INTRODUCTION

Blu-ray (not Blue-ray) also known as Blu-ray Disc (BD), is the name of a new optical disc format jointly developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA), a group of the world's leading consumer electronics, personal computer and media manufacturers (including Apple, Dell, Hitachi, HP, JVC, LG, Mitsubishi, Panasonic, Pioneer, Philips, Samsung, Sharp, Sony, TDK and Thomson). The format was developed to enable recording, rewriting and playback of high-definition video (HD), as well as storing large amounts of data. The format offers more than five times the storage capacity of traditional DVDs and can hold up to 25GB on a single-layer disc and 50GB on a dual-layer disc. This extra capacity combined with the use of advanced video and audio codecs will offer consumers an unprecedented HD experience. While current optical disc technologies such as DVD, DVD±R, DVD±RW, and DVDRAM rely on a red laser to read and write data, the new format uses a blue-violet laser instead, hence the name Blu-ray. Despite the different type of lasers used, Blu-ray products can easily be made backwards compatible with CDs and DVDs through the use of a BD/DVD/CD compatible optical pickup unit. The benefit of using a blue-violet laser (405nm) is that it has a shorter wavelength than a red laser (650nm), which makes it possible to focus the laser spot with even greater precision. This allows data to be packed more tightly and stored in less space, so it's possible to fit more data on the disc even though it's the same size as a CD/DVD. This together with the change of numerical aperture to 0.85 is what enables Blu-ray Discs to hold 25GB/50GB.

A thin layer of aluminium or. the data can be read from the disc. polycarbonate plastic. but later expanded to encompass storage of data (CD-ROM). Sony. usually by screen printing or offset printing. CD-Recordable were introduced. and recordable CDs are an alternative to tape for recording music and copying music albums without defects introduced in compression used in other digital recording methods The Compact Disc (also known as a CD) is an optical disc used to store digital data. in 1990. rather than primarily as a data storage medium. CDs have grown to encompass other applications. A CD is read by focusing a 780 nm wavelength (near infrared) semiconductor laser through the bottom of the polycarbonate layer. more rarely. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than Compact Discs while having the same dimensions. invented and developed by Philips. the computer readable CD-ROM (readonly memory) and. gold is applied to the surface making it reflective. From its origins as a musical format. The label is printed on the lacquer layer. The CD's compact format has largely replaced the audio cassette player in new automobile applications. By measuring the intensity change with a photodiode. also developed by both Sony and Philips. A CD is made from 1. The metal is protected by a film of lacquer normally spin coated directly on the reflective layer. The change in height between pits and lands results in a difference in the way the light is reflected. rewritable media (CD-RW).HISTORY Compact Disc The CD was planned to be the successor of the gramophone record for playing music. . DVD (DIGITAL VIDEO DISCS) DVD is an optical disc storage media format. write-once audio and data storage (CD-R). It was originally developed to store and playback sound recordings exclusively. and Panasonic in 1995.047 in) thick.2 millimeters (0. Toshiba. In June 1985.

Mitsubishi. DVD±RW. CD Video.) VCD was on the market in 1993. a group of the world's leading consumer electronics. While current optical disc technologies such as DVD. two new optical disc storage formats were being developed. In the same year. Security Content Scramble System (CSS) is a Digital Rights Management (DRM) and encryption system employed on almost all commercially produced DVD-video discs. and Mitsubishi Electric. especially collectors.Before the advent of DVD and Blu-ray. hence the name Blu-ray. Dell. HP. the new format uses a blue-violet laser instead. Philips. and DVDRAM rely on a red laser to read and write data. The format offers more than five times the storage capacity of traditional DVDs and can hold up to 25GB on a single-layer disc and 50GB on a dual-layer disc. Despite the different type of lasers used. JVC. Pioneer. DVD was chosen for its superior ability to reproduce moving pictures and sound. DVD was adopted by movie and home entertainment distributors to replace the ubiquitous VHS tape as the primary means of distributing films to consumers in the home entertainment marketplace. Blu-ray products can easily be . Sharp. Video CD (VCD) became the first format for distributing digitally encoded films on standard 120 mm optical discs. Interactivity had proven to be a feature which consumers. LG. Samsung. backed by Philips and Sony. Blu-ray Disc Blu-ray (not Blue-ray) also known as Blu-ray Disc (BD). as well as storing large amounts of data. One was the Multimedia Compact Disc (MMCD). DVD±R. and the other was the Super Density (SD) disc. Sony. supported by Toshiba. (Its predecessor. The format was developed to enable recording. This extra capacity combined with the use of advanced video and audio codecs will offer consumers an unprecedented HD experience. personal computer and media manufacturers (including Apple. rewriting and playback of high-definition video (HD). favored when the movie studios had released their films on Laserdiscs. used analog video encoding. Hitachi. Panasonic. TDK and Thomson). for its superior durability. and for its interactivity. Hitachi. is the name of a new optical disc format jointly developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA).

