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Sing C. Tang Jwo Pan

Warrendale, Pa.

For permission and licensing requests.8'23011--dc22 2006039364 SAE International 400 Commonwealth Drive Warrendale.All rights reserved. (Jwo). mechanical. R-321 Printed in the United States of America.T335 2007 671. Tang. or otherwise. photocopying.org Tel: 877-606-7323 (inside USA and Canada) 724-776-4970 (outside USA) Fax: 724-776-1615 Copyright © 2007 SAE International ISBN 978-0-7680-0896-8 SAE Order No. without the prior written permission of SAE. contact: SAE Permissions 400 Commonwealth Drive Warrendale. or transmitted. I.org Tel: 724-772-4028 Fax: 724-772-4891 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Tang. . J. cm. stored in a retrieval system. Pan. PA 15096-0001 USA E-mail: CustomerService@sae. II. Title. electronic. Jwo Pan. Continuum mechanics. Sheet-metal work. No part of this publication may be reproduced. in any form or by any means. ISBN 978-0-7680-0896-8 1. TS250. recording. PA 15096-0001 USA E-mail: permissions@sae. Mechanics modeling of sheet metal forming / Sing C. 2. p. Sing C. Includes bibliographical references and index.

Tang To my mom Mei-Chin and my wife Michelle —Jwo Pan . To my wife Kin Ling —Sing C.Thanks to our families for their support and patience.

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7 2.4.4.2.9 Transformation of Vectors and Tensors in Cartesian Coordinate Systems Transformation of Vectors and Tensors in General Coordinate Systems Stress and Equilibrium Principal Stresses and Stress Invariants Finite Deformation Kinematics Small Strain Theory Different Stress Tensors Stresses and Strains from Tensile Tests Reference 11 11 15 19 23 25 28 32 36 37 3.4 Linear Elastic Isotropic Materials Linear Elastic Anisotropic Materials Different Models for Uniaxial Stress-Strain Curves Yield Functions Under Multiaxial Stresses 3. Constitutive Laws 3.4.2 3.1 3.3.1 3.4 Stretching and Drawing Trimming Flanging and Hemming References 1 2 7 7 9 2.1 2.3 2.1 Hill Quadratic Yield Condition for Orthotropic Materials .3 1.3 von Mises Yield Condition Tresca Yield Condition Plane Stress Yield Conditions for Isotropic Materials 39 40 44 47 52 52 53 55 56 57 59 60 Yield Functions for Anisotropic Materials 3.4.2 3.4.2. and Strain 2.2 2.2. Tensor.2 1. Introduction to Typical Automotive Sheet Metal Forming Processes 1.4.Contents Preface .3 3.3 3.5 2.6 2.4. Stress. xi 1.1 1.8 2.2 Maximum Plastic Work Inequality Yield Functions for Isotropic Materials 3.1 3.4 2.

2 3...1 4...6.92 Evolution of Yield Surface Isotropic Hardening Based on the von Mises Yield Condition Anisotropie Hardening Based on the von Mises Yield Condition 3.8 Isotropic Hardening Based on the von Mises Yield Condition with Rate Sensitivity 3.102 103 107 109 .7 References 5.5.10 Plastic Localization and Forming Limit Diagram 3.4 4........3 4.3 Governing Equations for Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming Processes Equations of Motion for Continua Equations of Motion in Discrete Form 4.1 4.117 117 117 118 .1 4.3. Thin Plate and Shell Analyses 5...65 67 71 76 79 83 86 88 ..2 Draw-Bead Restraint Force by Computation.3....3 Plates and General Shells Assumptions and Approximations Base Vectors and Metric Tensors .....5 3...12 References 4..5 4....5...11 Modeling of Failure Processes 3.95 96 97 97 97 ..4..113 113 115 Tool Surface Models Surface Contact with Friction..6.5 Internal Nodal Force Vector External Nodal Force Vector Contact Nodal Force Vector Mass and Damping Matrices Equations of Motion in Matrix Form 95 95 .3....2 4.4 4. 4.3...2 5.98 99 99 100 ... Formulation for the Lagrangian Multiplier Method Formulation for the Penalty Method 4..6 3.vi Mechanics Modeling of Sheet Metal Forming 3....1 4.1 5. Mathematical Models for Sheet Metal Forming Processes 4.....6 Draw-Bead Model 4.7 A General Plane Stress Anisotropic Yield Condition . Draw-Bead Restraint Force by Measurement 4..2 4.9 Isotropic and Anisotropic Hardening Based on the Hill Quadratic Anisotropic Yield Condition 3.3.3 Formulation for the Direct Method..3...5...2 4.

