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1850-51 AND 1851-52.








HEWITT KEY On a curious Tmesis.. By 89-96 Professor T.) 51-70 the Origin of certain Anglo-Saxon Idioms. Esq 41-50 On On the Nature of the Verb. By ERNEST ADAMS. 83-88 Esq On the Derivation and Meaning of "certain Latin Words. Esq Linguist. and Timbuctii Vocabularies of the Timbuctu Language. particularly on the Formation of the Middle or Passive Voice. 97-101 Esq On the Etymology of certain Latin Words. . iv. Esq 71-73 . their Arrangement and their Accidents. (With a Plate. which is sometimes met with. HODGSON. By THOMAS WATTS. By Professor TRITHEN 1-6 among the (continued 7-12 Remarks on the Probability of Gothic Settlements in Britain previously to the Year of Our Lord 450. 1-1 25 . By HENSLBIGH WEDGWOOD. in AngloSaxon and Early-English Syntax. HEWITT KEY. 13-24 Esq On the Position occupied by the Slavonic Dialects among the other Languages of the Indo-European Family (concluded). By Professor T. By W. By HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD. 77-82 the Devanagari or Sanscrit Alphabet.) the Position occupied by the Slavonic Dialects other Languages of the Indo-European Family from vol. (In two Parts. 232). HEWITT KEY MEZZOFANTI 103-109 as a 1 1 On the extraordinary powers of Cardinal By THOMAS WATTS. 25-29 By Professor TRITHEN On English Etymologies. Esq. On the Kissour. By Professor < T. of New York 73-75 On On English Etymologies. 31-39 On the Roots of Language. By HBNSLEIGH WEDGWOOD. Esq. GUEST. By EDWIN GUEST. Pages On On the Traces of an Egyptian Origin in the Alphabets of Greece and Rome. B. Sungai.CONTENTS. Esq. By EDWIN . p. By EDWIN GUEST. Esq.

(With a Plate.IV CONTENTS. By W. 165-167 certain Foreign Terms. Esq. By the Rev. O. HEWITT 191-204 . KEY.) certain Foreign Terms. Esq Sounds made by Breathing or Blowing through the Nose. fundamentally connected with the Notion of Con- and formally referable to a root KRUP or KRUK. especially in relation Willis's Experiment on Vowel-Sounds. Part II by our Ancestors prior to By EDWIN GUEST. T. Pages On Words traction. Part 1 An Account of the late Cambridge Etymological Society. imitative of traction. O. By HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD. By the Rev. T. Esq. 143-148 By HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD. its Plans 133-142 WHEWBLL. and with some Specimens of its Labours. Esq. COCKAYNE. and formally referable to a root KRUP or KRUK. adopted their Settlement in the British Islands. 127-131 By HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD. 175-183 Esq. By Professor MALDEN 149-157 On the Greek Middle Verb. Parti by our Ancestors prior to By EDWIN GUEST.D On Words fundamentally connected with the Notion of Con. D. Esq By T. 185-189 to Professor On Vowel-Assimilation. adopted On their Settlement in the British Islands. COCKAYNE 159-1 63 On Words formed from the Roots Smu and Snu. 169-174 On On a Lokrian Inscription. Part II On Greek Hexameters.

HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD. v. who during their residence in Egypt had so early an opportunity of becoming acquainted with the indigenous arts of that country or by the Phoenicians. or the invention of other characters upon the same principle. . it can hardly be doubted that the idea. was left to the inhabitants of Palestine whether that great step were actually taken by the Hebrews. No. and the whole system of writing appears nowhere so confused and uncertain as in the period of the Ptolemies. 1850. the symbol called the Crux ansata. signifying 'life' (in Old Egyptian an\). stead of diminishing. . and having so much occasion to make use of writing in all the concerns of life. a numerous cla'ss of truly alphabetic characters.PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY. Yet in truth no such tendency to simplification seems to have taken place. and are frequently used without any phonetic accompaniment. It is remarkable too that the alphabetic element is employed in the earliest monuments to explain the reading of certain characters which are themselves symbolically significant. paper was read the Traces of an Egyptian Origin in the Alphabets of Greece and Rome. The researches of the last thirty years have shown that a system of writing comprising. 101. as Bunsen observes. is materially increased in later times. V. NOVEMBER 22. and probably the greater part of the original letters themselves. the alphabetic system was not speedily carried out to the exclusion of all symbolic expedients. was in use in Egypt from : A " On the earliest times of the monarchy down to the Christian era. The glory of completing the alphabetic system. were B VOL. amid much that was merely symbolical. for which nothing more was required than the selection of a single rank among the numerous phonetic signs of the Egyptians. Esq. in the Chair. . But whichever of these two branches of the Semitic family were the one in which the Phoenician and consequently the Greek and Roman alphabet actually originated. is often followed by the letters and x> which must have been added in the first instance for the sake of indicating the pronunciation. it is truly astonishing that among a people so civilized as the Egyptians. When the value of alphabetic writing in securing clearness of expression was thus early recognized. Thus. whose commerce must have brought them into frequent intercourse with the same people. The symbolic element is as strong in the demotic or popular writing in the times of the Romans as in the The number of equivalent alphabetic signs." By Hensleigh Wedgwood. Esq. VOL. inearly hieroglyphic.

Capricorn. to be traced to the He derives the letter aleph. tainly not happy in his attempt to carry out the latter proposition He looks for the immediate origin of the Phoenician into detail. Now it is hardly doubtful that when the inventor of the alphabet gave the names of ox. establish as matter of science. 1. has often been remarked. to see how completely all traces of the original figure may be lost. and has nothing to do with the purpose to which the characters are actually applied! It will be interesting then if we are able to indicate traces of the old Egyptian phonetics in the Semitic and European alphabets. for the most part. must probably date many hundred years after the invention of the characters in which they are written. object represented. Indeed the forms are essentially identical. different . . We . and by means of these organic remains of a bygone civilization. the Phoenician letters were derived from Egyptian prototypes. Our earliest monuments. as may be seen at fig. &c. signifying an ox. " If we remark. where the fact of such a representation is purely accidental. he would take it from the well-marked lines of hieroglyphic representation. Cancer. the first consonant or first vowel of which is also the consonant or vowel which the letter represents. and broadly asserts that not only the model on which the Semitic alphabet was framed. among the signs of the Zodiac. of the greater part of the He is however ceractual characters were borrowed from Egypt. door. letters in the demotic or most degraded form of Egyptian writing. representing a water-plant with three upright stems rising out of a pool of water. The similarity of the Semitic schin with the Egyptian character for sh. Scorpio. to his letters. and often the name. from the Egyptian representation of a human head. " that each letter in the Hebrew. but the form. monly used for Virgo. Chaldaic. in which no resemblance is. which has been inferred with so strong a probability from the historical circumstances of the case. that connexion of the actual system of writing with the literature of ancient Egypt. we shall recognise in the construction of these alphabets a perfect analogy with the phonetic characters of ancient Egypt. or Syriac alphabet bears a significant name of high antiquity.borrowed from Egypt. ." He thinks it clear therefore that the essential scheme of the alphabet at least was imported into Palestine from its more cultivated neighbour. Champollion's unfaithful pupil Salvolini thinks he can make out a stronger case in favour of the ancient mother of arts. or their adoption from an have only to look at the characters comEgyptian source. where the first row represents the full and linear hieroglyphic the second. he would represent them by some intelligible symbol of the object named and if he borrowed the character from an Egyptian equivalent. it is not to be expected that we should be able to trace the descent of any very large proportion of them in the forms which have come down to us." says Champollion in 1822. either of Phoenician or Greek. even in cases where the nature of the representation is constantly kept in view by the circumstances of the case how much more easily might this take place in the case of letters. house. rather than the Even if all ill-defined and unspeaking forms of the cursive hand.

the third and The fifth is a ruder e and/) in the same row. the immediate parent of the Eng. and the sixth an ancient a 2 it (marked . together with the Coptic shei. it) If we form of closely fourth on end. the Samaritan. of shei by immediate descent. where a word derived from Latin through the medium of the French. form of the Phoenician B from Gesenius. p. Hebrew. viz. the Coptic alphabet was formed on the basis of the Greek. 25. d) was formed from the same representation of a water-plant which has before been pointed out as the origin of the Greek S. No. especially in English. and appear to us as the modern form of the letter. having beresort to some peculiar-modification of the radical idea. probably on account of the danger of confusing the curtailed form with the letter Z. the ancient Attic 2 (the second in the fourth row). It must be remembered that different forms of written character must have been in use at the same time in different parts of Greece. The letter beth or beta is not commonly recognized as derived from an Egyptian source. as the common Greek S is the same form set on end. as set this hieroglyphic (and especially the cursive in the second line of fig. Fr. 1. would seem to be derived from the second or fourth of the Phoenician forms by the omission of the middle stroke.fait. /<?/. 2. and of sima through the medium of Greek. 596 of the English edition. resort was again had to the Latin factum. The C-shaped sigma of Greece. but the two forms a and d in the first row of fig. 2. and Arabic forms. An analogous process takes place not unfrequently in language. we shall see how approaches the Phoenician and Samaritan B. Among these the letter shei (fig. 1. and thus the same Egyptian symbol was made the ancestor of two letters in Coptic. which was again restored at a comparatively early period. in order to express a simple fact or thing done. the character has lost its lower limb. On the introduction of Christianity.Phoenician forms of the letter schin from Gesenius and the third. which is the parent of the Latin S. and p. 599. with the addition of six letters borrowed from the phonetics of the old Egyptian writing. signifying a is ' come appropriated The house. to the original type of which it is in reality a much nearer approach than the character seen in more ancient monuments. are given by Salvolini as equivalent symbols. again had to the Latin root in order to supply a more exact The Latin factum becomes in expression of the original meaning. the first in the fourth row of fig. first of these is also explained in the same sense by the Chevalier Bunsen. The ancient M-shaped 5 of Greece and Etruria. where the cursive degradation is carried to the utmost extent. and a character which had become obsolete in a particular region might again be introduced from other parts. The cursive representation of the same symbol is the one marked c in the same line. cognizable. and the latter word having come by use to imply an exertion of a high degree of power or skill. is manifestly the third of the Phoenician forms In inverted.' of which apparently they represent the ground plan. the sima (C) of the Coptic alphabet. the three stems of the plant are still distinctly . Even in Arabic. viii.

". In both cases the hieroglyphic consists of too many strokes for the purposes of alphabetic writing a sufficient portion of the latter part of the symbol therefore has in each of the cases been cut off and adopted into the primitive alphabet as the letters Greek letters may not pretend to a M Now if we .There is no part of the alphabet which has suffered so much dislocation on passing into Greece and Italy as the sibilant rank. 2) may be the real original. water of heaven. The Greek sigma derives its name from the simcha or samech of the Phoenicians or Hebrews. without passing through the matured figure of the capital of comparatively modern times. M N The same plan of graphic representation in the two cases. according to Salvolini. from which the small fj. It certainly has much the appearance of being the immediate parent of the obsolete form of the small Greek It will be convenient to treat the case of and together. Now beth in Hebrew signifies a house. M and N respectively. In the second line of fig. we cannot fail to be struck with the relation between the hieroglyphic and corresponding alphabetic character. the two next from Phoenician monuments are more degraded.Greek form. as well as the glyphic of hieroglyphic and the old Greek N. a sense which may be recognized. seems to be formed. nun-n-pe. to represent the letter designated by that name ? ' It is not clear how the lower limb of the B became filled up in Greek. with which he would be familiar in Egyptian hieroglyphics. are obviously the most complete . The analogue of represents an object of which we neither understand the meaning nor know the name. Perhaps the second of the two hieroglyphic characters (the one marked d in fig. while the place of samech in alphabetic rank is occupied by the * The character here referred M . The fifth is Greek turned the other way. an indented line representing the wavy surface of water. It has been called an embattled wall or a basket. while it was left open in the Semitic forms. 3 are early forms of the letter M. is identical with the hieroglyphic equivalent of the letter ordinary symbol of the constellation Aquarius among the signs of the Zodiac. as its complement. it is now held to be by the indented line. the intimate connexion of the sounds having apparently led to pre. much higher antiquity than is place side by side the linear hieroand the most complete Phoenician form. it may fairly be considered that MN . . to used formerly to be treated as the hieroglyphic but as it is always accompanied a compound letter or letter N. and its form and rank from the Phoenician schin. than to take the simple and well-marked symbol of a house.' and it is certain that the written character must originally have been designed somehow to represent the object whose name it bears. but its true meaning is still to be established. the proper virtue of the symbol is the expression ol'the articulation M. leading us to doubt whether the small cisely the N M* M commonly supposed. in the hieroglyphic name of the heavenly Nile. of which the first and second. consisting of the Phoenician of coins and the Samaritan. It seems probable that the word nun may have signified water. What then could be a more natural expedient for the Semitic adapter of the alphabet.

to place or lay one thing on another. the one consisting of separate elements is the more ancient. the full hieroglyphic and linear forms of which are given in the first line cf fig. and the distinctness of the character. . Hawtrey in the first volume of our Transactions. The remaining characters of the row are ancient forms of . establishment. The two first figures in the second row of fig. equally unessential with the connecting zigzags of the second Phoenician form. one of separate and the other of connected strokes. It will be seen that the linear type differs in general from the Old Greek 57 only in having four cross bars instead of three. In the square Hebrew form.Grek S. as given in Old Greek S in all ' Rangabe's Inscriptions Helleniques. old Greek forms of 5P. and connected with the upright supporter by a cursive sweep.' The Egyptian character used to be considered as a representation of a Kilometer. where it appears as a wooden stand used for the support of a vase on which a sculptor is at work. grew into the Arabic numerals must accordingly look upon the first of the two Phoenician 2 and 3. characters as the original type. 5. 5 are Phoenician forms of samech from Gesenius the remaining figures in the row. to sustain (Gesenius). taken from plate 45 of the Monument! Civili' of Rosellini. 7) is absolutely identical with the S in the Corcyraean inscription commented on by Dr. the three parallel lines of the Phoenician seem contracted into the single broad line at the top. precisely describing the employment of the object represented by the Egyptian symbol. viz. which must originally have consisted of collections of two and three parallel lines. and must regard the connecting zigzags of the second form as a cursive corruption precisely analogous to that which developed the small united out of the separate lines of the capital &. 7. Now may be taken as a rule that where two forms of the same character consist. So complete an identity in the form of the Phoenician Samech with this remarkable element of the Egyptian system can hardly have been matter of accident. a stand or support) would . The real nature of the object represented may be seen at fig. but is now called the Emblem of Stability. and the last of the Egyptian forms (from Leemans. pi. the identity of which. Thus the characters for 2 and 3. Now the meaning of the Hebrew TjOD (samech) is a support. appa' rently from !"]DD (samach). while the name of samech (which was probably a translation of the Egyptian designation of the object represented. with the Phoenician samech. being used in the sense of establish. differing slightly in the position of the upright stroke among the parallel bars. The identity of the Phoenician character with the third character of the row (a form of IS from Kopp) is manifest. is very commonly overlooked. Now a character strikingly resembling the principal forms of the it We and Phoenician samech. it into notice in the compilation of the Phoenician alphabet. The prominence of the symbol in Egyptian would naturally bring writings. occupies a conspicuous place Egyptian inscriptions and manuscripts. in respect of form.

5. Greek N from Gesenius from inscriptions in the British Museum. e. 1st row. 1st row. Phoenician forms of beth from Gesenius k.' showing real Fig. Hebrew . Hieroglyphic N. a. of Phoenician coins from Gesenius 2nd row. g. Fig. Arabic schin d. ' n. ' Monument! Civili.' 3rd row. 6. Full and linear hieroglyphic M. d. other forms of ditto . b. shei. a. instead of the sound of t or tt. o. 2nd row. b. sive . c and d. . ruder forms of Phoenician . Emblem of Stability . Different forms of Phoenician 3rd row. Coptic . 2nd row. 'a.give it the alphabetic value of the sibilant at the commencement of that word. f. a and c. Bunsen. linear forms of same e. 1. ancient Greek B. . d. ditto from Leemans. plate 7. which seems to have been the phonetic power of the symbol in Egyptian writing. . Greek m. 2nd row. b and c. d and e. Hieroglyphic symbol of house. . 2. EXPLANATION OF THE PLATE. 1st row. Samaritan . b. Phoenician . curforms of the same from Leemans and Rosetta stone. schin a. another form of (a). M-shaped S of Greece and Etruria . Fig. 4. 1st row. ancient Greek. c. Phoenician samech from Gesenius from Kopp scription in . Hieroglyphic of the water-plant representing the sound sh. 4th row. from Gesenius. /. ancient Ionic 2. Fig. 572. c. b. k. . 3. Fig. b. g. c. Bunsen. Showing the supposed formation of the square Hebrew samech. a. a and c of first row set on end e. B 5* from Corcyrsean in- Inscriptions Helleniques. a. Fig. 594. 2nd row. M . 1st row. From plate 45 of the nature of object represented by the Emblem of Stability. Samaritan .

