BAY OF PIGS INVASION

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´ , MARIO BAUZA

(1911–1993). Mario Bauza ´ , multi-instrumentalist, arranger, and composer, was one of the foremost figures in the creation of a new style of music that mixed together jazz and Afro-Cuban music. He was born April 28, 1911, in Havana. The son of a black cigar maker, he was raised by his white godfather, a military man of wealth and family. He studied classical music and by age sixteen was playing bass clarinet with the Havana Symphony Orchestra. He first visited New York in 1927 as a member of a Cuban dance band. He took up saxophone and trumpet and moved to New York for good in 1930. By 1933 he was playing with the great swing band of drummer Chick Webb at the Savoy; Webb made him musical director in the following year. In 1939 he joined the band of Cab Calloway, whom he encouraged to hire his friend, Dizzy Gillespie. Bauza ´ ’s dream of marrying jazz and Cuban music came true with the founding of a band led by his brother-in-law, Machito and his Afro-Cubans, in 1940. He was lead trumpeter and musical director of that band for decades thereafter. This group played for Latin audiences at the Palladium in New York as well as for African American audiences at the Savoy and Renaissance ballrooms. Surprisingly, the band did not play in Bauza ´ ’s native country. Nevertheless, it was one of the most influential bands of the day. Bauza ´ left Machito’s band in 1975 and created his own orchestra, which he led until his death on July 12, 1993.

1965. He started working on the conservative newspaper La Prensa in the early 1980s. A right-winger, he promoted Mario Vargas Llosa’s presidential candidacy in 1990. The late-night show 1990 en Ame ´ rica was his first success in Peruvian TV; he interviewed celebrities and politicians with provocative and almost disrespectful questions, copying the style of the American talk-show host David Letterman. In Miami, he hosted late-night shows for the CBS and Telemundo networks. Bayly presents himself as a bisexual; his first novel No se lo digas a nadie (1996, Don’t Tell Anybody), became a gay fiction bestseller and later a movie in 1998. He has written ten novels. La noche es virgen (1997, Night Is a Virgin) won the Spanish Herralde prize in 1997. His most recent novel is Y de repente, un a ´ ngel (1995, And Suddenly, an Angel). He was distinguished in May 2007 with a media award from the gay and lesbian alliance against defamation (GLAAD) in South Florida.
See also Homosexuality and Bisexuality in Literature; Radio and Television.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ruiz Bravo, Patricia. Subversiones masculinas: Ima ´ genes de los varones en la narrativa joven [Masculine Subversions: Male Images in the Young’s Narrative.] Lima: Flora Trista ´ n, 2001. A critical work about No se lo digas a nadie (Don’t Tell Anybody). Spanish News Agency EFE. ‘‘Jaime Bayly, una figura destacada de la nueva literatura en espan ˜ ol.’’ El Mundo, Barcelona, October 22th, 2005. Available from http://www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2005/10/16/ cultura/1129463511.html. JACQUELINE FOWKS

See also Music: Popular Music and Dance.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Austerlitz, Paul. Jazz Consciousness: Music, Race, and Humanity. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 2005. Loza, Steven. Tito Puente and the Making of Latin Music. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1999. Orovia, Helio. Cuban Music from A to Z. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2004. ANDREW J. KIRKENDALL

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BAYLY LETTS, JAIME (1965–). Jaime Bayly Letts, a Peruvian journalist, writer, and television show host, was born in Lima on February 19,
ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LATIN AMERICAN

Known in Cuba as Batalla de Giro ´ n, the Bay of Pigs Invasion was a U.S.-sponsored military venture of Cuban exiles against revolutionary Cuba in mid-April 1961. Launched with a force of about 1,500 Cuban exiles, the invasion was the result of growing antagonism between exiled Cubans and Fidel Castro’s increasingly radical regime as well as U.S. desire to topple Castro against the backdrop of the cold war. The failed invasion stands as a pivotal moment both for the Cuban revolution and CubaU.S. relations.

BAY OF PIGS INVASION.

