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The Jama Mapun or literally people of Mapun, occupy the island of Cagayan de Sulu in southwestern Philippines. They call their island Tana (land) Mapun and their language, Pullum Mapun. The Jama Mapun are closely related to the Samal, and they are often referred as to the Samal Cagayan by the Tausog of Sulu or as the Samal Cagayan by the Tausog of Sulu or as the Badjao or Orang Cagayan by the coastal Muslim of Borneo (Casino 1976:8). Related to the Samal are the Yakan, the Badjao, and the Jema Mapun. The Jama Mapun can also be found in the islands of Bugsuk, and the small island in between. Cagayan de Sulu municipality today consists of a main island and eight islets-Kinapusan, Pambelikan, Bisu Bintut, Bohan, Manda, Bulisuan, Muligi, and Mambahenan. In 1970, the

Jama Mapun were estimated to be around 25000 (Casino 1976:12) Some fatures of the main island of Cagayan de Sulu which stand out are the two freshwater lakesErnestine and Singuwagand a crater bay Jurata Baywhich lie at the southern end of the Banga range. The two lakes are found to be 10 m above sea level. Near the center of the island lies the hill Tabulian which is 300 m above sea level.
The origin of the ambahan If you ask a Hanunuo-Mangyan, "Where did you get this ambahan?," he will most likely answer, "I copied it from somebody else." That is quite probable, for the ambahan has been popularized by being copied on any piece of bamboo, such as the container for tobacco or apog (lime), the scabbard or sheath of a bolo, a violin or guitar, and even on the bamboo beams of a house. When a Mangyan discovers a

nice ambahan, he uses his knife to engrave it on bamboo, in the age-old Indic-derived script. Thus, he has "copied" it. In answer to the same question, another Mangyan may reply, "We obtained this from our forefathers." Most of the ambahans they possess now have been handed down from parents to children through continuos copying. Yet there is no doubt that new ambahans are still being written today by the poets or composers, although it is hard to find out who these poets are. A Mangyan would never admit that he is composing ambahans. To determine the approximate time in which an ambahan was written, two criteria may be suggested: the subject and the kind of words used. The first criterion cannot be applied without reservation, for the subject of the ambahan is sometimes very general and true of any period. But if we find reference in the ambahan to Moro attacks or to Mangyans still living along the sea-shore, we are on surer ground, for the attacks of

the Moros are known to have occurred at a certain time, and the Mangyans lived along the shores before the non-Mangyans settled on the island. On the other hand, when an ambahan poet writes of going to America, the poem is certain to have been written in modern times. The second criterion, the kind of words used, is more reliable and, if used by experts, would be a more certain indication of the age of the ambahan. By using this criterion, ambahans may be categorized into three classes. The first type is the ambahan that only uses the poetic language with a minimum of contemporary words. Sometimes common Hanunuo-Mangyan words are used, but this type of ambahan restricts itself mainly to the use of literary words, i.e. words not used in daily conversation. According to the Mangyans themselves, this is the oldest kind of ambahan. The next type of ambahan is that in which words borrowed from neighboring tribes, especially the Buhid tribe, are used. Frequent contact with this tribe has made

the Hanunuo-Mangyans accept these borrowed words and expressions which found their way into their ambahans. Lastly, there is the ambahan of later times, in which loan-words from Spanish, Tagalog or Bisaya are evident. The painstaking study by linguists of the words used in the ambahan may supply the final answer to the question of the time in which an ambahan was written.

Tagbanwa mythology The Tagbanwa mythology is part of the religious beliefs and superstitions that has shaped the Tagbanwa way of life. It shares certain similarities with that of other ethnic groups in the Philippines, such as in the belief in heaven, hell and the human soul. The Tagbanwa deities[edit] Major gods[edit]

Mangindusa or Nagabacaban the highest-ranking deity who lives

in Awan-awan, the region beyond the Langit; the god of the heavens; the punisher of crime; Polo - the benevolent god of the sea; whose help is invoked during the time of illness Sedumunadoc - the god of the earth, whose favor is sought in order to have a good harvest Tabiacoud the god of the underworld in the deep bowels of the earth

The Diwatas[edit] The diwatas control the rain, and they are believed to be the creator of the world and of the human beings. They live where the tree trunks that hold up the Langit ("an infinitely high canopy"), which is the visible celestial region.

