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Chapter 8.

Defining Device Classes
A device class represents a device type that can be used by Tivoli Storage Manager. The server uses device class definitions to determine which types of devices and volumes to use to:     Store backup, archive, or space-managed data in primary storage pools Store copies of primary storage pool data in copy storage pools Store database backups Export or import TSM data

One device class can be associated with multiple storage pools, but each storage pool is associated with only one device class. For random access storage, TSM supports only the DISK device class, which is defined by TSM. However, you can define many storage pools associated with the DISK device class. See the following sections: Tasks: "Defining and Updating Device Classes for Tape Devices" "Defining and Updating Device Classes for Generic Tape Devices" "Defining and Updating Device Classes for Optical Devices" "Defining and Updating Device Classes for Removable File System Devices" "Defining and Updating FILE Device Classes" "Defining and Updating SERVER Device Classes" "Requesting Information about a Device Class" "How TSM Fills Volumes" "Deleting a Device Class" In this chapter, most examples illustrate how to perform tasks by using a Tivoli Storage Manager command-line interface. For information about the commands, see Administrator's Reference, or issue the HELP command from the command line of a Tivoli Storage Manager administrative client. Tivoli Storage Manager tasks can also be performed from the administrative Web interface. For more information about using the administrative interface, see Quick Start.

Defining and Updating Device Classes for Sequential Media
Task Required Privilege Class

Define or update device classes System or unrestricted storage

For sequential access storage, TSM supports the following device types: Device Type Media Type Device Examples

you may need to specify different attributes for different storage pools that use the same type of tape drive. . DLT4000. 3584 Tape drives supported by the NAS file server for backups 5. For example. 3490. Variations may be required that are not specific to the device. and 3490E drives DLT2000. DLT7000 and DLT8000 drives Sony GY-2120. but rather to how you want to use the device (for example.25-inch write-once readmany (WORM) optical cartridges 12-inch write-once readymany optical cartridges 14-inch write-once readymany optical cartridges IBM 7207 Removable media devices that are attached as local. For all device types other than FILE or SERVER.3570 3590 4MM 8MM CARTRIDGE DLT DTF ECARTRIDGE FILE GENERICTAPE LTO NAS OPTICAL QIC REMOVABLEFILE SERVER IBM 3570 cartridges IBM 3590 cartridges 4mm cartridges 8mm cartridges Tape cartridges Digital linear tape (DLT) cartridges Digital tape format (DTF) cartridges Tape cartridges File system or storage volumes Tape cartridges LTO Ultrium cartridges Unknown IBM 3570 drives IBM 3590.25-inch optical drives cartridges Quarter-inch tape cartridges Iomega Zip or Jaz drives. or CDROM media Storage volumes or files archived in another TSM server 5. 3581. Sony DMS-8400 drives StorageTek SD-3 and 9490 drives Server Tape drives supported by operating system device drivers IBM 3580. mount retention or mount limit). you must define libraries and drives to TSM before you define the device classes. 3583. 3590E drives IBM 7206-005 IBM 7208-001 and 7208-011 IBM 3480.25-inch optical drives WORM12 WORM14 12-inch optical drives 14-inch optical drives You can define multiple device classes for each device type. removable file systems TSM target server WORM 5.25-inch rewritable optical 5.