L Vol. LLJ ^Jy W Go n n n n n p n ' I I I _.Pl<xU. fj cn /^/V^AAA v\ a g 7T .


the Gothic and the Sanscrit. India. Rome and .' the French ' la mere de la fille. many cases in which the use of the article seems to conduce to greater perspicuity in language. the circumstance. 1850. c .g. 13. as was stated in the former paper. docheri. No. and von. Esq. DECEMBER RICHARD TAYLOR.. In accordance with the plan which was alluded to rather than clearly denned in the last paper. it is now proposed to examine the Russian in its relation to the other languages of modern Europe and endeavour to account for the peculiarities which distinguish it from them. the mother of the daughter. is in Russian expressed by means of an inflectional termination.' we at once perceive. Indeed the Russian words mat' docheri can be translated into Enthey mean equally the mother of the glish in four different ways ' daughter. and the Engl. VOL. There are. ' indefinite article.' a mother of the daughter. that the article existed in some languages.' a mother of a daughter. v. and which it is the object of comparative grammar to elucidate. gave rise to the theory. ancient world the Greek partially excepted When towards the end of the last century the philosophy of language first began to attract the attention of the scholars of Europe. This it is hoped will throw some light. no doubt. on those general laws which regulate the progress of human speech. that those languages in which the article was employed were more perfect than those in which its use was unknown. 102. in the Chair. The following remark of Le Clerc (in his book De Arte Critica') will afford us an " The Latin word Deus can be translated into French in instance ' : VOL. like all the synthetic languages of the has no article. that the relation in which these two words stand to one another in the sentence. paper was read the position occupied by the Slavonic Dialects among the other Languages of the Indo-European family. The Russian. But the same remark applies to the Latin." Continued. while in others no traces were to be discovered of its presence. by referring to the ancient tongues of Greece. the. however limited.'and of. e. dvyarepos . which as we know have neither the so-called definite nor the ' ' ' .' and the German die Mutter von der Tochter. while in the modern languages of the West of Europe it is ren dered by means of the prepositions rfe. the die in German. V.' or ' And it would seem that in this respect the mother of a daughter. But we observe at the same time that in the Russian sentence mat' docheri. there is no word corresponding to the la in French.PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY. By A " On Professor Trithen. When we compare the Russian words mat' docheri with the Engl.' the Russian language is inferior to its contemporaries in the West. like Gr.

and which tend to clog the expression and weaken the sentiment. that the article was to be considered as a special sign of a highly cultivated language. whether he has ever felt its want in the language of the Romans ? Surely the inflectional terminations of the nouns and verbs." It is certainly true that in such cases a person who speaks Latin cannot express himself clearly without using a greater number of syllables than a Frenchman or a German who employ the article but on the other hand it may be asked. for instance. animation. as appears when we render the words Dei monitu of a pagan writer hy par I'avertissement d'un Dieu. it is by no means so intimately. This opinion simply originated in the habit of judging of other languages by our own since we cannot make ourselves perfectly understood without the use of the article. are perfectly sufficient to express the requisite shades of meaning and there is no doubt that. we conclude that the Romans. (as long as critics thought they could construe a language d priori. must have been in the same predicament. a certain God. in order to convince ourselves how much the unavoidable presence of the definite and indefinite articles contributes to render the sentence cumbersome and heavy. with which we are embarrassed. and that they were justified in indulging their fancy with the creation of such ideals. who had no article. it may be that those who argue in this way. is in respect of vivacity. elegance. because it is unencumbered with the luggage of particles. le Dieu and here we understand some Deity of whom we are thus for example.' we mean the God who was questioned. pronouns. prepositions. e. come nearer to the standard of perfection than those which do not possess it. find an additional support in favour of their theory in the language of ancient Greece. . even on these grounds. and as it were. one who has been consulting the oracle and we say. and their collocation in the sentence.) it has been argued that languages which. in which sense it three different ways 2. The. of some God . may. whether any one in reading a Latin oration. i. so far from being ill-adapted for ' . the Latin. &c. It is needless to observe. when we speak of some or have been speaking : . However. be shown to be erroneous. No doubt there is a Greek article and since the Greek language has always been held to approach nearest to the ideal of a language. are possessed of the article. un Dieu. like the Greek. need only compare a Latin original with its translation into German. or a poem. le Dieu lui repondit. opinion therefore which prevailed for some time among a certain class of philologers. signifies the only true God. or a descriptive passage in one of the historians. that though the article be part of the Greek language. . infinitely superior to any modern language.8 1 Dieu without the article. as we find to be : We : . has ever remarked the absence of the article in the writing of his author. namely Apollo. so inevitably mixed up with the whole of its organization. auxiliary verbs and articles. the Creator of the universe i. generally speaking. . and 3. and judge of the degree of civilization attained by a people by the greater or lesser frequency of the article in their language. e. and variety of harmony. perspicuous expression. .

we may concede that the use of the article in the writings of the Greek philosophers may be considered as a proof of the subtlety. unjust treatment of the article he says. that the Greek philosophers made so frequent. which has nothing to do with speech. so judicious. . With regard to the fact. philology. physics. dignation with which Home Tooke expresses himself on this." considers. can only hope to attain the truth by an accurate investigation of facts and phenomena. clearness. the fate of this very necessary word has been most singularly hard and unfortunate but because such an inquiry will afford us the opportunity of ascertaining the difference which exists between the synthetic languages and those which are said to have been formed on the analytic principle the difference between the Slavonic and the Teutonic or Romance group of languages. because beautiful and gaudy. c2 . as Home Tooke says. because they had only one article? The fallacy. and endeavour to trace its history not only because. Reasonings on language not deduced from the real history of words. has been permitted. lization. You know that for a long time the article has been denied a place among the other parts of speech in fact its very name. it may be observed that this circumstance depends more upon the peculiar turn of their minds. as their minds emancipated themselves from the trammels of language. .all our modern languages. peculiarity in their language. upon the high degree of intellectual culture they had attained. necessary to remark. and in so far as we may be justified in inferring a peculiar disposition of the character of a nation from some article itself as . dpdpov. of such arguments is apparent and those who maintain that " languages which have no articles belong to nations of little or no civi" in we should remember as in . : ." Let us now proceed to investigate the nature of the article. implies that it was considered" by the Greek grammarians It is amusing to see the inas a sort of joint or limb of the noun. and to exclude the article from its well-earned dig. than upon the intrinsic value of the the case in is it Nor an element of language for in a measure. the Slavonian family excepted. and is only the miserable refuge of the speechless." that. not to say the absurdity. and logical precision to which But would any one think of acthey had brought their minds. are about of the same value as speculations on chemistry or astronomy unsupported by an acquaintance with the phenomena of nature. cusing the Greeks of having been imperfectly civilized. as otiosum loquacissimae gentis instrumentum or at best as a vaunt-courier to announce the coming of his master whilst the brutish inarticulate interjection. they fashioned the materials it contained for their own use and dealt with them at their pleasure. to usurp a place amongst words. articulus. as he " It has been considered. . and not by ingenious conjectures which are independent of or opposed to them. and so truly philosophic an use of the article. that the Greek orator or poet could easily dispense with its use whenever he felt it likely to impede the flow of his speech or disturb the harmony of his verse. " after Scaliger.

and consequently parts of human speech. an interjection or a conjunction carries on the face of it the idea of its import. " The following phrase is pretty much of the same kind Displeased with the redundance of particles in the Greek. independently of other words with which they might be brought in contact. //. and treated of them in connexion with the whole to which they apthe noun. not only was it natural that they should have excluded the article from the parts of speech. and satisfied with the materials it contained. as had a definite meaning of their own." fused to recognise the article as a separate part of speech is obvious enough ." And with this sentence Scaliger discards the subject and avoids giving a definition.10 and poets. A conjunction likewise. and it is equally clear why they admitted the interjection. than most authors who have written on the philosophy of language since the days of Caramuel and Scotus. This is not the case with the article and when the Greek grammarians orators And yet the reason for which the ancient grammarians renity. and raised a system of language and speculations which have stood the test of so many centuries. found the monosyllables 6. they should have discovered some of the highest truths . unable to discover that these little words had any meaning of their own. in so far as it is generally called forth by sensations of a physical nature. upon it . They knew no other language than their own and it is truly wonderful that without going beyond the limits of their own peculiar sphere. Now. the Romans extended : . For they held only such articulate sounds to be words. frequent use made of it. or rather refused to consider it as a separate species in the logical classification of words but they were right in doing so. or 'articles' limbs. . ing it brutish. without ever meeting them otherwise than in the company of nouns. you will have no difficulty in finding out that it is intended to connect two other terms or ideas. yet may the interjection well be numbered among the parts of speech. even though it be viewed apart from any context. and no operation of the mind can be said to accompany or to precede its utterance. when we consider the judicious and artistic use that has been made of it by the \ by itself. preceding their nouns. they exist in Switzerland. parently belonged It. as we shall see hereafter. " There are no Alps in England in philology. even though it stand alone. thanScaliger's '' dictum (c. for instance. and from the spontaneously. At any rate they were much mere near the truth in determining the nature and import of the article. What can be more absurd andarrogant. would be wrong to accuse the Greek grammarians of blindness or want of philological skill. . 72-131): Articulus nobis nullus et Graecis superfluus" ? It is as though we said. they naturally enough called them apdpa. An exclamation like ah \ or oh at once conveys the notion of some sensation of pain or pleasure experienced by the person who And though Home Tooke may be right in termgives it utterance. but they are superfluous. may be said to suggest its purport Take the word and for instance. And even in this instance. TO.

their displeasure to the article,

which they totally banished." It must have been a strange and interesting occupation for a whole people to be making a language for themselves in so critic-like a fashion. But what is the office of the article in the economy of language ? There is nothing which speaks so much in favour of the light in which the Greeks have viewed that question, as the diversity of opinion which is met with in later authors on this subject. Sanctius, for instance, thought that the article was solely intended to designate the gender of the noun he forgot that it is the gender of the noun which is marked by the termination, that determines the gender of the article. It is true that in many German grammars the articles have received the name of " Geschlechtsworter," because in that language there are frequently no other means of recognising the gender of a word, e. g. das Weib, der Leib; but this is only an accidental circumstance; the terminations of the words having disappeared in the course of time, while the articles remained unchanged, these little words, which still preserved the outward distinction of the genders, came to serve a se;

condary purpose, that of helping to distinguish the genders of the nouns. Another opinion, equally erroneous, but much more original, is that of the Abbe Girard, which Home Tooke ridicules in the passage already quoted from the Diversions of Purley,' the most charmingly Girard says, perverse book on philology that ever was composed. " I am perfectly aware that when I want to speak of an object

which presents

itself to


eyes or to


imagination, the genius of



precise denomination at that it generally offers another word, as a sort of beginning for the proposed subject and of distinction from other objects ; in a manner that this word becomes a sort of preparatory word for the denomination, which it announces, before the denomination presents itself and this is the article." What follows is so strange, and would lose so much by a translation, "Si cet avant-coureur diminue that it must be given in the original la vivacite du langage, il y met en revanche une certaine politesse et une delicatesse qui naissent de cette ide"e preparatoire et indefinie d'un objet qu'on va nommer : car par ce moyen 1'esprit 6tant rendu attentif avant que d'etre instruit, il a le plaisir d'aller au devant de la denomination, de la desirer, et de 1'attendre. Plaisir qui a ici, comme ailleurs, un merite flatteur, propre a piquer le gout." Such opinions as these are of course only quoted for the purpose of showing the difficulties which the article offers to the philologist who does not endeavour to trace it back to its origin. The Greek grammarians had not failed to remark the extraordinary similarity between their demonstrative pronoun and the article, but they did not venture to identify them, or to derive the latter from the former on the contrary, they thought that in the Homeric idiom, and in the language of Herodotus and other Ionic and Doric writers, the words 6, >/, TO, which are evidently used as the pronouns

language does not always










demonstrative o5e, euros, &c., were articles and not pronouns. Now this ancient form of the pronoun 6, ^, TO, corresponds to the


and to the Gothic sa, s6, ]>ata, and the Angloand in the two latter languages it has been distinctly proved that they have at a later period of their history been employed as articles. And thus the article, which has been said to have no meaniug but when associated with some other word, becomes one of the most significant parts of speech, and its use justifies its original import as a pronoun. For what is the office of the article in the modern languages, but to point out in a more definite manner the
Sanscrit sa, sa,
se, seo,






are speaking of


In English, for instance, the article a

and the are both definitive, as they circumscribe the latitude of genera and species, by reducing them for the most part to denote individuals, e. g. man, a man, the man. The difference however between them
the article a leaves the individual itself unascertained, article the ascertains the individual also, and is for that reason the more accurate definitive of 'the two the article a denotes individuals singled out from among the species, but unknown to us while the article the refers to an individual whom we have known before. It is essentially demonstrative. When we now refer to the Sanscrit, Latin, and Russian, which have neither definite nor indefinite articles, we find that the termination of the nominative case s in devas,deus, is identical with the pronoun sa (the proof may be found in Lieut. Eastwick's Translation of



whereas the



Bopp's Comparative Grammar) that therefore, in accordance with the whole character of the synthetic languages, the individualizing element which in the modern languages has become an article, was in them attached to the word itself, and of which it was made to form an integral part. When it was necessary that the word should be defined with greater precision, the pronouns themselves were employed ille, &c. in Latin, sa in Sanscrit the Greek article is therefore only a reduplication of the demonstrative pronoun, part of which may still be traced in the termination of the nominative case.
: ;

With regard to the indefinite article, which we know originated in the numeral one in all modern languages, its place was supplied in Greek by particles or indefinite pronouns, such as ns in Greek,
nieky in the Slavonic languages.

[To be continued.]



24, 1851.

No. 103.


in the Chair.

paper was read, entitled " Remarks on the probability of Gothic Settlements in Britain previously to the year of our Lord 450." By Ernest Adams, Esq. The following passage occurs in the last edition of Dr. Latham's " work on the English language We must consider that the displacement of the original British began at an earlier period than the one usually admitted, and consequently that it was more gradual than is usually supposed. Perhaps if we substitute the middle of the fourth, instead of the middle of the fifth, century as the epoch of the Germanic immigrations into Britain, we shall not be far from the


The opinion expressed in the first paragraph truth." (Part. I. c. 1.) of the above extract is a natural and necessary consequence of the application of a more cautious and enlightened criticism to the Saxon legend of Hengest and Hors but certain considerations induce the present writer to hesitate in adopting the period suggested by Dr. Latham " as the epoch of the Germanic immigrations into Britain." These considerations will be most clearly developed in the attempt to establish the two following propositions 1. That Gothic races were settled along the northern sea- board of Gaul at least 400 years previous to the period suggested by Dr. Latham as the epoch of Germanic immigration into Britain. 2. That what is predicated of the northern sea- board of Gaul may be predicated of the southern portion of Britain. The writer is aware that this view of the subject is not indicated for the first time, but he is inclined to believe that the evidence upon which it is founded has not been exhibited with sufficient care in


previous investigations.

As an important link in the chain of evidence, it will be necessary to review the ethnical affinities and distribution of the inhabitants of Gaul at the period when history first conveys authentic intimations The earliest detailed account of these tribes is of their existence.
contained in the narrative of Caesar. He commences the memoirs of Gaul with a geographical sketch of the country and a brief notice of the people; and the experience of ten years' incessant warfare and constant communication with the native tribes, places the accuracy and authentic character of his narrative beyond " Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres, quarum imam suspicion incolunt Belgae, alteram Aquitani, tertiam. qui ipsorum lingua Celtae, nostra Galli adpellantur. Hi omnes lingua, institutis, moribus, inter se differunt." (B. G. 1. I. c. i.) This definition is confirmed by the O? p.ev 17 general description supplied by Strabo (1. iv. c. 1.): Tovs AKVITOVOVS Kai BeXyas icaXoi/iTes KHI KeXras. TP L rl
his administration in



pev AKviravovs reXews efr/XXay/neyous, ov







u yXwrrj; HQVOV, aXXa TOVS Ce \oiirovs

VOL. v.

TaXaTiKTjv fief
ri}v o^iv, 6^oy\wrrovs oe ov iravras a\\' eviovs irapaXXaTTOVTas rats yXwrrais* icat iroXiTeia ce K*at ot fttoi pitcpov er;Xeitriv.

question naturally arises, who were these Belgae who presented such marked peculiarities of language, customs and laws as Let us first deto constitute a basis of ethnographical distinction ? termine the extent of their geographical distribution, and then endeavour to answer the inquiry respecting their original home and race. The geographical distribution of the Belgae is thus defined by Caesar i. c. "Belgae ab extremis Galliae finibus oriuntur; per1.): (1. tinent ad inferiorem partem fiuminis Rheni spectant in septemIts southern limit is intimated in the triones et orientem solem."



" Gallos a following words Belgis Matrona et Sequana dividit." It " Gallia is thus described by Pliny (lib. iv. c. omnis, Comata 17) uno nomine appellata, in tria populorum genera dividitur, amnibus maxime distincta. A Scalde ad Sequanam Belgica ab eo ad Garumnam Celtica eademque Lugdunensis inde ad Pyrenaei mentis excursuin Aquitanica, Aremonica ante dicta." Strabo gives the division of Julius Caesar, and adds that of the Emperor Augustus AKvirai'ovs pev TOIVVV eXeyov TODS ra fiopeia rrjs [lvpr)VT)s pepri Kare:
: ; : :

pe\pi irpos rov lt.earor, TO. evTOS Tapovva em darepa /uepj KadriKOvras, icai rov Kara MaffffaXiav Kat Nap/3wva OaXarrav, airrofjievovs ce KOI TWV AXirewv vib)V. BeXyas 2e eXeyov rows Xonrovs re TIOV irapaiKeai'iTdJV opiav TOV 'Pj/ov. Km rtvas TUV irapoiKovvrw TOV yuej^pt rwf ec/3oXa)> The geographer continues, *Pr)vov KCU ras AXireis. (1. iv. c. 1.) 6 e Se/3a<rros Kaiaap rerpa^r; ^teXwy, TOVS fiev KeXras rr\s Nap/3wviTtdos ewap^ian aTre^jji-ei'. AcvVraj/ovs ^e wffTrep KtjtKeivos (Jul. Caes.) irpoveOriKe 5e reaerapas KCII cieca edvr) ruv ^era^u TOV Tapovva, icai TOV Aiyvpos Trorajuou ve/jiopevwy. ri\v oe XOITTJJV cteXwv &X a Tr1 v P ev AovySovvo) Trpotrupiare /ue)(pi rwv avw pep<av TOV 'Pr/vov, TIJV ^e rots BeXyuts. Again (1. iv. c. 4), TOVTW oe TOVS BeXyas apiaTOvs eis irevTeKcuoeica fdvrj ciyprjuevovs, ra (ftatTiv, yuerau TOV 'Pr\vov KO.I
KO.I TT]S'r)s



oe, TOVS


TOV Aetyjjpos TrapoiKOi/vras TOV lKearor. From these extracts it appears that the Belgae extended in a westerly direction from the mouth of the Rhine to the Loire ; in a southerly direction along the western bank of the Rhine as far as the Alps and that further west the Marne formed the boundary between the Keltic and Belgian population of Gaul. It will next be necessary to ascertain, as accurately as the means of information will admit, the specific designation of the tribes that were recognized by the ancient writers as members of this great Belgian confederation. The following list is derived from Caesar,

Pliny and Strabo


\.Remi; S.Ambiani;
1 1

2. Sttessiones


3. Bellovaci;

4. Nervii;
9. Caleti

5. Atrebates














10. Velocasses; 14. Eburones or Tungri

15. Caeraesi;



17. Essui

18. Segni;

19. Toxandri


20. Oromansaci; 2l.Britanni; 22. Castologi 24. Ul23. Sueconi manetes; 25. Sunuci 26. Frisiabones ; 27.Betasi; 28. Leuci; 29.

