You are on page 1of 9



Endangered Species of India
Critically Endangered species
Imperial Heron/ White bellied heron (long-legged freshwater and coastal birds) Features This large heron is plain dark grey above with a long neck Habitat Found in the foothills of the eastern Himalayas in India, north-eastern Bangladesh, Burma and Bhutan Threats Poaching (both the bird itself and its eggs) and habitat destruction (the cutting of nesting trees and the disappearance of wetlands). Additional points It is under grave threat of extinction in Bhutan due to accelerated development of large-scale hydro-power projects in the basin Spoon-billed Sandpiper Features Habitat Threats

Additional points

Is a small wader Breeds in north-eastern Russia and winters in Southeast Asia. The main threats to its survival are habitat loss on its breeding grounds and loss of tidal flats through its migratory and wintering range This species nests in June–July on coastal areas in the tundra. Protected areas in its staging and wintering areas include Chilka lake in India

Siberian Crane Features Habitat

Threats Additional points

They are distinctive among the cranes, adults are nearly all snowy white. Breeds in Russia. The eastern populations migrate during winter to China while the western population winters in Iran and formerly, in India. Among the cranes, they make the longest distance migrations. Hunting along their migration routes and habitat degradation
The Siberian Crane inhabits shallow marshlands and wetlands and will often forage in deeper water than other cranes. These cranes feed mainly on plants although they are omnivorous. The usual clutch is two eggs, which are incubated by the female after the second egg is laid. Usually only a single chick survives due to aggression between young birds.!!!

Keoladeo National Park, India. The White-rumped Vulture Features The White-rumped Vulture is a typical, medium-sized vulture, with an unfeathered head and neck, very broad wings, and short tail feathers. Habitat The species was present in large numbers, in Southern and Southeastern Asia until the 1990s and declined rapidly in numbers since; up to 99.9% between 1992 and 2007. Threats The decline has been widely attributed to poisoning by diclofenac, which is used as veterinary non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), leaving traces in cattle carcasses which when fed on leads to kidney failure in birds. Additional points


Habitat Threats Additional points The Ganges shark Features Habitat Threats Not much is established concretely Inhabit only freshwater. respectively. Overfishing. because its numbers have declined rapidly Forest Owlet Features An owl that is endemic to the forests of central India. Burma and Cambodia Diclofenac The Slender-billed vulture is a protected species listed on the appendix II list of CITES. The Ganges shark. Forest clearance They appear to be strongly diurnal although not very active after 10 AM. and east through Assam. Assam. and Odisha. often hunting during daytime. but is known to use trees to nest in Rajasthan. bare. is largely restricted to the rivers of eastern and northeastern India. The Forest Owlet is small and stocky. The neck is long. It is typically found in the middle to lower reaches of a river. south potentially as far as northern Odisha.IN The Long-billed Vulture Features Habitat Threats Additional points The Long-billed Vulture is a typical vulture. Diclofenac Slender-billed Vulture Features Habitat Threats Additional points This vulture is mostly grey with a pale rump and grey undertail coverts. It is a typical owlet with a rather unspotted crown and heavily banded wings and tail. This owl was known from only seven specimens collected in the nineteenth century. It is also found in north and central Bangladesh. The Slender-billed Vulture is found in India from the Gangetic plain north.COMPOSED BY HTTP://CIVILSPREP. and Mahanadi in Bihar. habitat degradation from pollution. skinny and black Slender-billed Vulture is found along the Sub-Himalayan regions and into Southeast Asia and nests in trees. and the Ganges. The species breeds mainly on cliffs. Brahmaputra. and south-east Madhya Pradesh/western Orissa. in northern Maharashtra. including construction of dams and barrages are the principle threats Additional points 2|Page . west to Himachal Pradesh. as its name suggests. particularly the Hooghly River of West Bengal. It breeds mainly on hilly crags in central and peninsular India. increasing river use and management. very broad wings and short tail feathers. with a bald head. southern Nepal.