Mount Limit The MOUNTLIMIT parameter specifies the maximum number of volumes that can be simultaneously mounted for a device class. Defining and Updating Device Classes for Tape Devices To use tape devices. The default mount limit value is DRIVES. the number of drives online and defined to the library is used to calculate the true mount limit value. The maximum value for this parameter is 256 and the minimum value is 0. the files specified are automatically updated whenever a device class. updated. The following sections explain the device classes for each supported device type. A zero value prevents new transactions from gaining access to the storage pool. Other parameters specify how to manage data storage operations involving the new device class:        MOUNTLIMIT MOUNTWAIT MOUNTRETENTION PREFIX FORMAT ESTCAPACITY LIBRARY You can update the device class by issuing the UPDATE DEVCLASS command. When you use this option. library. You can limit the number of drives that the device class has access to at one time with the MOUNTLIMIT parameter. or deleted. (This does not apply when the DRIVES parameter is specified. The DRIVES parameter indicates that every time a mount point is allocated.opt file. When selecting a mount limit for a device class. Note: For upgrades from TSM Enhanced Version 2 to Version 3 or later. you must define a device class by issuing a DEFINE DEVCLASS command with the DEVTYPE parameter.If you include the DEVCONFIG option in the dsmserv.  Are you using the simultaneous write function to primary and copy storage pools? . an error occurs and client sessions may be terminated.) Note: TSM cannot share drives between multiple device classes. be sure to consider the following questions:  How many storage devices are connected to your system? Do not specify a mount limit value that is greater than the number of associated available drives in your installation. or drive is defined. If the server tries to mount as many volumes as specified by the mount limit and no drives are available for the required volume. you must define a device class with the DEVTYPE parameter set to DLT or ECART. the files you specify with that option are automatically updated with the results of this command.

Mount Retention Period The MOUNTRETENTION parameter specifies the amount of time that a mounted volume should remain mounted after its last I/O activity. see Preemption of Client or Server Operations. When you associate multiple device classes of the same device type with a library. using devices in this device class? TSM automatically cancels some processes to run other. Ensure that this sum is no greater than the number of compatible drives. The default mount wait period is 60 minutes.Specify a mount limit value that provides a sufficient number of mount points to support a simultaneous write to the primary storage pool and all associated copy storage pools. Note: . For additional information. add up the mount limits for all these device classes. review your scheduling of operations to reduce the contention for drives. The maximum value for this parameter is 9999 minutes. it is recommended that you explicitly specify the mount limit instead of using MOUNTLIMIT=DRIVES.  How many TSM processes do you want to run at the same time. that the server waits for a drive to become available for the current mount request. lower priority processes must wait until a drive becomes available. the server dismounts the volume. Otherwise. consider whether you can make more drives available for TSM use. in minutes. If this idle time limit is reached. The maximum value for this parameter is 9999 minutes. You must have enough drives available to allow for a successful simultaneous write. If processes are often canceled by other processes. However. Note: This parameter is not valid for EXTERNAL library types. For example. TSM cancels a tape reclamation process if the drive being used is needed for a client restore operation. TSM does not manage how a drive is shared among multiple device classes. higher priority processes. Because you can associate more than one device class with a library. Mount Wait Period The MOUNTWAIT parameter specifies the maximum amount of time. The default mount retention period is 60 minutes. If the server is using all available drives in a device class to complete higher priority processes.  Are you associating multiple device classes of the same device type with a single library? A device class associated with a library can use any drive in the library that is compatible with the device class' device type. Note: If the library associated with this device class is EXTERNAL type. This consideration also applies to the primary and copy storage pool simultaneous write function. a single drive in the library can be used by more than one device class. TSM cancels the process for a client backing up directly to tape if the drive being used is needed for a server migration or tape reclamation process.

