Boiler Make-up Water Sources: Typical Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), mg/L less than 1500 1500 to 10000 greater than 10,000 35000-60000

Salinity Classes Fresh Water Brackish (Well or Aquifer) Water Brines Seawater

Feedwater Impurities: 1. Dissolved gases such as oxygen & carbon dioxide, which lead to corrosion. 2. Dissolved solids which are usually inorganic salts of calcium & magnesium 3. Dissolved organics (oil, organic chemicals) that can foul Heat Transfer areas. 4. Microbiological & macrobiological organisms 5. Particulate matter such as suspended solids (mud). 6. Caustic which can cause caustic embrittlement of steel. Scale & Deposit forming impurities are: - Calcium Ions - Magnesium ions - Silica - Phosphates (likely to be generated by chemical treatment) - Iron & Copper Water analyses are conventionally expressed for both cations (+ve charged ions) and anions (-ve charged ions), in parts per million by weight (ppmw) except for hardness & alkalinity, which are usually expressed in ppw of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). These ppmw values can be converted to a common basis such as milliequivalents/liter. this permits the summation of oppositely charged ions such that total cations will equal total anions. Cation & anion meq/liter can be converted to ppmw CaCO3. Total hardness is defined as the sum of calcium and magnesium ions in ppw of CaCO3. Total alkalinity is the sum of CO3-2, HCO3-1, and OH-1 ions in ppw of CaCO3.

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hydrogen zeolite softening.0 Adds to solids contents & increase corrosive Demineralization. H2SO4. expressed as Corrosion CaCO3 titrated to methyl-orange end-point CO2 Lime & lime-soda softening. bicarbonate (CO3-2) and hydroxyl (OH-1) and carbonate produce CO3 in steam. character of water. Alum coagulation. pipe lines. plug lines & cause deposits in heat exchange equipment. sludge & foaming in boilers. Various softening processes such as lime softening & cation exchange by hydrogen zeolites will reduce dissolved solids. boilers. distillation. sodium sulfite. lime softening. reverse osmosis. diatomaceous earth filtration. tanning. Coagulation. surface active facture. etc. coagulation & filtration. Corrosion of water lines. paper manu. surface active CaCO3 forms curds with soap. source of Aeration. reverse osmosis. carbonate Foaming & carryover of solids with steam. pH of 6. HCl etc. character of water. Discolors water on precipitation. distillation. Fluoride F-1 Silica SiO2 Iron Fe+2 (ferrous). Conductivity is the result of ionizable solids in solution. electrolytes Bicarbonate (CHO3-1). electrolytes. Manganese Oil Mn+2 Expressed as oil or chloroform extractable material. agents for iron retention. magnesium. suspended solids. adsorption by vaporization. adsorption by activated carbon hinders precipitation methods such as iron removal. Settling & filtration deposits in water lines. return lines. boilers. electrolytes. boilers etc. water treatment. filtration. distillation. internal boiler and strontium salts expressed as equipment. chlorination. Chief source of scale in heat exchange Softening. most natural waters have a decreased by acids. liming & neutralizing amines. Usually expressed in Jackson Turbidity Units DIFFICULTIES CAUSED MEANS OF TREATMENT Imparts unsightly appearance to water . Not usually significant industrially.. electrodialysis Adsorption with magnesium hydroxide. barium. Cation exchange with hydrogen zeolite. "Suspended Solids" is the measure of undissolved matter. Neutralization with alkalies Alkalinity Free Mineral Acid Carbon Dioxide pH Hydrogen ion concentration defined as pH = log (1/H+1) SO4 Cl-1 NO3-1 -2 Sulfate Chloride Nitrate Corrosion in water lines & particularly steam Aeration. acid treatment. distillation. reverse osmosis. useful for control of boiler metal embrittlement. degasifying. chlori-nation. impedes heat exchange. Subsidence. boilers etc. Cause of "rotten egg" odor. undesirable in most processes. determined gravimetrically. ppmw O2 Oxygen Hydrogen Sulfide Ammonia H2S NH3 Conductivity Expressed as micromhos. Page 2 of 4 . determined gravimetrically. calcium phosphate or bone black. deposits in water lines. electrodialysis Adds to solids contents & increase corrosive Demineralization. high concentrations of dissolved solids are objectionable because of process interference & as a cause of foaming in boilers.. examples are demineralization. but is not usually significant industrially. corrosion. interferes with dyeing agents. Deaeration. Corrosion of copper & zinc alloys by formation of complex soluble ion. distillation. filtration. reverse osmosis. hydrazine or suitable substitutes. reverse osmosis. deaeration. in conjunction with demineralization. causing color may cause foaming in boilers. and so on. demineralization. a expressed as CaCO3) source of corrosion. boilers & so on. strainers. deaeration. same as iron Scale.BOILER FEEDWATER CONSTITUENT Turbidity CHEMICAL FORMULA None. process equipment. corrosion inhibitors.0-8. electrodialysis Adds to solids contents. distillation. Any process which decreases dissolved solids content will decrease conductivity. interferes with dyeing. lime softening. determined by evaporation. highly basic anion exchange resins. mixed-bed demineralization. embrittlement of boiler steel. Hot process removal with insoluble turbine blade deposits due to silica magnesium salts. hot phosphate softening. interferes with most process uses Decaying organic material and metallic ions Coagulation. usually preceded by coagulation & settling. can stain product in process use Color None Hardness Calcium. reverse osmosis. specific conductance Dissolved solids None "Dissolved Solids" is a measure of total amount of dissolved matter. pH varies according to acidic or alkaline pH can be increase by alkalies & solids in water. highly basic anion exchange. Aeration. coagulation & filtration. "Total Solids" is the sum of dissolved & suspended solids. dealkalization by anion exchange. same as iron Baffle Separators. neutralization & condensate lines with alkalines. Demineralization. heat exchange equipment. Fe+2 (ferric) Scale in boilers & cooling water systems. chlorination. high conductivity can increase the corrosive characteristics of a water. Suspended Solids None Total Solids None See "Dissolved Solids" & "Suspended Solids". distillation. demineralization. cation exchange.

