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Modeling and Application of Passive Harmonic Trap Filters for Harmonic Reduction and Power Factor Improvement Michael

2 . Lowenstein Menber, IEEE Trans-Coil, Inc.
7878 N . 86th Street
Johy F. Hibbard

Member, IEEE

Milwaukee, WI 53224 USA Abstract-With the advent of IEE 591-92, the increasing demand by utilities for power factor improvement, and the proliferation of non-linear loads in industrial power distribution systems, the application of low-voltage harmonic trap filters has becaw almost routine. One of the authors has previously described the development of an empirical method to design and size trap filters for nonlinear loads. This method does not require an extensive impedance analysis of the electrical system. A few simple harmonic measurements suffice. Several applications of this method have been reported. Since that time, numerous harmonic trap filters have been installed, both for power factor improvement and to meet harmonic distortion limits based on IEE 519. Data on a nunber of these installations have been collected which illustrate how closely IEEE 519-1992 limits can be met using passive trap filters for both harmonic reduction and power factor improvement. A computer model has been developed to help predict the harmonic reduction that can be expected for specific load-filter combinations, and the model has been verified with field data. The computer generated curves can be used by a system designer to predict the feasibility of meeting harmonic specifications using passive filters. The paper will consist of a review of the enpirical design method, an outline and explanation of the cooputer model, and anoutline of two case studies which illustrate the application of harmonic filters and verify the model. A nmber of design curves will be presented to aid the potential user of harmonic filters in predicting performance of a particular filtering system.
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sizing which has been successfully developed and tested. The remainder of this paper will be a report on the development of a sinplifiedmethod of predicting harmonic filter performance in relationship to IEEE 519-1992.

For a nuaber of years there has been concern expressed regarding the increase in non-linear loads on the electrical power distribution system and the resultant harmonic distortion proliferating throughout the system. IEEE standard-519, published in 1991, established a basis for limits on system distortion. A t the same time that distortion concerns were rising, the increasing cost of electrical generation and distribution led many utilities to require greatly improved power factors. Incoopatibilities between power capacitors and non-linear loads have been well d o c m t e d [1,2,3]. The trend in power factor correction for non-linear Nuwrous loads is to use tuned harmonic filters [ 4 ] . cases of successful filter application have been reported. In sane instances, complex modeling of the electrical 5 ] . In other cases, system is used to design the filter [ an enpirical method of filter sizing was used (61. Publicationof IEEE standard 519-1992, inApril of 1993, was anticipated by both utilities and specifying engineers, and limitations on harmonic current permitted for non-linear loads are appearing in almost every new specification. I f every application of harmonic filters requires a catplex analysisof theelectrical distribution system, the cost of designing filtering for small systems could become greater than the cost of the filters. What is needed is a simplified method to predict filter performance similar to the empirical method for filter

The eapirical sizing method which was developed has been described in detail [ 7 ] . No coolplex modeling or system impedance measurements are needed. A brief outline of the method follows. 1 ) Data Needed: Needed data can usually be obtained without an extensive or expensive survey. a ) Power Factor Data: Data from the utility bill are easily obtained. b ) Diagrams: A simplified system single-line diagram showing the size and location of all large ( t 25 hp) motors and non-linear loads should be developed. c ) Harmonic Measurments:Measurements are needed of at least the first 19 harmonics, taken at the service entrance, main bus feeders, and large non-linear loads. 2) Precautions: The suitability of the power system for application of filters must be established. Observing proper precautions ensures that the filters will perform properly. a ) System Size: This method was developed for simple distribution systems. For complex systems larger than 10 mVA or having medim voltage capacitors already installed, a complete harmonic and inpedance survey is r e c d e d . b) Even Harmonics: The presence of even harmonics at any significant level ( Z 10%) indicates asymwtric currents and suggests malfunctioning of rectifiers or 1 wave rectification. In either case, filters cannot be applied until the even harmonics are eliminated. c ) Third Harmonic: Triplin harmonics are usually found in comnercial installations with large n h r s of phaseneutral F C type caiputers. They are not usually a problem in industrial situations d ) External harmonic Sources: I f high harmonic voltages are measured, even when non-linear loads within the plant are disconnected, the utility system has a high harmonic content. Filters must be protected by series inpedance or detuning to avoid excess filter current. 3) Sizing: h c e the suitability of the system for harmonic filtering is established, the actual sizing of the filters is sinple. The filters are sized based on the horsepower or kVA rating of the non-linear load. Two types of rectifiers are recognized. S a , or controlled rectifiers with primarily inductive loads (as found in most DC drives, electroplating rectifiers, etc.) require relatively large amounts of capacitive reactive current, whereas diode rectifiers with primarily capacitive loads (as found in most AC RYM drives) do not. The filter must be large enough to absorb the harmonic currents produced by the load, but not so large as to result in a leading power factor. Filters size in kVAR for an SCX rectifier is determined For diode by multiplying hp or kVA by 0.4 to 0.5. rectifiers the multiplier is 0.3 to 0.4. When filters are sized properly, the total power factor of each non-linear load is corrected to a value of 0.92 to 0.95.