its color is actually in the violet range. that is.60 to 0.made backwards compatible with CDs and DVDs through the use of a BD/DVD/CD compatible optical pickup unit. enabling a Blu-ray Disc to hold about five times the amount of information that can be stored on a DVD. Note that even though the laser is called "blue". which effectively allows more information to be stored in the same area. The smaller beam focuses more precisely. the laser beam can be focused to a smaller spot. Laser and optics While a DVD uses a 650 nm red laser. and making the cover layer thinner to avoid unwanted optical effects. This allows data to be packed more tightly and stored in less space. without frequency doubling or other nonlinear optical mechanisms. which makes it possible to focus the laser spot with even greater precision. This allows a reduction of the pit size from 400 nm for DVD to 150 nm for Blu-ray Disc. the spot size is 580 nm.85. so it's possible to fit more data on the disc even though it's the same size as a CD/DVD. and can consequently be spaced more closely. The lasers are GaN (gallium nitride) laser diodes that produce 405 nm light directly. and CDs use 780 nm near-infrared lasers. and of the track pitch from 740 nm to 320 nm. Blu-ray Disc uses a 405 nm "blue" laser diode. This together with the change of numerical aperture to 0.85 is what enables Blu-ray Discs to hold 25GB/50GB. The benefit of using a blue-violet laser (405nm) is that it has a shorter wavelength than a red laser (650nm). increasing the numerical aperture from 0. Conventional DVDs use 650 nm red lasers. For Blu-ray Disc. and depends on the wavelength of the light and the numerical aperture of the lens used to focus it. resulting in a shorter track pitch. The minimum "spot size" on which a laser can be focused is limited by diffraction. thus enabling it to read information recorded in pits that are less than half the size of those on a DVD. By decreasing the wavelength. .

The advantage to Blu-ray is the sheer amount of information it can hold: • A single-layer Blu-ray disc. can hold up to 27 GB of data -.that's more than two hours of high-definition video or about 13 hours of standard video. . store and play back highdefinition video and digital audio.Comparison in building BD AND DVD Blu-ray is the next-generation digital video disc. as well as computer data. which is roughly the same size as a DVD. It can record.

the more precise the reading laser must be.this is more than twice as small as the pits on a DVD. Building a Blu-ray Disc Blu-ray discs not only have more storage capacity than traditional DVDs. which use a red laser to read and write data.32 microns. The smaller the pits (and therefore the bumps). enabling it to read information recorded in pits that are only 0. smaller beam and shorter . And there are even plans in the works to develop a disc with twice that amount of storage. A blue laser has a shorter wavelength (405 nanometers) than a red laser (650 nanometers).15 microns (µm) (1 micron = 10 -6 meters) long -. enough to hold about 4. Unlike current DVDs. but they also offer a new level of interactivity.• A double-layer Blu-ray disc can store up to 50 GB. The smaller pits.spiral grooves that run from the center of the disc to its edges. Plus.74 microns to 0. The smaller beam focuses more precisely.to play the movie or program that is stored on the DVD. A laser reads the other side of these pits -. Blu-ray uses a blue laser (which is where the format gets its name). The more data that is contained on a disc. Users will be able to connect to the Internet and instantly download subtitles and other interactive movie features. the smaller and more closely packed the pits must be. With Blu-ray. Blu-ray has reduced the track pitch from 0. you can: • • • • • • • record high-definition television (HDTV) without any quality loss instantly skip to any spot on the disc record one program while watching another on the disc create playlists edit or reorder programs recorded on the disc automatically search for an empty space on the disc to avoid recording over a program access the Web to download subtitles and other extra features Discs store digitally encoded video and audio information in pits -.5 hours of high-definition video or more than 20 hours of standard video.the bumps -.