3.2 Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) Requirements for Shell Elements Displacement Method 149 149 150 ..2....7 References 6.5. Discretization of Spatial Variables in a Quadrilateral Shell Element. Constitutive Equation for the Classical Shell Theory Yield Function and Flow Rule for the Classical Shell Theory Consistent Material Tangent Stiffness Tensor Stress Resultant Constitutive Relationship vii .4 6.5 5.150 151 151 152 154 .1 6..1.4 5.5.3..5. and Stresses 6.3.2 5...6.... Finite Element Methods for Thin Shells 6. Strains.Contents 5.3 6.6.2 6..6 5....2.6 6.5.2.2 6.3.2.1 5.177 179 180 181 Finite Element Method for the Classical Shell Theory—Total Lagrangian Formulation 6.1 6.2 Constitutive Equation for the Shell Theory with Transverse Shear Deformation Consistent Material Tangent Stiffness Tensor with Transverse Shear Deformation 5.7 6.2 6.1 6....5..5 6.125 126 126 131 131 132 134 140 141 142 143 ..3 5.147 Shell Theory with Transverse Shear Deformation 5.2.5 Lagrangian Strains Classical Shell Theory 5...4 5.3. Increment of the Strain Field in Terms of Nodal Displacement Increments Element Tangent Stiffness Matrix and Nodal Force Vector .1.5 Strain-Displacement Relationship in Incremental Form Virtual Work Due to the Internal Nodal Force Vector.2.156 160 162 167 .5.1 5.8 Strain-Displacement Relationship in Incremental Forms Virtual Work Due to the Internal Nodal Force Vector Discretization of Spatial Variables in a Curved Triangular Shell Element Increments of the Strain Field in Terms of Nodal Displacement Increments Element Tangent Stiffness Matrix and Nodal Force Vector Basic and Shape (Interpolation) Functions Numerical Integration for a Curved Triangular Shell Element Updating Configurations.2....2.3 6.3 Finite Element Method for a Shell with Transverse Shear Deformation—Updated Lagrangian Formulation 6.171 173 173 .1 Introduction 6...4 6.6 Strain-Displacement Relationship Principle of Virtual Work.

4 7.3.3.2.2.4 7.3.6 7.3 7.1.6 Discretization and Solutions Numerical Instability Computing Contact Nodal Forces Updating Variables for Dynamic Explicit Integration Summary of the Dynamic Explicit Integration Method with Contact Nodal Forces Computed by the Penalty Method Application of the Dynamic Explicit Integration Method to Sheet Metal Forming Analysis 7.3.4 6.9 Shape (Interpolation) Functions Numerical Integration for a Quadrilateral Shell Element Five to Six Degrees of Freedom per Node Updating Configurations.3.2.7 6.3.1.3. Methods of Solution and Numerical Examples 7.1.3.2.1 7.5 Discussion of C and C Continuous Elements References 1 0 7.3.10 Shear Lock and Membrane Lock 6.viii Mechanics Modeling of Sheet Metal Forming 6.1 7.3.3 7.1 Introduction to Methods for Solving Equations of Motion 7.3 7.2 7.6 6.2 7.7 7.2 Equations of Motion and Constraint Conditions Boundary and Initial Conditions Explicit and Implicit Integration Quasi-Static Equations 201 201 201 204 205 205 206 206 208 209 209 210 210 210 212 212 213 216 218 220 221 222 223 224 Explicit Integration of Equations of Motion with Constraint Conditions 7.8 6.3 Implicit Integration of Equations of Motion with Constraint Conditions 7.5 7.3.10 Application of Dynamic Implicit Integration to Sheet Metal Forming Analysis .2. Strains.5 7.1.3. and Stresses 186 187 189 189 197 199 200 6.2.3.1 7.3.2 7.3.8 7.9 Newmark's Integration Scheme Newton-Raphson Iteration Computing the Contact Nodal Force Vector by the Direct Method Computing the Contact Nodal Force Vector by the Lagrangian Multiplier Method Computing the Contact Nodal Force Vector by the Penalty Method Solving a Large Number of Simultaneous Equations Convergence of the Newton-Raphson Iteration Updating Variables for Dynamic Implicit Integration Summary of the Implicit Integration Method with Contact Nodal Forces Computed by the Penalty Method 7.4 7.