0-7803-1462-~/93$03.00 01993IEEE

and the DC capacitor is set at 7. THE MODEL A. c) Non-Linear h a d Type: 6-pulse rectifiers of three representative types (a diode bridge either without or with a DC link choke. inductors. SCRS. are present. Detail to be inserted in Fig.2 as needed. b) Parasitic Elements: All parasitic circuit elements that would affect the low-order harmonic response of the system. S a bridge with inductive load. 1 I Fig. have the following features: a) System: The model system is full 3-phase. (Not all 100 hp non-linear loads have exactly these values of capacitance and inductance. a) Non-linear Load: All simulations are based on a lOOhp non-linear load. PSPICE sirmlates the behavior of the circuit over a user-defined window of time and an output file is created which allows the programer to probe circuit voltages and currents and to perform a Fourier analysis of any voltage or current. d) Linear Load Rarrge: The size in hp or kVA of the linear loadmay be changed relative to the non-linear load so that the percentage of the total load which is non-linear may be varied. For the DC drive. In the case of the M: RIA( drive without a DC link inductor. 5th harmonic trap filter 3 . Available ccnponents such as voltage sources. but values are representative of those used in the vast majority of non-linear loads produced today. e) Reactors and Filters: A line reactor and/or a harmonic trap filter may be added ahead of the non-linear load. capacitors. resistors. ~~ I V c c c p c c B .The simplifiedsingle-line diagrlrmsused in this investigation and depicted in Figs. 2c. I o m i ( w i 5 o 2 o o 2 5 o s a o ~ ~ ~ ~ I " pee- l t DRiVE HP OR W A I SCR BRlDaE I " I MODE:B N W E INPUT L 111. and an S a bridge) can be selected for study. etc.) b ) Linear Load: The linear =tor is varied from 900 to 0 hp. 3a. PSPICE is based on the SPICE2 circuit simulation program developed at the University of California at Berkeley in the early 1970s.5 mH. in reality the inductive impedance is what affects the levels of h a m n i c currents drawn by these loads. Therefore. IEEE 519-1992 is a guideline for a distribution systm.. With 5% line reactor and reactor.varied to simulate any Is. inductor winding resistance. the DC inductor is set at 0. California [8]. d) Source Itwedance: The inpedance of the source may be Fig.p h e distribution systep. including wire resistance.3b. 5 mH. Model Parameters: The values of the major circuit elements used in all of the silulations are as follows. capacitor E R . Therefore a model which allows analysis in "real" time was chosen for this study. inductor core losses. of the total connected load. b e included./ILthat is likely to appear in actual application. so the 100 hp non-linear load represents 10% to 10051. Real world parasitic characteristics w . 2) Model Features: The investigation of harmonic distortion undertaken in this paper is limited to 3-phase loads operatirq on a 3 . end system of interest contain a mix of both linear and non-linear 1oads. Distortion Level Predictions Predicting distortion levels in practical application is far more ccmplicated than it appears at first glance.500 pf. 2a-c.3a. may be used to construct circuits. This program has becolne the de facto standard for analog circuit simulation. the I X capacitor is set at 7. an electronic circuit siwlator software package available from HicroSim Corporation of Irvine. Developing the Model 1) Model Selection One can model a wide range of distribution systms. and non-linear loads using PSPICE. c) Source Impedance: The inductive impedance of the voltage source is varied to represent Isc/IL ratios of 5 1571 . the DC inductance is set at 2 . linear loads. etc. With !j% line 3b. solid-state device snubbers. For the AC F W drive with a DC link inductor. we cannot treat loads as ideal generators. diodes.500@?. It is only partially correct to assume a "typical" harmonic current spectrum for a particular load and then attenpt to determine the resulting distortion levels. Although i t is convenient to think of non-linear loads as harmonic current generators.