Linyones; SQ.Rauraci; Sl.Nemetes; 32. Tribocci


33. Vangiones


and at what tribes acquired a permanent settlement in period. 45. " Adiunctis cisrhenanis sese cum his coniunxisse. expulisse. 43. Ubii. Belgas propter loci fertilitatem ibi consedisse. of distinguishing the Germans on the Gallic side from those on the In the 27th cap. 4 1 . iv. and consequently faithful expositors of the national traditions current among their countrymen respecting the The result of his inquiries was " Plerosque origin of their race. these German D 2 .fu)pi vvv It is was the We We irapa rots Teppavois voftifjuiiv. sunt Germanis. KO.I yap rp 0vret icai TOIS iro\iTvp. 1. i. His reasons for adopting this opinion will appear in the sequel. " Proximi his Memoirs.Lezovii. Eburovices 47.Batavi. 48. c. ii. Diablintes. . At "the outbreak of the Belgian war. he appears to have made the most searching inquiries as to the character and resources of his new anThe sources of his information were beyond suspicion. c. Nannetes 49. . opopov re OIKOVVI fj. that none among them can be proved to belong to any other stock . have first the explicit declaration of Caesar.Gubemi. Sesuvii. 38. " Ne propter bonitatem agrorum employs the same expression Germani qui trans Rhenum incolunt e suis finibus in Helvetiorum That this view is correct is evident from other fines transirent. to which of the stocks of the Indo-Europeau family these confederate tribes are to be referred and if it can be shown that some among them are unquestionable members of a certain stock . They were the chiefs of the renegade Remi.1. . Andes. Curiosolitae 42. 37. tagonists." Again (. 3) Germanosque.(f>epeis That Caesar recognised the existence of a German population on the western banks of the Rhine is evident from several passages in When he says of the Belgae (1. Osismii . of the 1st book he eastern side of the Rhine. qui cis Rhenum incolunt." It may be desirable briefly to inquire by what means." and again. Rhedones.Aulerci. : : omnibus Germanis. Rhenumque antiquitus transductos. 36. We . ii." existence of cisrhenane Germans is expressly passages in which the " indicated. G. 1).Treveri. "Neve omnium Germanorum. 2). qui essent citra Rhenum. .) timony of the geographer Strabo (1." it cannot be supposed that a writer. will now proceed to examine the question. that the direct evidence of antiquity implies and assumes identity of language and race in all members of the confederation it may reasonably be inferred that all are to be included in that particular stock to which the majority of the most important can be with certainty referred. 4. Germanis esse ortos ab ." (B. (vi. 44. Thus (1. 35. whose terse and luminous style rarely admits superfluous expressions would have added these words as a local definition The words were advisedly written for the purpose of the Germani. 46.Ve*eti. the opinion of the present writer that this particular stock Gothic. Unelli . 32).aaiv eitriv OVTOI icai trvyyeveis aXX/jXots. qui trans Rhenum incolunt. 40. themselves members of the Belgian league. . qui ea loca incohave next the express teslerent. vi. Ambiliati 50. 39. Gallosque. unam esse caussam iudicaret.15 34. 4) : AXX' e* ruv yjxtvw rovro XafifiavofAev Trepi UVTWV e/c rtav p.

The . qtiam hello vicisset. but. the Keltic migration had reached its extreme limit in the west. sicut illam nostram. and reduced the inhabitants to a condition of slavery. finding himself superior in force to both the contending factions. 100 pagi of the A portion of them Suevi. 44).16 Gaul. The districts which formed the line of demarcation between these races races of necessity placed in a state of antagonism from the peculiarity of their relative position may naturally be presumed to have been the battle-field of alien tribes one. and that they were followed. bitants of eastern Gaul. with the energy . he had availed himself of the advantages of his position. and the schemes of aggrandisement entertained by the directors of that power were absorbing the neighbouring states. at least in the north of Europe. .000 of whom had joined him. presents us with an instructive example of a nation in this depressed and unsettled state. that the Kelts were the foremost of those great immigrant bodies whom the excess of population over the means of subsistence had driven from their primitive home . by the It is stitute the Gothic hordes. with its social and political system disorganized and undergoing a process of gradual disintegration. At the period when the power of Rome began sensibly to affect the bordering nations. generally admitted that the various tribes which constocks of the Indo-European family arrived in Europe from the East at successive periods . and had already been for centuries exposed to the pressure of the more energetic tribes of Gothic origin who followed them from the East. ? . viz. but was still in active operation on the western bank of the Rhine. The terms upon which he consented to render the assistance required were the cession of one-third of the territory of the ^Edui. cur in suas possessiones veniret ? Provinciam $uam hanc esse It appears that he had been invited Gallium. were threatening to cross the Rhine. The writer is anxious to indicate what he conceives to have been a fundamental error in all investigations into the movements and distribution of these wandering bodies. ever encroaching on the territories of the first settlers and the other. resisting the aggressions of their restless and warlike It will be found that the social condition of the inhaneighbours. The extent to which these inroads had been carried at the time when Caesar undertook the government of his province. may be readily inferred from the indignant remonstrance addressed to the " Sibi mirum Roman general by the German chieftain Ariovistus videri quid in sua Gallia. He subsequently demanded a second third for his friends and countrymen the Harudes. 24. as disclosed in the narrative of Caesar. 34) and again (i. Romano . seized upon the greatest portion of their land. In addition to the Harudes." to assist the Sequani in suppressing their rivals the JEdut . At the period when Caesar commenced his Gallic campaigns this struggle between hostile races had in a great measure ceased along the northern districts of Gaul. a third body of Germans./Edui represented the number of his followers as 1 20. of despair. aut Caesari aut omnino : populo vellet " Quid sibi negotii esset" (i. incapable of resisting the pressure from behind.000. a sufficiently early date has not been assigned to their arrival and settlement in Europe.

Aduatici." In Caesar's time their numbers had greatly increased. 1) that two other formidable bands of Germans. we have the ex" Ipsi erant ex Cimbris Teutopress declaration of Caesar (ii. 29) nostrum atque Italiam cum iter in Provinciam nisque prognati . p. Respecting the origin of this tribe. iis impedimentis. Marcomanni. Nemetes. 1. That this powerful tribe was e of German origin is at: tested lay Strabo " Treveri TOVTO Tep/jLaviKov eOvos. 2) we find " all the forces with their milia vindicating nationality by uniting . and by Tacitus (Ger.. quae nationes e Germaniain Gallias commigraverint. 28) ultro ambitiosi affectationem Germanicae et Nervii circa originis sunt. Suevi. owing to the proximity of the two countries : e TO. alias inlatum defenderent. quae secum agere ac portare non poterant. 15). This is doubtless an exaggerated estimate. varpcLTiq. That this hostile occupation of Gaul had existed for many years is proved by an incident recorded by Caesar.000 men to the allied them army of the Belgae. In addition to the tribes above-mentioned. consensu eorum omnium pace facta. 4). Strabo again states in general terms that such incursions were of : frequent occurrence. 27. icai Compare this passage with the description of the Suevi (iv. of German migrations into Gaul. The writer proposes next to examine the evidence respecting the nationality of certain tribes belonging to the Belgian confederation. the Usipetes and the Teuchtheri. iv.a\\ov &' CK iravoiKiwv eaipovT<i)v. 3) : Tpyovipots ffvve^eis Nepovtot. Tribocci. crossed the Rhine. citra flumen Rhenum depositis. c." : c. as they furnished a contingent of 29. Their number is stated to have been 420. expediam. inferri. viz." (i. We have the following enumeration of the tribes that swelled the ranks of the German army (i.17 were already in the camp of Ariovistus. iv. the Harudes. On a subsequent occasion (vi. OTCLV vir' aXXwv KJ3a\\ovTui KpeiTTovktv (1. Sedusii. facerent.) These instances. Nervii. we learn (1. ^epo/ievojv oyaXTj^ov KOI TTO. hunc sibi domicilio locum delegerunt. Vangiones. post eorum obitum. 47). Caesar selected a certain " agent to confer with Ariovistus propter linguae Gallicae scientiam. (1. and were ultimately allowed by Caesar to settle in the territories of the Ubii. and in this statement he is supported by the evidence of Tacitus : " Nunc singularum gentium instituta ritusque quatenus differant. Hi. 51). pati vini reliquarumque rerum quod iis rebus relanguescere animoset remitti virtutemexistimarent. qui.000 (iv. quum alias bellum inferrent. 2) : . iv. multos annos a nnitimis exagitati. that for at least half a century before the Christian sera the gradual displacement of the Celtic population of Gaul was in progress on the western banks of the Rhine. c. have been adduced to prove the fact. multa iam Ariovistus qua longinqua consueludine utebatur." (Germ.S peTat'CurratTeis avTwv pqStws 2ia TOVTO virapyeiv ffu/it/3atvet. which might readily be increased. custodiae ex suis ac praesidio sex : hominum una reliquerunt." This statement is fully confirmed by the brief notice which " Nihil Caesar supplies of their manners and mode of life (ii. that Ariovistus had learnt the Celtic language. 2." in an abortive attempt to oppose the progress of the Roman arms.their Cisrhenane Germans. 15) luxuriam ad pertinentium.

harum gentium quae e Gennania in Gallias commigraverunt) . 12.e. In the enumeration of the Belgian forces by the Remi. Vangiones . They furnished a contingent of 60. : FepfiaviKOf edros irepatwdev etc TTJS ouceias. legates ad CaeGermanorum.000 men to the Belgian army. non gentis. In the attack on Cicero's camp (v. H. With regard to these people. iv. 2) nuper ad: . 2. iv. to the Tribocci.000 men to the confederate Belgian army. xxix. Segni. iv. and are declared to be Germani (1." The Condrusi and the Eburones were under the protection of the Treveri. who." and Strabo (1. after they had seceded from the Belgian league. 51). we find the Eburones in league with their countrymen the Aduatici and the Nervii. 6). 66). vi. ex gente et numero sunt inter Eburones Trevirosque. 4. also be true of the Suessiones. c. (Germ. Tribocci. Compare Tacitus " Ceterum Germaniae vocabulum recens et (Germ. qui sarem miserunt. Suessiones." 11 Remi. The four first-named states supplied 40.i^ova> ois icai Me$iop. 5. i.aKrpois) . : habeant" (ii. ne se in hostium numero duceret. These people were the kinsmen of the Remi " . 7. We ditum quoniam qui primi Rhenum transgressi Gallos expulerint. we find the four first of these tribes classed together. Nemetes. e. ev ols (i. c. iv. . Caeraesi. c. ipsis it is unum imperium unumque magistratum cum 13. 10. we have the additional testimony of Pliny and Strabo. Paemani. 4). . Nemetes. "Rhenum autem accolentes. These tribes are specifically mentioned by Caesar as forming part of the army of ArioWith regard vistus. 3). Vangiones. 8. Tpi/Soic^oi. qui essent citra Rhenum. 32) the Segni are added with a distinct assertion of " their Germanic origin Segni Condrusique. " of Tacitus (Ger. Germaniae gentium in eadem provincia Nemetes. with the following remark " qui uno nomine Germani adpellantur" (ii. 2. oratum. fra- tres consariguineosque suos. neve omnium Germanorum. unam esse caussam iudicaret. 6. presumed that their : passages Teutonic character will not be disputed. tune Germani vocati sint ita nationis nomen. 15). 3). quod ea re ad laborem ferendum remollescere homines atque effeminari arbitrantur. Triboci. Tribocci. 28) is beyond exception Ipsam Rheni ripam hand dubie Germanorum populi colunt. it will shortly be shown. The former (1. were a German people (iv. evaluisse paullatim. Vangiones. Condrusi. with the Tungri and other German tribes (Tac. ut omues primum a victore ob metum.) " Omnium may however be cited (i. qui eodem iure et eisdem legibus utantur. they united their forces with the Aduatici and other Cisrhenane Germans in a fruitless attempt to check the victorious find them in after times acting in concert legions of Caesar. Batavi." Again in 1. 16) writes.18 " Vinum ad se omnino importari non sinunt. ac nunc Tungri. and again (H. 3. Eburones. mox a se ipsis invento nomine Germani vocarentur " and in the sixth book (c. What is true of the Remi must iSpvTai The testimony : . That the Remi acknowledged themselves as a German tribe is evident from the information which they afforded Caesar respecting the origin of their Belgian countrymen. 39). c. The following decisive Tac. 9.

rr\v rov wKeavov TOV Bperrawt/tov ovaav. find him subseappointed a Kelt to govern a German people. TTJV /uev aw.a. we find the district called Germania. or their common interests could be advanced. 7). religion and language could have taken an The indirect evidence to which active part in these discussions." "Batavi. "per Treviros venisse Germanis in amicitiam" (vi. extrema Gallicae orae vacua cultoribus. Again. . that Germanic origin of the people inhabiting the country of the Morini. ras row Trorupov irqyas. There exists considerable indirect evidence of the Teutonic character of several of the remaining tribes. 12). allusion has been made. the Atrebates take an active part in all their proceedings. and all the Cisrhenane Germans (vi. tie Compare the following assertion of Zosimus (vi. Cattorum quondam populus et seditione domestica in eas sedes transgressus in quibus pars Romani And again (Hist. 1) : es Boi'toJ'icu' (irpw'rTj 3e avrrj irpos ry da\a<r<rt) KCITUI FepSo prevalent was the belief in the ovtrn iroXts rrjs icarw). iv. rr\v pera. Their king Commius was. 2). sar learnt. a general council of the confederate chiefs was held to devise means to avert the impending danger and to secure The Remi were present at this federal council their independence. consists in the fact that many of the remaining tribes of the Belgae constantly cooperated with those of acknowledged Germanic origin.e(rt)ai etroirjffay. imperii fierent. donee trans 12): agebant. Thus Dio Cassius (liii." 14. KeXrwv yap rives ovs fir) Teppavovs KaXovpef. viii. we read: " Atrebatem Commium discessisse ad auxilia Germanorum We . 15. Menapii. is direct. The evidence adduced in favour of the Teutonic origin of these fifteen states. CaeAduatici. and solicited and received assistance in times of peril from the Germans who dwelt beyond the Rhine. e KCITW. This will of course include the Menapii. but we know that they afforded each other the most vigorous assistance whenever danger threatened. members of the Belgian league. totiusque belli imperium We : sibi postulare" (ii. simulque insulam inter vada sitam Rhenum : occupavere. It is expressly stated that It is highly improthe Belgae differed in language from the Celtae. and betrayed its proceedings to Caesar. Thus the Bellovaci are stated to have been the most influential among the confederate states.. pars Cattorum seditione domestica pulsi. And again. These people contributed 9000 men to the Belgian army. On another occasion we find them leagued with the Nervii. do not find that the Belgian states often acted in unison with those of the Galli or Celtae. created chief It is highly improbable that Caesar would have of the Morini also. 5).19 virtute praecipui Batavi * * *. quently acting in concert with the Bellovaci and again (1. -rraaav rr\v irpos TV rr\v fJ-f\fli 'Priry KeXrtKjyv KnTaa^ovres Fepfiavtav ovop. bable that aliens in race. 4). through Caesar's influence. and to have aspired to the leadership of the " Plurimum inter eos Bellovacos et virtute et auctoallied troops ritate et hominum numero valere : hos posse conficere armata milia centum: pollicitos ex eo numero electaLX. Morini. Before the commencement of the Belgian war.

2. Diablintes. The first and last of these propositions have been already disfew remarks on the second may be necessary." He returned with a body of 500 horse. was of a mixed character that the German settlers were pulation the dominant race but that a large portion of the original Keltic inhabitants. or receive. The to possess a distinctive character from those lying to the east. remained in their country : " .20 adducenda. the cooperation of the Celtae who adjoined their territories. and the express declaration that the Belgae were Germans. . aware of the power of the formidable enemy they had defied." position that the Morini and Menapii were of a kindred race. third book of his Memoirs. In this respect they differ materially from the national character of the Keltic tribes. former appear to have been essentially a maritime people their vessels were well adapted to withstand the storms of the channel. and summoned to their assistance the Belgian tribes in the neighbourhood. Menapii Auxilia ex Ambiliatos. and. but sent to the distant Morini and Socios sibi ad id bellum Osismios. However they mustered their whole force. c. The fact that they acted in concert with Belgian tribes of acknowledged Germanic origin. With regard to the tribes located to the west of the Sequana. as a subject people. and received every assistance from them in times of danger. . On a subsequent occasion we find their forces cooperating with the Bellovaci in opposing the Roman legions (viii. Menapios adsciscunt. where they exercised sovereign sway. 3. he did not take refuge among " ad eos the Keltic tribes but profugit Germanos. threefold 1 . the writer is willing to admit that the evidence of their Teutonic origin is less direct and conclusive than that upon which the nationality of He is inclined to believe that the pothe eastern states is based. It is a remarkable fact that they did not invite. quorum et vicinitas propinqua et multitude esset infinita. This fact can be explained only on the supBritannia arcessunt. Marinas." Most ancient authorities concur in denning the Rhine and the Loire as the eastern and western limits of the territorial possessions The tribes to the west of the Seine appear however of the Belgae. When the fortune of war compelled him to leave his country. and that the Veneti distrusted their Keltic neighbours whom they had probably oppressed and driven from their possessions in earlier times. and closely resembled those of the northern and eastern races of Gothic origin. : opinion of the ancient writers that they were Belgae. when subdued by the Belgae. but remind us forcibly of the Vikingers of the North and the piratical Saxons of The evidence for the Teutonic origin of these tribes is after times. becoming subsequently more intimately connected by intermarriage and social intercourse. Caesar gives an interesting and animated account of the rising of the Veneti. In the cussed. and the measures adopted The unanimous A The Veneti were in all probability scarcely for their subjugation. 7). Nannetes. Lexovios. identified them- . Their habits and mode of life were unlike those of the Keltic nations. a quibus ad id helium auxilia mutuatus erat.

p.21 and fortunes of their conquerors. 113) a century before the Christian sera. as occupying the tract of country lying between the Garonne and the Pyrenees. That the ancient writers believed the Belgae to be a German people 3. Tous per AKVITCLVOVS reXews er)\to . the Belgae were the only tribe who successfully opposed them. iv. Hence not be surprised at the apparent anomaly of a Keltic dialect still spoken in that part of France. Speaking of the divisions of Gaul. e D 5 . That there is historical evidence to prove that a large number of the most powerful tribes were unquestionably of German origin. c. whether Caesar meant to say more. the writer may perhaps be allowed to assume that all the tribes were members of that stock to which it has been proved that most of them 4. in language. 1) remarks. that at least (B. A few generations passed and scarcely a vestige of the Norse tongue remained. ov rj. . laws and institutions from the Celtae . yXwrrjj {JLOVOV. while the language of the latter would insensibly supersede the unfamiliar dialect of the strangers. selves with the interests we must Having now shown 1 That the Belgae differed . the evidence is exceedingly meagre." (Eng. and the conquered numerous but weak. 134). Where the conquerors were few but warlike. 2. there was an intermixture of Germans. History furnishes us with a remarkable parallel and striking illustration in the immediate vicinity of these tribes in the case of the Norsemen who founded the dukedom of Normandy. belonged. it might naturally be expected that the chief direction of political affairs would devolve upon the former. Strabo (1. AKVITUVOVS not BeXyas KaXovvres nai KeXras. however. one landmark to guide us in our search. the writer may be allowed add a few words respecting the third division of the inhabitants of Gaul. We possess. aXXo cai rots o<t>uaatv. to prey upon the feebler tribes of alien blood who lay between them and Italy. than that over and above certain differences which distinguished the Belgae from the other inhabitants of the common country Gallia.C. laws and " customs from the other two and they are denned under the name of Aquitani. That it cannot be proved that any tribe belonged to a different stock . ot pev 5j rpixp ^tppovr. Lang. The statement however proves. The truth appears to be that the Teutons turned aside from a kindred race of warlike habits. Belgian tribes were located : along the northern coast of Gaul. It is stated that when the Cimbri and Teutoni made their formidable inroad into Gaul. La" It is tham in the following passage doubtful. " It is stated that these also differed in language. however. Xayfievovs. Respecting the exact periods at which these settlements were made. He is at least inclined to believe that the evidence ad- duced proves something more than the inference drawn by Dr. Before closing this part of his subject. It is probable that these settle- ments were effected several centuries before that period.