4 7.7.2.4 Quasi-Static Solutions 7.5.5.4.8.4.7 Remeshing and Adaptive Meshing 7.2 7. Buckling and Wrinkling Analyses 8.2 7.8.1 7.Contents 7.6.4 Critical Points Establishment of Governing Equations in the N + 1 Dimensional Space Characteristics of Governing Equations in the N + 1 Dimensional Space Solution for Snap-Through Buckling 271 271 273 274 278 280 281 .7.2 Approximate Method for Computing Springback Constitutive Equations for Springback Analysis 7.2 7.4.4.2 Refinement and Restoration for Triangular Shell Elements Refinement and Restoration for Quadrilateral Shell Elements 7.1 8.2.3 Integration of Rate-Insensitive Plane Stress Constitutive Equations with Isotropic Hardening Integration of Rate-Insensitive Plane Stress Constitutive Equations with Anisotropic Hardening Integration of Rate-Insensitive Constitutive Equations with Transverse Shear Strains and Anisotropic Hardening 7.4.2 Introduction Riks' Approach for Solution of Snap-Through and Bifurcation Buckling 8.1 7.4.6.1 7.8 Numerical Examples of Various Forming Operations 7.6 7.3 8.1 7.8.2 8.1 8.6 Computing Springback 7.5 Equations of Equilibrium and Constraint Conditions Boundary and Initial Conditions for Quasi-Static Analysis Quasi-Static Solutions Without an Equilibrium Check Quasi-Static Solutions with an Equilibrium Check Summary of the Quasi-Static Method with the Contact Nodal Force Vector Computed by the Penalty Method Application of the Quasi-Static Method to Sheet Metal Forming Analysis ix 224 225 226 226 227 230 231 232 236 240 244 246 247 248 250 252 257 258 258 258 260 268 Integration of Constitutive Equations 7.5.3 7.1 7.2.3 Numerical Examples of Sheets During Binder Wrap Numerical Examples of Sheets During Stretching or Drawing Numerical Examples of Springback After Various Forming Operations 7.9 References 8.5 7.2.

. .281 285 286 . .....287 290 295 Methods to Treat Snap-Through and Bifurcation Buckling in Forming Analyses 8.3 Methods to Locate the Secondary Path for Bifurcation Buckling Method to Locate Critical Points and the Tangent Vector to the Primary Path for Bifurcation Buckling ......1 8.297 About the Authors 309 .2.......3.....4 References Index.........6 8. Forming Analyses of Snap-Through Buckling and Numerical Examples Forming Analyses of Bifurcation Buckling and Numerical Examples 8..2.3 Introduction of Artificial Springs at Selected Nodes.x Mechanics Modeling of Sheet Metal Forming 8.........3...2 8.5 8....3.....286 ..

Therefore. if not impossible. this book is not only a textbook but also a reference book for practicing engineers. finite element methods. constitutive laws. the numerical finite element method at the present time is feasible for such a highly nonlinear analysis using a digital computer. based on course material taught at the University of Michigan by Dr. Due to the geometric complexity of sheet metal parts. vectors and tensors. Readers should pay special attention to the kinematics of finite deformation and the definitions of different stress tensors due to finite deformation because extremely large deformation occurs in sheet metal forming processes. and constitutive laws for elastic and plastic materials are reviewed in Chapters 2 and 3. Tang. the principles of plastic localization and modeling of failure processes based on void mechanics are summarized. the forming of any complex part such as an automotive inner panel can be simulated. The governing equations are presented with specified boundary and initial conditions. Jwo Pan. The remaining chapters are drawn from the experience of Dr. This design process often is expensive and time consuming because forming tools must be built for each trial. sheet metal forming processes play an important role in mass production. Because of modern computer technology. and these equations are solved using a modern digital computer (engineering workstation) via finite element methods. Conventionally. development of an analytical method based on the mechanics principles to predict formability is difficult. is discussed first. appliances. Significant savings are possible if a designer can use simulation tools based on the principles of mechanics to predict formability before building forming tools for tryout. including binder closing. a comprehensive book on this subject seems to be lacking in the literature. Basic mechanics. and automobiles are made of thin sheet metals formed by stamping operations at room temperature. Chapter 2 presents the fundamental concepts of tensors. detailed theoretically sound formulations based on the principles of continuum mechanics for finite or large deformation are presented in this book for implementation into simulation codes. the forming process and tool designs are based on the trial-and-error method or the pure geometric method of surface fitting that requires an actual hardware tryout that is called a die tryout. Different mathematical models for uniaxial tensile stress-strain relations are introduced first. especially automotive body panels. Chapter 3 reviews the linear elastic constitutive laws for small or infinitesimal deformation. stress. The basic concepts of the formation of constitutive laws with consideration of plastic hardening behavior of materials also are presented. Fundamental principles are discussed in some books for forming sheet metal parts with simple geometry such as plane strain or axisymmetry. and shell theories to practicing engineers. Chapter 3 also discusses fundamentals of mathematical plasticity theories. trimming. flanging. stretching/ drawing. Then. Chapter 4 introduces formulations for analyses of sheet metal forming processes. Chapter 1 gives a brief introduction to typical automotive sheet metal forming processes. Although simulation of sheet metal forming processes using a modern digital computer is an important technology. Because advanced topics are discussed in the book. In contrast.Preface Beverage cans and many parts in aircraft. Finally. The definitions of the stresses and strains in tensile tests then are discussed. Therefore. deviatoric stresses and deviatoric strains are introduced. Thus. most of the deformation is plastic. We hope that simulation engineers who read this book will then be able to use simulation software wisely and better understand the output of the simulation software. especially one equipped with vector and parallel processors. and strain. The contents of this book represent proof of the usefulness of advanced continuum mechanics. Hooke's law for isotropic linear elastic materials. Because sheet metals generally are plastically anisotropic. knowledge of plasticity is essential in using simulation software and in understanding simulation results. Therefore. These concepts are used as the basis for development of pressure-independent incompressible anisotropic plasticity theory. Anisotropic linear elastic behavior also is discussed in detail. In sheet metal forming processes. the anisotropic yield conditions are discussed in detail. readers should have some basic knowledge of mechanics. which is widely used in many mechanics analyses. Then the yield conditions for isotropic incompressible materials under multiaxial stress states are presented. Sing C. and matrix and tensor analyses. plasticity theories. who had been working on simulations of real automotive sheet metal parts at Ford Motor Company for more than 15 years. More attention is paid to the most basic analysis of the stretching/drawing . and hemming.