Very little attention is paid to the Is. the AC line reactance is relatively high (low Is.3 fran IEEE 519-1992 B) ModeIirtg Results. 5a shows a) Diode Bridge With the total harmonic distortion for a rectifier with capacitive input filtering. I other hand. the lowest nmber is applied to each individual non-linear load and each load is limited to distortion below this n d r . IEEE 519-1992 Fig. This is true because the DC inductance opposes a change in the magnitude of current flowing through i t causing a relatively quick corrmutation of current from one AC line to the other and a somewhat constant level of current during the conduction period. is a representation of table 10. This is the situation which occurs when a small drive is powered by a large capacity bus. a) Capacitive Filter (Fig. Fig 4 . so the DC presented to the inverter is improved. The characteristic features of this circuit determine the input current waveform and thus the current harmonic spectrm.1% Z respectively.The quantity of harmonics in these loads is almost entirely controlled by the awunt of AC line reactance.b. c) Inductive Filter (Fig. I I' $0 100 AT PCC Fig.Zc.$$. The levedCoP distortion is largely controlled by the inductive impedance of the AC lines. is the controlling feature. A C RYM drive with Dc link inductor. Dc Link Inductor): Fig. %Current IDD at the W . the limits shown in Fig. The data have been graphed in a " m e r intended to call attention to the limits presented in Fig. Sa. This is generally the case for DC drives supp1y:ing a motor armature and for current source inverter AC drives. 60116. This table is most often cited by specifying engineers when they are including harmonic distortion limits in their project specifications. the line current waveform will be rounded in shape with a very poor form factor (peak to RMS current ratio). b ) Inductive/Capacitive Filter (Fig. With a softer source (I /IL <lo) the current distortion is about 18%. the current will have a o n the poor form factor and be rfch in harmonics. either capacitive or inductive. 4 are exceeded.The addition of the inductor is generally intended to reduce the amount of ripple current in the capacitor. The nature of the filtering circuit. 2a.) d ) LineReactor and Filter: The impedance of the 3-phase line reactor is set at 5 % . the nature of the line current waveform will be similar to that of loads with inductive M: circuits.AC W drives fall into this category as they contaii a large DC inductor in addition to the DC capacitor. The harmonic trap filter is set at 30 WAR Por the AC RVM drive simulations and 40 KVAR for the Dc drive simulation. 5b shows the total harmonic current distortion for rectifier with inductive/capacitive input filtering.) I n other cases. 2alb. /IL ratio at the Pa: (point of camon coupling. and c .): If the DC filter is inductive in nature with very little or no capacitance. b) Diode Bridge With M: Link Inductor): Fig. contains a rectifier followedby a filtering circuit. I) No Line Reactor: The first set of graphs illustrates the harmonic distortion to be expected when rectifiers are connected directly to a supply bus with no series impedance limiting the current that can be drawn. With astiff source 1572 . 300 of which (30%) is non-linear. indicate that portion of the total connected load that is non-linear.): If the DC circuit contains both inductance and capacitance. If the AC line reactance is relatively low (high Is /Id.2a): If the Dc circuit is capacitive in nature with very little or no Dc circuit inductance. i f . Table 10. the form factor will be inproved and the h a m n i c content will be lower. 80%. 3) Circuit Review: Each single-line diagram shown in Figs. In many specifications the lowest number in the table is used for all situations. Often questions are asked as to how effective passive trap filters can be in reducing hrmonic current distortion. 