8. viz. mittit (iv. quern ipse. in the present county of Hampshire we meet with a numerous and influential tribe named Belgae. is true of was. G. or intercommunication suspended? This Commius was subsequently. that the physical conformation of the Aquitani was that of the Iberians of Spain rather are thus compelled." this passage was penned with Caesar's usual caution and accuracy will appear evident on a careful consideration of the following facts." The earliest direct proof that can be adduced in support of this statement is contained in a passage in Caesar (B. 7. regem ibi constituerat * * cuius auctoritas in iis re' : : Whence this powerful gionibus magni habebatur. atque agros colere coeperunt. apud ripam Thamesis habitabant Atrebates. inferius habitabant." and again by Ptolemy eira ArpeySanot ecu iroXis NaX/cova. non multis ante Caesaris : . if the races were distinct. of which we still recognize the modern representatives in the inhabitants and lan- We district in Spain. et suam a Celtis Beleisque originem traxere hi. appointed ruler over the Morini (B. c." influence over the British tribes. Such traces are actually found. 21). c. quos natos in insula ipsa memoria proditum dicunt . sic dicti Belgae. De Situ Bri" Confines illis tanniae' (c. 21). ** * Omnes enim Belgae Allobroges sunt. vi. urbes primariae Clausentum. Their position is indicated by Ricardus Cicestrensis. this race and language were the ancient Iberian. quorum 12) . quod nunc Southhamptona dicitur. Among the Belgian tribes enumerated above. Portus magnus. Again. quorum urbs primaria Caleba . 1. 76). through Caesar's influence. to seek for a race and The writer believes that stock other than the Keltic or Teutonic. we meet with the Atrebates. The settlement of this tribe is thus recorded by Richard of Cirencester (De Situ Brit. we might reasonably expect to discover some traces of this identity of name. nobilissima civitas ad flumen Antona sita. the southern coast of Britain. proposition stated in the commencement of this paper "that what is true of the northern coast of Gaul. and we find a numerous tribe of that name in Britain. v. qui praedae ac belli inferendi caussa ex Belgis transierant . That these states (ii. . 9). 3) were of kindred origin is evident from the fact recorded by Caesar " Et cum his una in the following words (t. 12) " Britanniae pars interior ab iis incolitur. true ethnological position to the Aquitani. in assigning their than of the Kelts of Gaul.22 The geographer thus adds another mark p(i\\ov T) FaXarats. " Ad Oceanum. Atrebatibus superatis. vii. maritima pars ab iis. Caesar states that the immigrant tribes in Britain retained the names by which they were known in their native country. omniumque prsecipua Venta. qui omnes fere iis nominibus civitatum adpellantur. and was chiefly instrumental in bringing German auxiliaries from beyond the Rhine to aid the Belgian cause attesting at the same time his patriotism and his race (viii. of distinction to those mentioned by Caesar. vi. e. G. the ambassadors who had come over to him from Britain) Commium. In the scanty history of those times which has come down to us. quibus orti ex civitatibus eo pervenerunt et guage of the Basque The second : That bello inlato ibi remanserunt.

Belgian and Damnonian. 3)." It should be observed that this writer is not cited as a credible authority. The Venta Belgarum is repeatedly mentioned by subsequent writers. Cic. the chiefs who had been the principal instigators of the rebellion fled for proGallis (i. have seen above that the Atrebate Commius possessed great influence among his island kinsmen . in the hour of danger.) Again. not only from the German Morini and Menapii. 15. Again we meet with a tribe bearing the name Manapii. Tacitus. xi. was also called Remi proximi. QvevTti (ii. positio coeli corporibus habitum dedit in universum tamen aestimanti. under the name of Bri" Cantiis boci. qui quum magnae partis harum regionum. between the two countries is also distinctly intimated in numerous passages in the ancient authors. turn etiam Britanniae imperium obtinuerit. A tribe. seu procurrentibus in diversa terris. hostibus nostris inde subfact that Commercial intercourse ministrata auxilia intelligebat" (iv. ii. when the powerful tribe of the Bellovaci were vanquished by Caesar. : We We : have already tection to their friends in Britain (Id. *Yara Oeppa. qui et : Morini alias vocantur. and a city called Manapia (Wicklow in Ireland) (Ptol. ii.) . the Kentish. Tacitus sacra e. He divides the districts on the southern coast of Britain into three provinces.) find again abundant evidence of the existence of intimate relations between the two nations. G. Caesar's statement is supported by independent evidence of a no less satisfactory character. qui et aliis Remi dicuntur." (B. adjoining another tribe the Cauci.) The Durotriges. In addition to the undoubted existence of acknowledged Belgian tribes in Britain." (Ric. vi. ii. ut putant : : nonnulli. et. " Ex sermo hand multwn diversus" (Agric. persuasione superstitionum deprehendas Belgian Gauls) (*. 20).23 * * * sedem in hanc insulam saeculis. or people of Dorset. and we read in Caesar that the " king of the Apud eos Belgian Suessiones also held sovereign sway in Britain fuisse regem nostra etiam memoria Divitiacum." (Id. Ptolemy defines the British Belgae in these words BeXym ccu iroXets Iff^aXts. 14). subjecti. : . seu durante originis vi.) This double nomenclature might readily have originated in the fact that the inhabitants of a certain district sometimes retained the original Keltic name. and Caesar writes . relicta patria Gallia hie sibi elegerunt. Bibroci. xi. vi. sometimes name of the immigrant tribe. or as conveying the impressions of the educated men of his time. the Veneti sent to solicit assistance. remarks " Eorum religion and language of the two people. e. were according to the same authority called " Infra Heduorum terras siti Morini erant Durotriges. mentioned by ancient writers. seen that. There remains the positive declaration of both Caesar and Tacitus as to the identity of customs. arrived at the same conclusion adopted the : Belgis) et similes sunt. c. Gallos vicinum solum occupasse credibile est. 4. : We . but also from the and the pretext for Caesar's invasion of the island was the Britains " omnibus fere Gallicis bellis. totius Galliae potentissimum." (Agric. but as indicating the existence of pre- adventum vious documents whence his information was derived. 2). natio in monumentis non penitus ignota. 9. c. " Proximi after mature deliberation.

Replaces them between the Morini and the Bellovaci. neque a Gallica differunt consuetudine" (B. The existence of this people on the continent may perhaps afford some explanation of a fact which perplexed Pliny. appears worthy of record. but here again we encounter a serious difficulty. is considered that sufficient evidence has been adduced to 1st. 2nd. mirorque nominis but it : : Oceano Britanniae velut propinquae diinde adpellatam earn. In the 25th book of his ' Naturalis Historia' (c. fere Gallicis consimilia. sed contra anginas quoque et contra serpentes. &c. a stock apparently the earliest of which history supplies any record and the existing names of localities unchangeable in their nature would be recognized and adopted by the victorious settlers. specimens of the dialects spoken in the south-eastern districts of Britain." these illustrations numerous additions might readily be made. To confirm this evidence it would be desirable that philological proofs of the existence of German tribes in Britain should be collected and produced. hills. The MSS. Kemble's work. non nervis modo et oris malis salutaris. certum est. and the method of extracting and applying the antidote. In the enumeration of the tribes which constitute Gallia Belgica.24 his multum " omnibus longe sunt humanissirai. supply no variation in the reading. Horum To est infinita multitude crebenimaque aedificia. and of the existence of intimate relations between the Gothic tribes of the continent and those of this country previous to 450 A. if not of its impracticability. One passage. however. of the very limited results which it could ever be possible to attain. although they present frequent and striking discrepancies in the names of the other tribes. 14) and again . The first and simplest means of prosecuting the inquiry. however. he writes." After describing the plant. etiamnum Britannia libera." It will have been observed that the evidence throughout this paper has been of a purely historical character. iv. . promontories. " Reperta auxilio est herba. The writer had collected evidence of the settlement of numerous bodies of German origin in Britain. A careful examination of these names may. quoniam ibi plurima nasceretur. still furnish interesting results to scholars wellversed in the ancient forms of the Keltic and Gothic dialects. nostris demonstravere illam . The Saxons in England/ he has considered it unnecessary to trouble the Society with the restatement of facts accessible to all. rivers. The country had been previously occupied by inhabitants of another stock. qua castra erant. . 3). G. might next have recourse to the recorded names of districts. that the Belgae were substantially a support the probability German people . Pliny (1. But a moment's consideration of the difficulties which attend such an investigation will convince us. Non enim We . he proceeds " Frisii. caussam. but finding the majority of the se' lected passages indicated in Mr. which is omitted in Mr. 17) mentions a people called Britanni. do not unfortunately exist.D. v. nisi forte confines cavere. that the inhabitants of the south-eastern portions of Britain were substantially Belgae. Kemble's work. quae vocatur Britannica. qui Cantium incolunt. viz.

v. an inE ' . ihall The use of the article is therefore to be attributed to the effort ivhich is constantly perceivable in language. was the consequence of he imitation of the German idiom. A " among the ther Languages of the Indo-European family Continued. !sq. in the Chair. They therefore occupy a place between the ancient and'the modern languages and in this respect they are pre-eminently deserving of the attention of the philologist. be true. By rof. if we suppose that when the Latin was by that event put into a state favourable to a new deveopment of its grammatical forms. the utility of which is so obvious. Esq... It is natural that when the original meaning of the termination if the nominative case was forgotten. V. Fellow and Lecturer of William George Clarke.. nd Lecturer of Trinity College. it obtained the use of articles. Trithen. William Arthur Case. :aken as the indefinite. wonderful change in language. the article. They are to him of the same importance as a Indeed it living specimen of a Saurian would be to the geologist.. is Greece and sentence VOL. that even in the inflective languages. Esq. it is clear that the Slavonic dialects have not undergone it nor is it less certain that they are inferior in point of age and perfection of form to the Latin and Greek. near Plymouth. most nearly approach the truth. . Richard F. With regard to the Roman language. Cambridge. : On paper was then read the position occupied by the Slavonic Dialects " hould have been introduced. which when it strikes the ear seems For in these languages every word in a to be quivering with life. to analyse and sepaBut whatever be the cause of this rately to express every idea. and idopted for them those words which appear naturally to suggest Hence unus was . scarcely possible to realize the full beauty of the languages of Rome without having experienced the wonderful power of a word in a similar language. Fellow Vinity College. Weymouth. : following gentlemen were elected Members of the Society Esq. 7.PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY. Cambridge. 104. But it seems more than doubtful vhether the use even of the definite article had at that sera been ntroduced into the Teutonic languages and it is probable that we t . London. Esq. and ille as the definite article. . is a it And. or when the whole of the ternination was dropped.hemselves as most convenient for this purpose. FEBRUARY HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD. has been supposed that the sudden change which the Latin unlerwent at the time of the German invasion.. No. Jniversity College. . Portland Villas. The Hugh Alexander Johnston Munro. 1851. though spontaneous creation not a skilful arrangement.

though the of the civilization of the West of Europe. character. for while their languages have never suffered any intrusion of foreign words. and produce the effect of an undivided whole. it is evident that the examination of such a language as the Russian a living synthetic language. in despite of the The Slavonic nations to this influence of their western teachers. they are still essentially poetical and creative. and he has derived great advantages from it for the elucidation of the declenbut he has chosen the ancient Slavonic. that the study of the if it be one of the objects of And is to be recommended. languages in their recomparative philology to ascertain the laws of language lation to the laws of thought. Russian poet Pushkin is imbued with Byron. and sions and pronouns a living specimen neglected to compare the dead languages with an omission which has frequently caused him to of their own class. The belief in the Rusalkas and Domovoys is as prevalent in Russia in the nineteenth century as was the belief in the nymphs and satyrs in the and the ideas on nature one hears in everyearly days of Greece day life from the mouth of the peasant are quite as poetical as any which occur in the Vishnu Purana. nor did any of these nations receive it before the ninth century. It would seem therefore that they are still in what might be termed the stage of childhood in nations . and more especially the Hindus like them they endow her elements with moral faculties. and much less idioms. . It is to this primitive originality in the character of all the Slavonic nations. marks their literatures. their literatures are altogether the results And yet. it.26 word may be analysed and reduced to the very same elements which the idea it expresses is resolved in the analytical lanso intimately blended with one another. And for a proper it is more especially for the analysis of inflected words fleeted into Slavonic understanding of their organism. day understand nature as the ancients did. has preserved the originality of the Slavonic poets. neither of them can be charged with being simply an imitator. and the Polish poet Mickiewicz is full of Goethe and Schiller. their minds were not ripe for the effects of Christianity . culiarity is even greater. cannot but add a number of interesting and important facts. while Russia was not converted before the end of the tenth. guages. Their languages were too young to become analytical when the Gothic and Latin were changed to that form . . . The same reason which may be assigned for the preservation of the Slavonic dialects from the general dissolution and subsequent change which came over the other languages of Europe in the first centuries after Christ. and like the Greeks they invest them with the human form. that we must attribute the peculiar colouring which everything European receives as it passes through the mind of the . Bopp has admitted the Slavonic into his Comparative Grammar. yet are those elements that they are. The same amphibious any of their neighbours. from commit grave errors. if we may be allowed so to term which distinguishes the languages of the Slavonic race from those The peof the other nations of Europe.

as has been stated before. a poetical simile. But by far the greatest number of their songs is of a lyrical nature. In Russia it can only be said to apply to the period after . some of which are of great length (the history of Michael Czerneyovitz. : rise strange to see some of the most beautiful poetical productions after day. the traditions of the Slavonians relate to the Mahabharata the Amrita or water of immortality. in one of his lectures on the language and literature of the Slavonic nations (which he delivered at the College de France).) and though Bohemia has for a long time been a civilized country. is the land of the Kosaks they speak the Ruthenian dialect. as you know. which form some of the most beautiful episodes in the Indian epic. the whole tone of the Russian production is different it is even more poetical. Another series of songs relates entirely to the political events of their countries. But if it be true that the Slavonic literatures are almost entirely suggested by the literatures of the western nations of Europe.27 Slavonic poet. are to this day current in Russia. ' . Thus the whole history of Servia is contained in a cycle of songs. it is a truth which applies only to the written productions of those nations. that though the idea and even the form be suggested by the German poet. the Wanderings of the Pandavas. there are many parts of its history that can only be learnt from the national poetry. . without its being possible to discover their authors.' plays a prominent part in their stories the History of Draupadi. for it lives mouths of the people to this day. And nothing can be more interesting in the than this oral literature of the Slavonic nations. The Kosaks . and may be said to be their common work and property. called the Ukraine the original seat or the cradle of the The Ukraine. common property of all. is there taken up and carried from mouth to mouth until it grows into a poem. extends over more than two thousand verses . While. Bandinel has lately shown the writer a little collection of Russian songs in the Bodleian Library. which partakes of the character both of the Polish and Russ. twenty years and printed. Mickiewicz has. Peter the Great. give an additional charm to the Russian poem. for instance. and forms a history which in many respects is more faithful and interesting than the works of their learned chroniclers. and then it may truly be called the It is day . E2 . will remark. the mythologies of Greece and Rome are connected with the ideas contained in the Vedas. last ten or By ditional history is oral far the greater part of their poetry and traand though it has been collected during the . and the advantages which a synthetic language has over those of an analytical character. Whoever has read Burger's Lenore and compared it withZhukofski's Svyetlana (it is translated in Bowring's Anthology). Dr. For in Slavonic countries a song is seldom the work of one man a pretty idea left unfinished. lyrical poetry of the Slavonic nations. which in civilized society would perish. it is still oral. which are of great interest for the history of Russia under and after Boris Godunof.