Estimated Capacity The ESTCAPACITY parameter specifies the estimated capacity for volumes assigned to this device class. The prefix string is used as the prefix of the file name that is written to the label of each tape. then define a long mount retention period so that the operator is not being asked to mount volumes every few minutes. While TSM has a volume mounted. you can cancel server migration or backup operations. the drive is allocated to TSM and cannot be used for anything else. If you need to free the drive for other uses. See the Administrator's Reference for information about the recording formats for each device type. you can improve performance by setting a longer mount retention period to avoid unnecessary mount and dismount operations. one fails because only one of the drives is capable of the high-density recording format. The recording format that TSM uses for a given volume is selected when the first piece of data is written to the volume. operator-assisted activities. Tape Label Prefix By using the PREFIX parameter. suppose a device class uses two incompatible devices such as an IBM 7208-2 and an IBM 7208-12. This process may happen after a volume is reclaimed or deleted. If a volume is used frequently. Later. For example. or after all of the data on the volume expires. you may want to use a large mount retention period. For information on how to cancel processes and dismount volumes. TSM estimates the capacity of the volumes in a storage pool based on the parameters assigned to . mount errors can occur. Specify FORMAT=DRIVE parameter only if all drives associated with that device class are identical. if the two volumes are to be mounted concurrently. The default value for the tape label prefix string is ADSM. see Canceling Server Processes and Dismounting an Idle Volume. For example. if only one operator supports your entire operation on a weekend. If mount operations are being handled by manual. if the mount retention value is 60. If some drives associated with the device class support a higher density format than others and you specify FORMAT=DRIVE. For example. Note: This parameter is used primarily in the OS/390 and z/OS operating systems.A device class with DEVType=NAS allows only a value of zero (0). The server might select the high-density recording format of 8500 for each of two new volumes. you can cancel TSM operations that are using the drive and then dismount the volume. Updating the FORMAT parameter does not affect media that already contain data until those media are rewritten from the beginning. Recording Format You can use the FORMAT parameter to specify the recording format used by TSM when writing data to removable media. then the server dismounts the volume. and a mounted volume remains idle for 60 minutes. you can specify a prefix value that is used to construct the file name string that is stored in the label area of each tape volume. For example.

You can either accept the default for a given device type or specify a value.the device class associated with the storage pool. if you have a manual library defined with two device classes of GENERICTAPE. see How TSM Fills Volumes. multiple device classes can reference the same library. The library must contain drives that can be used to mount the volume. Other parameters. you must define a device class whose device type is GENERICTAPE. it must know which drives can be used to satisfy the mount request. you must define separate manual libraries for each device. There is no default value for this parameter. Estimated Capacity . ensure the recording formats are the same for both drives. The actual cartridge recording format. See Administrator's Reference for information about the estimated capacities of recording formats for each device type. However. if you have a 4mm device and an 8mm device. the TSM server is not aware of the following:   The actual type of device: 4mm. For example. It is required. Mount Wait Period See Mount Wait Period. specify how to manage server storage operations: Mount Limit See Mount Limit. Note: For a device class with DEVTYPE=NAS. Only one library can be associated with a given device class. Library Before the server can mount a volume. ensure that the device types and recording formats of the drives are compatible. For tape device classes. Mount Retention Period See Mount Retention Period. 8mm. For a manual library with multiple drives of device type GENERICTAPE. the default values selected by the server depend on the recording format used to write data to the volume. and so forth. digital linear tape. You can update the device class information by issuing the UPDATE DEVCLASS command. This process is done by specifying the library when the device class is defined. For example. this value is required. TSM also uses estimated capacity to determine when to begin reclamation storage pool volumes. Because the devices are controlled by the operating system device driver. For more information on how TSM uses the estimated capacity value. Unless you are using the DRIVES value for MOUNTLIMIT. in addition to device type. and so must be specified when the device class is defined. you must ensure that the numeric value of the mount limits of all device classes do not exceed the number of drives defined in the referenced library. Defining and Updating Device Classes for Generic Tape Devices To use a tape device that is supported by an operating system device driver.

Library See Library. Mount Wait Period See Mount Wait Period. . You can update the device class information by issuing the UPDATE DEVCLASS command. Mount Retention See Mount Retention Period. Other parameters specify how to manage storage operations involving the new device class: Mount Wait See Mount Wait Period. Estimated Capacity See Estimated Capacity. Defining and Updating Device Classes for Removable File System Devices Removable file devices include devices such as Iomega Zip drives or Jaz drives and CD-ROM drives. The default ESTCAPACITY value for a volume in a GENERICTAPE device class is 1GB. you must define a device class by issuing the DEFINE DEVCLASS command with a DEVTYPE parameter for one of the optical devices: Parameter Description OPTICAL WORM 5. Library See Library. Mount Retention See Mount Retention Period. Defining and Updating Device Classes for Optical Devices To use optical media.You can specify an estimated capacity value of any volumes defined to a storage pool categorized by a GENERICTAPE device class. Other parameters specify how to manage data storage operations involving the new device class: Mount Limit See Mount Limit. Define a device class for these devices by issuing the DEFINE DEVCLASS command with the DEVTYPE=REMOVABLEFILE parameter. See Configuring Removable File Devices for more information. Specify a capacity appropriate for your particular tape drive.25-inch rewritable optical media 5. Recording Format See Recording Format. WORM14 14-inch write once optical media.25-inch write-once optical media WORM12 12-inch write-once optical media.