4. the line current waveform will be generally square in shape with fast rising edges and a relatively flat top (assuning the converter is operating in continuous conduction). Wave shape will be largely controlled by the amount of reactance on the AC side of the 1000 (corresponding to 20% Z to 0. etc. 4. '-1 I Notice that with a stiff source (Is /IL = 1000) a 100% non-linear load draws current with &stortion exceeding 120%. a plant containing two 150 hp DC drives and seven 100 hp across-the-line motors has a total connected load oP 1000 hp. Most . "HE MOOEL AND IEEE 519-1992 A. For exanple. I t is inportant to note that line reactors (or isolation transformers) by themselves cannot reduce distortion below the limits unless the power distribution system is very stiff or the non-linear loads are a small percentage of the total load.3 from IEEE 5191992. Curves labeled 1OO% non-linear. The results of the modeling efforts presented below have been foriuatted to show exactly what can and cannot be done in mitigating current and voltage harmonic distortion using passive harmonic filters and/or line reactors. A brief discussion of the effect of the filtering circuit on line current waveform is beneficial. Current The graphs that follow clearly indicate the results to be expected when non-linear loads are connected as a portion of an electrical distribution systao load.2b. Even when only 10% of the load is non-linear. These circuits are shown in Fig. This is true for some AC E%l drives which utilize a large M : capacitor as a voltage ripple filter.

c with Fig. d t 0 .b......... 6b.....I. ) & " r = r . These circuits are shown in Fig.... %Current TDD at the PCC..... 1 1 1 .."-...... AC Drive With Link inductor." lrnLAT Pcc Fig._.....B.. - ---.. 5b.. The levels of distortion closely resemble the levels shown in Fig.. The current distortion level drops only 2-3% when carpared to the drive usirg no line reactor.. ...... 5b.... I519. C U M - Line Reactor: The next set of graphs illustrates the results when a 5% series line reactor is added in front of the non-linear load. ta....the level of distortion for a DC drive... When non-linear loads are under 20% of the total system load.. F W drive with a M: link inductor when a 5% line reactor and 100% non-linear load.. current distortion is above 30%....... Finally.... The level of distortion present when the drive is connected to a source improves to about 16%.. 1992 limits in most cases..... % Current TCU at the FCC.. 3a added.. DC drive with 5% line reactor. %Current TDD at the PCC........ AC EuA( drive with link inductor and 5% line reactor. 1........ 6b shows what happens to the total harmonic current distortion of an AC a 2) With ..The maxi" distortion predicted when the drive is connected to an extreoely stiff source is slightly below 3 2 % ....... 6c shows the total harmonic current (krce again. I . the distortion remains in the 18% range... In general. w U . is added. If the source is soft. .....-__ IT-m ....-. k skows the total harprmic current distortion for a DC drive...-.... 6c... b) Diode Bridoe With Link Inductor: Fig. 1 (0 t o loo0 1 10 we ( mAT ~PCC 1co I & ~ LAT PCC Fig... but does little when thedrive is connected to a soft distribution system... the harmonic current distortion is within I m 1 9 .. 1992 limits are satisfied when less than 20% of the load is non-linear.... 14 11 10 a I 4 I 4 .. Fig... .. AC F W drive with 5% line reactor..(I /I t 20) c) SCR Bri&e With Inductive Filter: Fig.. *W I Fig................. Whem non-linear loads are under 20% of the total system load... - 18 1 . RH( Fig.. 1 m WLAT#X........ "_. a) Diode Bridge With & J ' Link Inductor: Fig... the hamonic current distortion is within IER3 5191992 limits for d e r a t e to stiff sources. distortion for a drive with a purely inductive DC circuit very closely r e s d l e s that of the AC €W drive with a Dc link inductor. . 6a shows the total harmonic current distortion when a line rector is added ahead of an AC W drive with no link inductor. ... 6a.. form factor and power factor are improved and harmonic distortion is reduced.... % Current TDD at the PCC... ~~ ~~~~ I 10 1 - 9oop ..MIOIIm P a0 U U ~ -. DC drive.... 1573 . The addition of the DC link inductor greatly reduces the level of distortion when the drive -is connected to a stiff distribution system.

