0The effects on physical and emotional health of people who have lost their employment at the municipality of Cayey. | Mental Health | Unemployment

AUTHORS

:
PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR DR. XIOMARA B. SANTIAGO RODRÍGUEZ

CO-INVESTIGATORS:
PAOLA MICHELLE CRIADO OLIVIERI MICHELLE PAOLA CRIADO OLIVIERI MYLIAN SANTIAGO-CRUZ

Topic
0 The effects on physical and emotional health of people

who have lost their employment at the municipality of Cayey.

Problem Definition
0 On August 2012 the unemployment rate in Puerto Rico was

13.5%. 0 This represent a decrease of 0.2 percentage points compared with July 2012. 0 The estimated labor force for August 2012 was 1.268 million people and the estimated employment of the island was 1.096 million, creating a difference of 171 thousand persons unemployed. 0 At Cayey the unemployment rate is 14.4% (March 2013).

Problem Statement
0 Which are the effects on physical and mental health of those

who have lost their employment at the municipality of Cayey?

Purposes of Research
0 Identify the socio-demographic characteristics of the unemployed. 0 Identify the causes whereby they lost their employment. 0 The effects on the physical health of an individual as a result of

unemployment, such as: heart attack, cardiac arrhythmia, hypertension, anemia and stomach ulcer.

0 The effects on the mental health of an individual as a result of

unemployment, such as: any disorder related to anxiety, insomnia, depression, stress, use of legal and illegal substances and suicidal tendencies.

Investigation Questions:
0 What is the most affected gender due to

unemployment?

0 Is hypertension the most common physical

consequence as a result of losing the employment?

0 Does depression is the main result in unemployment

individuals?

Research Hypothesis:
0 H0: Unemployment affects more men than women.

0 H1: Unemployment does not affect more men than

women. 0 H0: The most common physical consequence as a result of losing employment is hypertension. 0 H2: The most common physical consequence as a result of losing employment is not hypertension. 0 H0: Depression is the main mental result of unemployment. 0 H3: Depression is not the main mental result of unemployment

Variables
0 During this research there are some variables that are

going to be evaluated, among which are: Sociodemographic variables
0 Gender

0 Age
0 Type of company where worked 0 Years of service in the company 0 Schooling 0 Income

Independent Variable
0 Unemployed

Dependent Variable
0 Hypertension

0 Depression
0 Use of legal and illegal substances 0 Drinking alcoholic beverages

Population description and selection of sample
0 The population of study consisted of Cayey population. 0 The sample was selected using the telephone directory.

0 All members of the population where identified with a

code number with the purpose to select the sample at random. 0 Minitab statistical package was used to random numbers. 0 Two hundred and two was the require d sample size. 0 The sample size was estimate using the proportion formula (Black, 2012):

Selection of the sample (Continuation)
0 where,

0 p = population proportion
0q=1-p 0 E = error of estimation 0 n = sample size

Selection of the sample (Continuation)

Selection of the sample (Continuation)

Response Rate
0 The selection of the sample was 202. But only

response 112. And our response rate was…

112 = 55.45% 202

Corroboration of Hypothesis Testing
and

Corroboration of Hypothesis Testing 𝑧
= 𝑝 − 𝑝 𝑝𝑞 𝑛

Where…

p = sample proportion n= sample size p= population proportion q= 1 - p

Instrument Design
0 A questionnaire was design to collect data. 0 The instrument was administered by phone calls.

Tabulation
The data will be tabulated using the statistical program Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), MINITAB and Excel.

Statistical Analysis of Data
0 The analysis of data results was performed using

graphs and frequency tables.

Results and Analysis of Data
Edad
80 o más 0% 71-80 6% 61-70 16% 21-30 30%

51-60 20%

31-40 10% 41-50 18%

Results and Analysis of Data
Género

Masculino 41%
Femenino 59%

Results and Analysis of Data
Estado civil
Separado 3% Divorciado 10% Viudo 3%

Soltero 35%

Casado 49%

Results and Analysis of Data
¿Tienes hijos?

No 32%

Sí 68%

Results and Analysis of Data
Escolaridad
2% 3% 8% 8%
Escuela Elemental Escuela Intermedia

16%

Escuela Superior Universidad Carrera Corta Grado Asociado

41%
3%

8%

Bachillerato Maestría Doctorado

11%

Results and Analysis of Data
¿Está actualmente desempleado?

Sí 37% No 63%

Results and Analysis of Data
¿Si contestó que si en la pregunta 1? ¿Cuál era el tipo de empresa para la que trabajaba?
3%

5%
0% 8%
Manufactura Servicio

14%

46%

Gobierno Militar Ventas/Distribución Negocio Propio Construcción

24%

Results and Analysis of Data
¿Actualmente, recibe seguro por desempleo?
Sí 7%

No 93%

Results and Analysis of Data
¿Es suficiente la cantidad de seguro por desempleo para cubrir sus gastos?
Sí 0%

No 100%

Results and Analysis of Data
¿Cuánto tiempo hace que está desempleado?

3 años o más 28%

11 meses o menos 31%

2 años 26%

1 año 15%

Results and Analysis of Data
¿Cuál es la razón por la cual está desempleado?
34.3%

22.9%

17.1%
11.4% 2.9% 0.0% 0.0% 11.4%

Results and Analysis of Data
¿Desarrolló alguna enfermedad luego de quedarse sin empleo?