Diwata Kat Sidpan - a deity who lives in Sidpan (West)

Diwata Kat Libatan - a deity who lives in Babatan (East) Bugawasin - the wife of Mangindusa Tungkuyanin - sits on the edge of Langit, with his feet dangling in the vastness of the cosmos and his eyes always cast down toward the earth Tumangkuyun - washes the trunks of the trees that hold up the Langit with blood of Tagbanwa who died in epidemics Bulalakaw or Diwata Kat Dibuwat - flying deities who roam the region of the clouds, ready to come to the aid of any Tagbanwa needing their help Taliyakad - the watcher who guards the vine bridge called Balugu

Celestial beings[edit]

Other deities[edit]

Anggugru - the "keeper of the fire," who welcomes the soul to the underworld and gives it fire

The Tagbanwa spirit world[edit]

Awan-Awan - the zenith, or the area beyond Langit; the place where Mangindusa reigns from Langit - the visible celestial region where Tungkuyanin sits from Sidpan - the West; the placewhere Diwata Kat Sidpan lives at Babatan - the East; the place where Diwata Kat Libatan lives at Dibuwat - the skyworld of the Bulalakaw or Diwata Kat Dibuwat (flying deities); the "high" region; the place where souls who died of poisoning and violence roam around Kiyabusan - the place where souls who died of epidemics or sickness go to

Basad - the underworld; the place where souls who died of natural death travels to Material world - refers to the environment; where souls who died of evil spirits or environmental causes inhabit

The Tagbanwa soul[edit] A Tagbanwa is believed to have six souls in all. A "true soul" called kiyarulwa, and five secondary souls called the payu. The kiyarulwa is a gift of Mangindusa to a child emerging from the mother's womb, while the other souls appear only during the lambay ritual for the child upon reaching one month or two. Lambay is any ceremony, which is directly addressed to Mangindusa. These other souls are found at the extremities of the hands and feet, and on top of the head. When a person dies the kiyarulwa wanders to four possible destinations. If the cause of

death is epidemic or sickness, then the soul will go to the Kiyabusan, they become known as the salakap. If a person from poisoning or violence the souls goes to inhabit the Dibuwat. Those who died because their souls were caught by the environmental or evil spirits - their soul will transform into biyaladbad and will inhabit the environment. If a person dies of natural death, the souls travels to Basad, the underworld, and becomes the tiladmanin. When a Tagbanwa dies, his or her soul remains on earth for seven days, until the kapupusan or rites for the dead are finished. For seven days, the soul lingers on in the grave at daytime, but returns to its former house at night to observe the behavior of those left behind.

Basad In the its journey to the underworld, the soul encounters several places. These include:

Kalabagang - the sacred river where souls meets Taliyakad Balugu - the vine bridge

In Basad, the spirits of the dead live a life that mirrors exactly that of the living. But everything is the reverse of what happens in the world of living. As the sun rises on earth, it goes down in Basad or planting time on earth is harvest time in Basad. The Tagbanwa rituals Lambay The lambay is held two times a year. It is observed first in January, and involves ritual appears to the deities for days of sunshine and winds that sufficiently dry the forests and prepare them for clearing and planting. A second one is held in May, when the

people ask for moderate rains that will make their upland rice grows. There are two rituals, which seeks protection for all Tagbanwa wherever they may be, from the feared salakap, the spirits of epidemic, sickness and death. These two rituals are thepagbuyis and the runsay. Pagbuyis The pagbuyis is performed three times a year. The first is in November, and second in December. The third is when the moon can be seen during the daytime, calledmagkaaldawan. Runsay The runsay is described as the most dramatic of all Tagbanwa rituals. It is observed only once a year, at nighttime, on the fourth day after the full moon of December. It takes place on the beach near the mouth of the Aborlan River. The runsay, like the pagbuyis, is held to ask for

protection against epidemic. The ritual begins at dusk and ends at dawn. Phases of Runsay There are five distinct phases in the runsay. These include:

1st phase - the building of the bangkaran or banglay, a 3.6m ceremonial raft 2nd phase - the panawag, invocation to the spirits of the dead and the nine deities who rode the kawa on the sea; the burning of incense on the kadiyang atop the bangkaran; prayers by the rituals leader; lighting of the candle and offering of ritual foods to the deities 3rd phase - the second call to the deities to partake of the food, which the signal for the children to dive into the mound of food on the raft, and eat as much as they can; and the cleaning up and repair of the raft.