the blowdown from a high pressure boiler may be suitable for makeup to a lower pressure boiler. Page 3 of 4 . they are highly dependent on maintaining proper boiler blowdown. The blowdown system must safely dispose of the flashing steam and hot liquid as previously discussed. impurities are carried over in the steam. Conductivity is a measure of the dissolved solids in the boiler water. respectively. foaming & carryover occur. resulting in scale formation and carryover of impurities in the steam. Too little blowdown allows the concentration of suspended and dissolved solids to become too great. turbines.BOILER FEEDWATER Blowdown: All dissolved & suspended solids entering a boiler with the feedwater remain in the drums and tubes as steam is generated. and heat. These must be removed to prevent solids from settling & caking on the heat transfer surfaces. In some cases. Both suspended & dissolved are present in the water. this situation may be caused by dissolved solids. A point can be reached beyond which operation is completely unsatisfactory. Too much blowdown wastes fuel and feedwater. Most boilers have effective mechanical separators in the boiler steam drum when the water boils smoothly. silica content or alkalinity. Proper regulation of boiler blowdown is very important in boiler operation. and control valves. The intermittent or manual blowdown is taken from the bottom of the mud drum. The continual addition of feedwater produces higher & higher concentration of solids in the boiler water. The continuous blowdown connection is usually located below the low water level in the steam drum. In order to keep boiler water concentrations below this limit. While water priming and foaming are partly controlled through careful operation of the boiler drum level and chemical injections. A good separation of water and steam must occur inside the boiler steam drum to produce clean and dry steam. the manual blowdown should be used approximately once per day for a few seconds to remove suspended solids which may have settled in the mud drum. Some blowdown systems have automated blowdown control based on a continuous conductivity measurement of boiler water. When boiler water primes (high level) or foams. This blowdown is mainly intended to remove any sludge formed in the boiler water. chemicals. Every boiler has a limit above which scaling. some of the concentrated boiler water must be removed from the unit as blowdown. Removing a small stream of water continuously saves water. Globe valves with position indicators allow for accurate control of the blowdown rate. however. The heat in the continuous blowdown water can be recovered in a heat exchange system installed in the blowdown system. A continuous blowdown system helps to keep the boiler water within the concentration limits on a relatively constant basis. Steam that is dirty and wet can cause deposits in superheaters. Boiler concentration limits to control corrosion and fouling in the boiler vary as a function of the operating pressure.

kg/h (lb/h) FBD = Blowdown flow. A simple mass balance on the salt will demonstrate this principle.6 kg/h 4081.6 kg/h Prepared Ankur Srivastava by: Chemical Engineer Email: ankur_2061@hotmail. The chloride specification of this water also controls the solids specification. Example: Water is fed into a boiler from a DM water plant. Calculate the BFW & Blowdown rates.02 1 2 FBFW = FSTM + FBD From 1 & 2 0. The concentration of salt in the blowdown will be the same as the concentration of salt in the steam drum. FSTM FBFW CBFW CBD X = (FBD / FBFW) *100 FBFW*CBFW = FBD*CBD CBFW / CBD = FBD / FBFW = X / 100 CC = CBD / CBFW = 100 / X where: FBFW = Feedwater flow. The boiler feedwater has a chloride content of Page 4 of 4 .02*FBFW 0. the mass of salt leaving the boiler is the mass of blowdown (BD) times the concentration of salt in the BD as shown in the figure below.2 ppm by weight.2 10 200000 kg/h FBD / FBFW = CBFW / CBD = X /100 FBD / FBFW = FBD = 0. ppm CC = Cycles of concentration. Since there is no salt in the steam. The mass of salt entering the boiler is the mass of boiler feed water (BFW) times the concentration of the salt. The cycles of concentration is the inverse of the percent blowdown multiplied by 100. The chloride content of the steam drum water must be ≤10 ppm by weight. Calculations: CBFW = CBD = FSTM = 0.98*FBFW = FSTM = FBFW = FBD = 200000 Boiler Feedwater quantity Blow down quantity 204081. The percent blowdown is defined as the blowdown rate divided by the BFW rate times 100. The steam drum concentration is controlled at a level that minimizes deposits in the riser tubes. The dissolved salt will concentrate in the boiler water as steam is formed. percent of boiler feedwater FBD Deposits are most likely to occur in the riser tubes. ppm CBD = Solids concentration of blowdown (circulating boiler water). The concentration of dissolved solids will be greater in the riser tubes than in the steam drum because some water has been vaporized. The boiler produces 200. The dissolved salt concentration can be controlled to a given level by adjusting the blowdown rate. Care should be exercised in use of % blowdown because some use % blowdown to mean % of steam and not BFW as defined here. kg/h (lb/h) CBFW = Solids concentration in boiler feedwater.BOILER FEEDWATER Cycles of Concentration: A dissolved salt entering the boiler system will not leave the boiler in the steam. dimensionless X = % blowdown.000 kg/h of steam. The cycles of concentration (CC) is defined by the concentration in the blowdown divided by the concentration in the boiler feedwater which is equal to the BFW rate divided by the blowdown rate. The steam drum (blowdown) concentration can readily be controlled by blowdown rate since they are directly related. kg/h (lb/h) FSTM = Steam flow.

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