Because the server opens only one file per physical removable medium. Use the MAXCAPACITY parameter with the DEFINE DEVCLASS command. files) associated with a REMOVABLEFILE device class. The default value is 1. TSM automatically cancels some processes to run other. Note: Do not use raw partitions with a device class type of FILE. Data is written sequentially into standard files in the file system of the server machine. consider how many TSM processes you want to run at the same time. When you define or update the FILE device class. lower priority processes must wait until a mount point becomes available.Library See Library. higher priority processes. When the server detects that a volume has reached a size equal to the maximum capacity. When selecting a mount limit for this device class. The default MAXCAPACITY value for a REMOVABLEFILE device class is the remaining space in the file system where the removable media volume is added to TSM. . Mount Limit The mount limit value for FILE device classes is used to restrict the number of mount points (volumes or files) that can be concurrently opened for access by server storage and retrieval operations. Defining and Updating FILE Device Classes The FILE device type is used for storing data on disk in simulated storage volumes. see Preemption of Client or Server Operations. Maximum Capacity You can specify a maximum capacity value that restricts the size of volumes (that is. Any attempts to access more volumes than indicated by the mount limit causes the requester to wait. you can specify the parameters described in the following sections. Because each volume in a FILE device class is actually a file. Note: The MOUNTLIMIT=DRIVES parameter is not valid for the FILE device class. The maximum value for this parameter is 256. You can define this device class by issuing a DEFINE DEVCLASS command with the DEVTYPE=FILE parameter. For additional information. specify a value such that the one file makes full use of your media capacity. it treats the volume as full and stores any new data on a different volume. For example. You can update the device class information by issuing the UPDATE DEVCLASS command. TSM cancels a reclamation process if the mount point being used is needed for a client restore operation. TSM cancels the process for a client backup if the mount point being used is needed for a server migration or reclamation process. The storage volumes are actually files. If the server is using all available mount points in a device class to complete higher priority processes. a volume name must be a fully qualified file name.

EXP . called a target server. You can define this device class by issuing a DEFINE DEVCLASS command with the DEVTYPE=SERVER parameter. Otherwise. A volume with device type SERVER consists of one or more files archived in the server storage of another server. consider whether you can make more mount points available for TSM use. The following parameters specify how to manage data storage operations for the new device class:        SERVERNAME MOUNTLIMIT MAXCAPACITY MOUNTRETENTION PREFIX RETRYPERIOD RETRYINTERVAL . While processing the command. refer to Quick Start. Maximum Capacity Value You can specify a maximum capacity value that restricts the size of volumes (that is.BFS . unless the DSMSERV_DIR environment variable is set.If processes are often cancelled by other processes. Directory You can specify the directory location of the files used in the FILE device class. see Using Virtual Volumes to Store Data on Another Server. starting from the root directory. For information about how to use a SERVER device class. if the server needs to allocate a scratch volume. The default MAXCAPACITY value for a FILE device class is 4MB. For more information on setting the environment variable.DMP Defining and Updating SERVER Device Classes The SERVER device type is used for special device classes whose storage volumes are not directly attached to this server. Later. When the server detects that a volume has reached a size equal to the maximum capacity. files) associated with a FILE device class. the server expands the specified directory name into its fully qualified form. For scratch volumes used to store this data: The file extension is: Client data Export Database backup Database dump and unload . The following lists the file name extension created by the server for scratch volumes depending on the type of data that is stored. it creates a new file in this directory. The default is the current working directory of the server at the time the command is issued.DBB . review your scheduling of operations to reduce the contention for resources. it treats the volume as full and stores any new data on a different volume. The directory name identifies the location where the server places the files that represent storage volumes for this device class. Use the MAXCAPACITY parameter of the DEFINE DEVCLASS command.