. . This subject is too extensive to be entered into on the present ocit will be sufficient to casion say that the Slavonic dialects differ from one another more in respect of their pronunciation. of the and this song. The correctness of this division was perceived and exemplified by the learned Bohemian abbot Dobrowski. And there can be no doubt that the two branches into which the whole Slavonic race is divided at the present day. though it be composed in a particular district. and their literature bears evident traces of the influence which either country has exercised over the national mind. correspond with the Antae and Sclavini of Procopius. is universally Slavonic in its character. neration to generation. It extends to their written literature. the victories and defeats it may yet have to witness simple outpouring of his mind. that the Slavonian languages. Their literature consists chiefly of songs on the virtues and actions These poems are mostly lyrical. and chiefs. and even composing groups which are severally distinguishable. from one Slavonic nation to the other. the latter comprehends the western tribes of this family. than= with The Russian is the prinregard to their grammatical structure. The Antae and Sclavini of Procopius are by him described as the two tribes of the Slavonic races. becomes an expression for the common feeling of the whole people. they have all retained that primitive cast of mind of the earlier nations of the world. and vice versa. The Kosak from the door of his cottage watches his horses in silence as they graze in the distance his eye wanders over the boundless steppe he thinks and dreams of the combats that have once taken place in it. that notwithstanding their political divisions. and is handed down from geof their Atamans or after passing . . literature. they have from time immemorial formed two distinct groups which have often stood opposed to each other. But it chiefly depends upon the circumstance. The former is the eastern branch. . Pesth no less than at Prague. The habit which all the Slavonic tribes have of appropriating any poem which. though the groundwork of the Slavonic character is the same in all the tribes of that race. There is no doubt however that. present day. whose generic name at that time was Spori or Serbi. are yet by no means so remote from each other as are many idioms which are universally regarded as dialects of one language. . as in Poland Pushkin and Khomyakoff are praised by the Czechs and the learned quite as much as by their Russian countrymen works of Schaffarik and Jungmann are studied at Petersburgh and . one of the most profound investigators of the Slavonian history. is not restricted to their national or oral poetry. and is partly accounted for by the fact. though numerous and clearly marked. and antiquities. and whose views have been adopted with little variation by succeeding writers.28 passed alternately from the domination of Poland to that of Russia. which strongly distinguishes them from the Teutonic and Romanic populations of the Mickiewicz is as much read and admired in Russia. are ultimately claimed as their own by all of them.

who spoke a Teutonic dialect. corresponding to that of the ancient Sclavini. Russia. Rurik. Truvor. has yet exerted so great an influence upon it as to produce a new language the English . but also (in some respects) from the tribes which it represents itself.29 cipal language of the eastern branch. and caused a modification of the Slavonic character similar to that which distinguishes the English from the other naThe literature of Russia. and which is evidently framed upon the model of the Scandinavian laws. or that of the Antae. These observations may be pursued at a future period. as the ancient Russian historian Nestor expresses himself. But if the conquest of Russia by the Normans differ. that is the tions of Teutonic origin. that the language of the Norman conquerors in England. the adoption of the Roman Catholic religion by the Slavonians of the west. it resembles it on the other hand in this respect. to come into their country to rule over them. and Sineus. fully bears out this remark. while in Russia. . Normans conquered Novogorod. is the circumstance that since 862 In that year the Varyagues or it has ceased to be purely Slavonic. Subsequently. the Northmen. as was the case in France. though it has not altered the essentially Teutonic character of the Anglo-Saxon. gave up their language almost immediately after their settling in the country. Numerous testimonies of ancient writers prove that this division of the Slavonic race into two branches has existed from the earliest period of their history. The first code of laws which the Russians received."not only from Poland. is the same which in this island has changed a Teutonic population into the English nation with this difference however. that it has established a new principle of civil government. The number of words in Russian that can be proved to have been introduced by the Varyagues. and there is no trace of any other effect produced by the idiom of these northern conquerors on the language of their subjects. . is written in Russian. while the Polish represents the dialects of the western group of the Sla- vonic race. has increased the distance that but that which pre-eminently distinguishes existed between them . and the introduction of the Greek Church among the eastern tribes. from the conquest of England by the same people. written and learned literature of the nation. and adopted that of the natives. in that year the Slavonic people invited three northern princes. in regard of the influence it has had on the language of the country. scarcely exceeds fifty. The element therefore which distinguishes the Russians from the other Slavonic tribes. or.


plieren. A Blear-eye is a sore inflamed eye like one that has long been weeping. 36.' Praestigise geplerr. further increased by a third word of cognate to peer or look with the eyelids plira. to cry. that demands had been made on the London Library for Parochial Rates. which may be compared with with hus bulles and blered hure eye. down. seconded by Mr. he cried till the teajs ran Blarr-oge or bleer-oge. in order to exempt them from their liability. inasmuch as stated that the Council had called the present Gefor the" purpose of considering the propriety of altering part of their house was underlet to the Statistical and Philological Societies. ' the eyes. division. No. so constantly takes place in the development of language. Two words of different origin and meaning seem to be confounded in the E. In this sense it exactly answers to Schmeller's plerren. a blot or of one. Wedgwood. Esq. carried was then moved by Mr. which is required by the Stat. and unanimously. HEVSLEIOH WEDGWOOD. Chabot. ' makes a vain blur before Pierce Plowman's " He blessed hem their eyes. made by their Assistant. is whence plier-oget. On paper was then read " English Etymologies : : Continued. That the following addition be made to Rule XVI. to He blarrede sinen langen tranen. a mist before Der Teufel macht ihnen ein cities plerr vor den augen. Pl.-D. in the the word seems identical with blur. Sharpe. a red watery eye. a crying eye. " No dividend. VOL." It A " Esq.Secretary Mr.' the devil . Sw. By H. pier vor den augen. v. The Meeting had to consider what steps it might be convenient to take under these circumstances. it was insisted by the Parish Authorities. they were liable. The Chairman neral Meeting one of the Rules of the Society. V. Special General Meeting. 7 & 8 Viet. one pressed together like short-sighted persons. 1851.-D. gift. in the Chair. To BLEAR. * VOL. concealing something that had originally been distinct. to which. In ' the old expression to blear one's eye/ on the other hand. 105. FEBRUARY 21. or bonus in money shall be made by the Society unto or between any of its Members. Blear. to blare or roar. . and hence. with that softening down of the signification which weep.PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY. from the Pl. blarren. c. Cochrane. sense deceiving smear. neither of which Societies had any provision in their Statutes against a division of profits. It appeared from a communication. a blotch plerr." The confusion meaning.

By which if that no champion doth appere. to peer. She death shall sure aby. short-sighted." Gascoigne. to pay for (also written and pronounced abegge. since I is frequently inserted or omitted after p.-D. to signify." Pope.form or the E. as in Pl. oculis semiclausis intueri. Boethius.' have been used as a proverbial expression . to look out for. was of very frequent use in the sense of paying the some act. "And now he hath to her prefix'd a day. I will make thee smart or pay soundly for it. but they are in all probability radically identical. properly abuy. from A. and simply to But in speaking of abiding in the sense of con- tinuing in a certain condition. blissful if no pain of justice " Girt with circumfluous tides. In this case the meaning of two words of very different origin has who lookswith come so closely to approximate in sound and sense that some pains are required to disentangle the confusion. abidge. and thus the word has acquired the sense of sufferance simply..' (Cotgr." F. to wink. In a former paper it was shown how the verb to abide or abie came remain or endure.' ' Je te le ferai bien comparer. compared with Du. To endure. In the original " trop compare Sa malice trop durement. to wink.) Numerous examples of this mode of expression may be found in the Roman de la Rose. plinken. and death for handsel pay. in which our abie was rendered by the verb comperre or comparer. pink-oogen. to expect.-E." " Enfant craint ni ni mere qui Ne peut que bien ne pere le comperre.32 half-closed eyes. to await." the sense of purchasing however seems early to is distinctly marked." " For who that dredith sire ne dame Shall it abie in body and name. to redeem. there is frequently a reference to the pain or other obstacles which make endurance difficult. or the mere fact of being subjected to painful influences " My men and I did cold and hunger bide. plink-ogen. abicgan. to of ' penalty buy or pay dearly for. At the same time to abie in O. and in Chaucer's translation " And sore abieth she dele (Envy) every " : Her malice and her male-talent." Chaucer. pinken.-S. " Certes that is that these wicked shrewes be more : (quoth she) that alien the torment that they have deserved than ne chastised them. peer is the original may be doubted. (Kil. 'To buy it dear.) To ABIE." In the passage from Spencer " For whoso hardy hand on her doth It dearly shall abie lay. He still calamitous constraint abides . to suffer the consequences of something. abigg). Whether the Sw. Q. An equivalent expression was equally current in Fr.

as Richardson observe's. derivative. " If he come into the hands of the holy Inquisition. it. Quot. from Fr. and abide. where.) these examples one is tempted at once to assume that the root is the G.) earnest. and that an initial n has been lost in the G. but this is a derivative form. day-labourers who go harvesting into the richer diswhere we catch the word in an actual state of tricts. as in the numerous cases adverted to in uyt neirst. Istneirst? serioneagis? your living? . gheneeren nutrire. lob erernten. To earn. Hence Neernst. which is truly synonymous with theFr. E. that one is at once disposed to consider the latter as a derivative of the former.33 for suffering loss. alere. studium neernstig. To EARN. was used in such a manner.) : to earn one's living. For some day boughtin And The eft the thei of Troy Grekis foundin nothing it dere. must suffer for it. sor Tatian." Troilus and Cressida. sedulitas.) : "Arner. The connection of the two words is apparently corroborated by the Du. and not only points to a different origin of the verb to earn.-S. in earnest. to earn praise. erne. earning and spending. navus. for reaping is ernten.n modern G. ndhren." To abie from A. neeren. word -j. serio. F 2 . without regarding Thus in Chaucer it as the penalty of any particular act. From a former paper. acquired the sense of simple suffering. Wat neiring doet gy ? unde vitam toleras (Biglotton) ? How do you earn " Halma. ernen. earnest. The examination of other Teutonic dialects leads -to a different conclusion. neerst. in the sense of working for one's living. having thus. like abie. abayer. (Kil. in Boucher. to earn. Schmeller harvest. drnet. it often seemed to signify simple suffering. (Kil. Hence arnen. " The thingis fellin as they done of werre Betwixtin hem of Troie and Grekis ofte. and was applied as if that were the full import of the word abie : When i. Arn-mcende (harvest-month) August. to support. Arnari mesharvest. (Kiittner. g 'arnen. seems so natural a type of earnestness. neerstig-diligens. ernst.-S. arn.) Fris. soft folk of Troy. (Kil. erarWat wollt' ich daran erarnen ? what shall I nen. the two became confounded together. Lest to thy peril thou abide it dear. There can be no more striking image of rewarded Now the labour than that afforded by the reaping of the harvest. as opposed to play. (Biglotton. he must abye for e. et quaestum. : absque joco. The simple verb is arnen. sectare honeste. gain by it ? as in ordinary G. Kil. abicgan. 'Arn. victum et facultates quaerere. arnleute. open intentus. parentage. but seems to show that there is no 'radical connection between earn and earnest. was sometimes allowed to appropriate the sense of paying a penalty. belonging to abie in virtue of its A." Shakespear. with which abide itself is wholly unconnected : Disparage not the faith thou dost now know. it ought to be abie. (Schmeller) . EARNEST. Neering and leering. arne.

ernes. sensation. gern. stave is so much of a psalm as is read up at once by A the clerk and repeated after him by the congregation. of set purpose (Kiittner). studiosius quaesivit Swa mon geornest maeg. Nikker. essorer. meritum. eager. mounted sails away with to be little and seems perceptible motion in his outstretched wings engaged in drying his pinions. to dry. the executioner or necktwister . but also the comparative geornor. OLD NICK. The practice is derived from a period at which the knowledge of letters was the privilege of a few. industria. a word also applied to the Devil.-D. Gael. to read. The derivatives Geornysse.34 On transition between the notion of reaping and that of earning. and the only book was in the hands of the person The expression in E. crrez. as the executioner Kar' Old Nick would thus be the old executioner of the human efaxi'iv. Geornung. A. to dry. oath to the person by whom it is to be taken. Buch-stab.) STAVE. arra. to read up the words of a written formula that is to be repeated by another person . willingly. to the case of an oath. ' To SOAR. sollicitus. identical with the Lat. desirous. W. in the sense of a portion of stig or neerstig above quoted. neerung. to expose to the weather. a letter. It is a term of falconry expressive of the action of the hawk when he wheels in the air or sorare.-S. arrez. Herodea Of this befran hi georne. Undoubtedly from Hence Sw. verba prseire. what is done with the whole heart.-S. essorer. E. superlative. to give out the words of an applied to an oath. soore. arrha. pro virili (Lye). money paid down in ratification of a bargain. giving rise to the E.-S. the A.). also being to fly down the wind' (Cotgr. especially Den eed staven. ernest. assiduitas. arias. showing the former to be a true geornor wolde sibbe with hine. There is however little in common between such a being and the ordinary notion of the Devil. Hence A. but the true import of the word is clearly shown by the Pl. a supernatural being supposed to reside in the waters and occasionally to make inroads on the land. Bret. is confined to the single giving out the stave. yearn. to air. an explanation much more in consonance with the popular notion of his functions than that afforded by the Scandinavian su- . they inquired diligently of Herod (Lye.-D. earnest. dry . Fr. intent. staven. in the sense of serious. most diligently. to whose malevolence is attributed the death of persons drowned. G. Kil. steef. shows pretty conclusively that earnest. staven. and the E. Fr. race.). sooren. sear.-D. adverb we have not only the superlative geornost. is an entirely different word. stafwa. The root is the Fris. studium. The true derivation is indicated by the Pl. especially applied. . like the Pl. which implies desire of such intensity as to he accompanied with a bodily georn. the other hand. afford a singularly close analogy to the meanings of the Du. Commonly referred to the Scandinavian Nik. is from the same root with G. terpret letters. with his utmost endeavour.). (Cotgr. to mount or sore up. industrius. designedly. neernEarnest. to instaf. instance of church music. He pacem cum illo (Lye. industria. It. geornfull.

to take the perpendicular. a beggar. In Welsh also from ysgrepan. whence Br. In a former paper the first syllable of the above was supposed to be compounded of the ug in ugly. a pock or bag. a road (the Celtic equivalent of the Goth. oath. In a former paper evidence was brought to corroborate Skinner's derivation of beggar.35 neither Latin nor Teutonic. a place from whence the water can be drawn off. . but also pocair. it is in all probability Celtic. and the etymology may be considered as established by the Gaelic. to measure the depth with a plumb-line. a journey. but to him of the great Judgement-day. riskla. The one given by Kilian is the D. a bag. on the tramp. a dock. literally on the bag. implying terror. in the Bret. and E. analogy in favour of such a compound. The origin of most of our nautical terms is to be found North of Europe. Dutch verb in eren however has always a foreign and upon the whole a more probable derivation is to be found A hynt. aspect. ugsome to fear). a plomb. and where a word in the Romance languages is ! ! the Breton. quasi bagger. from poc. a scrip. would correspond to the riskla. baig. Hence dokke. RISK. to frequent. henti. Kent. to draw. and then peeping over the covering. ogan. . water dokken. dokken. far paura a' bambini coprendosi la rolta. Hence too may be explained the common G. It is not Teutonic. For this word no rational derivation has been suggested. hanter. Der perstition. sonder. path). and a more probable origin may be found in the cry Bo Boo or Boh made by a person W. horror. upright. Now the Breton has riska. a beggar. sith. e. from the bag in which he collects his alms. To HAUNT. to empty out the water. business.) Alternately covering the face in this manner to form ! an object of sportive terror. Hence Fr. commerce. (La Crusca. sounder. to-slip riskuz or riskluz. BUGBEAR. Air a phoc. to trade or deal in anything. begging. to handle. BUG. Two plausible derivations offer themselves. i. a wallet. BOGLE. riska. To SOUND.-D. steep. Henker hole mich der Henker which does not refer to the human hangman. To take the depth of water. to frequent. sounn. to go a begging. den sood uut dokken. Goth. A receptacle in a haven where the water can be and out by sluice-work. A. There is however no direct evidence or strong particle be prefixed. and the double form rischio. sound. profession. with the (Isl.-S. to slide. ! ! ! (often covering the face to represent the unknown) to frighten chilFar bau ! bau dren. hand-teren. the seat of the tribes from whom our skill let in in the in na- The present word may accordingly be vigation was mainly derived. referred with great probability to the Pl. of . from bag. which not only has baigeir. ugga. risico. to haunt . hand-teering. Fr. DOCK. The Italian rischio would naturally point to an / in the original. sinth. perpendicular line. Bret.stiff. is formed ysgrepanu. to draw water . to use as a road. To BEG. slippery and a slippery footing is the most natural image of danger.

bugel. he could not say Bo to a goose. Du. equivalent to Lat. is but a boggarde to scare children of bearbug in the quotation above cited as a variation of bugbear. Sc. Smith in Todd. E. bilis * " The humour of melancholye Causith many a man in slepe to crye For fere of beris or of bolis blake. . : The use find imaginary bulls and bears classed with bugs as objects of nightly terror. and il brutto barabao is interpreted il Tentennino. Swiss butzibau. bygel-nos. a night-herdsman. Thus the Italian ban is used to signify a bugbear or hobgoblin. The cry made use of to excite terror is then employed to signify the indefinite object of terror represented by the person covering the face and making the outcry. bwbach . when he looks as if a goose would be more likely to frighten him than he the goose. bullebak (related to bwbach as bullemann to bumann) bringing us finally to the E. are in like manner used to impersonate the object of that indefinite horror felt by children when alone in the dark. the black bug. . by gel." " The peep of day." Chaucer. bw or bwg. bogle is obsolete. E." The Sc. Du.36 A person is said to look as if constitutes the game of Bopeep. il Ban e le Befane. bugbear. all used in the same sense as the simple bug. bogle. boo-kow (where kow is not the placid cow. but it has left a descendant in the where we W . " It with." La Crusca. boo-man. an attempt is made to represent the continuance of the terrific sound by repetition of the radical articulation. boodieboo. bu-mann Du. . bytebau. the bugaboo. ! " L'apparir del giorno scaccia 1' Che Ombre. in Jamieson. Or ellis that blake buggys wol him take. Hell Quot. In bogle we are a little thrown off the scent by the Bret. . ." is not as men say. seems to show that the second syllable in the latter is really the wild beast taken as an object of terror. adjectival termination bar. In the Italian barabao. buggaboo. but an object of terror synonymous with bug itself) Pl. literally child.-D. ! Other modifications are boggart. Which scatters spectres. 600. bugs and hobgoblins. W. In southern E. and a greater effect is produced on the mind of the child by the more sonorous title." Sir Thos. bug. a Bret. On this foundation are formed the Sc. bullemann W. and not merely the G. Far barabao is explained by far ban ! bau ! to cry boh in Patriarchi's Venetian Dictionary. perhaps this is only one of those numerous cases where an etymology is unconsciously found for a word when the real significance of the elements is lost by lapse of time. bugel-noz. bullbeggar. a cowherd But a child of night. W. . a spectre or hobgoblin. "As children be afraid of bear-bugs and bvllbeggars. il brutto dimonio. to wit.