.... I ) IEFE 519-1992 Voltage Distortion Limits: The voltage distortion limits in IEEE 519.. C. _ _ I -. even when 1 0 0 % of the load in the plant is non-linear..... 1992. __... Although some may claim that line reactors can "meet IEEE 519 regulations.-._. it is likely that the total harmonic current distortionwill be below the IEEE 5 1 9 .. I 10 100 lell~A1PCC Fig.. If the non-linear load is between 40% and 100%.. IP IO I 1 .. etc.b. DC Link Inductor): Fig._..... 1992 limits. ......lf 1 0 0 % of the loading in the plant is made up of this type of load... 8.. __ *CO .. 7b shows the total harmonic current distortion for non-linear loads with a Dc link inductor when a 5% line reactor and a single harmonic trap filter tuned to 282 Hz are added...-'--- --. Fig. 1992 limits.... Again.. .. reducing high crest factor.. adding a single tuned filter at the 5th harmonic will ensure that the system meets the levels of current distortion set forth in IEEE 519... % Current TDD at the PCC.. the portion of the load that is non-linear is 40% or less.. 1992 1imits. % Current TDD at the PCC... ratio.... 3 ) With Line Reactor and Harmonic Filter: The next set of graphs illustrates the results when a 5 % series line reactor and a 5th harmonic tuned trap filter are added in front of the non-linear load. AC Drive With Link inductor with 5% Line reactor and Harmonic Filter. In most cases.. the limits can be met for most source inpedmces.... however.. A slightly larger service transformer or a small reduction in non-linear loads is all that is needed to meet the limits. or where limits more strict than those outlined in the IEEE docment have been specified. 1992 define the quality of the sine wave on the electrical distribution system..-.. 7a. Unfortunately.. the overall canbined distortion generally will manageable if individual industrial systems contribute distortion lower than the limit.. c ) SCR Bridge With Inductive Filter: Fig. . R(IM . If..While series line reactors can be extremely beneficial in eliminating bus over-voltage tripping. ( 7 ) times the reactance at the seventh... i t is unlikely that the total harmonic cilrrent distortion will be below the IEEE 519. These harmonic voltages add algebraically to the fundamental source voltage resulting in a distorted wave. DC Drive With 5 % Line Reactor and Harmonic Filter... 3b added. One might expect that a soft source (low I /Id would voltage reduce the amount of harmonic current.... 1574 . Fig.... Even when 100% of the load in the plant is non-linear..-... These circuits are shown in Fig....-. they cannot reduce the current harmonic distortion to IEEE 519-1992 levels for cases in which more than 20% of the load is non-linear no matter what type of input circuit is used.. In rare instances where a single filter does not suffice. AC €%?A % J Link inductor With 5 Drive With & Line Reactor and harmonic Filter.. ......... the limits may or may not be met depending on the Isc/II..... Voltage distortion is created when harmonic currents flow across circuit reactance and resistance.. Although determining the combined voltage distortion on a utility line requires camplex modeling. shows the voltage distortion limits for low-voltage industrial distribution systems. Voltage b ) Diode Bridge With Link Inductor: Fig.. L Fie...----- . developing voltages at the harmonic frequencies. -.. the harmonic current remaining flows across high reactance resulting in high harmonic voltages... and inproving power factor smewhat. 7a shows a) Diode Bridge With the total harmonic current distortion for non-linear loads with no L K link inductor when a 5% line reactor and a single harmonic trap filter tuned to 282 Hz are added." this i s clearly not the case..The distortion of current exceeds the limits in only a few small ranges of source impedance ( Isc/Id.... % Current TDD at the PCC. 2a. 7c shows the total harmonic current distortion for non-linear loads with a purely inductive Dc circuit when a 5% line reactor and a single frequency harmonic trap filter are added.. a multiple filter will further reduce harmonic currents...... any inductance will have five (5) times the reactance at the fifth harmonic. and distortion would be low.._. Even though there is less harmonic current flowillg...... i t is likely that the total harmonic current distortion will be below the IEEE 519..--... this is not the case.7b. Since inductive reactance is proportioned to the frequency (XL = 2xIL).c with Fig. a representation of Table 11. .___--.....'.1 from IEEE 5191992........_.. Modeling Results.. . The location in the circuit relative to the PCC at which inductive reactance i s added will determine the effect on voltage distortion.

