes
10. No. 面 18, 60, with 叩 忡 , 阳 , 因
制 划 fig. 12; , κ 盯 pl. 4.2; SImonlll irrncr 地 阻
11 . 副 , I' \s' 矶 、 。 由 6- 10: Pkb nl-
Cambridge DF.4. .51: H. Cundel. S.Y. -l.odiakD5: RE 10 A (1972) 国
12. In Dcuhner 248
13. F. CUnlOOI in 削 剖 伽 '1. 11)
14. Ocubner 皿 foUowlng C. l\obert cal led 门 , 明 1M! 刷 刷 ω ol
beho1dlng. I 、 陀 呐 。 山 intcrprctation 指 四
but Pompe 赔 10 rne tJlC beller 副 fot 跚 偌 叩 而 10
ItltroducliOI1 7
sense. 回 Ihe ycar starts on thc 呐 spring and ends on Ihe
right with η Chris tian observers certainl y díd not ul1der-
stand the pagan 曲 but 町 阻 the signs of the zodiac,
whjch are Ii kewise represcnted here.
15
111ey sturt 飞 叽 Aries on the
10ft (pls. 1.1, 日 町 destroyed by a cross. Cemíni are two
young men embracing. Above the sacrificial ox dedicated to Zeus PO-
Iieus-we shall ∞ retunl to ← 伊 Cancer (pls. 1.I . 2.2). 日
the right of the next cross Leo springs into the air. Virgo appears near
Boedromioll , and to the left of the 时 Li bra is rendered in the
阳 the claws of ∞ 叩 (P15. 1. 1, 2.3), which is showll in the
时 half of the fri eze without them (pls. 1. 2, 3. 1). SagiUarius is
the 盯 阳 and Caprícorn 由 forepart of a 阳 with
a 仙 l. 2, 3.3). Aqllarius and Pisces were cut 08' at either end
when the frieze \vu.s reused. 臼 signs surel)' helped t'O determine
the proper sequence of the blocks and Ihe orcl cr in which they 四
始 preserved
15. see Cunde.1 (supra n. 11); a.s mr 唱 。 Ubra. I do fHJt follow Cundcl, but
l)cubllcr 253-.54

1
FESTIVALS OF ZEUS
, 酬 the epithet Herkeios 描 together with Apollo
∞ by each Athenian cîtizen, as we know from Aristotle (AP 55)
由 private cult does not concem us here; we can ∞ on1y
the most important public culu of Zeus, and we begin wi th the oldest
and strangest of aU Athenian festi vals, the Dipolieia
DIPOLlEIA
The main sources for our knowledge about the Dipolieia are Pau.
且 国 剖 and the late antique authOT Porphyrios (de abst . 2. 10
and 29-31), who uses 国 They are discussed by both
Deubner and 咀 I but both 由 四 咱 四 material
which 皿 been discussed by Ceorgios Bakalaki s.
2
Even morc
important for our 附 of the festival 唱 study by the 响
ethnologist Karl Meuli
3
and 也 Burkert 's H omo , 时
The Dipolieia 四 in the Jas l month of t he Attic year,
on 14 Skirnphorion, in honor of Zeus Poliells, the father and counler.
part of the city.goddess Athena 四 festi val was a1so cal1ed
Bouphonia afler the main rite, t he slayi ng of an ox. It is represented
in the ca1endar. fri eze beneath the sign of Cancer (pl. 2.2). Ski-
raphorion, who 副 young alhlete crowning himself, stands a
bearded man with boots and a c10th around his waist. He ho1ds a
double ax above a tiny ox, the victim of the Bouphonia. The 四
tion of this name may seem surprising, because the slayîng of animals
1. Oeubner 四 A. B. Cöok, 阳 伊 剧 。 锐 忘 曲
月 岛 Parke 162-67; 如 川 • IIN 剧 E. Shnon. 气

RE Suppl. 1.5
(1978) 1413-14; 唱
2. "Das ZeU$rest der Dipolieia aur einer 优 in Salonlkl." AnlK 12 锐 剧 团
曲 , ∞ (supra n. 1) 楠 '"
3. 川 曲 in , 百 P<<I<<r VO.. 也 份 嗣
185- 88 _ Meuli. CnSch 回 lhe Oipolåeia ibid.. 1004-8 and 阳
8
Festivals of Zetls 9
was 盯 of most Athenian slate festivals . In spite of 恼 , 国 shall
剖 , the BOll phonia bear their 明 白 地 且 , 、
The priest of Zeus Poliell s had a marb1e seat in the thealer of Oio-
nysos. 丁 temenos of ZellS Po)j eus was on the Acropolis northeast
of the Parthenon. 国 mentions a statue ofthis god and
an altar. Excavation has revealed a smal1 temp1e and an open.air pre.
cinct 阳 through a propylon, whose sma11 central 耐 世 皿 ,
to have been the place of the Oipolieia 西 I)orphyri os 阳
not of an a1tar but of a bron7..e table. The altar of Zeus Polieus on the
Acropolis thlls seems to have been a table-Ii ke structure and may have
been a relic of the Mycenaean age. A table ∞ 四 repre
sentations of blll1-off'erings in Minoon and 四 art , as Ioonnis
Sakellarakis 副 în his study on the 田

Nol on1y are there
many gellls and sea1. împressions with a buJJ.victim on a table from
Crete and 阳 币 时 , 由 陀 皿 Aghia Triada
, ∞ 响 the buU on the offering table, bleeding to death
Sakellarakis thinks this table was of wood, but it 田 且 yellow
∞ 臼 double axes on this sarcophagus. which were of llletaJ
Therefore the table Illay be mela1, ∞ and would thus correspond to
时 description of the altar of Zeus Polieus on the Acropolis
At the festival , 虱 肘 田 , 由 were placed on the 怆 号
and 阳 were dri ve n 【 此 、 of them woul d eat from the holy
on the a1tar and 甜 『 呼 咀 it 田 叩 川 be killed
with a 阻 由 π 且 目 吨 a Bronze Age relic Iike the 畔 , wi elded
by a cult α 曲 时 抽 叩 刷 刷 缸 the 叩 叩 阳
the ax alld ßed. The double ax was then brought 10 lria1, cursed, and
飞 into the 田 hide of the dead ox 缸 10 restore the
animal to Ihe 回 国 li fe. This in a few words recapit ul ates the
10ng 肘 。 in 甲 川 时 which in some detail s diverges from Pau
sanias. That Porphyrios I>reserves the better tradition is shown by sev.