and cannot endure Glanville in Todd. to be affected with horror. " Ant. to shudder. in which the first syllable ought to be considered as having already acquired the figurative sense it possesses If the in the proper names above cited. to fear. The image on which the word is in reality founded is that of an Eye. (Nares. to make difficulties about a thing. the drops of grease swimming on broth. Schiermonnik-oge. the isle of Sheppy at In Danish a difference in spelling has the mouth of the Thames. the resemblance to an eye is sensibly lost." Tempest. vresen. to designate any ordinate interest. island as a speck of land amid an indefinite age. FRIZZLE. viz. form of the word eye. In like manner we have ig.-S. The former mode of spelling has given currency to a derivation equally erroneous with the one above-mentioned from ea water. ealond had really had the signification of water.-S. it never could have stood alone as the designation of an islet as in the Dan. Langen-oge. and the object is considered as a particular kind of land designated by the complex term island (properly eye-land). &c. Pl. to shudder at an object Da. vreisen. contemplated at a single glance as a speck in the surrounding water. as a small spot surrounded by an expanse of a contrasted colour. The ground indeed is tawney. or have given rise to the diminutive eyot. and the word which is written die in the primary signification of an eye. and in Swiss the round cavities in a Gruyere cheese.) ISLAND. and land land. but the diminutive eyot or ait is still extant as the designation of the small islands in the Thames. iglond. which would furnish a better designation of a marsh than of an island. for instance. " Red with an eye of blue makes a purple. Seb. separate object in the midst of a mass of heterogeneous materials. the sight of the bugbear. are called Spiker-oge. an island in A. grown out of the special application. Shepp-y. derived by the author of the Bremish dictionary from aisen. It is to be remarked that it is only to a small island that this deAs soon as the island becomes too large to be signation is given. to be scrupulous. &c. ealond. Qe. literally sheep-island.-D. to be cold. the knots in wood. Spiker-oge. .37 familiar verb to boggle.-D. FREEZE." Boyle. like a startlish horse passing an object of terror " We start and boggle at every unusual appearance." : island It is perhaps hardly necessary to observe that the s in a false spelling founded on the tacit supposition of a derivation from the Fr. With an eye of green in it. is applied to an expanse of water. ea in the A.-S. FRIEZE. In pursuance of this analogy the Pl. and Sceap-<7 or Sceap-e^e. is So we speak of the eyes of a potato. which commands attention by its living brilliancy and leads us to consider the surrounding features as a setting of subHence the use of the word eye. . is spelt be or 6 when apIn English the simple word eye is not found in plied to an island. a supposition decisively negatived by the form under which the word appears in the A. Stalder. the sense of an island. are also called eyes. isle. The small islands at the mouth of the Weser and Emse.

horrere (Kil.for-ohtian. and one with a curly coat. Dading-strings are leading-strings. Is said of the first attempts of an infant at walking. in Jamieson. by the same word. which properly signifies a hedgehog or the bristly husk of a chestnut. we find horreo. The image of shuddering is naturally used to express both fright and cold.frisar. From the imperfect way of walking of a child. utterances which accompany the muscular exertions of the infant. From the last of these applications is derived the E. (Jamieson. and partly perhaps as the rapid vibrations in shivering correspond to the regular prominences of a ruffled surface. to frizz or make the hair stand out. in the sense of being rough and (pptKTj for the roughened surface of water Jiorridus. shaggy In like manner from the foregoing vresen. a hobby-horse. reason lo doubt the etymology were it not for the Greek <j>pi<raut. are other variations.' vacillare. To see him diddle up and down the room.-S. of which the primary signification is to shudder.) To doddle. Lat. to be Nor would there be frightened. . is used to express ' Souffrir a un enfant toutes ses all the proceedings of an infant dadees. to waddle.) The frequentative to daddle is still in use in the north of England. of which the last is : The tendency common in familiar language : " Quiles dodling and todl'mg Upon four pretty feet. and in the next place curly locks or shaggy velvet.). f land's Pliny in Richardson. to fear. with the prefix ver. " And when his forward strength began to bloom. coarse cloth with much nap on it : " As for our mantles Holfriezed deep both without and within.-G." &c.forhtian." Burel's Pilgr. is developed the Fr. to being ' ' . eysen. in a more general sense. ogan. signifying to walk unsteadily like a child.-S. to raise the nap of cloth. diddle. ohte. that is with long nap. vresen. of both which affections it is the physical accompaniment. as ver-eten. curled with the breeze. Dadees. to shudder. to devour. To daidle like a duck. Dada. ver-aisen. . to express the condition of a thing covered with projecting bristles. and daidle or daddle in Scotland. and hence in the nursery language of France dada is the name given to a horse. toddle. O. frigus. vreten. from M. But as the shudder of cold or fright has also a tendency to roughen the skin and coat of animals and make the hair stand on end. Sp. to shudder. the type of activity in a child's imagination. riser. strings in which a child is taught The word is from da ! da ! an imitation of the incoherent to dade. which show that if the verb to freeze be really a compound. the expression is extended to signify an inefficient manner of doing anything." Jamieson. may be illustrated by the Italian riccio. To DADK. A. to curl or ruffle the surface of water. Serenius has to doddie along or dodle about/ to dodle.' (Cotgr. it was already formed before the Latin and Greek had separated from the Teutonic stock. cold.38 iisen. frieze. to cocker or cokes him.

to diddle a person out of a thing is to get it out of him unawares. as vacillating motion has a tendency to conceal the object to which it is directed. chaussee. Dan. The Pl. dondolare.) that the verb to dance. L. as well as to shoe calfada. collar. or protected from the injuries of horses and carriages by a coating of wood or stone. ballarc. F5 . a trodden way. daidle. and in the following quotation " Hale be your heart.) Isl. (Patriarch!. dandin. a simpleton. (Schmeller. dddeln is used in pre. (Bailey) Isl. The radical image in the latter class of words seems to be the motion of the clapper of a in It. culceata.-D. to do slow about a thing. to wander about. idle . a dawdle. In the same manner must be explained totty. shod.) Again. the motion of the child is taken as the type of unsteadiness. or CAUSEY. and the Isl.39 To daddle. to wag his tail (of a dog). is used in Venice in the sense of see-sawing.-B. laid with stones some The derivation however supported by calcata. to fondle. to pave. toy or play the fool with. Lang may your elbuck jink and diddle. a slow lazy person tolling. use of r instead of / in forming the frequentative gives to didder. Exmoor totle. Italian infants are taught to dade . shaking. a pavement. dande. un. dawdle. to toss an infant in the arms or on the lap G. don-don. to tremble. insertion of a nasal gives the It. . bell. . to waddle . dawdie. This word has been the subject of much discussion. is put out of doubt by the Port. and the It. delirare. dowdy. Spelman. by ding-dong . Regarded in another point of view. The It is not unlikely Tantaron. to the It. Meat is said to be daidled when imA daidling creature is properly cooked clothes. A corruption of the Fr. Fr.) It is probable that Balare. (Jamieson. a pendulous object It. to trifle. . signifies to dance. are radically unconnected. barcolare. tremor. shake Du. Isl. dondolo dangle an idler although closely approximating to the foregoing in sound and sense. passage. which in ordinary It. supports in which the to dandle. . to loiter or dawdle to dauntle. a booby to dander. t'dndeln. dindla or dingla. some interpreting it as via calce strata. . purpose. dadra. dandse. and gives rise to words signifying vacillation. by tricks not obviously designed for such a stable . to stagger. a dirty slovenly woman. . and signifying accordThus we speak of the ingly to continue bobbing up and down. may be an offshoot from this stock. formed by means of a frequentative s. to talk incoherently. anything in a slovenly way. to shiver or shake with cold." : Burns in Jam. . to mismanage. the sound of which is represented in E. . far la nina-nana. . Sc. CAUSEWAY calceata. when ill. slow. and E. to sway backwards and forwards. hale be your fiddle. dondolone. dindill. \ by din-din. a change that may be well illustrated by comparing the sense of diddle in the foregoing cisely the . reciprocating movement. dindolare (Patriarchi) It. dddra. (Kil. .washed. to seesaw. The to totter. Wilbraham. glasses dancing on a table. same sense (Schiitze). north of E. touteren. . the stones of a street. one tardy and inactive. dandiner.


106. &c. Gothic perfects bau}>. an s. Chi. It is proposed to treat. In the Gothic dialects there was a general tendency to use the &c.n. .. snid-on. / cut. in the Chair. the mark of a foot. nouns ending in any one of the dentals gutturals. or rather its representative }>. or of the final In the Sanscrit. . &c. first sets of meanings. to move. a journey. tra]>. &c. or by the corresponding hard or soft aspirate. &c. (f. to recede from each other. Esq. . to separate from. to move. A " paper was read the Roots of Language. &c. No. to go. a road. 8388 (pee).. sud-on. a foot. Chi." As the final either the hard or was soft labial. .. in this and some following papers. sometimes as d. Departure. Esq. G . a road. . / became. he prayed. as representatives of words which originally ended in t. and the ' corresponding medial in the middle of words thus the Mseso- On dents. SING. The idea. 1851. going.' either but or bud. their Arrangement. &c. the agent of progression.1. ' . V. thus dot. Sansc. Hok. as a final. ' . a footstep. that bears onward. to leave. bid-um." . so the final t sometimes appears as t. of the " roots which substitute a final t for the abrupt tone. or by the correrepresented by p sponding hard or soft aspirate and as the final k was represented by the hard or soft guttural. he bade> cwaeS weoro" cwaed-e cwseS cwaed-on. We shall not hesitate therefore to consider words ending in d. weord-e sud-e weorS snaS seao" weord-on. PLUR. and the same letter-change occurs in the conjugation of certain Anglo-Saxon verbs. ah s. tred-um. form in their plural bud-urn. . a way. a t. and their AcciBy Edwin Guest. aspirated dental. to leave. HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD. and This interchange of the final dentals may be sometimes as f or <f proved in the same way as that of the final labials. . / seethed. on foot. d. VOL. to divide from.m. may end their nominatives either in t or d tooth. to go. MARCH 7. a way. makes its nominative either dat or dad pad a foot makes its nominative either pat or pad bud'.. which binds together the three appears to be that of motion from a place. snaS seao" / said. a foot. ba\>. a foot. t'. a footstep. adj. who knows. he trod. Cant. or in one of the aspirates d'.PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY. f . to depart..




departure, goiug, &c.




A. -Sat.

a step. a footstep, a trace. s.m. a foot-soldier, afoot.

If pat he a genuine Sanscrit root, and there seems no room for douht upon the subject*, the Sanscrit pat' a must signify simply a way, a road, a means of progression. The Greek war-os and A.-S. to anptfft, signify a beaten or padded road, and must be referred other and very different root, which we may have occasion to consider hereafter. Modern philologists Grimm, Pott, Passow, and to others generally confound irar-os with the Sanscrit paf-a, that is say, they bring together words, the radical ideas of which are essenThe A.-S. seems to have possessed both these roots. tially different. The A.-S.peeft, a path, of course answers to the Greek irdr-os, while the root we are now considering seems to present itself in the compound sift-fat, a journey. The first element sift has the same meaning as the compound term into which it enters, but the second element fat has occasioned much perplexity to Anglo-Saxon scholars-^. The writer would suggest that it corresponds to the Sanscrit paf-a, and the Russian put', so that sift-fat may be one of those cumulative com-

pounds, if we may use the phrase, which are so an expedition-journey.

common in language,

peet p^et

Passing away, flying off, going out, exhaustion. Cant. Chi. 8388 (pee), to recede from each other, to leave, &c. Hok.Chi. to pass before the eyes, just seen, suddenly observed. a sound going out






to fly, the appearance of flying. passing by, fleeing away, slipping by (as an opportunity).



passing away, elapsing, omitting, neglecting, slipping (as an occasion), &c. Same to leave or quit. Greek.... to fly, &c., to fly off, to fly abroad.
s.f. flight,



... Irish

departure, going, exhaustion.

If we look upon the Flemish vadd-en and English to fade as terms borrowed from the Romance dialects, we may perhaps feel inclined to identify them with the Irish faith-im, to fade, to wither, and to connect this latter verb with the Irish subst. faidh. But the Flemish vadd-en may possibly be connected with the Flemish vadd-e

= anything yielding

or flaccid,

e. g.

growing on

an ill-favoured


a thin flaccid cake, a fungus &c,

3. Falling, causing to fall, a precipice, a deer-fall, a snare. Cant. Chi. 2617 (pub), to fall prostrate on the ground.


8499 8396



lame of both

a rocky precipice. legs, unable to walk, to



* Wilson, Rosen, and Westergaard all recognise pat', to go, as a Sanscrit datu. Pott doubted its claims to be so considered, but I cannot find that he had anything but a false theory to rest his doubts upon. f Vid. Kemble's Gloss, to Beowulf.



Co.- Chin, to throw down, to be thrown down. Arabic... throwing prostrate, &c. Sansc. ... to go, to move, but especially downwards, as to fall, to descend, to alight, a s.m. falling, alighting, descending, the node of a planet's orbit, &c.
s.n. bringing down, causing to fall, lowering, humbling, felling, breaking down, &c. alan s.n. a hole, a chasm, &c. ili s.f. a trap or snare for catching deer, &c.



pat-uka... pad-at'... Russ

adj. falling frequently or habitually disposed to fall.

s.m. the declivity of a mountain, a precipice.
to fall,


&c. a deep valley.

pyd-u faodh


s.m. that sinks in or



to sink, to cause a sinking, a snare,

a snare, &c. &c.



fall, falling.


an easy metaphor, this root came to signify a


from virtue,

sin, depravity.

pat pat-ana

Cant. Chi. 8497 (peth), mean, low, depraved, licentious. Sansc. ... s.m. falling, sin, depravity.




from dignity,





be seen, that in the two first groups the Chinese examples are provided with narrow vowels, peet, pit, &c., while in the correlative terms furnished by Ian gu ages of later origin the broad vo wels n ot unfrequently appear, as in the A.-Saxon/bf, Arabic fowl, and Greek It is probable that the vowel-element of the original roots is Kor-i\. most perfectly represented in these latter examples. It will be remembered, that in the various papers he has written on the present that in their organsubject, all the writer has contended for is this, isation and general features the Chinese dialects are those which approach most nearly to the primeval language. This position is perfectly consistent with the fact, that occasionally Chinese forms exhibit features of a more advanced character than are found in the corresponding terms of other languages, a result which may be owing either to an actual degradation of the Chinese vocable, or to the loss of the older form in that language. Our own language seems to have used the present root, both with a broad and with a narrow vowel, for the A. - Saxon fot takes the form of fet in the The Chinese peet may answer to fet, and genitive and dative cases. the Chinese form answering to fot may very possibly have become
It will



idea of impact connects together the following groups



Striking, poking, pushing. Cant. Chi. 8392 (pee), to strike, to strike lightly, to knock asunder. to brush away, &c.
(peih), to strike and knock down, to strike in play. (p'eih), to beat one's breast, &c. Chi. to beat one's breast.


8485 8500




Co.-Chin. to throw down, to be thrown down. ... striking one (on the back), throwing prostrate, &c. G 2




striking with a bludgeon, &c.


Persian., a poker.



pwt-iaw put pout pat

. .



knock; v.a. to clap, to strike, wound, beat, smite, to but, thrust against, or poke. to push with horns, Carr, to propel (a keel), Brocket. a poker, Jam.; poit id., Carr. to tap gently.

v.n. to beat, to


Sticking, picking, stitching. to stick into and pluck out again. Cant.Chi. 8130 (pa) to stick in the ground, &c. 8131 (pa) a thrust, a stitch, &c. pwyth ... Welsh ... s.m.

pot pot-a
pet-a pet-a

v.a. to thrust in, to stitch.


to sew.


a tooth-pick. to pick (the teeth, the ear, a hole, &c.)

may have occasion to notice another root of this form, which likewise signifies to stitch, the meanings succeeding each other in the following sequence, interweaving, embroidering, sewing, stitching. The present collection of meanings has been given with the view of illustrating the distinction between the two roots.


Treading on, trampling upon,

a beaten path.


... ...



Cant.Chi. 8396 (pee), to tread with the feet, &c. Hok. Chi. to tread upon, to step over. to tread down the grass with one's feet. Greek .... to tread, to walk, to tread on, to tread constantly, to traverse, to tread under foot, to trample on, &c. s.m. a trodden or beaten way, a treading, stepping,


A. -Sax.


a footpath.



make a path, by walking on a surface before untrodden, as on new-fallen snow, or land lately
ploughed, Forby.

etymology of waros. If it be connected with the verb 7rar-ew, and the Sanscrit pat'-a with the datu
pat', then7rar-os

We have already discussed the

and pat'-a are not correlative terms, and the general consent of philologists, which connects them together, is only another proof of that want of scientific precision and logical induction, which seems ever to have characterised etymological research, whether in our own country or on the continent.

The abstract
in the

mind with the physical

ideas of oppression and suffering are readily associated acts of crushing and grinding.


Compression, crushing, grinding, oppression, devastation. Cant.Chi. 8490 (peih), to oppress, to ill use, to compress, &c. 8495 (peih), to approach near, to press upon, to reduce to straits, to drive before one, to urge in an arbitrary manner, to tyrannize over, to



compel imperiously. Arabic... breaking, crumbling, &c. pressing heavily upon, weighing shocks of fortune).



a debt or




to give pain, &c., to squeeze or pinch.


s.n. inflicting pain, paining, distressing, devastation, laying a country waste, squeezing, pressing,



pud pad

devastation, laying waste. to rub, to press, to grind, to pound, to reduce to powder. to nab, to grind or pound, to reduce to dust or powder.


Pert Greek

driving, forcing, impelling.




to try, to

to plunder. put to the question, to torture.


Suffering of

mind or body,

pain, distress.


Cant. Chi. 8492 (peih), feeling of grief, something oppressing the mind.


(p'eih), indigestion, constipation,



anxious desire of food, a craving appephysically and morally, &c.




to feel pain or affliction.


ah s.m. pain,

nad-rj .... irdd-os ...

pain, anguish, suffering, compassion, charity,



pity, &c. Greek.... suffering, pain, misfortune. s.n. pain, sickness, the last suffering (death), misfortune, misery, calamity, passion, affection, any violent feeling, outward or inward condition, state or incident, sensibility, a feeling or natural state. Latin .... to suffer or endure.

Pott would connect irad-r] and patior with the Sanscrit root bad", But to make the initial p of the otherwise wdcf, to annoys to afflict. Greek and Latin answer to the initial b of the Sanscrit is very hazardous philology, and hardly consistent with Grimm's Laws of Letterchange, for which Pott generally shows so much deference.

The following collection of meanings seems to range naturally with the preceding groups

Scorching, singeing, roasting,
Cant.Chi. 8134 (pa), the


heat, drought.
of drought, &c. the tortoiseshell and


8699 (pub),

to scorch


thence to draw prognostics, &c. 8494 (pee), to dry with fire, fire-dried.


(fa), fire.





roasting (meat), baking bread under the ashes. fire, roasted (meat). roasted (meat). s.m. the sun, fire. s.m. id.
singed, spoiled.




a hearth.