Thus. The W n i c filters have reduced both voltage and current distortion to within the limits shown in Fig. 1 0 . 9) the harmonic currents in the circuit will again be reduced.86 to 0. I f impedance is increased on the load side of the P E .[lO] Both current and voltage distortion were measured and coclpared to the limits specified in IEEE 519-1992. t 1575 . Fig. 11. harmonic t r m I I I I Fir. (12% TDD) Power factor. fJ4&-@ I CONDITIONS I I Fig.d e r the filter designer with confidence in the predictions. as measured by the utility. 4 and power factor is as specified.------r-l 1 % ! Fig. Both voltage and current distortion are close enough to the measured values to . Case Stu@ 2. a 150 kVA transformer had been installed. there is a limit to how much voltage distortion can be decreased by adding line reactance. while not of laboratory accuracy. 9.99 with the drive as 100% of the load and 1) Background: East (herry Creek WSD. voltage distortion at the PCC will be reduced. East Cherry Creek WSD Well A2. (point B. 12. Century Products I) Background: Century Products. 10. (AFD) The 500 hp drive operates at 480 volts. will starve the load of voltage.93 when the entire load was considered. MODEL m I F I C A T I m A. located in Malden. The pump manufacturer specified harmonic limits for the i n d m power based on IEEE 519-1992. 6c was used and when the harmonic filter w a s added data came from Fig. 13 indicate the validity of the graphical method of predicting harmonic filter performance. 3) Test Results: Calculated lsc/I for this system was 30 at the transformer secondary. manufactures swiDming pool covers from extruded plastic. This time the source side impedance is the s e . Fig. 2) Action: Using the sinplified sizing method outlined above. A 240 kVAR filter with a 5 % line reactor was specified. Massachusetts. A single-line diagram of the installation is shown in Fig. 7c. 2) Action: Working with the drive manufacturer. 14 and 15 show the distribution of the first 19 harmonics o t voltage and current. and since lower current flows through that irrpedence. For the drive with line reactor the graph in Fig. Voltage Distortion Limits Bur Vdlage U PCC bSkVmdb. While serving only one drive a 500 kVA transformer had operated at a high noise level and teoperature and then failed. 9) the harmonic currents in the circuit will be reduced. Well A2. East Qlerry Creek WSD -M E S”DIES Study 1 .11. the voltage distortion at the Pa: will be higher. I------------ I L---.79 to 0. Therefore. I a “ 1 DRIVE = lo@% DlSTaLTl(3N LQ4D DRIVE = 60% UZPD DISTDRTION I I For exemple. (The new 250 hp DC drive had just been connected but was not yet functioning.[9] At point A the drive represented 100% of the load while at point B it was only 60%.a Fig. to design filtering for the installation. The customer requested inproved power factor and harmonic filtering.0 TOW Vdwa Dirbdoion (XI 5 . Century Products. The graphical data suggest that graphs derived fran the model. V. 200 kVAR I CABLE Fig. In preparation for the new drive. Single-line diagram. Fig. and also demanded a power factor no lower then 0. Unfortunately. . TCI used the simplified sizing method. Figs. Harmonic data are slmmarized in Fig. is a deep well water p w q controlled by an adjustable frequency drive. The output is stepped up to 2500 volts and transmitted several thousand feet down hole to an imoers4 turbine p w motor. Case line reactor line reactor. do predict the expected values closely enough to be useful. 