The regions of its distribution are very small. on the west by the Sankosh River. This brought great results and the population increased Endangered South Asian river dolphin/ Ganges susu/ Blind river dolphin Features The South Asian river dolphin has the long.COMPOSED BY HTTP://CIVILSPREP. India. rendering it effectively blind. Navigation and hunting are carried out using echolocation. Additional points CITES Appendix 1. the main region is limited to an area approximately 60 miles square bounded on the south by the Brahmaputra River. and Pakistan. The species does not have a crystalline eye lens. They can be most commonly found in water with high abundance of prey and reduced flow. In Kashmir. Golden langur Features Habitat Threats Additional points The coat of the adult golden langur ranges from cream to golden. Its teeth are visible in both the upper and lower jaws even when the mouth is closed. it's found in Dachigam National Park Threats Habitat destruction. although it may still be able to detect the intensity and direction of light. pointed nose characteristic of all river dolphins. Threats Human use of the river systems in the subcontinent. all in Assam. along with the IUCN and the WWF prepared a project for the protection of these animals.IN The Kashmir stag / Hangul Features -Habitat The Kashmir stag also called hangul. It became known as Project Hangul. Their oil and meat used as a liniment. and poaching Additional points The state of Jammu & Kashmir. is a subspecies of Red Deer native to India. India. The Ganges river dolphin is primarily found in the Ganges and Brahmaputra Rivers and their tributaries in Bangladesh. especially in Jammu and Kashmir where it is the state animal. India. Habitat The South Asian river dolphins are native to the freshwater river systems located in Nepal. and as bait for catfish. on the east by the Manas River. Bangladesh. India and Nepal. as an aphrodisiac. on its flanks and chest the hairs are darker and often rust coloured Golden langur is an Old World monkey found in a small region of western Assam. over-grazing by domestic livestock. and on the north by the Black Mountains of Bhutan Habitat degradation Considered sacred 3|Page . while the Indus river dolphin is found in the Indus River in Pakistan and its Beas and Sutlej tributaries.

but varies from reddish grey. It is a good climber and spends a majority of its life in the upper canopy of tropical moist evergreen forests. Threats Additional points Probably disease -- Tiger Features Tigers have muscular bodies with particularly powerful forelimbs and large heads.COMPOSED BY HTTP://CIVILSPREP. It primarily eat indigenous fruits. insects and small vertebrates in virgin forest Blue whale Features Habitat Threats Additional points Nilgiri tahr/ Nilgiri Ibex Features Habitat The largest known animal to have ever existed The blue whale is a cosmopolitan species. but absent from some regional seas such as the Mediterranean Whaling Appendix 1 CITES Threats Additional points The Nilgiri tahrs are stocky goats with short. Today. The Indian wild ass's range once extended from western India. Principal threats are habitat loss (mainly from domestic livestock and spread of invasive plants) and poaching Indian wild ass/ khur (sub species of Asiatic wild ass) Features The coat is usually sandy. Saline deserts arid grasslands and shrublands are its preferred Habitat environments. and south-eastern Iran.IN Lion tailed Macaque Features Habitat Threats Additional points Its outstanding characteristic is the silver-white mane which surrounds the head from the cheeks Endemic to the Western Ghats of South India Habitat destruction – construction of dams The lion-tailed macaque is a diurnal rainforest dweller. Little Rann of Kutch and its surrounding areas of the Great Rann of Kutch in the Gujarat province of India. and these unique markings can be used by researchers to identify 4|Page . leaves. found in all oceans except the Arctic. Is endemic to the Nilgiri Hills and the southern portion of the Western Ghats in the states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in southern India. southern Pakistan Afghanistan. buds. The pattern of stripes is unique to each animal. to pale chestnut unlike that of African wild ass. fawn. its last refuge lies in the Indian Wild Ass Sanctuary. coarse fur and a bristly mane. These tahrs inhabit the open montane grassland habitat of the South Western Ghats montane rain forests ecoregion.

COMPOSED BY HTTP://CIVILSPREP. all of which help to minimize heat loss. but rarely in African lions. bones. Bengal tigers live in many types of forests. tigers were found throughout Asia. favoring steep terrain. Snow leopards show several adaptations for living in a cold. They occupy remnant forest habitats in the two hill systems of Gir and Girnar that comprise Gujarat’s largest tracts of dry deciduous forest. Habitat Threats Additional points Asiatic lion/ Indian lion Features Major threats to the Snow Leopard include prey base depletion. The male has a rufous head and neck. the swampy mangrove forest of the Ganges Delta. ENDEMIC Poaching. such as plentiful supply of food. conflict with local people CITES Appendix I Habitat Threats Additional points The most striking morphological character. more than doubling from a low of 180 individuals. illegal trade. 5|Page . habitat destruction. Bali and Sumatra. tigers have been extirpated in western Asia and became restricted to isolated pockets in the remaining parts of their range. Karakorum and Himalayan ranges. thorny forest and savanna and provide valuable habitat for a diverse flora and fauna. Females are all black. CITES Appendix 1 Narcondam hornbill Features Males and females have distinct plumages. and their ears are small and rounded. Hindu Kush. which is always seen in Asiatic lions. hunting at night (generally). black body and upper parts glossed with green. Inbreeding The lion population has steadily increased in Gir Forest National Park. Illegal trade in high-value Tiger products including skins. Snow Leopards are closely associated with the alpine and sub-alpine ecological zones. the deciduous forest of Nepal. The father of the cubs generally takes no part in rearing them Habitat Threats Additional points Snow leopard Features Snow leopards are slightly smaller than the other big cats. The Snow Leopard is restricted to the high mountains of Central Asia. in much the same way as fingerprints are used to identify humans. Their bodies are stocky. mountainous environment.IN individuals (both in the wild and captivity). including wet. In the past. meat and tonics is a primary threat to Tigers. and the semi evergreen of Assam and eastern Bengal. and the thorn forests of the Western Ghats. from the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea to Siberia and the Indonesian islands of Java. Tigers are thought to be nocturnal predators. evergreen. with core areas including the Pamir. Adult tigers lead solitary lives and congregate only on an ad hoc and transitory basis when special conditions permit. During the 20th century. their fur is thick. is a longitudinal fold of skin running along its belly.