Welsh.... hot, scorching, fiery, acrid.


have come the secondary meanings

the primary meaning, appear to cleaving or breaking open as opening, spreading, bursting

&c. forth, display, exposure, promulgation,

a part. 3.. sack.. a bit. ah s. id.. and take a city.m.Chi.. breaking. 8132 (pa).. fuaid... lengthen.. &c. to break asunder. &c.. &c. Hok.. P'at p'eet to storm &c. open (gate). wide. Sansc. water overflowing a tract of land. extended in length.Chi. a share... &c. Chi. an aperture. Russ Welsh . to break and open as the clouds do. opening. to split (Westergaard). . welling forth. cleft it). cleaving open. Chin. Flem Closely connected with these meanings are the following: peet. to tear. . puit-e . Clii. a cleft. gushing out.. copious.. pat TTtT-dvinjfiai \ fr j .). a prospect. to rise up suddenly as a spring.. eyes. to split. abundant. an aperture. &c. blown. I stretch. hand.46 1 . length. to portion peth. to lay open. window. .. &c.. to separate.. .. e. Irish feadh . expanded.. to share.. &c.. Hebr opened (door. to be . Breaking open.. to open wide (folding-doors). Heb. pyad' paith ... ark. 8706 (pub). suddenly bursting forth. "\ / to cleave.. fat-isco poht fott-e . to open. to spread out. to burst forth. as plants budding or as a spring bubbling up. j. Sansc.. Bursting out. breadth.. a morsel pat. Sansc.. applied to the expanding or vivifying ope- put fath ration of nature iu spring. p'at a span. Hokk. 8136 (pa).. p'hwat fa<lh fath . length.. akah s. to break to pieces pat'. Sanscr. to strike or beat open.. pwat futh Holt. a piece. and Irish. pat pet Hok. opened the rock (i. a fragment.... to open. to flow as a stream. . a glance. gate.. a fragment . to spread out. continuance. Arabic to separate. Cant.. to divide.'. id. to gape. . pat Jcoe.. CM. Latin . .. fawt pet-i Hebr . mouth. adj. a scene. to spread out... spreading. to be spread out.m. Arabic . 8198 8500 (peih). p'at Expanse. . extent. to shake. 2. faout-a. &c. to open. Cant.. . &c. an opening.Chi. without a stopple (bottle). . pat-u . id.. having the orifices of the teats wide.. opening (a door). to divide. width.. pat'ak . . Manx.. pat-a pat-aka. expanse. p'eet 8507 (peih). book. faout Breton. to unfold. to arise. to rend. Cant. a split.. to split asunder. to set apart phit.. to open the mouth wide. opened the gates to a besieger..m. pot' pudenda muliebria.. to chink.. Irish pudenda muliebria. id. taking a city. Arabic. to spread out (the arms). s... to split.. ..... Latin the space between the fingers. fad-aim . pat-eo . &c. a large space. an opening. (peih). &c. Welsh. pat' at'. extension. width.. &c.. to expand.

. &c. a well.. signifies to be open and ingenuous like children. explain. s. to trick. to publibh. to 4. Cant.Chi. Gesenius connects ireid(a with the Hebrew pittdh. or fully exposed aspect.. to spread out. This etymology has no support in other languages. he tells us. sharp. talkative.. Pott suggests that the Greek word weid-u may be connected with the Sanscrit band' .. to display. to bind. crafty. smart. quasi sermone obstringere. Pott's notions on this subject. to bleach clothes or garments in the sun. He would have succeeded better. exposed. p'heet Holt. to run out. a spring. to spread. to chatter. . open (the mouth).47 7n8-va> ... Pat'ah.m.. skilful. a fen. crafty. . a.. to appoint. a spring. s.. craft.. Hebr Sansc pat pat-u . at least partially... Liddell and Scott also direct us to fides andfaedus. pytt-r pytt-la .. . a cheat. . talking over. . clear. loquacious. avan pett-et put-at' . pat Exposure. s. to entangle. winning eloquence. Chi.. and so to be simple or easily persuaded hence pittah. 8136 (p&). to mislead by fair speeches. pyd-aw. Greek. 1 . gush forth... and also with the Latin \vordjides. With the idea of arrangement government. a place constantly exposed to the sun. to speak. had he remembered that the nearly-connected root pafa k signifies to .. to cause confusion by artful and seditious speech. Pers Welsh . . to perplex.. prevail on by entreaty.. to talk over. cleverness. &c..... outward. .. and induce a state of anarchy.f.... persuasiveness. make to spring. . 8501. to mislead by cunning.. Messrs. to p'eet pat-aw peith-w fed fed-u . to delude..Chi. 8705 (puh). to place forward or outward. s.. Greek Welsh Icel . fraudulent. diligent. a quag... Lap to deceive. Russ. to impel... (pith). &c. to dry in the sun. clever. persuasiveness. &c.. open.. dexterous.. arrangement. talent. pat-ava. to delude with words. to ask or crave indirectly. to move.. as illustrating the affinities of ire/0w. of a plain. well. pydd-u. eloquence. to persuade any one. ped-i paet-ig .. make I expound. to separate... &c..Chi. 8713 publication. display... a rogue. Cant. whence we may infer that they adopt.. . to speak. stir up.-Sax. TreW-w . Irish probable etymology. an oozing fluid. Welsh ... is associated that of regulation or p'at Distribution. to phwat puttah . The following collection of meanings seems to point out a much more fad-aim..f.n. to deceive. to persuade. promulgation. A. promulge. speak disorderly. to manifest. Cant. to manifest. irfid-a> . p'at Talking. to arrange in order... . .. to make known to the people. to seduce.. to delude. to expose. .m. .

to set in order. Sansc. to divide.m. to be powerful.. 1 ... patt-e . to lay in folds or puckers. 8505 (peih). &c. Greek. a Sansc. feadh . a wife. pat-a ' pat-ra . an epithet applied to Heaven.. ah s... owner... flap of a pocket.Chi.. Co...Cln. rarum. &c... to dispose.. to distribute. To regulate. pat pot-is to 8136 (pa).m. Sansc. having supremacy over. a husband.. a narrowing or contracting of anything.. to separate. to set apart. to distinguish.. a lord. ih s.. pat-i. . a vessel for containing food. to fold or plait garments.. c.. a cup Sansc. ah s. a wife. . A. .. able. folding or doubling of anything. to bend back a twig. pat p'at Cant. to share.-Chin. pwat bat Concavity. when sacrificing.. 8482 (peih)... Co. . Chi. as the hollow of the hand.-Chin. 2. peet bat pat-a .. eight folds of silk in length. ni s. a concavity. phwat pat put-o . &c. potens fe- Latin . Cant.f. pat-ni TTOT-Via pat'-s patt-i . . Turning back.. to clench a nail. . . to put asunder. s.. peet Hok.. 8496 (peih). to rule. .. Chi. a plate or vessel made of leaves. &c. &c. I ... Irish a wife... &c.... The idea of concavity appears to have been connected with that of doubling over. a plate. to set in order. ra s.. able. Icel turned or bent backwards. a master. a shallow cup or receptacle.Cln. to separate. can. a designation of royal or imperial personages. to adjust accounts. 8481 (peih). to portion. .-Chin. ability. have supreme or superhuman power (Wilson). power. so as to form a cup or concavity. A. &c. a platter.. any concave vessel or utensil.. One that has supremacy. feud feud-aim Irish ability. a vessel in general. fad-an. 2. fad-an. fatt-r fit-ia .48 p'eet Cant. 3.. Co. Dan. a master.. doubling in. .. to arrange.-Sax. a roll or piece of silk or cloth.. a term by which a widow addresses her deceased hus- or wife. . a cup.. . to distinguish. or concavity made of a leaf folded or doubled.-Sax. 8388 (pee). or folding. Sansc.. &c...frugum.f. Chi.. to regulate.. Latin .. 8131 (pa). ajar.. pot-ens. Lith.. a lord or husband..m. a lady Cant. . to rule.. to distribute. folding. Hok.. powerful. to arrange in order.. a lady. peet band.. or direct.f. to rule (Westergaard)... a horse's hoof. &c. husband. a dish. a mistress.

Latin. to surround.f. s. aggr. hinder. also clogs for horses. a sacrificial vase. chains.. pid-a 7TfB-ij . &c.. faith-im fat to clothe. an upper or outer garment. a cloth bound round a sore. fat-az . apparel. a bandage.. chaplet. Vid.. put-a fat .f..... &c. a cloth worn to cover the privities.-Sax. Irish . s. to string. a cloth to wind round the head. Cant.. . Sansr. &c. certain bandages rolled round the legs. Gloss... to surround. . spoons. a fillet bound round the head... a horse's girth. pat-ra . 8711 (pub).. . Icel s.f. G 5 .. 1.. clothes. used ' when kneeling pat patt-a Sansc. Chi. They may possibly be connected with those immediately preceding. garments.. .m. TreS-dw to bind... Surrounding as a fillet or bandage. trammel. is equally beyond the reach of question. deep dish with broad brims. raiment. to be bound. a pat-ella . a sort of greaves. a dish. if we give any credit to Sanscrit lexicography.. s.. a bond. as a garment. and Pott suggests (as an alter- same derivation for irar-avr).m. ran Varro derived patera from pat-eo. patera and patella the position here native) the assigned to them.... a kind of short petticoat. Hole. iraT-avrj .. to strengthen the muscles when walking. a garment. ah s. and as the etymology of patra. ladles. ah s.. 8395 (pee*).. a coloured silk turban.49 s.. pad A. 8491 (peih).. to ah s. to cover. a pan.. pi. plates. used at sacrifices. put-a Hole. the lower garments parted off in a particular pat p'eet pit way. &c. shackle. garments. Chi. as a bond or fetter. pat patt-a ...Chi. a pad for the knees.. a s. a kind of military cap.f.. Greek. a s. 2. a ligature..f. Encompassing. s..f.. clothes. a pipkin. Sansc.. ' encompass.. a tunic. raiment. pat peet pit Cant.. a skillet. 8711 (puh). a kind of flat dish. pud fyd faith Welsh. Rusi Icel fetters. &c. .. a leathern cap for the knees. a fetter. s. &c. a cover. a napkin. a covering..n. pat-era. fat-a to clothe. to be hampered.m.f. a kind of broad drinking vessel used at sacrifices. s.n.. we cannot feel much hesitation in giving to iraravrj. fat Icel s. fasten. at sacrifices... a vessel comprising various forms of cups.n... coverings.. The identity of the Latin patera and the Sanscrit patra cannot well be doubted. to encompass. Greek . Surrounding or encompassing is the root-idea which binds together the following sets of meanings. s. .n. a garland for the head. a turban.. to Kemble's Beowulf. Chi. or cloth for that purpose.

. a hem. 1 . to surround or encompass.. a thatched cottage. . put put-ita . coloured cloth. Covering. * We Whenever have already noticed another root of a similar form signifying to stitch. a roof. Sansc. made of Union or connexion seems meanings.. Sansc. these duplicate forms occur. &c. Sansc to fasten.. to bind together.. stitched*.n.(Att.. cloth in the loom.. pot-a pud vrarr-o) .. Cant. ah s. a selvage. avoided using Chinese words opening with this initial.. . a wall. bamboos or canes. Cant. an s. they should be carefully distinguished. 2588 (fuh).f.. unites. wove silk. embroidery.50 3. If however we altogether excluded these examples. a place round which a hedge is drawn. a peet pat pat-a. . i a screen of cloth surrounding a tent. 8511 (peih). a web.. an outer tent. s. an s. sometimes representing the initial p.. . clothes (particularly linen) woven in streaks of different colours. as a shed or a cottage. joined. to be the root-idea of the following That which pat put faith-e fit ... 8499 (peih). fat 2. have. mud wall or other military structure for the purposes of defence. a thatch. sewing. &c. connected.) sewn. without some feelings of The Chinese word We f hesitation. a hovel. a web. Sansc. as much as possible. especially by way of ornament.m.Chi. . to string.. birds. uniting. a sort of cupboard. and sometimes the initial w.n. variegated with black and azure colours to embroider. the toes or claws joined with a web-like substance.Chi... and that it is of doubtful parentage. we should occasionally deprive ourselves of a very important means of illustrating the analogies of language. a granary ali s. a selvage. HoJc. the thread which crosses the woof in Icel the membrane on the feet of web-footed weaving . pwat pat-a pit-a . mixing. a poor place of abode. to work in. They have accordingly been sometimes admitted. here quoted begins withy. as a wall or screen. a hedge. ah s.Chi. to weave. Interweaving. a basket or box. to intertwine. embroidering. 8712 (pub). Irish the hem of a garment. though not. &c. &c. to sew with coloured threads. inasmuch as there is reason to believe that the Chinese originated in comparatively modern times.. p'eet Surrounding. it must be confessed. &c. Pers Gr. Cant. a house. &c. &c. 4. patt-a . a straw shed. in. interweave. to intertwine. the warp. web-footed like geese and ducks .m..Chi.

Garnett from his premises to his conclusions." By T. But unfortunately the illness which has since robbed the Society of one of its most valued and active members. were stated more than once in the discussions which followed the reading of those papers. renders it the more incumbent upon those who differ from him. 1851. the valid or not. Hewitt Key. On the other hand. If Mr. when it is stated that the tendency of the present paper is towards conclusions in several respects decidedly at variance with the results at which the learned and lamented writer of those essays arrived. v. The reasons which prevented the present writer from following Mr. Hence whether the arguments about to be put forward be deemed be impregnable. of clearness it is best to state that the opinion to which the reasons about to be detailed. already precluded him from attending many of the meetings at which his papers were read . Still more imprudent may such a step be thought. But there is another motive which encourages the writer in the course he is now pursuing. No. if his great and varied learning has been employed in the erection of an unfounded theory. and of course any discussion But for the sake in his absence was in a great measure nugatory. H . after the series of able papers on the same subject which have appeared in the pages of the Society's Transactions in the course of the last two years. and at the same time he feels himself prepared to show that these fundamental facts are perfectly consistent with a theory very different from that which Mr. MARCH 21. V. together with other considerations. VOL. particularly on the Formation of the Middle or Passive Voice. 107. Garnett's positions failure of an attack can only tend to a more certain conviction of their strength. have led the writtr is this. that the simple verb is the one fountain of language from which all the other parts of speech as well as secondary verbs have been derived and by the simple verb is here meant a sound expressive of action. But the problem is one which lies at the very base of philology. Garnett seemed to himself to have proved. VOL. without delay to give their reasons for so differing.PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY. Esq. He is ready to concur in the correctness of nearly all the statements which the extraordinary extent of Mr. and any defect in the foundation of the theory must needs affect the stability of the whole structure. Garnett's linguistic attainments has enabled him to lay down as the basis of his views. then the very fact that his name must give weight to any doctrines propounded by him. yet good may follow. . Any discussion about the nature of the verb in general may seem " A On inopportune and ill-advised. SIR JOHN DAVIS iu the Chair. paper was read the Nature of the Verb.

imitation of natural sounds renders the aid of a monitor Indeed as the representation of for explanation wholly superfluous. the notion of an arbitrary and conventional language. Thus in his ' Grammaire Arabe' (tome i. what is preThat this view of language is dicated of the subject. as we have already said. the imitation of the sounds of nature. a subject. 246) ex: pressing himself thus " Le seul verbe. all-important for the syllogism. and that among these words. man could not but avail himself of the simplest of all means. That the onomatopoetic principle has constituted some portion of language. On the symbol . is altogether artificial . the familiar forms of the visible world was the natural medium for can be conceived pictorial language. often passing from the physical to the metaphysical. yet may be safely pronounced unreal. which are founded on . well know that the principle of association alone will explain how from one single root some hundreds of words may be deduced. is all but universally admitted . so for oral language no means so simple or so effectual as the reproduction of the sounds which accompany action. pose was simply to enunciate facts and to give commands. but one in a position Such views may be left to share the fate of other to dictate it. and those who are accustomed to trace the varying meaning of words. simply because the very term convention implies a previous agreement. On the other hand. and consequently for argument. Every sentence. But it may be objected that the logical theory of language is at variance with the views we wish to support. such as lie at the extremity of the circle may have acquired a sense apparently wholly unconnected with that central idea from which they have proceeded. the process by which a logician forces every sentence into his favourite form. that for a language which was to have the ear for its channel to the mind. In the hieroglyphical symbols we have living proof that the forms of the material world were in fact put in reUnfortunately sound is of quisition for the language of the eye. a similar assumption. c'est celui qu'on . if on no other. but the analogy of the two cases leads us necessity short-lived forcibly to the conclusion. and that again supposes not only an assembly of many people to receive the arbitrary decree. ground. In truth. other hand. consists of three elements.52 That any arbitrary sound might be employed as a conventional but the very fact of for any idea is of course conceivable there being in such case no natural connexion between the significant sound and the thing signified. An earlier and a more important purof language was argument. theories. is It is not admitted that the first object in the formation admitted. such as Rousseau's Social Contract. and not a little harm has been done to grammar by regarding language we find De Sacy solely from the logician's point of view. qu'on puisse regarder comme absolument necessaire a 1'expression des jugemens de notre esprit. conceivable. though in a certain sense. so as to exhibit the so-called substantive verb. would render it the more difficult both to acquire and to retain a language so constituted. and the copula. say our grammarians.

and that in point of fact a large number of the languages which now exist do not possess such a verb. as where the Triiiummus. in his paper read on the 12th of April last. &re en Celui-Ia seul ne renferme precisement que ce qui conFrancois. in father. The lady herself was compelled at last to substitute live* for be. of English Language. that the idea of being. 81) " The simplest of all verbs is that which the Greeks called a verb of existence. " may venture to affirm that there is not such a thing as a true verb-substantive in any one member of the great Polynesian family. " Dinner live on table. We . ! term by De Sacy . iv. and binding together the terms of every logical proposition. and unsuccessfully written. in the abstfact. says to his father: Lepirfus vicia. vivifying all connected speech. tells us that the natives were wholly unable to follow the use of our substantive verb. even to the most highly educated. he expresses his belief that " a verb-substantive." nomme So Crombie (Etymology &c. whose extensive acquaintance even with the most outlying languages makes his evidence invaluable." was the kind of language she found it necessary to employ. The savage has his various terms for the several concrete forms of existence. however essential to a system of metaphysics. that the substantive verb so called is not even requisite for the expression of logical ideas. surely it is highly unphilosophical to construct But there still remains a the theory of language upon such a basis. stitue essentiellement la valeur du verbe. Garnett himself. but has no occasion for a general term and in fact those who attempt to translate the language of a nation far advanced in civilization into the language of a rude tribe. before she could make herself intelligible. ' A Residence at Sierra Leone. 49. p. p. 236. he says. is beyond the comprehension of a savage. tel que esse en Latin." De Sacy also was aware that in many languages the connexion of the subject and predicate was expressed without the interposition of any verb and indeed that in the Arabic itself a verb was no way essential for the purpose." But on this point we can have no better authority than Mr. Now when we put together the several considerations that the logical form of language is not that which is adapted to the wants of early society. to give a clear notion of the : In truth. ." Now there is not an idea more difficult of distinct comprehension and definition. And the servant in announcing dinner would say. 1'idee de 1'existence du sujet avec relation a un attribut. namely the verb to be. than that which is denoted by the term existence. find an Thus the authoress of insuperable difficulty in words of this class. he live in pantry. How many volumes have been written.' published in Murray's Colonial Library.vcct H2 . such as is commonly conceived. is much upon a footing with the phlogiston of the chemists of the la?t generation. * Somewhat similar Lysiteles.53 verbe svbstantif ou abstrait. " Go fetch big teacup. is the very last that is called for among the wants of uncivilized society.' is tlie occasional use of vivere for cssc in Latin. 'tluit's a v. p. the verb to be may well be called le verbe abstrait but an abstract term." Again. In vol.