eral1ate black. fìgure Athenian vases studied by Bakalakis. !I On 田
vases a series of oxen-Pausanîas speaks of 。 闹 剧 an
4. ω , Prohwrie 归
5. Judeieh 2.57-56; G. P. Stevens. TM 晤 。 也 IIn p<<riIl
Suppl. 3 (Alhens. 刷 。 四 巾 Rg. 91. No. 11 8
6. "Das 将 帆 。 Arehalles und 画 飞 , 呵 ,
咀 崎 蝇 , 由 Aghia 蝇 ibid" ι 田 阳 and
M. Hinner, KU fa. ThertJ und ω ν , ω (Munich, 1973) 町 C. R
Long, ν TriIl d6 阳 , SJMA 41 (1974)
7. 、 峭 州 with lhe 时 menl ioned lupra n. 4. bul was a cult OffiCiaI
rrom
1
FESTIVALS OF ZEUS
ZeU$ 、 the e piÙle t He rke io.s , 描 together with Apollo
Palroos by each Alhe nian 凹 , 因 know from Aristotle 昂
8ut this private cult does not ω us 、 曲 目 ∞ onl y
the most important public cuJ ts of Zeus, and we begin wi th the oldest
and strangest of all Athenian festî vnl s, the Dipolieia,
Dl POUEIA
TI1C main sources for our knowledge about the Dipolie ia are Pau*
且 川 剧 and the late antique author Porphyrios (de abst. 2. 10
挝 、 町 who uses 四 They a.re discussed by both
Deubne r and Parke.
1
but 。 由 阳 县 , 由 回 matcrial
which has recentl y been discussed by Ceorgios Bakalakis.
1
Even more
阴 阳 for ollr understanding of 阳 飞 a study by the Swiss
ethnol ogist Karl Me uli
3
飞 咀 Burke rt's Homo ,
η Dipolie ia 阻 in the Jasl month of the Attic year,
00 14 Skiraphorion, 、 of Zeus 隐 时 , the father ∞
part of the city.goddess Athena I'olias. The 怕 也 also cal1ed
Bouphonia afle r 崎 rite, the slaying of an ox. It is represented
in the cale ndar.fri eze beneath the sign ofCancer (pl. 2.2). Ski.
raphorion, who 沱 盯 甜 young alhlete crowning himself, stands a
bearded man wit h boots and a c10th around his waist. He holds a
double ax above 创 0:1: , the victim of the Bouphonia. The 阻
tion of this name may seem surprising, because the slaying of an-imals
1. Deubner 甜 A. B. Cook. b u.f 3 伊 剧 。 段 棚 ,
崎 162- 67; Bl1rker1. IIN 剧 E. Si ffiOfl. 5. V. ItE Suppl. 15
(19'78) 1413- 14; 血 唱
2. Zeusreft der Di polleb. a\lr 隅 , 。 阳 in AntK 12 阳 刮 目
田 , 自 咽 ∞ n. 回 , fì gJ. 町
3. 呼 刷 时 In ν 航 必 fii ,. Pn.,. VOII d.,. MühlJ ω 嗣
185- 88 .. Meuli, C .. Sch 回 lhe Dipolieia lbid.. 刷 阳 她
8
皿 9
、 吨 part of mosl Athe nial1 state festi vals. 111 spit'e of 恼 , as we shnll
see, the 且 bear their 明 白 倒 时 皿
The priest of Zeus I'o\ie us had a marble seat il1 the theater of Oio-
The teme nos of Zeus 川 、 on the Acropolis northeast
of the Parthenon. Pausanias (1. 24.4) mcntions a statue of this god nl1d
an 盯 , 国 ha.. revealed a small te mple and an open-air pre.
dnct 田 through a propylon, whose smaU cenlral 嗣 同 回 ,
10 have been the place of the Dipolieia 四 时 speak.s
not of an altar but of a hron7..e table. The altar of Zeus Polie us 011 the
Acropolis thus seems to have been a table-like structure and may have
been a re lic of the 四 age. A table is common place in
sentations of 川 田 and 国 , 国
Sakellarakis 时 川 study 011 the 田 俨 onl y are there
many gems and 川 、 川 由 bull-victim on a table from
Crete and Mycenaean 由 白 由 曲 。 Aghia Triada
∞ with the bul1 on the o(fering table, bleeding to death
Sakellarakis thinks this table was of 回 时 , 田 same yellow
∞ 田 double axes on 姐 , ∞ , whi ch were of 甘
、 the table may be me laJ , too. and would ∞ to
Porphyrios' description of the altar of Zeus Polie us on the Acropolis
At the festival, grain 曲 or both were on the table-altar
and oxen 飞 咽 dri ve n around it. One of the m would eat from the holy
things on the aJtar and 、 咽 、 咀 explained-wouJd 阳
with a 缸 π ι 四 吨 , a Bronze 阳 like the table), 时
by a cull 皿 叩 刷 刷 飞 咀 由 曲 曲 叩 阳
the ax and ßed . The doubl e ax 缸 brought to tri a1, cursed, and
thrown into 四 节 、 hide of the dead ox 百 to restore the
animal 1"0 the appearance of life. This in a few words recapit u.lates the
long accounl in 叩 川 , which in some details 唔 from Pau
That Porphyrios I>reserves the better tradition is shown b)' sev.
e rallate black-lìgure Athe nian vases studied by Bakalakis.
s
On these
vases a series of oxen-Pausanias speaks of only one ox-surround an
4. Ma.ass. 也 归
5. 坦 圃 C. P. Slevens, TM 咕 。 南 Partlu:non. 凹 也
Suppl. 3 (Alhens. 吨 。 79- 87; 1havlos ßg. 91, No. 11 8
6. 回 归 呻 Archanes und das 但 货 古 咽 ,
吆 喝 曲 田 , 思 姐 , , 你 ibld.. 皿 MlITlnll los and
M. Hinner. Kn 'a, Tml'"tl , 刷 Helúu (Munich. 19'73) pl.'xx.XI ; C. R
, γ , 户 , 毛 灿 SJMA 41 (1974)
7. lIe WlU nOl ldenUcø.1 由 prie51 menlioned IUpnl n. 4, bul wa.s a cult 岱
fn:lln the clan of 四 始 阮 氏 149- 60.