4th phase - the third invocation to the nine deities, followed by the individual family offerings represented by a woman; the tying of the chicken to the platform and the lighting of candles beside it; the hoisting of the raft towards the sea; the re-lighting of candles blown out by the wind; the throwing of a pinch of rice to the sea; and the voyage seaward of the bankaran. 5th phase - includes group singing and dancing after the raft has disappeared

Pagdiwata At the center of the diwata rituals is the babaylan, who has the responsibility of selecting the areas for a new clearing, placating the spirits of the surroundings, providing magical charms for hunters and fishers, and curing all kinds of ailments. While any adult can invoke the spirits of the dead in other Tagbanwa rituals, only

the babaylan can summon them in the pagdiwata. Bilang The bilang ceremony is the allimportant ritual for the dead. It takes place after the rice harvest, a time when tabad becomes plentiful. Every family is expected to host one or morebilang rituals. The bilang rituals begin with the rite of divination, to determine which among the spirit relatives has caused a person's illness. This makes use of the babaylan, who performs the brief rite of panawag near the grave of the dead relative by making offerings of the betel quids and ceremonial cigarettes, and promises tabad should the ill become well. The celebrants together with the offerings prepare a jar of tabad with sipping reeds. The bilang ceremony involves the paurut (invocation) of as many spirit relatives as possible through

incantation, and the burning of the parina (incense) whose pleasant smells attract the deities and spirits of the dead. The gongs are played as the paurut is being performed, and their music is an added incentive for the spirit to descend on the gathering. After the ritual offering of the articles have been laid out on the mat, the food is distributed to the children first, and then to the guests; then the bilang mat is removed. The communal drinking of tabad through the reed straws follows, a very festive social event that lasts through the night.
Romblomanon is a Visayan language spoken, along with the Asi and Onhan languages, in the province of Romblon in the Philippines. The language is also called Ini, Tiyad Ini, Basi, Niromblon, Sibuyanon, and Bisaya. Specifically, it is spoken in the following islands on Romblon:

Romblon: the sole municipality of Romblon Sibuyan: all its municipalities, Cajidiocan, Magdiwang, and San Fernando. Tablas: the municipality of San Agustin. Oriental Mindoro: migrant Romblomanon speakers from Carmen in Tablas brought the language particularly to the municipality of Bansud and also migrant Romblomanon speakers from Tablas, Romblon and Sibuyan islands to the following municipalities ofMansalay, Bulalacao and parts of Bongabong and Roxas respectively.

Rombloanon proverbs may either be proselike statements, while some are monorhyming couplets with 5 to 12 syllable lines. Others are longer, coming in three- to four-line stanza form. Examples of these proverbs are (Demetrio 1991: 59-122):

Ka tawong marahan magpanaw matunok man ay mababaw.

A person who walks slowly will have a shallow wound should he/she step on a thorn.

Rali, rali marahil mahali.

Haste makes waste.

Ka nagpipili ay nakakapili it pasi.

A selective person selects the worst.

Con diin ka matumba didto ka mabangon.

You stand up where you fall.

Ang tawong may calisdanan, buot guid buligan.

A person in need heeds help.

Ang kawayan nga tubo, sa langit nagtudlo; kung gumolang kang tumambo, sa duta nakaduko.
A bamboo while young

always points to heaven, but the moment it gets old it bows to the lowly earth.