undisturbed forests with large trees for nesting and roosting. Bangladesh. They are not recorded from desert regions. This species is endemic to India and is presently known from localities in Periyar Tiger Reserve in Kerala State and in KalakkadMundunthurai Tiger Reserve. Nepal. Megamalai. High Wavy Mountains in Tamil Nadu This species is threatened by hunting for local consumption as traditional medicine.82 km2) island of Narcondam. Introduction of domestic animals (limiting natural forest regeneration). Assam. dholes are often referred to as "catlike" canids. southwestern Yunnan Province in China. through northern India. They have a precarious. northern India. Asiatic Wild Dog /Dhole /Indian Wild Dog /Red Dog Features Along with African wild dogs. hunting CITES Appendix II. habitat destruction The dhole is a highly social animal. Kardana Coffee Estate. In India they still occur in India south of the Ganges River. living in large clans which occasionally split up into small packs to hunt Salim Ali’s fruit bat Features Habitat It is medium sized and has no external tail. Hunting. to mainland southeast Asia. They are very solidly built with a long body and relatively short legs and the line of the back slopes upward from the shoulders to a high rump The Indian hog deer is a small deer whose habitat ranges from Pakistan.IN Habitat Threats Additional points It is endemic to the tiny (6. Dholes also occur in northeast India's states of Arunachal Pradesh. Threats Additional points Depletion of prey base. Meghalaya and West Bengal and in Ladakh. for extraction of oil to cure asthma It was observed that these bats eat fresh fruits Threats Additional points Hog deer Features Habitat Threats Additional points It gets its name from the hog-like (pig) manner in which it runs through the forests with its head hung low so that it can duck under obstacles instead of leaping over them like most other deer. which inhabits much of the Indo-Gangetic Plains of Pakistan. India. fine limbs and backbones Habitat Dholes still occur in South East Asia.COMPOSED BY HTTP://CIVILSPREP. east of the Andaman Islands. fragmented distribution in Himalaya and northwest India. all the way to western Thailand Poaching The antler of a mature hog deer stag is typically three tined-brow tine with solid main beam terminating in inner and outer top tines 6|Page . It uses mature. especially in the central Indian Highlands and the Western and Eastern Ghats. due to their long.

and in a few scattered pockets in Assam. They also feed on crops. They can tolerate cold better than excessive heat Habitat Threats Additional points Human Elephant conflict. semievergreen forests. Manas and Dibru-Saikhowa National Parks. sugarcane. Peninsular Malaysia. in addition to cultivated and secondary forests and scrublands.COMPOSED BY HTTP://CIVILSPREP. Thailand. Nepal. Bangladesh. if tusks — in that case called "tushes" — are present. and in Arunachal Pradesh. Laos and Vietnam. Bubalus arnee is included in CITES Appendix III. including Vietnam. the Asian elephant is smaller than the African elephant and has the highest body point on the head. Cambodia. Laos. Myanmar. They have been extirpated in Pakistan. but also occur in deciduous forest areas at the periphery of their range. they are barely visible. Vulnerable Indian Bison (Gaur) Features Habitat The gaur is a strong and massively built species with a high convex ridge on the forehead between the horns. swamps and densely vegetated river valleys. tropical evergreen forests. 7|Page . Bhutan. which bends forward Gaur are largely confined to evergreen forests or semi-evergreen and moist deciduous forests. Asian elephants inhabit grasslands. Threats Degradation of wetlands. and Cambodia. in the states of Kerala.IN Asian Elephant Features In general.[1][2] They are associated with wet grasslands. poaching Female Asian elephants usually lack tusks. Predated by tigers Additional points Wild water buffalos are both diurnal and nocturnal. In India. Bhutan. in particular in the Wynaad – Nagarahole – Mudumalai – Bandipur complex Poaching It is listed in CITES Appendix I. they are largely restricted to in and around Kaziranga. Nepal. The back is convex or level. The Western Ghats and their outflanking hills in southern India constitute one of the most extensive extant strongholds of gaur. Thailand. CITES Appendix I Asian buffalo/ Wild water buffalo Features Habitat Wild water buffalos occur in India. Gaur historically occurred throughout mainland South and Southeast Asia. including rice. China. moist deciduous forests. and jute. and is legally protected in all range states Threats Additional points Travancore tortoise Features Habitat is a large forest tortoise It is endemic and restricted to the Western Ghats. sometimes causing considerable damage. with an unconfirmed population in Myanmar. Karnataka and Tamil Nadu (India). Bangladesh. dry deciduous forests and dry thorn forests. and India.