8. see supra n. 2; 5evera

10 Festivals of 国
的 陀 1 a-d. Minoan.Mycenaeall gems . nd 陪 阳 wilh 好 ,
酣 , 9. Afler Prãhl$l . 7..e/t,chrift 45 (1970) 舶 阳 ι
altar-like structure, and one of them 5tands 00 it, sometimes shown
eating (pl. , white ox 由 be a rcli cf on the altar
as 8akalakis thinks, perhaps may be the stuffed ox-hide ofthe previous
口 , 阳 , OT it may have been WQvcn into a cloth the tabJe-
a1tar. 10 any case, the 0)( standing on the a1 tar will be "punished" fOT
eating the hol)' things, and afterwards the double ax will be punished
岛 "murdering" the 0:<
π slaying of the animal, then, ∞ an 回
四 田 Karl Meuli 国 that 四 但 goes 础
9. Clearl y vulble on the oinochoe Munich J 1335 (here pl. 6); !1 S t.. No. 18.5: Beazley.
ABV 413: Cela , 刷 The 51rocture U 1101 11 nonnal aIlaT becau5e the voI utes .....,
Iackîng
10. 1be stuffed 阳 , , , 归 叫 on. hydria hy the 响
但 由 , 每 部 也 咽 。 (Iupra n. 1) 1414; 血 ν 唱
75, fì g. 18, wlt h a good ∞ oro this hydria 闸 011 the Rornlln
market 山 century and now ω "",
田 of Zeus 11
10 the customs of prehisloric 川 tribes . The rich ethnographic
material collccted by him indicates that the rites or the Attic Bou.
phonia reßect common customs of hunti ng 叩 Prehistoric rnull
treated the game animal as his equal; he tried to ensure its
by blaming other men or an object Iike the ax 阳 il. l-I e re
stored Ihe form of the anirnal to secure its spi rit and its return. He
knew no gocls, for they appeared at a relatively late stage of prehistoric
cultural developrncnt , 川 feared the spirits of the anirnals he had
to kill for 肌
α to Parke. "Analogies have been sought with the 囚
。 hunters placating the spirit or their dead 邮 this does not
tally with a domestic animal as victim."
11
This is 四 川 , 吨 , how.
ever, 时 也 白 between wild and domestic animals
is an artil1cial one. Meuli showed that the agricultural tribes took over
unchanged the rile of slaughtering animals from the hunting tribes
and that 巾 fìnally became the Olympian rite of 川 、 。

The
thighbones. once preserved by the hunting people in order 10 restore
the dead animal to 旬 , were burned on the 目 offering to the
gods, and the meat 础 by mcn
The practice or ritual slaughter was ∞ from 创
tribes 10 agricultural communities :md was one of the neolithîc cus.
loms which still lingered in 皿 Athens; Ihe festival was cele
brated until late 牛 spite of a11 川 thoughl
and art , reli gious ri tes lended 10 be preserved pure and unchanged
Sometimes they were no longer lInderstood; Aristophanes, for in.
田 makes jokes about Ihe anti<wated Dipolieia 啤 , F'rom
the wording of Pausanias it follows that in hîs time the rite had takell
on a mystic meaning. In mystcri es, as we shall see in the 创 of
DCl1l eter, ancient tradilions were safe1y preserved. Not the rite. but
only the justifìcation for 此 , was 配 to evolution
It is strange, therefore, that 肘 , foUowed by , ∞
the Dipolieia a relatively yOllng festival, instituted in the sixt h 叩
U.C.
14
Nobody in civílized archaic At hens could have invented that
series of curious actions which 阳 so closely to the ethno•
graphic evidence coll ected by Meuli . Deubner's argument for a lale
dale was based on the 且 that the cu1t of Athena on the Athe
11. Meuli , Ce$Sch 臼
12. Parke 田
13. Meul1, CuSch 2: 创 Gõlfer 、 飞 ‘ ,
Apollo von 缸 die ' Erfìndung' des Oprers auf Cypem.- Crø::.er ßr/lrðg6 4
(1975) π
14. I)eubner 172- 73: Parke 臼 归
10 Festiva1s of Attica
叭 四 伽 阴 阳 鸣 萨 缸 叫 回 归 时 制 、
drawingJ; _ 1). 9. prahíøt . 咄 咄 曲
altar-like st.ructure, and one of them stands on it. sometimes shown
国 (pl. 6. 1-3)." The white ox 出 be a reli ef 011 the a1 tar
as 8akalakis 巾 perhaps m!l y be 盹 而 ox-hide of the previous
阳 , 10 or it may have been WQvcn inlo a c10th the table-
a1tar. In 田 血 田 on the a1 tar will be "punishoo" for
eating the hol)' things, and nfterwards the c10uhle ax wil1 be punishcd
for Mmurdering" the 0:<
η 、 slaying of the animal, then, was considerw an injustice which
田 四 Karl Meuli 国 由 四 当
9. viJlb1e on the 础 陆 133.5 (here pl. 6): No. 185: 啤
ABV 473: Cela 阳 阻 四 Slructure b 昭 DOmIaJ altar 剧 lhe 町 、
lacking.