Rituals An example is a ritual called mahikaw. Usually held during January, June, or December, this ritual is performed by the head of the family to invoke the spirits protection of the family from sickness and other misfortunes. Before the ritual proper, the head of the family prepares: seven bundles of suman (rice cake), each bundle consisting of seven pieces of rice cakes; seven sticks of tobacco; a young banana leaf; a glass of tuba (coconut wine); a glass of water; charcoal, and incense; two lighted candles; and a piece of clothing used by the head of the family. An important element in this ritual is the chicken which is delicately prepared by cutting off the head and making

sure that the organs are intact. The chickens head is set aside while the rest of the chicken is boiled for the offering (Obrique 1983:17-19).At eight oclock in the evening, these paraphernalia are meticulously arranged before the bedroom altar. A buri mat is set on the floor, at the center of which the banana leaf is placed. The chickens head is fastened again to its body to make it appear whole again, after which it is placed on top of the folded piece of clothing. Four tobacco sticks, four bundles of suman, and three pieces of rice cakes are set on the right side of the chicken while on the left side are three tobacco sticks, three bundles of suman, and three pieces of rice cakes. The remaining piece of rice cake is placed on top of the chicken. The glass of tube and water are set on each side of the mat. Candles are then lighted before the religious image.

As the ritual begins, family members are gathered around the mat. The head of the family chants a prayer as he spreads the incense smoke from the coconut shell to the entire room. The chant is repeated seven times after which he sprinkles water, then the tuba, seven times each over the offering and throws this under the house. He sprinkles water over this seven times and ends his prayers. What remains of the offering is divided in two. The first half is distributed among all those present in the room, who must consume everything before they leave the area. The other half is shared with the other relatives in the house. After eating, the head of the family buries the chickens head which serves as protection against sicknesses and misfortune.

This practice is handed down by the head of the family to the eldest child. If the child, however, wishes to end this ritual, the head of the family must bury all the offerings to signify the end of the tradition. If the ritual is to be continued, the banana leaf is stored. An interesting element of this ritual is the gender of the chicken which determines the storing place of the banana leaf. If the chicken is male, the leaf is placed in the ceiling of the porch, but if female, the leaf is placed in the ceiling of the bedroom. The Rombloanon who practice this ritual are consistent in choosing the gender of the chicken. POEM OF CALABARZON

To The Philippine Youth (Source: Rizaliana Site)

Unfold, oh timid flower ! Lift up your radiant brow, This day, Youth of my native strand ! Your abounding talents show Resplendently and grand, Fair hope of my Motherland ! Soar high, oh genius great, And with noble thoughts fill their mind; The honor's glorious seat, May their virgin mind fly and find More rapidly than the wind. Descend with the pleasing light Of the arts and sciences to the plain, Oh Youth, and break forthright The links of the heavy chain That your poetic genius enchain. See that in the ardent zone, The Spaniard, where shadows stand, Doth offer a shining crown, With wise and merciful hand To the son of this Indian land. You, who heavenward rise On wings of your rich fantasy,

Seek in the Olympian skies The tenderest poesy, More sweet than divine honey; You of heavenly harmony, On a calm unperturbed night, Philomel's match in melody, That in varied symphony Dissipate man's sorrow's blight; You at th' impulse of your mind The hard rock animate And your mind with great pow'r consigned Transformed into immortal state The pure mem'ry of genius great; And you, who with magic brush On canvas plain capture The varied charm of Phoebus, Loved by the divine Apelles, And the mantle of Nature; Run ! For genius' sacred flame Awaits the artist's crowning Spreading far and wide the fame Throughout the sphere proclaiming With trumpet the mortal's name

Oh, joyful, joyful day, The Almighty blessed be Who, with loving eagerness Sends you luck and happiness

REGION IV-A CALABARZON Cavite Laguna Batangas Rizal Quezon

REGION IV-B MIMAROPA Mindoro Marinduque Romblon Palawan

CALABARZON Novels During his stay in first stay in Europe, Rizal wrote his novel, Noli Me Tangere.The book was written in Spanish and first published in Berlin, Germany in 1887. The Noli, as it is more commonly known, tells the story of a young Filipino man who travels to Europe to study and returns home with new eyes to the injustices and corruption in his native land. Rizal used elaborate characters to symbolize the different personalities and characteristics of both the oppressors and the oppressed, paying notable attention to Filipinos who had adopted the customs of their colonizers, forgetting their own nationality; the Spanish friars who were portrayed as lustful and greedy men in robes who sought only to satisfy their own needs, and the poor and ignorant members of society who knew no other life but that of one of abject poverty and cruelty under the yoke of the church and state. Rizals first novel was a scalding criticism of the Spanish colonial system in the country and Philippine society in general, was met with harsh reactions from the elite, the church and the government.

