INTRODUCTION

Modern hall and conference architectures have large entries and so manually opening of such doors every time a person enters can be hectic. In the present project we try to automate opening of door and also automate operation of power devices inside the room. This is small step towards smart houses. As the person appears in front of the door, the doors open automatic. However the door will be operated by geared system driven by powerful motor. And so actually operation of motor is automated. Similarly as a person approaches door from inside, again the door opens automatically. Further the based on presence of person in the room, the operation of room power devices is controlled. The primary sensor here happens to be PIR motion sensor.

1. System Architecture

Modular Design is throughout the system. System is built on the embedded system built around atmega8, cheap and powerful. Two PIR motion sensors are placed at the door step as shown below. Sensor number 1 is placed outside the door and Sensor number 2 is placed inside but near to door. Such double pair arrangement is used to confirm whether people are entering or leaving the room. If sensor1 is activated first and then after some time sensor2 is activated, it means person is entering in the room. The opposite of this is true for person leaving the room. Estimation of the same done by programming the Atmega8 chip. The interface between TTL logic based controller and power device motor is done with the help of driver circuit.

Block diagram

in the form of heat emitted by anumber of bodies including people. the more infra-red radiation is emitted and the easier it is for a PIR sensor to detect. the PIR sensor will keep processing the changes in infra-red radiation and the lighting will stay on.2. When a person or other heat sourceenters any zone.1 PIR sensor module All PIR sensors detect changes in infra-red radiation. The bigger the body. In order for . Each zone is constantly monitored by the sensor. dogs or other small animals. This change is detected and processed by the sensor. cars and. The field of view is the area in which changes in infra-red radiation can be detected. Providing the heat source (person) continues to move in the field of view. the level of infra-red radiation in that zone increases. The construction of the PIR and the Fresnel Lens divide the field of view intoa number of zones both vertically and horizontally. the sensor will not detect any changes in infra-red radiation between the zones and the lights will go out after the ‘Time’ period is complete. If aperson stands still in the field of view or moves out of the detection area. SELECTION AND DESIGN OF HARDWARE 2. Thefield of view can alter with changes in temperature and the size of the heat source. as shown in the diagram overleaf. to a lesser extent. switching on the connected lighting and starting the in-built ‘Time’ process.

The detailled schematic is as below.2 Motor driver circuit The motor available is a 230volt motor which is to be operated by transistor based relay driver circuit. A 1 uF capacitor at the input of each stage is required to block the dc component in the signal. Build using 2 LM358 IC’s and IR pair along some basic components. giving the total amplification of about 10000. In the collector circuit of BC547 . Features: Suitable for remote applications Low cost Operates from 3 to 12 volts Less current drain Range 5-10 meters Applications: Detecting motion in 5-10 meter range. The actuating signal from controller is applied to the base of driver transistor BC547. The second stage further amplifies it making the arangement sensitive and long range.the sensor to most effectively detect changes in heat between zones.8k. The equation for calculating gain is: Gain=1+Rf/Ri In our case Rf=680k and Ri=6. Here any change in output voltage of IR photodiode is sensed and amplified by first stage of LM358 which is a dual OpAmp chip. thus gain=101. 2. they do not emit or radiate any energy or beams The PIR sensor built during project is very sensitive compared to some commertially available in the market at the same cost. The gain of each filter stage is set to 101. PIR sensors are passive devices. It can detect even a slight wave of hand in the range of 5-10 metres. it is advisable to walk across the zones not up or along a zone. Hence overall gain=10000.

com for these details.automaticcarwiper.blogspot. 3. 2.12volt Relay is connected which drives the Viper motor.automaticcarwiper. Figure 2.2. Depending on the signal from controller the power devices are switched ON and OFF.com for these details. Same driver circuit which is used for motor driver is also used for power devices in the room. .3 Driver circuit for power devices. DESIGN OF SYSTEM SOFTWARE Please go to www.3 Atmega8 controller connections Please go to www. 3.2 Relay Driver circuit for motor 2.blogspot. A free wheeling diode is used to control back EMF developed in the motor during turn OFF.2 Software Module //Open and close door based on presence of person.

INPUT).//Based on use PIR motion sensor //first PIR just outside the door---to detect incomming person //second just inside the door----to detect outgoing person //third inside but near to the door----to detect presence inside the room //presence inside the room will switch light/fan ON-OFF. OUTPUT). //serial comm. INPUT). pinMode(PIRsensor2_Pin. INPUT).begin(9600). pinMode(PIRsensor1_Pin. } void loop(){ . pinMode(motorPin2. pinMode(tube_relay. //define motor pins #define motorPin 3 //define power devices #define tube_relay 7 #define fan_relay 8 //define PIR sensors #define PIRsensor1_Pin 9 #define PIRsensor2_Pin 10 #define PIRsensor3_Pin 11 void setup(){ Serial. OUTPUT). OUTPUT). pinMode(fan_relay. OUTPUT). for debbuging on computer pinMode(motorPin1. pinMode(PIRsensor3_Pin.

//turn "ON" tube light digitalWrite(fan_relay. LOW) //turn "OFF" tube light digitalWrite(tube_relay.//door close delay(5000). Serial.print("Run fan and tube light").//stop motor } if (digitalRead(PIRsensor2_Pin)==HIGH){ digitalWrite(motorPin.//door open Serial. LOW).print("Moving outside"). delay(5000). HIGH).print("Run fan and tube light").//stop motor } if (digitalRead(PIRsensor3_Pin)==HIGH){ digitalWrite(tube_relay. delay(5000).if (digitalRead(PIRsensor1_Pin)==HIGH){ digitalWrite(motorPin. LOW). //turn "ON" fan Serial. digitalWrite(motorPin. LOW). digitalWrite(motorPin.//door open Serial. LOW) //turn "OFF" fan . digitalWrite(motorPin. LOW). HIGH). HIGH).print("Moving inside"). } else { digitalWrite(tube_relay. HIGH). delay(5000). digitalWrite(motorPin.

. 4. } The software is illustrated in Fig. As mentioned above controller board is PCB prototyped using DIY build PCB at techniques.. And the software flow of data collecting node module is illustrated. 2..... While sensor and actuator boards are built on zero PCB. Print on GSM800 paper using laser printer.. //Loop again..1 DIY build PCB Steps: 1. . Prepare layout in Eagle cad.} delay(1000).... SET UP A PROTOTYPE SYSTEM AND TEST we set up a sample prototype system in our lab room. 4. 4..

automaticcarwiper.. 4. 5..... Low on power consumption.. The system definitely adds to automation of hall ways and also luxury...com for these details.. Etch the board with solution of ferric chloride.2 Layout of controller board Please go to www... PCB is ready.. Drill board with bits of proper sizes. CONCLUSIONS System presented above is cheap and effective. 7. Place copper clad in tap water to loose the paper. This can be done with analog sensing of temperature using LM35 temperature sensor and using LDR for sensing light conditions in the room. The power device driver circuit will however need modification. 8.. CURRENT & FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS In future we plan use home automation with energy effieciency i.. 9.3. 4. 4..... 6. REFERENCES: ... Particularly the PIR sensors consume less power and are energy efficient... Select copper clad of proper size and shrub with spool.e control the intensity of light and fan speed denpending on conditions of light and temperature. 5.blogspot.. Place printed layout on copper clad and iron for 10 minutes.. Remove paper with help of brush.3 Pictures of controller board and sensor boards Pending.The enitre system can fit in box and made commertially available for good. Then depending on these values the microcontroller will generate actuating signal.

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