响 创 animal 醉 , 阳 呵 锺 回 hydria 由 叫 毗 阳 刚 ,
..... , 与 篇 抱 回 俑 , 回 嗣 (IUpn n. 1) '4'‘ . 电
, 阳 wilb • good 四 钮 on thil hydria 时 , 锅 on Ihe Roman
market In the 四 川 缸 叫 阳 to 阳 ,
时 of Zeu$ JJ
10 the clIstoms of prehisloric hunting tribes. The rich ethnographic
mat'erial collected by him indicates that the rites of the Attic Bou-
phonia refl ect common 时 of hunling 叩 Prehistoric man
treated the game 国 equnl; he tried 10 ensure its 倒
by 川 other men or an 国 like the ax for killing il. He re-
stored the form of the animal 10 secure its spirit and its He
knew no gods, for Ihey 咒 at a relatível y late slage of prehistoric
cultural 凹 , but he ω the spirits of the animals he had
10 kill for food. 11
α 10 Parke. "Anlllogies have been sought with thc , 时 因
。 hunters placating the spiril of their dead 叩 this 四 川 、
tally with a 嘟 阳 as viclim:'11 TIlis is not ∞ , how-
ever, because ¥ 四 wild and 州 animals
is an artifìcial one , showed Ihat the agricultural tribcs took o\'er
unchanged Ihe rile of slaught'ering animaJs from the hunting tribes
and that this 6nally bec-.une thc Olympian rite of immoJation, I3 111e
thîghbones, 冒 出 刷 凹 by the hunting people in order 10 restore
Ihe dead animaJ 10 协 四 011 the altar as an offering 10 the
gods, and thc meat was eatcn by mcn
、 practice of rituaJ 恒 was ∞ from hunting
tribes to agriclI ltural CQmmllnities and 咀 of the neolithic ClIS:
loms which still lingered in 但 Athensj the festival 田
brated untiJ Iale antiC(uit y. In spile of all development in 四 叶
and 时 , reJigious rites tended to be 时 时 and unchangecl
Somelimes thcy werc no longer 划 , for in
佳 , 臼 由 antiC(lIated Dipolieia 胁 。
the wording of PUlIsanias it follows thut in his time the rite had laken
011 .. mystic meanillg, In mysteries, as we shaU see in the festivals of
Demeter, ancient lraditions were safely preserved. Not the rile, but
only thejusti6calion for it , was subject to evoJution
It is slrange, therefore, that Deubner, ι by Parke, consicl ers
Ihe Dipolicia a relutiveJy young festival , instituted in the sixt h 叩
, Nobody in civilized archaic ∞ have invcntcd that
回 of curious actions ∞ so closely to the ethno-
graphic 阻 四 时 by Meul i. 白 for a late
date was based 011 the a.ssumption Ihat Ihe cult of Athena 00 the Athe-
11. Meull, 何 2. 948- 80
12. Parite 165
13, "'I euli . 2: 980- 1012, Slrnon, C(}tt,,. 149; W, Burkert. 陀
、 明 und 地 区 Oprel'l .ur Cyprm.
M
Cr=.ø,. 甜 , 喝 醉
(19ï5)
1", 阳 , 窑 Parke 制

12 Festivals of 由
niun Acropolis hi storically 四 the veneration of Zeus. This is by
110 回 , , 川 国 contribute 10 a
dating of the Dipolieia. As we have seen, the central act of ritual
臼 ∞ earlier than 明 not only of Zeus but
also of Athena and all other OJympians. And it is probably not mere
饵 thal the most ancient 白 白 。 明 is connected
wit h the 时 Greek god
Apart from the 阳 Bouphonia, Zeus Polieus received offeri ngs
from individual Attic demes. 11ms the lengthy inscription ofthe deme
Erchia speaks of a ram which was offcrcd 10 巾 god in the month
Skiraphorion (that is, at the Dipolieia), along with a ewe for Athena
Polias.
16
But 、 a deme.-offering and not a polis-festival and
therefore 田 not ω 认 should like to know how Athena
Polias ∞ part in the Dipolieia, but there is no hint in the sources
though in the scholion to Aristophanes (Clouds 985) the Bouphonia
are called ¥
D1ASIA AND POMPAlA
In earl y 而 鸣 , on 23 币 。 , the 阻 were celebrated,
that is, the festival of ZeuS.
17
Jt may have been represcnted in the
calendar.frieze, bllt it is not preserved there 配 Anthesterion
、 吨 ClIt off. Our 皿 are Thucydides (1. 126.6) and the in-
盹 of Erchia a1ready mentioned.
18
The latter is of the fourth
四 川 画 , while Thucydides attests to the existence of the festival
in the 四 川 叩 川 Diasia must have been much older,
considering the fact that a pre- Homeric Zcus was worshippcd there
He had the epithet Meilichios, that is, "the friendl y, " a euphemistic
name Iike Eumenides r well-disposed ones'l for the Erinyes or Aspha
Iios Cthe unshakeable 丁 t he earth.shaker Poseidon. Zeus Mei.
li chios 田 the Olympian king we know from Homer but an awe
15. 咽 Concluslons, pp. 106-7
16, SF.G 21. No. MI, oob. A and r , lines 61- 64; Sokolowslci, LS No. 18; MelldahV
蛇 咆 , n. 73. with bibliognaphy; cf. 。 由 offerlng for Zeus Polieus in Mel::a
geilnkm. SEG 21, No. ∞ r lines 15- 18; Parke 179
17. Deubner 155-57; M. ω 币 。 阳 the 嚣 , 叫 fmm Erchia.-
ßCJI 89 幅 皿 J'arl‘, 四 , 177-79; cf. ω 阳 曲 四 刷
365 F5
18, Supra n. 四 A lines 。 如 仙 毗 of deme oØ' eri ngs, the Greater
、 , 蝠 , 黯 卑 。 DauJ; . - t.a Crande 拢 Un 闹 。 但 白
fìciel d'Atticlue 同 BCII87 锐 叫 and ω artic:le (I\l l)ra n. η
Fe.ttivals of Zeus 13
some chthonic god who 田 big snake, I9 1 n votive reliefs
from 缸 回 to Hellenistic times he may also be repre
目 seated Zeus with a snake beside him or even without the
snake , Here Olympian traits are intruding, and the 阻 be ob
served in the later Diasia, as we shall see below.
In spite of his fearsome character, Zeus Meilichios was one of the
most popular gods of Attica and had many shrines in Athens and en
virons.
2O
。 民 节 (1.126.6) 由 、 咀 国 å <ò,
吨 咄 町 呵 , 飞 greatest fesliva1 of Zeus Meilichios:
and this implies srnaller celebrations for him 阳 from the 缸 ..
Pausanias mentions an a1tar of Meilichios on the boundary be tween
Athenian and Eleusinian territory (1. 37.4), but the main sanctuary for
the Diasia was 01\ the banks of the river llissos. John Travlos in his
T0110g raphical Dic tionary of Anc ic nt Athe n.t did not indicate the sanc-
tuary on the Uissos, but it has been convincingly 当 by Hans
Möbius and others near thc 。 ω lIissos Temple , where votives
for Zeus Meilichios have been found, and the Erchia inscription cor.
rooorates this placement.