and is therefore not exactly perpendicular to the beam. 2. Traditional DVDs are built by injection molding the two 0. with the recording layer sitting closer to the objective lens of the reading mechanism. How Blu-ray Reads Data The Blu-ray disc overcomes DVD-reading issues by placing the data on top of a 1. a hard coating is placed on the outside of the disc to protect it from scratches and fingerprints. in which the laser beam is distorted. If the beam is split too widely. Having a polycarbonate layer on top of the data can cause a problem called birefringence.1-mm-thick polycarbonate layer.2 millimeters) as a DVD. But the two types of discs store data differently.6-mm discs between which the recording layer is sandwiched. The process must be done very carefully to prevent birefringence. . the problem of disc tilt is virtually eliminated. the data is sandwiched between two polycarbonate layers. Also. each 0. if the DVD surface is not exactly flat. The two discs are glued together. Having the data on top prevents birefringence and therefore prevents readability problems. the disc cannot be read. in which the substrate layer refracts the laser light into two separate beams.6-mm thick. In a DVD. Each Blu-ray disc is about the same thickness (1. The design of the Blu-ray discs saves on manufacturing costs.track pitch together enable a single-layer Blu-ray disc to hold more than 25 GB of information -about five times the amount of information that can be stored on a DVD. 1. Because the data is closer to the surface. And. 3. The two discs are molded. All of these issues lead to a very involved manufacturing process. The recording layer is added to one of the discs. it can lead to a problem known as disc tilt.

That savings balances out the cost of adding the protective layer. Sony's rewritable media are spin-coated. Hard-coating technology Since the Blu-ray Disc data layer is closer to the surface of the disc compared to the DVD standard. Verbatim's recordable and rewritable Blu-ray Discs use their own proprietary technology.Blu-ray discs only do the injection-molding process on a single 1. Using a cartridge would increase the price of an already expensive medium. DVD media are not required to be scratch-resistant. implemented hard-coating for more expensive lineups of recordable DVDs. such as Verbatim. called Hard Coat. The first discs were housed in cartridges for protection. . but since development of the technology. so the end price is no more than the price of a regular DVD. resembling Professional Discs introduced by Sony in 2003.[65] The Blu-ray Disc specification requires the testing of resistance to scratches by mechanical abrasion. using a scratch-resistant and antistatic coating. which reduces cost.1-mm disc. both Sony and Panasonic's replication methods include proprietary hard-coat technologies. so hard-coating of the pickup surface was chosen instead. it was at first more vulnerable to scratches. It was named Durabis. In addition. some companies. In contrast. TDK was the first company to develop a working scratchprotection coating for Blu-ray Discs.

The principal difference between AACS and CSS.Advanced Access Content System The Advanced Access Content System (AACS) is a standard for content distribution and digital rights management..g. Title keys are decrypted using a combination of a media key (encoded in a Media Key Block) and the Volume . intended to restrict access to and copying of the "next generation" of optical discs and DVDs. It encrypts content under one or more title keys using the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). a physical serial number embedded on a pre-recorded disc). lies in how the device decryption keys are organized. AACS uses cryptography to control and restrict the use of digital media. the DRM system used on DVDs. Title keys are decrypted using a combination of a media key (encoded in a Media Key Block) and the Volume ID of the media (e. It encrypts content under one or more title keys using the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). Encryption AACS uses cryptography to control and restrict the use of digital media.

making the keys/player useless for decrypting new titles. one for each licensed player model.. Content is encrypted under the title-specific key. Under CSS. if a given player's keys are compromised and published. Volume IDs Volume IDs are unique identifiers or serial numbers that are stored on pre-recorded discs with special hardware. the decryption keys associated with the player. all players of a given model are provisioned with the same shared decryption key. A certain player will only be able to decrypt one version of each section. the DRM system used on DVDs. which is itself encrypted under each model's key. as it causes many users to lose playback capability. Thus. The principal difference between AACS and CSS. In principle. AACS also has traitor tracing. The standard allows different versions of short sections of a movie to be encrypted with different keys. They cannot be duplicated on consumers' recordable media. the compromised keys can eventually be identified and revoked (this feature is called Sequence keys in the AACS specifications). revoking all players of a particular model is costly.g. the AACS LA can simply revoke those keys in future content.ID of the media (e. as was demonstrated by a number of compromises in the mid-1990s. this approach allows licensors to "revoke" a given player model (prevent it from playing back future content) by omitting to encrypt future title keys with the player model's key. This approach allows licensors to "revoke" individual players. lies in how the device decryption keys are organized. Thus each disc contains a collection of several hundred encrypted keys. In practice. the inclusion of a shared key across many players makes key compromise significantly more likely. however. Furthermore. The approach of AACS provisions each individual player with a unique set of decryption keys which are used in a broadcast encryption scheme. The point of this is . a physical serial number embedded on a pre-recorded disc). or more specifically. By embedding a digital watermark in the different versions and analyzing what sections of the movie the attacker publishes.

to prevent simple bit-by-bit copies. since the Volume ID is required (though not sufficient) for decoding content. . To read the Volume ID. the Volume ID is stored in the BD-ROM Mark. a cryptographic certificate (the Private Host Key) signed by the AACS LA is required. hackers claim to have circumvented that particular protection by modifying the firmware of an HD DVD reader. On Blu-ray discs. However.