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He disliked the Mexican Conservatives and followed Napoleon’s policy of blocking any reversal of the Reform Laws. 13 February 1811. isolation.S. Born near Metz.200. brigade captives were released in exchange for $53 million in medicine and food. BIBLIOGRAPHY Johnson. Led by Jose ´ Pe ´ rez San Roma ´ n. He became critical of Emperor Maximilian’s indecision. Peter. In Mexico. Peter. for his part.S. The Bay of Pigs not only demonstrated revolutionary Cuba’s military effectiveness but also demonstrated the extent of popular support for the revolution. Manuel Artime served as the brigade’s political chief. Cuban militia and army troops under Castro’s command defeated Brigade 2506. The attack began on 15 April. but many continue to commemorate the battle as a heroic attack against a much larger and betterequipped force.’’ For the exiles. another 1. took credit for having stopped the imperial aggression of the world’s mightiest military power. government. CIA agents and operatives also alienated the exile force. The failed invasion allowed Castro to consolidate his power over the island and to declare openly the socialist nature of the revolution. After months of intense negotiation. The Bay of Pigs invasion turned out to be a fiasco for the U. He ´ lie-Fre served with General E ´ de ´ ric Forey in the Crimea (1854–1856) and in the Italian campaign (1859). replacing Forey. See also Castro Ruz. Haynes. and reefs that surrounded the area. FRANC ¸ OIS ACHILLE Training of Cuban exiles began in March 1960. 1980. ten of whom died while being transported to Havana in an overcrowded and airtight truck container. The final death toll on the brigade’s side was somewhere around 125. Bazaine joined the French Foreign Legion in 1832. place the estimate much higher. After two-and-a-half days of intense fighting. involvement. United States-Latin American Relations. the exile force eventually came to be known as Brigade 2506. were canceled by direct orders from Kennedy. 157 Cuban army and militia troops were killed in action. Fidel. the invasion marked the end of any possible rapprochement and pushed Cuba deeper into the Soviet orbit.BAZAINE.800 and 2.S. ed. Kornbluh. The invasion’s primary goal was to secure a beachhead for the establishment of a temporary government by the Cuban Revolutionary Council under the leadership of centrist former prime minister Jose ´ Miro ´ Cardona. and Napoleon III appointed him on 16 July 1863 as supreme commander of French Intervention forces. Instrumental in the Cuban army’s victory were elite cadet troops led by Captain Jose ´ Ramo ´ n Ferna ´ ndez as well as successful air strikes by Cuban fighter planes. Kennedy agreed to go forward but was adamant about limiting and concealing U. Most other sources. Franc ¸ ois Achille Bazaine (b. however. Kennedy later reminisced that it had been ‘‘the worst experience of [his] life. Bay of Pigs Declassified: The Secret CIA Report on the Invasion of Cuba. 1964. Bay of Pigs: The Untold Story. Air raids scheduled for 16 April.197 were taken prisoner. Among the most salient ones stand the failure of the Kennedy administration to provide adequate air and naval support and the CIA’s overestimation of discontent of the Cuban people toward the revolution. French military commander in Mexico (1863–1867).-Cuba relations. FRANC ¸ OIS ACHILLE (1811–1888). The peak of 522 ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LATIN AMERICAN HISTORY & CULTURE .S. newly elected president John F. According to Cuban official statistics. On 17 April approximately 1. ´NEZ-FERNA ´ NDEZ LUIS MARTI n BAZAINE. the defeat represented a major setback in the struggle against Castro. between 1. when U. the landing sites proved to be inauspicious owing to swampy conditions. planes bearing Cuban marks bombarded several military installations. 23 September 1888). however. Castro. Bazaine’s aim was to reconcile the various factions and win over moderate opinion to the empire. New York: Simon & Schuster. In terms of U. The causes of the Bay of Pigs defeat have been the subject of much reflection and study. Bazaine took North African troops with him to Mexico in 1863. 1998. d. While not enthusiastic about the plans. New York: Norton. Wyden. Cuban Missile Crisis. The Bay of Pigs: The Leaders’ Story of Brigade 2506. New York: New Press.300 brigade troops landed on the southern coast locations of Giro ´ n Beach and the Bay of Pigs. serving in Algeria and Spain.