21
The altar of Zeus Meilichios between Athens and Eleusis was 10.
cated where 、 晒 after his 田 吵 呻 沪
men and monsters on his way to 由 For this 田 。 some scholars
have seen in Zeus Meilîchios a god who had to be 国 after
回 、 such a restricted function, however, he would never
have gained the 盯 he actually had 川 As a chthonic
deity 、 咀 angry by nature and had to be propitiated by everyone,
。 j ll st by mllrderers, So at the Diasia the whole 四
hirn bloodless , 制 阳 山 币 海
says. The scholia explain 田 in the shapc or 川 , but
阳 may have also offered agricultural gift s 国 and fruit ,
』 四 Meilichios, Iike many 由 chthonic 嘀 嘀
19. 山 , CGR 411- 14. Voti"e reliefs for Zeus Mellichios: P. FouClll1, -Bas-relief
du 曲 , le cu1te de Zeus Meilichios: ßCII 7 肘 pl. 18 _ Fanlel1 1:117
pl. 2a - A. Rurnl)f, Diß Religicm ,111,. , 臼 , 缸 Lur 俗
XIII_XIV , 附 国 No. 25; U, Uausmwm, 响 , 咕 , 酬
回 阻 。 例 , 97, pb. 47, 48, 57, 58; C. 8lii mel, 也 南 时 阳 怕 , 饨
,111,. Stastfic:hlln 旧 :u 811rlin (Be:r1in, 耐 , No. 87, fì g. 回 Rumpf. ibid.,
No. 24
20, Farnelll :171-72; H. SchWll bl , 5," . ""Zeus
M
(Teil ll ), RE Suppl. 阳 曲
71: cight dUferenl 阳 ofworship in Alhens and AttiCM; Wycherley 189, 帽 , 盟
21. H. 晶 , 四 回 "on Agrai 阳 1-'rie. ,- 刷 刷 刷 跚
跚 , 咽 (, ullra n 蚓 如 ω Jee 由 唱 团 21; Tra"IO!
四 归 171. The 阳 阳 鸣 的
12 Festivals of 由
ni 311 Acropolis historically preccded the veneration of Zeus. This is by
no means (.'Crtain, however, :md 国 ∞ 10 a
dating of the Dipol ieia. As we hu\' e 咽 , the central acl of ritual
s)aughter 1s consiclerahly earlier than the worship not onl)' of Zeus but
aJso of Athena and a11 olher OJympians. And 臼 not mere
∞ 由 the mast ancient 白 of which we know ∞
由 highcst-ranking Greek god
Apart fTOm the official Bouphonî3, Zeus Polieus 回 到 offerings
from incli\ridual Attic 节 the lengthy inscription of the deme
Erchia speaks of a ram which 田 10 巾 god 由 month
Skiraphorion (that i5, at the Dipolieia), along with a ewe for Athena
Polias.
16
But this was a 。 因 and not a polis-festi vaJ and
therefore 主 ∞ 回 国 We should like 10 know how Athena
耻 ∞ part in the 邸 but there is 110 hint În the sources
though 由 scholiol1 to Aristophanes 四 句 ßouphonia
are called 出 festivaJ
DlASIA AND POMPAlA
In 叩 巾 , on 23 国 , the Diasia were celcbrated,
that is, the festi val of ZeuS.
11
It may have been represented in the
臼 , but iI is not preserved there 由 Anthesterion
was cut 0[. Our main 田 丁 (1. 126.6) and the in-
盹 时 of Erchia already mentionoo.
18
The latter is of the fourth
四 川 脑 , while Thucydides 田 to the existence of the festival
in the 回 叩 川 Diasia ll1 ust have been much older,
∞ the fact that a pre-Homeric Zt:us was worshipped there,
He had the epithet Meilichios, that is, "the friendly," a euphemistic
name Iike Eumenides r well-disposed 丁 the Erinyes or Aspha
Iios rthe unshakeable 可 the earth-shaker Poseidon. Zeus Mei
li chios 臼 the Olympian king we know from Homer but an awe
1.5, see infJ1l Concluslons, pp. 回
16. SF.C 21 , No. 54 1, ools. A and 臼 , , 响 , LS No. 18; MelldahV
"'emberg 盹 酬 吨 cf. 出 oKerillg for Zeus Polieus in Meta
geitnkm, Sl':C 21. No. ∞ r IInes 1$--18; Parke 口
17. Deubner 目 M. 脯 呐 。 on the 阳 刷 frolO π
回 蝇 皿 I'arke 四 曰 , ω 阻 , 回 川 刷 俨
365 F 5
18. Supra n. 16, 001. A Iine5 38- "3; '"' 国 ol deme oß'eriralP, the Grealer
凰 段 al.'lO C. ))aulI , 由 饱 四 川 瞌 把 , 町
fìctel d'AUique , BCII87 俄 边 饭 arad 瞻 artide (IUlll'll ra. η
Festivals 刷 13
some chthonic god who 皿 big snake.
19
I n votive reliefs
from the 四 to Hellenistic 喝 may also be repre
senled as a seated Zeus with a snake beside him or even without the
snake. Here Olympiao traits are 吨 , and the 曲 be ob
served in the later 国 阻 , 时 shall see below.
叩 of his fearsome character, Zeus Meilichios 囚 。 of the
most popular gods of 四 川 had many shrines in Athens and en-
virons.
