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HIGHWAY & TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING

(CECE -4110)

Assignment 1
Assignment Submitted by Ahmed Majid Salim Al-Amri ID Number: 70112020

P.O.Box-74, Postal Code 133, Al-Khuwair-33, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

[ Sem 1, 2011-2012 ]

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...................4-5 1...6 2.......6 2.................................. ......1) Design speed................….... 7-8 Chapter 3: Pavement Design………................…………………………….....................1) State Area system..................2) Urban Area system……………………………………………………………………………………….4 Chapter 2: Geometric design of highway……………………………………………….......4 1.................... ………………………….................................6 2...........3) Sight distance…………………………………..............5) Cross section………………………………………………………………………………….…............... ……………………………………………………………………...........……............ …………………………………………………….......6-8 2..2) Why Design traffic volume…………………………………………………………………………...... ………………………………………...................4) Alignment…………………………………………………………………………............14 2 .....Index List of Figures……………...................6 2....………………..............................……….....12-13 Chapter 5: Soil properties…....... ………………………………………………………………………………………………3 Chapter 1: Highway system Classification…………………………………….........9-10 Chapter 4: Tests performed in Highway…............

.....…7 Figure 1.........2: A typical arterial road in a suburban area (USA)………….......7 Figure 1....................................... ………..Chapter 6: Traffic characteristics…….15 References…………………………………………………........ ………………………………………...........4: Lane width for single and double lanes ………………………………………………….11 3 ...……….... …………………......8: Schematic diagram of Austroads (2004) chart strength…………….......4 Figure 1..8 Figure 1.............……………………………..1: Mumbai Pune Expressway………………………………………………....……... ………………………………………………………….7: Geometric & load transmission characteristics of flexible and rigid pavements…10 Figure 1.. ……………………………….5: Types of curbs………………………………………………………………………………………………..4 Figure 1.....3: Cross slope designs for divided highways…….9: Schematic diagram of IRC:58 chart…………………………………………………………..................16 List of figures Figure 1..8 Figure 1..........6: Typical cross section of a highway ….………………………10 Figure 1..

1: Table 1..10: Consistency Limits…………………………………………………………………………………. 5 Roadway Categories and Classification……………………………………………………………….Figure 1.5 Comparison of Flexible and Rigid Pavement……………………………………………………….…….14 List of figures Table 1..3: Classifications of Roads and Spacing Standards in Singapore…………………………….2: Table 1..9 • Highway Systems Classification 1) State Area system: Roads in this system can be of four types: • National Highways/Expressways 4 .

2: a typical arterial road in a suburban area (USA) • • • Sub Arterials Collector Local Roads It can be classified furthermore according to the following table: TABLE 1.1 Classifications of Roads and Spacing Standards in Singapore 5 . 1.1 Mumbai Pune Expressway • • • State Highways Major district roads Rural & other roads 2) Urban Area system: Roads in this system can be of four types: • Principal arterials (subdivided into highways. and expressways) Fig. 1. freeways.Fig.

2000a. 2000b • Geometric design of highway 6 .2 Roadway Categories and Classification Source: CTRE.Source: Urban Redevelopment Authority (1992). cited in Chan. 1999 Here is another table showing the features and the function of Highway systems TABLE 1.

and other rural highways 30 to 70 km/h for Urban arterials Design traffic volume A highway should be designed in such a way that it will be according to the traffic volume for a particular place or city Traffic volume date may come in two ways: • Average daily traffic Peak-hour traffic Sight distance 1) Stopping sight distance (SSD) The distance used by the driver to think and react to the situation plus the time he\she applies the break So SSD= lag distance + break applying time 2) Decision sight distance (DSD) The distance used by the driver to detect any obstacles may face him 3) Overtaking sight distance (OSD) The distance used by the driver to overtake a slower car in front of him in the road • Alignments 1) Horizontal alignment: The objective of this alignment design is to provide the driver with a smooth entrance curve to the other road and providing a super elevation in such a way that will resist the centrifugal force when the car is entering the curve with a particular speed 2) Vertical alignment: The purpose of this alignment design is to determine elevation at some points in a particular road to ensure safety and the driver comfort 7 . its topography and many others Speed used in Different types of roads: • 110 km/h for freeways.There are many factors to be considered while designing a highway and they are as following: • Design speed: The design speed is the speed used in designing a highway and it should matches with the function of that particular type of highway. expressways.

High-type pavement: (Retain their shape and do not ravel at the edge if placed on a stable subgrade and they have smooth surface) . Camber is provided to drain water when it is raining. or crushed stone) 2) Cross Slope The slope of the pavement and it is known as camber.• Cross section 1) Type of Pavement Surface . Fig.3: Cross slope designs for divided highways 3) Lane width This width is determined based on the maximum width of a car and clearance from both sides and it varies from 2.7 to 3.75 m.Low-type pavement: (Has a tendency toward raveling and are usually used for low volume road and it is normally constructed from gravel.4: Lane width for single and double lanes 8 . 1. 1. Fig.