Otherwise. to retain an idle sequential access volume before dismounting it. A value of 1 to 5 minutes is recommended. . review your scheduling of operations to reduce the contention for network resources. higher priority processes. The default MAXCAPACITY value is 500MB. Do not set a high mount limit value if the target cannot move enough data or access enough data to satisfy all of the requests. The default value is 60. The storage pool volumes of this device type are explicitly set to full when the volume is closed and dismounted. This parameter can improve response time for sequential access media mounts by leaving previously mounted volumes online. consider your network load balancing and how many TSM processes you want to run at the same time. Maximum Capacity Value You can specify a maximum capacity value that restricts the size of files that are created on the target server to store data for the source server. When defining a SERVER device class. lower priority processes must wait until a session becomes available. Mount Retention You can specify the amount of time. Mount Limit Use the mount limit value for SERVER device classes to restrict the number of simultaneous sessions between the source server and the target server. consider whether you can make more sessions available for TSM use. Also consider the resources available on the target server when setting mount limits. The source server uses the SERVER device class to store data on another TSM server. Note: The MOUNTLIMIT=DRIVES parameter is not valid for the SERVER device class. TSM cancels a reclamation process if the session being used is needed for a client restore operation. TSM cancels the process for a client backup if a session is needed for a server migration or reclamation process. The default mount limit value is 1. If processes are often cancelled by other processes. Any attempts to access more sessions than indicated by the mount limit causes the requester to wait. See Using Virtual Volumes to Store Data on Another Server for more information. The target server must already be defined by using the DEFINE SERVER command. When selecting a mount limit. TSM automatically cancels some processes to run other. in minutes. If the server is using all available sessions in a device class to complete higher priority processes. The maximum value you can specify for this parameter is 9999. The maximum value for this parameter is 256. called a target server. Server Name The TSM server on which you define a SERVER device class is called a source server. For example.You can update the device class information by issuing the UPDATE DEVCLASS command. specify the name of the target server.

Prefix You can specify a prefix that the source server will use as the beginning portion of the high-level archive file name on the target server. Example of a Standard Device Class Report +-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | Device Device Storage Device Format Est/Max Mount | | Class Access Pool Type Capacity Limit | | Name Strategy Count (MB) | | --------------------------------------------| | DISK Random 9 | | TAPE8MM Sequential 1 8MM 8200 2. enter: query devclass Figure 13 is an example of a standard report for device classes. Retry Interval You can specify how often the source server tries to connect to the target server when there is a communications failure. When there is a communications failure.472. Retry Period You can specify a retry period for communications with the target server. enter: .0 2 | +-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ To display a detailed report on the TAPE8MM device class. Figure 13. During the retry period. the source server tries to connect again as often as indicated by the retry interval. this period determines the amount of time during which the source server continues to attempt to connect to the target server. Task Required Privilege Class Request information about device classes Any administrator To display a standard report on device classes. Requesting Information about a Device Class You can choose to view a standard or detailed report for a device class.

query devclass tape8mm format=detailed Figure 14 shows an example of a detailed report for a device class. Figure 14.0 | | Mount Limit: 2 | | Mount Wait (min): 10 | | Mount Retention (min): 30 | | Label Prefix: ADSM | | Library: TAPELIB | | Directory: | | Last Update by (administrator): TSMADMIN | | Last Update Date/Time: 01/05/2001 16:02:13 | | | +-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ Deleting a Device Class Task Delete a device classes Required Privilege Class System or unrestricted storage You can delete a device class with the DELETE DEVCLASS command when:  No storage pools are assigned to the device class. .472. see Deleting a Storage Pool. Example of a Detailed Device Class Report +-------------------------------------------------------------------------------+ | Device Class Name: TAPE8MM | | Device Access Strategy: Sequential | | Storage Pool Count: 1 | | Device Type: 8MM | | Format: 8200 | | Est/Max Capacity (MB): 2. For information on deleting storage pools.