90
α η (1.126.6) 由 咀 、 咀 皿 由
咄 盯 η , "the greatest festiva1 of Zeus Mcilichios,w
and 巾 implies smaller (,'elebrations for him apart from the 剧
Pallsanias mentions an a1tar of Meilichios on the boundary 田
Athenian and Eleusinian territory (1. 37.4), but the main sanctuary for
the Diasia was on the banks of the river lIissos. John 、 in his
, , , Dictiollary of Anciellt Athens did not 田 the sanc-
tuary on ùle 时 , but it has 国 convincingly localized by Hans
Möbius and othcrs near the so-called Uissos Temple , where votives
for Zeus Meilichios have been found, and the 时 inscription cor-
roborates thìs 剑
丁 altar of Zeus Meilichios between Athcns and Eleusis was 10-
cated where 、 puri6ed after his 且 国 、 阳
men and monsters on his to Athens. For this reason some scholars
have seen in Zeus Meilichios a god who had to 叩 阳 出 after
阴 、 such a restricted fUllction, however, he would never
have gained the popularity he actua1ly had in Athens. As a chthonic
deity he 川 by l1ature and had 10 be propitiated by evcryone,
not j ust by murderers. So at the 阳 the whole t>Opulace brought
him bloodless o[erings, 。 μ , 缸 白 山 , 由 (1 . 126.6)
η scholin explain 晒 in the 撼 。 animals, but
阳 叩 may have 皿 agricultural gifis 国 llnd fruit ,
』 田 Meilîchios, Iike many other chthonic , 嘀 嘀 回
19. 山 , CCR 飞 reUe& fOl' Zeu5 回 Foucart , 枪
du I'irée, le cuhe de ZeU5 , ßCII7 (1883) ð07-14, pl. 18 _ "' llrnelll :117
1'1. 2a - A. Rumpf, Dle Religifm 旧 时 81/(leralla, zur Rellgitm.tgeM:hü:lllø
阳 由 副 25: U. Ilausmann, 怡 、 抢 价 时 蛐 , 锁 如
曲 阻 , , 盯 , pls. 47, 48, 57, 58, C. 81ümel. 馆 侃 阳 白 5lculpluren
Jer 圃 缸 Mu, ecn w 8erlin (Berlin, 院 副 , 盯 , fì g. 田 Rumpr. ibid.,
No. 24
20. rllrnelll :171-72: 11 . 咄 , . .v. (Teil 11), RF. Suppl . 15 (1978) 曲
71: eig.ht dUferent 曰 咄 咄 il1 AtheM and Attlca; Wycherley 189, 嗣 盟 δ
21, H. 剧 , - ))\lS 响 。 明 阳 , 刷 刷 阻 四
届 , 由 (supna 曲 1070; for the 酬 饵 曲 挝 、 唱 国 TT1l vtos
户 盹 Wycherley 171. Tbe 剧 阳 、 5t;1I open

14
Festivals of Attíca
with the fertilíty of 皿 He 曲 ∞ , and
he had a ∞ festiva1 in Athens, the Pompaia, the purpose of which
盹 回 has proved, the magica1 protection of the newly 50Wn
grai n.23 The 叫 卧 抽 does 巾 由 阳 酣 叫 岱 n of this 缸 ,
ti-val. but it shows p!owing and sowing, the maill eve.nts ?f
mn: tn which the pompM MK 酣 刨 随 巾 。 a ram
which had been 自 由 to Meilichíos and 国 回 , the staff with
the twisted snakes, 四 in the 田 , from which the
festival ∞ ils name
节 、 pompaIa thus aBd us m undemtandang the DSMia LBke mmy
other Athenían fes tivals, 由 曲
-ere of , and 1 use the 、 of 田 一 01
Athens-to emphasize 臼 罔 ... 1 咱 且 In fact the 、
in which the Attic fanners lived took part in the Athenian 皿 恼 , 脑
we leam from t he Erchia inscription.
U
11ley sent a ram to Athens, to
the shrine of Meilichios on the banks of the river 叽 sheep
skin which was carri ed round at the Pompaia may have been taken
from the ram 皿 the previous spring at the Diasia. 、 由
Athenian festi vals of Meil tC:hios, in the heginning of spring and .in
凡 、 呻 be c10sely 11lis is precisely the case with other
agricultural feslivals: we shal.1 ?bserve the same phenomenon in the
of Demeter, Apollo. and Dionysos
The ram of the deme Erchia was offered in an interesting mixture
of chthonic and Olympian rites. The entrails were burned wi thout
using wine, a to chth.onic cults; but
the ;;' eat was as in Olylllpian offerings . The tradilion in Xeno-
phon LAnabasu78 4. where he speaks ofwhle burnt pBp for Mm
iichios, may or may not refer to the 瞄 监 only 明 白 由 民
出 guts mentioned Thucydides and the
rite of the rnm offering. Such a Ill ixed 臼 uoique in Creek
religionz" and can be explai ned by 巳 of the god who was a
chthonic being and, at the same time. Zeus
As we know from 肘 • Cloud. 时 , the Diasia were
famous for their meals; α to the same source there were aJso
E 四 in 呻 呻 Parke 崎 , 伽 时 a family oIrering 阴
四 157-M; Bðmer, 阳 1958. No. 血 由 帽 Sch .. (5Up .....
刚 到
24. S\.I pra n. 18. For the ßeece 国 P. Slengel. 趴 的 抽 ‘ 刷 Rf.:
5:1 回 句 晒 阳 , 阳 212-13
25. see F. 由 , 陀 zum homerischen 院 萨 览 山 、 , 飞 ,
3 (1948) 弘 皿 K. v. See, 叫 难 、 , 缸 (1978) 105-
14; U. 吃 HypogJum von , 翩 , 腼
Festivals of Zeus 15
的 、 切 relier with 剧 chikl in rronl of a big snake. 说 刘 ZeU$
MeilichlO$. 8erlîn 酬 思 C. BI Omel 嗣 27 to chapter 1) pl. 77
gifts for children (864), T11is fìt s, as Deubner writes, into the cheerful
side of the popular festi val, but I think t he 自 由 四 deeper.
Chthonic deities Iike Demeter, the Nymphs, or Meilichios, who was
also venerated in the newly ∞ sanctuary of the Nymphs near
the Acropolis,2II!I had a special affection for children; they were t utelary
gods for 飞 田 that include chi ldren therefore
often tum up whe re chthonic gods were worshipped. I shall mention
onl y one example here; a voti ve relief of the earl y 四 川 四
in 川 , 阳 10 be from 但 (fìg 四 Jt shows a big 川 怡 , rightl y
甲 田 eilichios, 10 whom a man and a child are praying
OlXMPIEIA
We learn from LuCÎan (Jcarom. 24) that the Diasia were abancloned
in the 四 after Christ. This may have been caused by the
completion of the nearby Olympieion under the emperor Hadrian
The god of this giant telllple, Zeus Olympios, seems to have over
黯 the chthonic cult of Zeus Meilichios in that region. Zeus Olym-
plOS 副 Homeric king of gods and 凹 , 缸 , t he
26. Schw14bl (supra 四 1010; Wycherley 回 口 由 刨 出
clren: 肌 剖 price 128 ancl p.'lS$im
27. C. 8liimel, KatalQg 俨 制 配 阳 du 5. und 4. Jh,. v . 反
(Berlin, 田 国 , 甘 81iimel (supn n. 田 74, fì g. 1I1
14
Festivals of Attica
with the fertility of the soil. He 国 田 ∞ ∞ 阔 气
he had a ∞ festival in Athens, the , 由 purpose of which
皿 瞄 has proved, the 四 protection ofthe newly sown
grd.in.23 The 时 does oot show the 酬 。 of this fes-
tival. but it 旧 p)owing and sowing, the main eve.nts ?f 恤 ,
which took place (P!. 3.2): The sJ.:i n of !