0 m and should not exceed 3 m or else some drivers may use it as a part of the road Fig.8-3. 1.4) Curbs (Kerbs): The boundary between the pavement and the shoulders and it varies from 10-20 cm curbs Fig.Designed to provide structural lateral support for the pavement .Has a slope of 2-6% less than the road itself and that is to provide good and quick drainage .6: Typical cross section of a highway 9 .Designed to give the driver additional space which are needed for some situations .5: Types of curbs 5) Shoulder . 1.Varies from 1.

No such phenomenon of grain to grain load transfer exists 5. Life span is more as compare to flexible 7. Design is based on flexural strength or slab action 3. No thermal stresses are induced as the pavement have the ability to contract and expand freely 9. Design is based on load distributing characteristics of the component layers 3. Have low flexural strength 4. Have low life span 7. Surfacing cannot be laid directly on the sub grade but a sub base is needed 8. Deformation in the sub grade is not transferred to subsequent layers 2. Have low repairing cost but completion cost is high 6. Strength of the road is less dependent on the strength of the sub grade 11. Rolling of the surfacing in not needed 10 . Have high flexural strength 4. Deformation in the sub grade is transferred to the upper layers 2. Load is transferred by grain to grain contact 5.3 Comparison of Flexible and Rigid Pavement • Flexible pavement • Rigid pavement 1. That’s why expansion joints are not needed 10. Surfacing can be directly laid on the sub grade 8. TABLE 1.• Pavement Design Types of pavement: • Flexible pavement These pavements reflect the deformation of sub grade and the subsequent layers to the surface • Rigid pavement The rigid characteristic of the pavement are associated with rigidity or flexural strength or slab action so the load is distributed over a wide area of sub grade soil. Have low completion cost but repairing cost is high 6. That why expansion joints are needed 10. Strength of the road is highly 1. Thermal stresses are more vulnerable to be induced as the ability to contract and expand is very less in concrete 9.

12. Road can be used for traffic within 24 hours 13. 1. Force of friction is high Fig. Force of friction is less Deformation in the sub grade is not transferred to the upper layers.6: Geometric and load transmission characteristics of flexible and rigid pavements: (a) &(b) are for flexible pavements and (c) & (d) are for rigid pavements There are various methods to design a pavement and they are as following: 1) Basic design principle 2) Portland Cement Association (PCA) Method 3) Austroads method 11 . Road cannot be used until 14 days of curing 13.dependent on the strength of the sub grade 11. Rolling of the surfacing is needed 12.

Fig.8: Schematic diagram of IRC: 58 chart for estimation of load stress at the edge (IRC: 58 2002) 12 . 1.7: Schematic diagram of Austroads (2004) chart for estimation of effective sub grade strength 4) AASHTO method 5) Indian Roads Congress (IRC) method Fig. 1.

13 . The percent loss of material is determined by taking the difference between the original and final (after the specified number of cycles) masses expressed as a percentage of the original mass. aggregate samples are put through repeated cycles of immersion in saturated solutions of sodium or magnesium sulfate followed by oven drying. The road stones should therefore be tough enough to resist fracture under impact.e. Impact test may be carried out either on cylindrical stone specimens as in Page Impact test or on stone aggregates as in Aggregate Impact test. the resistance of the stones to fracture under repeated impacts may be called an impact test for road stones.• Tests performed in Highway construction 1) Soundness: Soundness is the percent loss of material from an aggregate blend during the sodium or magnesium sulfate soundness test. The Page Impact test is not carried out now a day and has also been omitted from the revised British Standard for testing mineral aggregates. the road stones are subjected to the pounding action or impact and there is possibility of stones breaking into smaller pieces. In this procedure. The aggregate impact test has been standardized by the British Standard Institution and the Indian Standard Institution. This test evaluates the aggregate’s ability to resist breaking down or disintegrating due to weathering 2) Aggregate impact test: Toughness is the property of a material to resist impact. Due to traffic loads.. A test designed to evaluate the toughness of stone i.