Upon his return to the country, he was summoned by the Governor General of the Philippine Islands to explain himself in light of accusations that he was a subversive and an inciter of rebellion. Rizal faced the charges and defended himself admirably, and although he was exonerated, his name would remain on the watch list of the colonial government. Similarly, his work also produced a great uproar in the Catholic Church in the country, so much so that later, he was excommunicated. Despite the reaction to his first novel, Rizal wrote a second novel, El Filibusterismo, and published it in 1891. Where the protagonist of Noli, Ibarra, was a pacifist and advocate of peaceful means of reforms to enact the necessary change in the system, the lead character in Fili, Simeon, was more militant and preferred to incite an armed uprising to achieve the same end. Hence the government could not help but notice that instead of being merely a commentary on Philippine society, the second novel could become the catalyst which would encourage Filipinos to revolt against the Spanish colonizers and overthrow the colonial government. Rizals Legacy What made Jose Rizal worthy of becoming the Philippines national hero was not merely his

intelligence, personality, literary acumen, or his pacifist ideals. Rather, it was his patriotism, optimism, undying love for his country and his belief in his countrymen which set him apart. He believed not merely in freedom but in the potential of the Filipino people to surpass what they were under the Spanish colonial government, and all he wished was for them to be given the chance to tap that potential. And for that, he has earned his right place as a symbol of what a Filipino can do in one short lifetime. - See more at:

He wrote the novel Noli Me Tangere, and its continuation, El Filibusterismo. He also help to publish a news paper by La Liga Filipina (of which is Rizal the founder of the so called group). His novels help the Filipinos to gain their confidence and love to their country, and he also encourage them to write novels and study to learn how to write and read. One of the people who was inspire was Andres Bonifacio (A good friend of him, and a revolutionary hero also). He was poor, so he didn't go to school. But he know to read a little, until he read Rizal's novels. He was inspire and wanted to read better and study.

Calamba, Laguna -- On the 19th of July, 1861, before midnight struck, Jose Protacio Mercado Rizal Alonzo Realonda, better known as Jose Rizal, was born. Even as a child, Rizal was a lover of literary arts. When he was but 7 years old, he wrote a play that was staged during the town fiesta. His mother, Teodora Alonzo, noticed his interest in literature. Encouraged by her support, Rizal wrote his renowned poem entitled "Sa Aking Mga Kabata" at 8. He studied at the Ateneo de Manila University (then known as Ateneo Municipal de Manila) and at the University of Santo Tomas. During this time, he wrote poems, plays, and other literary pieces; he joined contests and emerged as the winner several times. Going into novels was inevitable. Inspired by Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, which blatantly exposed in its pages the white Americans' abusive treatment of their black slaves, Dr. Jose P. Rizal decided to write a novel that, similarly, tells of the vicious and ghastly treatment his people had to put up with in the hands of the Spanish authorities. At first, it was agreed that the persons who knew about the project would contribute writings of their own which would then make up the novel. This idea was never put to reality, however, because all they wanted to write about were women. Rizal subsequently opted to complete the novel on his own. And so before the conclusion of 1884, Rizal set to work writing his

novel in Madrid, Spain. He finished half of the novel's first part before he went to Paris. There he continued writing, until he finished half of the second part. He then proceeded to Germany and finally completed the novel. Unfortunately, for years, there was not enough money to have his work published. It was on March 29, 1887 when finally, the first 2,000 copies of his novel were published. Then commenced the awakening of the Philippine society. On October 1887, when he went back home to Calamba after his trip to Europe, Rizal started writing his second novel, entitled El Filibusterismo. The ideas he had for his novel underwent drastic changes when he went to London. He heard about the oppression of his family by the Spanish friars; the problems of the Calamba farmers that he fought to solve were never gotten over with. Rizal then considered the idea of revolution. Only then did he consider the idea. His frustration and anger are evident in his Fili character, Simoun who secretly plotted a revolution against the Spanish government. Rizal's second novel took a long time to get published, as did his first novel, Noli Me Tangere.