You can either accept the default estimated capacity for a given device class. or explicitly specify an estimated capacity. If tape drive performance is more . but is useful. You may want to change the estimated capacity if:   The default estimated capacity is inaccurate because data compression is being performed by the drives You have volumes of nonstandard size Using Data Compression Client files can be compressed to decrease the amount of data sent over networks and the space occupied by the data in TSM storage. the tape drive can reach streaming mode. TSM uses the estimated capacity of volumes to determine the estimated capacity of a storage pool. The following table summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of each type of compression. With TSM. but not both. Note: The device class is not being used by an export or import process. files can be compressed by the TSM client before the data is sent to the TSM server. TSM updates the estimated capacity of the volume when the volume becomes full. Type of Compression TSM client compression Advantages Reduced load on the network Disadvantages Higher CPU usage by the client Longer elapsed time for client operations such as backup Drive compression Amount of compression can be better than TSM client compression on some drives Files that have already been compressed by the TSM client can become larger Either type of compression can affect tape drive performance. TSM uses a default value based on the recording format specified for the device class (FORMAT=). When the rate of data going to a tape drive is slower than the drive can write. You cannot delete the DISK device class from the server How TSM Fills Volumes The DEFINE DEVCLASS command has an optional ESTCAPACITY parameter that indicates the estimated capacity for sequential volumes associated with the device class. and the estimated percent utilized. If the ESTCAPACITY parameter is not specified. When the rate of data is fast enough. or by the device where the file is finally stored. If you specify an estimated capacity that exceeds the actual capacity of the volume in the device class. the drive starts and stops while data is written. Use either client compression or device compression. meaning better performance. When TSM reaches the end of the volume. An accurate estimated capacity value is not required. it updates the capacity for the amount that is written to the volume. meaning relatively poorer performance. because compression affects data rate.

It may wrongly appear that you are not getting the full use of the capacity of your tapes. If a client compresses a file before it is sent. Drive compression is specified with the FORMAT parameter for the drive's device class. Figure 15 compares what TSM sees as the amount of data stored on tape when compression is done by the device and by the client. and the file still fills one tape. and the hardware device must be able to support the compression format. . you may want to perform timed test backups using different approaches to determine what is best for your system. When the client compresses the file. TSM records the size of a file as it goes to a storage pool. see Node Compression Considerations and Registering Nodes with the Server. If the client compresses the file. the device may not be able to compress it any further before storing it. the server records the file size as 2.2 GB. For information about how to set up compression on the client. however. Suppose a client backs up a 2. the server records the file size as 1. TSM records this smaller size in the database.2 GB.2 GB. See Monitoring the Use of Storage Pool Volumes. If the drive compresses the file. For this example. for the following reasons:   A tape device manufacturer often reports the capacity of a tape based on an assumption of compression by the device. Use the QUERY VOLUME command to see the capacity of volumes from TSM's viewpoint. TSM considers the volume to be full. the tape has a physical capacity of 1. TSM is not aware of this compression.4 GB. In both cases. the manufacturer reports the capacity of the tape as 2. the file cannot be compressed any further by the drive.4 GB file:   When the client does not compress the file. Tape Volume Capacity and Data Compression How TSM views the capacity of the volume where the data is stored depends on whether files are compressed by the TSM client or by the storage device.important than the space savings that compression can mean.4 GB by assuming the device compresses the data by a factor of two.4 GB when the drive compresses the file.2 GB when the client compresses the file. and 1. the file is compressed by the drive to 1. However. and the file fills up one tape. TSM considers the capacity of the volume in the two cases to be different: 2.

see Node Compression Considerations and Registering Nodes with the Server.Figure 15. . Comparing Compression at the Client and Compression at the Device For how to set up compression on the client.