The CBR test is fully described in BS 1377: Soils for civil engineering purposes: Part 4. and bridge foundations. 3) CONE PENETRATION TESTING: Cone penetration testing (CPT) is a fast and reliable means of conducting highway site investigations for exploring soils and soft ground for support of embankments. pavement sub grades. friction. The measured pressure is then divided by the pressure required to achieve an equal penetration on a standard crushed rock material. the higher the CBR rating. Data are logged directly to a field computer and can be used to evaluate the geostratigraphy. and pore water pressures with typical depths up to 30 m (100 ft) or more reached in about 1 to 11⁄2 h. The CBR test is described in ASTM Standards D1883-05 (for laboratory-prepared samples) and D4429 (for soils in place in field). soil types. The harder the surface. a CBR of 4. that will be offering quick and preliminary conclusions for design. and AASHTO T193. retaining walls. The CBR can also be used for measuring the load-bearing capacity of unimproved airstrips or for soils under paved airstrips. By the geotechnical engineer on-site. while moist sand may have a CBR of 10. the CPT results can be used for final design parameters and analysis. A CBR of 3 equates to tilled farmland. The standard material for this test is crushed California limestone which has a value of 100. It was developed by the California Department of Transportation before World War II. an electronic steel probe is hydraulically pushed to collect continuous readings of point load. The CPT soundings can be used either as a replacement (in lieu of) or as complement to conventional rotary drilling and sampling methods. The method of test covers the procedure for determining the aggregate impact value of coarse aggregates. 4) California bearing ratio (CBR) The California bearing ratio (CBR) is a penetration test for evaluation of the mechanical strength of road sub grades and base courses. using full-scale load testing coupled with soil borings and laboratory Testing.75 equates to turf or moist clay. With proper calibration. In CPT. which in some aggregates differs from its resistance to a slow compressive load. 14 . High quality crushed rock has a CBR over 80. water table. Compaction related tests.The aggregate impact value indicates a relative measure of the resistance of aggregate to a sudden shock or an impact. and engineering parameters of the ground. The test is performed by measuring the pressure required to penetrate a soil sample with a plunger of standard area. The CBR rating was developed for measuring the load-bearing capacity of soils used for building roads.

and submerged or buoyant density 6) Shrinkage Limit (SL) 15 .= CBR [%] = measured pressure for site soils [N/mm²] = pressure to achieve equal penetration on standard soil [N/mm²] • Soil properties 1) Porosity The ratio of the volume of voids to the total volume of the soil and is designated as n 2) Void ratio The ratio of the volume of voids to the volume of solids and is designated as e 3) Moisture content The ratio of the weight of water Ww in the soil mass to the oven dried weight of solids Ws expressed as a percentage 4) Degree of Saturation The percentage of void space occupied by water 5) Density of a soil The ratio that relates the mass side of the phase diagram to the volumetric side. dry density. Three densities are commonly used in soil engineering: total or bulk density.

but the soil continues to contain moisture. The moisture content at which this occurs is the shrinkage limit. of the soil 7) Plastic Limit (PL) The moisture content at which the soil crumbles when it is rolled down to a diameter of oneeighth of an inch 8) Liquid Limit (LL) The moisture content at which the soil will flow and close a groove of one-half inch within it after the standard LL equipment has been dropped 25 times Fig.9: Consistency Limits 9) Shear strength: The shear strength of soils is of particular importance to the highway engineer. 1. the volume shrinks. however. or SL. will lead to moisture content at which further drying will not result in additional shrinkage. and further drying will be accompanied by air entering the voids. The volume of the soil will stay constant. Continuous drying of the soil.When a saturated soil is slowly dried. because soil masses will usually fail in shear under highway loads • Traffic characteristics The three main components of the highway mode of transportation are: • The driver • The vehicle • The road 1) Driver characteristics: 16 .

Lecture notes. HIGHWAY ENGINEERING 17 . Hoel. Garber & Lester A.The Human Response Process (Actions taken by drivers on a road result from their evaluation of and reaction to information they obtain from certain stimuli that they see or hear) - . shoulder width.Sight Distance (the length of the roadway a driver can see ahead at any particular time) References: • Books: 1. length and width of parking bays. These include lane width. 2006.Static Characteristics (The size of the design vehicle for a highway is an important factor in the determination of design standards for several physical components of the highway. and lengths of vertical curves) .Kinematic Characteristics (The primary element among kinematic characteristics is the acceleration capability of the vehicle. V=volition) 2) Vehicle characteristics: . Fourth Edition. such as passing maneuvers and gap acceptance) 3) Road characteristics: .3) R.PERCEPTION-REACTION PROCESS (Based on PIEV theory (P=Perception. VANDHIYAN. Acceleration capability is important in several traffic operations. F. E=emotion.2) Nicholas J.1) T. I=identification. TRAFFIC AND HIGHWAY ENGINEERING 1. Fwa. THE HANBOOK OF HIGHWAY ENGINEERING 1.

pdf 2.org/wiki/Highway_engineering 2.ac.iitb.iitb.iitb.ac.cdeep.com/pe/roaddesign/docs/rdmanual/rdmch05.wikipedia.pdf 2.2) “Horizontal Alignment” http://www.in/nptel/Civil%20Engineering/Transportation%20Engg %201/17-Ltexhtml/nptel_ceTEI_L17.4) “Highway Engineering” http://en.5) “Introduction to Highway Engineering” http://www.• Websites: 2.pdf 2.sddot.in/nptel/Civil%20Engineering/Transportation%20Engg %201/02-Ltexhtml/nptel_ceTEI_L02.pdf 18 .cdeep.3) “Road Design Manual” http://www.cdeep.ac.in/nptel/Civil%20Engineering/Transportation%20Engg %201/15-Ltexhtml/nptel_ceTEI_L15.1) “Vertical Alignment” http://www.