which had been 自 由 to Meilichios and 困 山 回 时 the staff wìth
由 twisted snakes, 四 in the 四 from which the
festiva1 ∞ its name
节 、 pompaIa thus md us tn under3tandtng the DiMULike msny
alher 由 血 , both celebrutions in l lOllor of Zeus 可
were of rura1 origin, and I usc the ti t1c:l of 田 二 01
Athens-to emphasize this agricultural background. l n fuct the dcmcs
in which the Attic farmers lived took part 由 Athenian 阳 , 陋
、 , leam from the Erchia τ 、 国 a ram to Athens, to
the shrine of Meilichios on the banks 由 river 节 sheep
skin which 剧 团 round at the Pompaia may have been taken
齿 。 the ram offered the previous spring at the Thus.the 、
Athenian festivals of MeilÚ:.hios. in the beginlling of spring and .in
, 、 咽 be ∞ 币 is precisely the case 由 。
agricultural festivals: we shal.l observe the same phenomenon in the
cults of Demeter, 归 , and Dionysos
白 ram of the deme Erchia 国 in an interesting mixture
of chthonic and Olympian 田 entrails were burned without
using wine, a practice ∞ to other chthonic cults; but
the meat was 回 Olympian offerings. The trndition Xeno.
phon (Anabasis 7 8 4), where he speaks ofwhole burnt pip For Mm
咽 , may or may oot 甘 the 瞄 We only 明 白 白 白
由 gifts mentioned Thucydides the
rite of the rnm offering. Such a mixed 悟 not unique in Creek
国 be by the nature of the god 、 四
chthonic being and, at Ihe same time, Zeus
A5 we kno\y from Aristopbanes' Clouds 时 the Diasia were
famous for their mea1s; α 刀 to the same source there were 皿
τ , 、 In ‘he volive relief Parke Ag. 48. showing a faßlUy oireri...g a pig
也 剧 , 民 撼 。 四 国 圃 Sch .. 由 忡
四 阳 到
剖 n. 18. For Ihe ßeece Sef: 刷 49: P. 5lengel. , 咆 以 抽 , RE
5:1 锐 罔 恤 金 阳 " !lm... 212-13
由 明 也 就 衍 。 zum 隙 Epos: 阳 回 , Wür--Jbb
3 刷 刷 皿 K. v. 缸 叫 娼 抽 WDF 500 (1978) 田
1"; U. 町 、 饵 呻 当 , 腼
Festiva/s of Zeus 15
的 、 吨 山 川 缸 cbikl In fronl of. blg 啤 , 说 Zeu5
Meilichlos: . 8erlin 酬 15. AAer C. 810mel 阳 盯 chap‘er 1) pl. T1
gîfts for chilclren 啊 旧 日 , as Deubner 此 时 , înto the cheerful
sîde of the popular festi val, but I think t he 自 由 was deeper.
Cht honic deities lî.ke Demeter, the Nymphs, or 剧 , 、 吨
阳 in the newl y ∞ sanctual")' of the Nymphs near
the AcropoHs, \lIS had a special affection for 由 were luteJary
gods for them. Vonve--offering scenes Ihat include children therefore
often tUnl up where chthonic gods were worshÎJ>ped. I shall mention
onl y one example here: a votive relief of the earl y 四 川 叮 臼
in , 皿 to be from 但 (fig 四 Jt 趴 , a big , 同
晒 eilichios, to whom a man and a chîld are prayi ng
Ol.J'MPIEIA
We learn from Lucian (Jccu'om. 24) t hal the I)iasîa were abandonecl
in the ∞ 四 叩 町 This may have 国 by the
∞ of the nearby 01ympieioll under the 泥 Hadrian
The god of this gianl temple, Zeus Olympios, seems to h3\'e over.
lapped the chthonic cult of Zeus Meilichios in that region. Zeus 0lym-
、 the Homeric king of 阪 缸 men, whose festi val, the
26. 明 ($upra 11. 20) 1070: Wycherlcy 回 Chlhonic gods 咽
drl' n: 叫 出 目 。 阳 剧 阴 阳 刚
27. C. 81ümel. , 啤 施 加 SJru fplunfR du 5. und 4 , }/" . o. Chr.
(8erli n. 1928) 田 92. pl. T1 _ 81iimel (supna n. 面 No. , 际

16
Festivals of 国
Olympieia, 皿 of Peisistratos had probably 组 any
国 the pe tsBStmuds had laklthe foundatsonsof the temple The
响 celebratcd towards the end of 唱 , 19 叫
酬 , and were dedicated more 10 sports than 10 晤 。 rites. The
m , 、 川 seem 10 have been horse 酣 川 吨 甲 酬 , 如 町 恻 恻
and 山 町 珩 品 、 币 川 、 , horses. 抵 叫 且 川 > 、 、 配 时 畸 岛 剧
吨 叫 、 呐 , 山 、 games, in addition to ∞ mplcting the te ,le after
sevenmEtunes h tlmmtemst m the cult d Zeus MmlEChtos may
have , 回 cult s in general faded in imperial times, the
heyclay of 3sIml religion
THEOGAMIA
The lasl festi val ofZcus 10 be considered here was a festi val of Hera
附 because it was their lEQÒt; 吨 the sacred weddi ng.
29
The
cult of Hem wM OOt stmngly motedmAtttca As m Homencmtm
n Clllt the 、 'the great mistress of Argos. The wedding
of Zeus ancl l'lera 咄 咄 towards the end of the 11100th Ca-
melion. 、 、 咀 after this festival . The Iiterary sources dis-
ESSed lby o eubner are sparse and half of tlmwmklmg Eene was cut
川 fri eze '(pl. 3.3). We see only the bride; the bride-
肝 ∞ 川 崎 preserved Deubner thinks thts veBl ed Egure represents
rmMal bnde it 瞄 恤 , however, that she ís Hern herself,
becallse there are, as we shall see, other 巾 in the frieze, for În-
四 (pl. 2.1). If the bride is Hera, 回 must
have ken Zeus The most beautiful reHecuon of tius festwalBS to be
found in ∞ , in the group of Zeus and Hera in the east
fri eze of the Parthenon
国 177; Parke 144. 舱 。 户 Trav\o5 402-
11; Wychcrley 出 T. Leslie Shear, Jr., - r)'Tl' nb IImJ Ðulldlngs [n Arclllllc ,
时 阳 句 10
29. 削 τ 亨 Parke 104. Zeus and lIera in the Parthenon fri eze: Ðrommer
I'F pl. 174
2
FESTIVALS OF DEMETER
Cults of Demeter were widespread in Creece, and many of them
were 町 The oldest of them were the Thes mophoria. the
most celebrated of Creek 、 found all over Creece, 1 The most
important 叩 口 、 at Eleusis, where the Great Mys-
terÎes took place; these were of 四 origin and became an
Athenian state festi val in the 四 川 8.C. The Mysteries were
celebrated by both men 、 咽 , bllt most of the other festivals of
Demeter were exc1 usively for women; thus, before 且 the fes.