100 kVAR traps with series line reactors were placed at each drive. if inpedance is increased on the source side of the Pa: (point A. The harmonic filters havesuccessfully reducedcurrent distortion towithin the limits shown in Fie. kasurements were made by an independent consulting firm. 10 shows a simplified singleline diagram of the installation.) 3) Test Results: Calculated Isc/I for this system was : : 60 at the transformer secondary. 4 for this system. and will degrade the no load to full load voltage regulation of the system. dasur-ts were made by the local utility at the locations shown. this will result in a large drop in voltage across the reactor at full load current. Single-line diagram. 8 .from 0.90. The data presented in Fig. Measured and calculated distortion values. Voltage Distortion Limits f r m IJZEE 519-1992. Voltage curves are located and discussed in the appendix. Additional major load consisted of a 125 hp linear m t o r and a small lighting and caPPputing* lndurtw V&QO D i m WI 3. h e might be tenpted to add ever larger mounts of line reactance in front of non-linear loads in an effort to reduce the voltage distortion at the WC. At the time of measurement only the 300 hp DC adjustable drive was operating. but they will flow through the increased impedance before reaching the PCC. Century Products. Location of Reactance Relative to the PCC. w a s raised from 0. c B .

. ". -\ .. ....... ...... . .. .. % Voltage 'KXI at the PCC.. . ........... Current.. ........ .. ..LIpy.. *. For non-linear loads greater than 20% the source must be quite stiff t o stay within the I= 519.. Voltage.... AC I W drive with link inductor.. 1576 ............ E HARUOHCMMBER I-{ .. ..... . ......... Fig...... .. East Cherry Creek WSD Well AZ... ...".. . I .. . I ... . I I VI. Voltage distortion is greatly reduced.. .. 15....IyW I . . Fig......... . ... . % Voltage 1DD at the Pcc.... 16c. .I ..... .............. I1 I lam Fig... ..-.$ . ...... 3 I" .. ....... Voltage Harmonic Graphs 1) No Line Reactor: Fig. . ... " .-.... -..... ... ..........." . "... Fig.14. . East Cherry Creek WSDWell U .............. " . ........... .. X Voltage TDD at the PCC. 16b..... DC drive... .. 1992 limits.. 16a shows the total harmonic voltage distortion for an AC pw( drive with no Dc link inductor.CONDITIONS I aRRW" DISTOtrrION I APPMDIX WLTAGE DISIURTION A.. " -\\\ ".. . . 16b shows the total hamonic voltage distortion for an AC W drive with a DC link inductor. .... " az tk Y 1 1 0 *m l c k A T PQ: I 1 Fig. ....... Two case studies illustrate the w e of the predictive data and verify their accuracy...... Well A2..16a..." values.... .... East Cherry Creek WSD.. Data f r m the model have been provided in graphical form for easy interpretation..... " .. . filters can be quickly and successfully designed to iqrove power factor and enable systens to reet IEEE 519-1992 limits.. " S I O N S A c m u t e r model to predict perfonnance of hamonic trap filters has been outlined... 1 10 IS ~ALAT Pco Fig...... Using the silpplified sizing techniques reviewed here and the data presented.. AC W drive with DC link inductor....... ............