Mizoram. and ranges from the foothills of western Nepal to China in the east The primary threats to red pandas are direct harvest from the wild. Sikkim. Sikkim Red Panda Features Habitat Threats Additional points Their long bushy tail with six alternating yellowish red transverse ochre rings provides balance and excellent camouflage against its habitat of moss.COMPOSED BY HTTP://CIVILSPREP. gall bladders and cubs have great economic value The farmers of the Himalayan lowlands feared black bears more than any other pest. live or dead.and lichen-covered trees. mangrove swamps and even 8|Page . Deforestation. Bhutan. Black bears typically inhabit deciduous forests. The tortoise is hunted and it is threatened due to forest fires. and may eat small mammals. flowers and berries. birds. Korea. Nagaland. habitat destruction and fragmentation. primarily in pristine forests. King Cobra Features Habitat Long and remarkable hood This species is found in a variety of habitats. north-eastern China. Threats Additional points one of the most important reasons for their decrease involves overhunting. The fur of clouded leopards is of a dark grey or ochreous ground-colour. because of the damage they cause to farms. they occur in northern West Bengal. They eat mostly bamboo. and deforestation resulting in habitat loss or fragmentation. Clouded leopards occur from the Himalayan foothills in Nepal and India to Myanmar. Thailand. mixed forests and thorn brush forests. Peninsular Malaysia. competition with domestic livestock resulting in habitat degradation. and Tripura. Arunachal Pradesh. poaching In the Himalayas. they were camera-trapped in the Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve. Manipur. Clouded leopard Features Habitat Threats Additional points The clouded leopard is the smallest of the world's big cats. In India.IN Threats Additional points The Asian black bear /the moon bear/ white-chested bear Features Arboreal . eggs. and the Russian far east. Taiwan. as black bear paws. and in China south of the Yangtze River. The red panda is endemic to the temperate forests of the Himalayas.lightly built and are more slender limbed Habitat It is a medium-sized species of bear seen across much of the Himalayas and the northern parts of the Indian Subcontinent. often largely obliterated by black and dark dusky-grey blotched pattern. deserts. Meghalaya. but it can also be found in degraded forest.

along the Indus.e. silver-brown skin.COMPOSED BY HTTP://CIVILSPREP. The rhino's single horn is present in both males and females ***An 'Endemic Species' is one that is only found in that region and nowhere else in the world. including parts of Nepal. food. for instance for scientific research Appendix II lists species that are not necessarily now threatened with extinction but that may become so unless trade is closely controlled. The king cobra is. paragraph 1 of the Convention). Poaching for rhinoceros horn (for medicinal purposes) became the single most important reason for the decline of the Indian rhino after conservation measures. and in the Western Ghats south of Maharashtra) This species is threatened by destruction of habitat due to logging and agricultural expansion. which becomes pinkish near the large skin folds that cover its body. CITES Appendices Appendix I lists species that are the most endangered among CITES-listed animals and plants (see Article II. CITES Appendix II Indian rhinoceros Features Habitat Threats Additional points The Indian rhinoceros has thick. down south along the Eastern Ghats up to northern Andhra Pradesh. They are threatened with extinction and CITES prohibits international trade in specimens of these species except when the purpose of the import is not commercial (see Article III). pets. Bangladesh and Bhutan.IN agricultural areas with remnants of woodland. Indian cobras are oviparous. One-horned rhinos once ranged across the entire northern part of the Indian subcontinent. from Pakistan to the Indian-Burmese border. and especially traditional Chinese medicine They eat mostly bamboo. however. flowers and berries. i. China and India (from Uttarakhand in Western Himalayas to Eastern Himalayas. particularly at risk from the harvesting of individuals for skin. Ganges and Brahmaputra River basins. from Nepal. birds. It also includes so-called "look-alike species". and may eat small mammals. species of which the specimens in trade look like those of species listed for conservation reasons Appendix III is a list of species included at the request of a Party that already regulates trade in the species and that needs the cooperation of other countries to prevent unsustainable or illegal exploitation 9|Page . eggs. The King Cobra is widely Threats Additional points distributed in South and Southeast Asia. Its upper legs and shoulders are covered in wart-like bumps.