Structural stability problems also are discussed in Chapter 7. the principles and solution methods presented in this book can be applied to the simulation of hydroforming processes. springback. which are more general. constitutive equations. and draw-bead modeling. and flanging operations are given. tool surface modeling. The interpolation (shape) function for the C1 continuous shell element is complex but accurate. Engineers may be tempted to use three-dimensional (3-D) solid elements. one specifies the hydropressure instead of a punch movement in simulations of hydroforming processes. and the shell model is emphasized in this book. Finally. Because analyses of sheet metal forming processes mainly involve surface contact with friction. Michigan June. Therefore. Numerical examples for buckling and wrinkling in production automotive panels are demonstrated at the end of Chapter 8. Chapter 8 on buckling and wrinkling analyses briefly introduces Rik's approach to the solution of snap-through and bifurcation buckling. Although we do not specifically include simulations of hydroforming processes in this book. If the dynamic effects are neglected. to model a metal sheet under plastic deformation. the equations of motion are reduced to the equations of equilibrium that are solved by the quasi-static method. the solid element model contains too many degrees of freedom to be solved using the current generation of digital computers. Rik's method cannot be applied directly without modification. the methods proposed in this book are ready to be applied to simulations of hydroforming processes with slight modifications. However. Tensors with reference to the curvilinear coordinate system are used. an extremely small time increment for a three-dimensional mesh must be used. which then can be extended to analyses of all other processes.xii Mechanics Modeling of Sheet Metal Forming process. but it might have a shear locking problem for thin sheets. it still is not practical at the present time. Some methods are suggested to compute sheet deformation continuously to the post-buckling and wrinkling region. Sing C. 2006 . various numerical examples for forming. Most sheet metal parts are made of thin sheets and can be modeled by thin shells for numerical efficiency and accuracy. Computation of springback also is discussed briefly. hydroforming processes have become popular in manufacturing automotive body panels and structural members. The formulations include equations of motion. The contact forces are computed by the direct. surface contact forces. Although the quasi-static method is more appropriate for analyses of sheet metal forming processes. We also want to thank Ms. In fact. Chapter 6 presents formulations of two shell elements for finite element models appropriate for use in computation. The reason is that the dimension in the thickness direction of the sheet is very small compared to other dimensions. We would like to thank Professor Pai-Chen Lin of the National Chung-Cheng University for preparing most of the figures in this book. Even for the explicit time integration method. To satisfy the stability requirement for a numerical solution using the explicit time integration method. For more efficient computations. The radial return method is discussed to compute the stress increment from a given strain increment for more accurate numerical results. This type of instability may occur when the global stiffness matrix in the quasi-static method becomes singular. Selina Pan of the University of Michigan for preparing some figures in this book. Recently. it has convergence problems. adaptive meshing is introduced. However. it would break down for a singular stiffness matrix when structural instability occurs. we cannot handle a finite element model with too many degrees of freedom for reasonable computation accuracy and time. Also. Chapter 7 presents solution methods for the equations of motion by the explicit time integration and implicit time integration methods. Lagrangian multiplier. or penalty methods. The interpolation function for the C0 continuous element is simple. Tang Jwo Pan Ann Arbor. Chapter 5 discusses thin shell theories. and it provides good convergence for the implicit integration method.

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