......18a... ..... l l _ l " -....."" . ........... ................... - ....k "................ " ................................ ....... .+\ "" 1 II -* M L m ............ I (0 im W L A T PCL... the voltage limits are met... I .. .....A. ................ H w .... DC drive with 5% line reactor. % Voltage TDD at the WC.... Fig....... ..... \/--................. %Voltage TDD at the PCC.......... line reactor......... "" ............. Fig.... Ihe curves are similar to those of 16a....................."_ ...... e " I L L ..................... 16c shows the total harpronic voltage distortion for a Dc drive....... I_____............ 1 1oD 1 Fig. "I...-.................... Fig.. __ -_I.. -.ay \.-*.... 18b.. 17a shows that for non-linear loads under 20% of the total load................. VLLIIOLlwoc m ..................... 18b......................... Similar results are obtained for the AC RUI drive with a DC link inductor................. .... ...................................... ........................................ 3........ AC FW drive wit no DC link inductor with line reactor and filter. %Voltage TDD at the PCC. 18a.... ~ .... I ....... \ \ \. .............. " * n * D y . .. 3) With Line Reactor and Harmonic Filter: Addition of a 5th haraonic trap filter with a series linereactor keeps voltagedistortimwithin limits for most situations up to 60% non-linear load for the AC PUM drive with no link inductor..................................... .........-... _ ....................... ..... ..-................ ~ I ..._.. % Voltage TDD at the PCC.......... ".. .. %Voltage TDD at the PCC.=I 10 .....-........... ........ "...... AC WIM drive with DC link inductor and 5% line reactor.. 1 1 .... loop Fig............... ".... Fig... " .................... " " I I Fig......... ........... "he satme is true for all cases using a similar drive with a link reactor............. 1 ......-..............-............... I "................-......... - ..\ ......" ..... .. AC P W drive with link inductor and 5% line reactor... 18c.........Many systerPrs with under 40% non-linear loads will be within limit........................................ the current distortionmay still be out of limit for the systen............. " " 1 .... AC FW drive with link inductor.... 17c.......... The DC drive again is slightly worse for voltage distortion...... Fig.......17a........ however...................... 17b.............. ............. .................. . 17c.... The DC drive fares slightly worse but still is within limits for many situations where no more than 20% of the load is non-linear." .............................. ........ "..... 18c.... ..... ---I loo0 ......... ........ ...-. 'ig.... DC drive with line reactor and filter...... ......... ""...............Fig.... ............_.. -...... L & .... % Voltage TDD at the PCC. " .._... ..."............ ..............\....... 1577 .... 17b...... Fig................ I Fig................-.. "................ .-"". d filter..."....... -%--................... 2) With a Line Reactor: The addition of a 5% line reactor to the input of an AC RIM drive without a DC link reactor greatly inproves the voltage distortion picture............. .... F :............. I ................ . . ...

pp. M. Tsou. 26. Proceedims. M. H. Irvine. Measurements made by NE1 (Nelson Engineering." Elect. no. WFmmCEs D. vol. CA. 1989." IEEE Trans. "Power system harmonic resonance a docmentedcase. Measur-tsmadebykssachusetts Electricmany. "Power factor correction and harmonic control for dc drives." presented at the FCIM/Power quality '92 Conference and Exhi!ition. Industry Applications. OD. 1992. Zucker. M. EFW Pgq'92. vol. Sep. 29. Malden MA. vol. Dgta for case study "B" were collected and analyzed by Jim Phipps. Holley./Dec. 1992. Syst. New b l a n d Electric. Lowenstein. pp.Cemeron. 38-44. 3./Feb.) Arvada. Humel. pp. Qlretien. r)~. J. "Trends in power factor correction with harPronic filtering." IEEE Trans. M. McGranaghan. "Controlling harmonics while iwroving power factor. Mw/Jun. M." Data lor case study "A" were collected by Carmen Luongo. Industry Applications. vol. Lowenstein. D. no. 1993. S . M. 2 . Uar. Design. no. 6. 3. Argent. Nov. "Design and application of tuned filters -for h a m n i c reduction and power factor correction. E-16:l-9. Industry Applications. "Power factor correction and harmonic mitigation in a thyristor controlled glass melter. Ilproving power factor in the presence of harmonics using low-voltage tuned filters. 1. K. pp. 55. Jan. 483-488. and R. G . 1990. 972-975. IndustryApplications.D . - 1578 . Sueker. 1988." I= Trans. 2 . -/June 1993. 60-65. 29." IEB3Trans. pp. M. Lowenstein. Lemieux. Inc. NE1 Engineering. "PSpice" is a registered trademark of MicroSim Corporation. J. 2 . Sep.