tivals of Demeter in detail , we 6rst must ask why 四 so
The female worshippers of Demeter 阳 with the Roman
matrolls who celebrated-a1so with secret rites-the festival of Bona
国 雹 回 În c\l lts of ancient 回 想 and 国 often
be explained by thei r great 飞 this applies here. A long
ti me ago Jane ∞ 川 showed that the Thes mophoria
and other ¥ could be explained by the customs of a
neolithic 时 in which 国 for the cropS.3 Her method of
ìnterpreting certai n ri tes in social terms is followed in our time by
many scholars. for 四 川 , In criticizing Harrison, Far
nell and Nilsson have argued 川 Crete and in Mycenaean
, 回 回 and sowing had already become male occupations
This is tnle, but the rites of the festivals in question here had their
origin not in the 8ronze Age but in much earlier prehistoric times
They were rooted in the Neolithic, when grain-growing and hog-rais-
ing, new inventions then, were done by women. Therefore women,
crops, and piglets ∞ in the 川 As
we have seen in the Dipolieia, the neolithic prnctice ofkilling ani mals
1. Ni lnon, CF 313- 26: 伽 , CCR 461- 66
2. K, LaUe, ßðmi#cha ßf!ligiOlUgf!Khlchlf!. Handbuch der 呐
5.4: (Munich, 1960) 皿
3. J. E. 时 酬 。 刷 刷 。 Ih<< Slud!l 0/ Crtf! k &ligion"' (Cambridge and
New lork. 回 到 盯 cf. Nils5Oll , CF 323; Famell 4: 国 酬 , φ 回 归
rison 阳 时 咂 method see 8urkert, 12
17
16
Festivals of Attica
Olympseta- the sons of petststmtos had Prut>ably founded " ln MY
皿 the 出 laid the foundations of the temple. 11,c
叩 时 叩 the end 叩 , 。 」
chion. 昭 时 mOfC to 阳 to 耐
与 seem 10 ha\le been horse 臼 阳
anzl other tMADmanees mvolvmg horses HUMan e ndowed the fesM-
ml with agonisttC gnmes, ,n addsuon tommPIetmg tlm temple d er
盹 咄 耻 the 'interest in the cu\t of Zcus Mei,lichiOS
咄 咄 , , as chlhonic cults in general faded in 阳 timcs, the
heyday of aslml religion
l 'HEOGAMIA
、 lasl fcst ival ofZeus 10 be considered 协 咄 festi v:tl of Hera
皿 because il was their lEQÒç 川 皿 wedding.
1Ii
The
…It of lI era 叩 strongly 时 川 四 in Homeric 町
m cult thegmMess was also the Feat mistress of Argos 去 川
of Zeus and Hern 国 由 加 晒 阳 of the month Ca-
mellon, which 田 after this 剑 n lC literary soul'CeS dis-
cussed b)' 凹 are sparse and ha1f of the , 、 咀 cut
川 略 目 frieze (pl. 飞 see onl)' the bride; the bride-
回 ìs not 凹 Deubner thinks this \'eiled 同
胁 川 that she is Hera herself,
四 皿 町 , 瞄 'shall see, other dcities in 阳 晤 for in-
回 (pl z l ) lf the bnde ts Hem, the bndegroom must
hu\'c beell Zeus.- The most beautiful 且 of Ihis festivul ìs to be
川 刷 、 , 川 叩 Zeus and Hcrn. in the east
础 。 the Part henon
28. l)eulmer 177, I'arke 144. 川 崎 Judelch 382-84, , 叫 咀
11 ; Wycherl ey 皿 T. Lesl!e Shear. Jr., - I'ynlllts and Uulldhlgi iu Ardualc Athell':
剧 Synl poslum 10
.., 也 177-78; Parke 10-1. 凰 lI elll In the 仙 刷 刷 刷
1'1-' 11 1. 17'1
2
FESTIVALS OF DEMETER
Gults 口 町 widesJ>read ìn Creece. and man)' of them
were mys lcry cults. 111C oldest of thcll1 were the Thesll1ophorin, lhe
曲 of Creek festivals, found all over 田

The mosl
important sanct\l ary of Dcmeler W3.S at Eleusis, where the Creat Mys-
teries took pluce; thcse were of origin and became an
Athenian st3te festival in the 回 节 、 Mysteri es were
celebrated b)' both men 、 but most of the othcr festivals of
Demeter werc cxclusivel)' for women; 旧 , before 目 the fes-
ti\'als of Demeter in detail , we fìrst 耻 曲 臼
l1le female 叩 沈 阳 。 ∞ 曰 with the Roman
matrons 田 皿 secret rites-the festival of Bona
回 伽 岛 回 四 of 回 阳 到 , 民 。 、 曲 oflen
be explained b)' thelr great 巾 可 this applies here. A 10ng
time ago Jane 曲 四 由 由 币 、
and 协 咱 ¥ ∞ be e:c:plained b)' the customs of a
neolithic society in 、 cared for the cropS.3 Her method of
回 归 riles in social tcrms is 吼 叫 our time by
many scholars, for instance by ßurkert . In criticizîng Harrison, Far-
nell and Nilsson have argued that in Minoan Crete and in Mycenaean
Creece J>lowing ω had ulready hecome male occupations.
啊 is tnle, but the riles of Ihe festivals in question here hud their
origin not in the 8ronze Age but in much earlier prehistori c limcs
Thc)' werc rootcd in the Nc'olHhic, when grain-growi ng and hog-rais-
ing, ncw 阳 、 Ihen. were done b)' women. Therefore wOl1l en.
crops, and piglet's ∞ in the Thesmophoric rite. As
we have seen in the Dipolicia, the neoli thic practice ofkilli ng animals
J. NI lslOl1, GF 口 NlwolI. GGR 461- 66
2.. K. , 院 , 份 , Handbuch der 如 提
S. 4. 胁 。 .. 缸
3. J. E. Ilarrbon. 由 10 IIwl S'lldlJ 0/ Grwlr 耐 萨
I"evv York, 盯 酬 , 目 。 帽 CGR 465. For Ilar
蜡 , , 句 庐 山 _ 8urkert. 12.
17