No 50%

Sí 50%

Results and Analysis of Data
Si contestó sí a la pregunta 7 ¿Qué tipo de enfermedad desarrolló?

Enfermedad física 14%

Ambas 53%

Enfermedad mental 33%

Results and Analysis of Data
¿Cuánto tiempo pasó en quedar desempleado y el desarrollo de la enfermedad?
42.9%

19.0% 9.5% 4.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 4.8% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0%

19.0%

1 mes

2 meses 3 meses 4 meses 5 meses 6 meses 7 meses 8 meses 9 meses 10 meses 11 meses 1 año o más

Results and Analysis of Data
¿Si desarrolló una enfermedad física? ¿Cuál de las siguientes es la que aplica?
62.50%

31.25%

6.25% 0% Ataque al corazón Arritmia cardiaca Hipertensión 0% Anemia 0% Ulceras estomacales Otros

Results and Analysis of Data
¿Si desarrolló una enfermedad mental? ¿Cuál de las siguientes es la que aplica?
26.10% 23.90% 21.70% 17.40%

6.50% 2.20% 0% Ansiedad Insomnio Depresión Stress Abuso de alcohol Abuso de sustancias legales (entiéndase productos 0% recetados y con receta). 0% Abuso de Pensamientos sustancias suicidas ilegales (drogas de venta ilegal)

Results and Analysis of Data
¿Actualmente está buscando trabajo?

Sí 36%

No 64%

Results and Analysis of Data Comparative
Comparativo¿Ha desarrollado alguna enfermedad durante su trabajo?

Sí 26%

No 74%

Results and Analysis of Data Comparative
Comparativo ¿Qué tipo de enfermedad desarrolló?

Ambas 22%

Enfermedad física 33%

Enfermedad Mental 45%

Results and Analysis of Data Comparative
Comparativo¿Si desarrolló una enfermedad mental? ¿Cuál de las siguientes es la que aplica?
30.77% 30.77%

7.69%

7.69%

7.69%

0.00% Ansiedad Insomnio Depresión Stress Abuso de alcohol Abuso de sustancias legales (entiéndase productos

0.00% recetados y con receta).

0.00%

0.00%

Abuso de Pensamientos sustancias suicidas ilegales (drogas de venta ilegal)

Results and Analysis of Data Comparative
Comparativo¿Si desarrolló una enfermedad física? ¿Cuál de las siguientes es la que aplica?
100.0%

0.0% Ataque al corazón

0.0% Arritmia Cardiaca Hipertensión

0.0% Anemia

0.0% Úlceras estomacales

Hypothesis Analysis
The first hypothesis raises: H0: Unemployment affects more men than women. H1: Unemployment does not affect more men than women.

Using a z population proportion formula is represented the difference between gender and unemployment.
To determinate if the hypothesis is sufficient evidence to reject, was used an alpha of 0.05. The value of z is 3.43. That means that the null hypothesis is rejected.

Hypothesis Analysis Cont.
The second hypothesis raises: H0: The most common physical consequence as a result of losing employment is hypertension. H2: The most common physical consequence as a result of losing employment is not hypertension. Using a z population proportion formula is represented the difference between hypertension and unemployment. According to the results of the equation, Z = -6.17. In the statistical table of Z this value is equal to -.9998. The boundary of the confidence intervals is +/- 1.96, therefore -6.17 < -1.96. This means that the results are in the rejection region. In other words, there is sufficient evidence to reject H0, proving the H2 that establish that the hypertension is not the main physical result of unemployment.

Hypothesis Analysis Cont.
The third hypothesis raises: H0: Depression is the main mental result of unemployment. H3: Depression is not the main mental result of unemployment Using a z population proportion formula is represented the difference between depression and unemployment. According to the results of the equation, Z = -6.24. In the statistical table of Z this value is equal to .9998. The boundary of the confidence intervals is +/- 1.96, therefore -6.24 < -1.96. This means that the results are in the rejection region. In other words, there is sufficient evidence to reject H0, proving the H3 that establish that the depression is not the main mental result of unemployment.

Conclusions…

References
A., P. (2003). Unemployment and suicide. Journal Epidemiol Community Health, 557-558 Absjornsen, T., Mohiesen, Sig; Stokka, Burt y Eide, Ralf. (1985). Unemployment and Health the Effects of Psychosocial Stressors on Psychic and Somatic Health Among Unemployed Young People. Tidsskiff for Norsk Psykolog Forening, 22, (1), pp. 3-13 Abrams, D. & Sheeran, P. (1995). Unemployment, self-esteem and depression: A social comparison theory approach. Basic and applied social psychology. Vol. 17. (pp. 65-82). Athanasou, J.& Murphy, G. (1999). The effect of unemployment on mental health Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology.Vol. 72. Anderson, D., Sweeny, D. & Williams, T. (2008).Estadística para la administración y economía. México.: Cengage Learning.

References (cont.)
Baker, Dean; Hassett, Kevin. New York Times. 13 May 2012 Black, K.(2008). Business Statistics. (5th.ed). New Jersey, EE.UU.: Wiley Bungum, T., Moonie, S. & Pharr, J. (2012). T. The impact of unemployment on mental and physical health, access to health care and health risk behaviors. International Scholarly Research Network.ISRN Public Health. Article ID: 483432. Brink, S. (2008, Sep 09). Bad economic times actually can be good for health. Chicago Tribune. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/420777020?accountid= 44829

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