were. and we bite. ama-vero. ama-verim. fui. the Society on a former occasion (March 23. And from these premises it seems to follow that to be and esse are among the oldest verbs of the two tongues." Thus Endphrases. amavis-ti. he tells Having thus examined the claims of the abstract verb us that the grammatical term verb is expressed in Arabic by a word which properly signifies action. p. . it was contended that esse to eat and esse to be were alike once possessed ' of an initial digamma. Worter. most irregular verbs of a language are the oldest and it may be safely affirmed. 1849).54 It has been truly laid down that the difficulty to be disentangled. iv. In 245. .' The idea of eating is of course of primary importance to the savage. Nor is it difficult to see how from to eat' comes the idea of to live/ or to deduce from the latter notion that of existIn a paper which the present writer read before ence' in general. In the Latin and Greek languages the grammatical terms which are in use to denote a verb. but still afford some support to the leading position which we would assign to the verb.' lebendige bewegte Worter' im Gegensatze zu den Nennwortern. be.' a bystander. ama-visse. ama-veram.' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ' strengthened the initial lip-aspirate seen in was." &c.' is itself respectively. Thus in our own tongue. am. in that the name for it is emphatically ro p^/m the word in the one tongue." or " Die verschiedenen Arten der licher in his Grammar.' for this word in the older writers has this general meaning. we will next oppose to De Sacy's views matter taken from his own book. that the Latin ed-o. and eat would further observe that vivere ' to live.' shows its connexion with the substantive verb. and may well claim an early place in his vocabulary. and the Old German bir-umes ' we are' . are less expressive. ama-vissem. : ' ' ' ' ' and verbum 'the word' in the other. says Zeitworter sing-tse. sum. (See vol. esse or be to a prominent place in the structure of language. refuse obedience to the ordinary laws of conjugation.) Moreover as we have difficulty is ' to eat. Thus we have in Latin the compound am-bed-o. the German wes-en and the Gothic vis-an into a b in be. while the Germans have biss-en. This is in precise agreement with the practice of the Chinese. 34. oder ho-ise".' stated elsewhere." ' We We See vol. " to be in the habit of a frequentative form signifying only eating. 93. ama-vis-tis. The use of a v in the substantive verb appears in the formation of the perfect tenses. is. The solution of the all found in the fact that esse had for its oldest meaning and not 'to be. ama-ver-unt. iv. ' one who is will further state here what we have present. and only afterwards got that limitation which appears in our modern use of the term viscera. that is the very section which precedes our former quotation. 219. Examples of the former are vescor I eat' and viscus meat. by having another form which commences with a b. who denote the same idea by one of two "a " a word of motion. . that of all verbs the most irregular is that which signines to be. ' I eat. either living word. welche sse-tse. 'ruhende Worter' genannt werden. as well as edo. todte Worter' oder tsing-tse. essen. was in Latin esse. so the Latin presents a b in ar-bit-er. p.

for ' I stand. sonare. disyllabic forms in the three others.55 If we are right in looking to the onomatopoetic principle as the foundation of language. the greatest irregularity of formation in the perfects and supines characterises the third conjugation . that noise. &c. ifirm the view for which we are contending. but these only consta-. that the Greeks employ a perfect of the same root. Now the shorter forms. or to suffer (Crombie. reg-. in their perfects and supines have at times the terminations ui and itum. we have ama-. those which denote action as entitled to precedence over those which denote For it is action alone which is accompanied by passion or a state. to exhibit or produce. ne-.' But we must also claim as Thus in the originally of monosyllabic form many other verbs. number and time. as da-. to do. i. which. The compound prae-sta-re ' to place before a person. tonare.(de-le). we have already observed. ton-erei. even So in the imperfect tenses. is a mark of antiquity. there can be no hesitation in selecting from the three classes of verbs. as defined by our ordinary grammars. and in many of the verbs in question we are still able. signify to be. mone-. . tell us by these very perfects and supines that there once existed kindred verbs of the third conjugation. fervere. conjugations contain some examples of monosyllabic bases. especially those which are monosyllabic. and such irregularity.'/<?n. the imitation of which can in this way constitute a primitive verb. we will look to the facts of language. such as son-ere. and in the fourth we can prove by the authority of .' . Now it is precisely among the verbs of the third conjugation that we find the great majority of verbs which signify action*. first conjugation. and audi-. e. which is an apparent exception. Thus to take as examples those verbs which happen to serve as paradigms in the grammar. to trace remnants of such a formation. or as the Chinese so well express it. again tergere 'to wipe.ere 'to boil.(ex-pie. meant originally to place in a standing position/ rather than to occupy such a position. are generally regarded by etymologists as better entitled to the name of roots than those which are of greater length. Now it will readily be admitted that when we strip Latin verbs of those final syllables whose office it is to represent the accessory ideas of person. like these. a word of life or motion. But instead of relying upon theory alone. correct. le. for stare.' with a dependent accusative. Again. inasmuch as they all express an active notion we say all. still maintains the original notion . 80). fle-. verb of action. p. and on this principle alone can we explain the fact.' are as legitimate forms as tergere.). a very large proportion of the simplest kind.' is as truly an active verb. verbs which belong to the second conjugation are limited to the exIt is true that even the other three pression of a quiescent state. as caedere to fell. and action of the On the other hand. pie. ' ' t * Let it be observed that cailcre ' ' to fall. that is a monosyllabic form in the third. the third conjugation taken as a whole exhibits the base of the verb in a shorter form than the other conjugations. and all the verbs which.

to have possession. saeptus. Cassius. . to take. tells us on the contrary that the party did not go to Rome. and one which expresses a state. to suspend. cap-ere. to be suspended. Even here it may be observed that the agent. Thus he begins : : Energy doth not only require an Energizer. jace-re.56 ' to come. ' to the presence of Cyrus to Cyrus. In these. the agent*. that this accusative is dependent on a preposition ad understood. does not denote the quarter from which the said action proceeds. pounds). when formally expressed in the passive : . in other An objection to this theory which readily prewords. sid-ere. the third conjugation denotes an act. ' in the presence of Cyrus' . if we say. as opposed to its use with a following ablative. to lie." What he calls energy and we have called . posside-re. but subject. the existence of a verb ven-ere veni and ventum proceed with a more correct analogy. In like manner we have reason to suspect that there once existed such verbs as haur-ere. to take a seat. haustus saepsi. pende-re. to be of a white heat. that he stopped in the suburbs." And soon'after he goes on to say Every * What has been said above Hermes. the well-known fact that the accusative of the name of a town is used in this sense nor is the argument damaged by the explanation sometimes put forward. to throw. the second conjugation a state resulting therefrom. The use of the preposition in with a following accusative. cand-ere. and an accusative. Brutus loves necessarily conversant about some we must needs supply loves to have. to occupy a seat. but this objection will be found untenable when we come to consider the origin of the passive verb. Now we know that the express office of the accusative case is to mark the quarter to which motion is directed. his is in agreement with what Harris puts forward in " All verbs that his ninth chapter with the words " are strictly so called denote Energies. Another proof of our position is found in the difference of structure that prevails between a Latin sentence which expresses an act. some one.' whence indeed Plautus. a verb. eiiergi/. to set on fire com- cande-re. when we look to the forms of hausi. But if the accusative denotes the quarter to which the action is directed. But perhaps the best test of what we are saying is found in those verbs which connect themselves at once with the second and third conjugations. sents itself. is For example. session. saep-ere. than from veni-re. possid-ere. to enter upon pos(in sede-re. The force of the accusative is again well seen in a comparison of the three forms Trapa Kvpov. or action and agent. jac-ere. pend-ere. so far from being an equivalent for Romam ire. seeing that ad Romam ire. Portia. on the other hand. is the fact that the nominative is also used with the passive verb . is alone enough to prove this point. one is tempted to ask whether the nominative.' have also Trapa Kvpoi'. and others like them. In the former case we have commonly a nominative. We . ' from the presence of Cyrus' irapa Kvpy. such as . habe-re.

1838. . next proceed to the construction which is adopted in the older language In the verbs pude-t. and originally no doubt were actually passive. as to have excited a very strong feeling that the two voices have grown out of one. question in a paper read before a Society bearing the same name as But as it was never fully printed that which he is now addressing. This also is consistent with the ordinary power of the genitive which Besides these. &c. from the owner' ? to the objection for the present. placet. I am delighted' In fact there are at least mir. The preference thus given to the to the middle future. I loathe' es trdumt mir. pudet me. the person in whose breast the feeling exists is always in the accusative. 6) he says: regularly belong to the middle. it may be first observed that we have bases of the second conjugation. Even our own tongue is not without examples of juvat. ' and a much larger number which have an accusative. 'my mind forbodes' es ekelt mich. The origin of the passive verb is a subject with which the writer Some years ago* he detailed his view of the has dealt elsewhere.paenite-t. we once had me-seems and it likes me. ' I ' . In the Greek language there is so much similarity of form between the passive and middle voices. genitive of the cause accompanies these verbs. is given in the form of ab with an ablative. paenitet me. the aorist and future of the middle. pudet me ejus. I am chilled' esfreuet repent' ' es ahnet mir. for the expression of mental feelings. still in form belong to the passive. and hence something This however applies almost solely of this passive power remained. seems to-have been of opinion that Thus in the passive has the better claim to be called the original. 19. 1 dream. for its purpose. he may be permitted to repeat what he then wrote. as the accusative very proBut a perly defines the party whose mind has been acted upon. But the sister tongue of the Germans is richer in such verbs We . * Feb. that this term was invented by those who looked upon language from the logician's point ' of view. the Latin lanso often denotes a source or origin. still possess the impersonal verb mea similar construction.57 Thus ab construction. The original abstract of the Proceedings of that Society the possession of the Philological Society. miser e-t. is in . while believing in the common origin of the two voices. In We the next place. taede-t. guage possesses many other impersonal verbs of feeling. passive as the original voice seems to be founded in a great measure. What more direct proof do we need that the nominative denotes the quarter whence. and at the same time warn those who may be misled by the term nominative.' seventeen German verbs of feeling which have a dative of the person. But we must reserve our full answer ab domino. . No. Buttmann. ' . and none of less than two syllables. but in perfect agreement with the view now supported. domino stands as the equivalent for dominus. as lubet. pige-t. accusative. a variety of construction which is inexplicable on the logical theory of language. and I believe also mefears. "Those tenses which his large Grammar ( 113. : esfriert mich." &c. as much so as the present itself. &c. thinks . and that in truth it is as ill-suited to define the power of this case as is the other term. as es gereuet mich.

so that the older shape shall have been For this we have again the analogy of the vertisi or veriest.' meaning to bathe or arm oneself. that an r in the later language was often the representative of what was an s Indeed in the second person. and then to show that a middle voice once created has a tendency to assume a passive signification. as it prefers an e before r Thus the nouns pttlvis. But this change is accompanied by a modification of the vowel. just as we have vertiti and vertunti shortened to vertit and vertvnt. lavari 'to bathe. whence. verteris. and are perhaps We need only point to such as common as the passive voice itself. In the Latin language. or as we prefer to call it. we are nearly indifferent prefers an i before s. As regards the first this is proved It is also proved by the fact that the by the diminutive pulvis-culus . . vertuntur. such as eern and eiai. cucumis and cinis. say this on the strength of the older Greek and Sanscrit verbs. for final vowels in the Latin are apt to wear away and disappear. as used. mutari to ' ' Those who award the claim of originality change. whereas in point of fact such verbs are to be found in almost every page of every Latin author. the so-called passive.58 not entirely. the theoretic forms Tv-rrrert and TVTTTOVTI. . it is generally asserted that the Latin language is wholly without a middle voice. Tvirret and rvirrowi. we actually find in the older. In the next place. we know from Latin writers themselves. if more common. inasmuch as the older forms of the third person of the active appear to have ended in a vowel. cucumer-is. by an easy corruption. ciner-is. The active second person. as in vertor. that r is the chief element of the suffix which is added to the active voice. attempted to account for the formation of that voice. but here again we must claim another vowel. and we have pulver-is. As to the vowel which is to precede but the Latin language commonly the s. at any rate in the Latin and some other languages. is vertis. Probably some voM'el followed this r. we believe that it will not be a difficult matter to show how a middle voice was created from the active.' misceri 'to mix' (with people).' circumfundi to pour or flow round. though abounding in passive verbs and indeed it is the common habit of Latin grammars wholly to ignore a middle voice. is distinguished from the active for the most part by an ending in which the letter r plays a chief part.' provolvi ad pedes to throw oneself at a person's feet. we are no way entitled to claim more for the suffix of the voice.' to the passive have never yet. Greek and Sanscrit languages. &c.' verti to turn. forthwith change the s of which they were already in possession to an r. verIn vertor we find only the liquid added to the titur. as far as we know. cucumis and cinis have a final 5 independently of the nominative case. aemulari ' to make ' ' oneself a rival. words as accingi ' to gird oneself. . vertiti and vertunti. We We . .' &c. simple verb and even in the other forms vertitur and vertuntur. upon the fnct that the usage of the passive is the Nay. It should here be observed that the words pulvis. On the other hand. Cicero among others. an s. middle voice. when they take to themselves the genitival suffix is.' armari ' to arm. repeat then. which on closer inspection will be found due to the suffix.

kal-sa. Ad. verterer.. Chamjus. from the verb alere. Latin word need never stop an inquirer. calumnus. we again find a distinctive r or er added to the simple infinitive. as bes.) Instil. Nor is it a difficulty of any moment that the form vertimini has a Greek character. and we think with reason.' would connect itself with the old Latin verb kal-f 'call. first person of the plural vertimus. There remains the second person of the plural. kalendae. the genitive plural was formed from it in the old state of things by the addition of a suffix urn. Again in the third declension. seeing that the substantive verb was not used for the other persons. he who accuses. : regerum et lapiderum. because no new difficulty occurs in them. Lucilius 40 of Putsch. A German is much in the habit of leaving out the substantive verb in accessory sentences. which implies a noun. the letters. or rather vertisi. We . gratus. is a matter simple enough. from what should have * Nucerum Caelius dixit. impensa. as much as gratia implies an adjective. as we know from the prosody that such letter was most indistinctly pronounced. as Gustav der in der native plural. Our inference from these analogies is that verteris is formed from vertis. Gellius vero Thus the legal sense of causa for the termination repul-sa. which there is good reason for believing is a corBut in fact the disappearance of a final m in a ruption of vertom. (Col. which * we nucis. were formed nucer-um*. for gestorben ist. but we have not been able to see his book. were transformed to er. schlacht yestorben. subj. would appear to be the earliest. Gr. and in the latter step is parallel to the formation of the vocative fili. no doubt because it ought to have been written with a pair of final sibilants. is only ao H5 . e. i from hold to be the equivalent of the r seen in vertor. Hartung has observations upon these forms. but must be careful to deal with this infinitive in its archaic form and then if we look to the first. &c. qui in jus vocat.. we assume the utter loss of the final m. the name of the Roman god. held to be a mere participle in the nomi- The The Greeks preferred rerv/ijuevot etai to the unpronounceable TeTinrvrai and the disappearance of estis.and inthe consideration that a writer in are not deterred from this view cusa-. This difficulty would apply equally to verto. proceed to the passive infinitive. and other ' over such tenses as vertebar. to denote Thus plurality. J. vertar. For the Latin also was possessed of this termination. t This root leal appears also to be the parent of causa. with the addition of an r. while the genitive singular ended in is.' seen in the participle. 1 genuine Latin words. in nomenclator. might well pass. But vertimini is by many. in alumnus. Compare iitgerum. was an act of no great violence. reger-um. which ought to have accompanied the supposed participle vertimini. second or fourth conjugations. and so to account for the sense of aceusa. regis fore. noxa. vertuntur. by the addition of an *. We by one of our theological Reviews has put forward the doctrine that causa abbreviation of Kitiovaa. and virtually in calumnia. except indeed that in the change from vertebam to vertebar. being followed by a vowel. pulviss. vertitur. We pass fut. which is seen in Ver- tumnus. vertar. Such a noun calumnus.59 poets do not hesitate to make the nominative pulvis long. That amarier should pass through amarie to amari. in which. first into vertimurr and then into vertimur. i. .

person. this is no way matter for surprise. readily be absorbed . vertis se. Such final vowel would se. element as the Greek accusative e. must also put in a claim for a final vowel which has gone towards the formation of the common ending. This abbreviation is no doubt owing to the appearance of the same sound er in what are almost consecutive syllables. we could not expect to trace. it must have had a vowel to accompany it. The main obstacle to the theory is found in the other persons. turri instead of turrie. In the old first person of the plural rvirrofjiea-da. it might easily be shown. where the trda may be a modification of the reflective pronoun in its older similar argument might be founded on the infinitive shape ff^e. TvirrovT-ai. verteris correspond on the same principle to verto me. that in origin it may have been used of any But this inquiry must be reserved for another evening.60 Similarly we have an abl. The Greek language in its middle or passive forms does not admit of an easy analysis and if the theory just suggested be right. which we have marked off by a hyphen. for vertitur and one naturally thinks of the little pronoun and vertuntur. which do not admit of translation. Yet as se has the peculiarity of being applicable to words of either number and of any gender. for vertor. But we repeat that the Greek passive does not admit of a ready analysis. . Still A . ought to have had an adjective ^ovorv^os. since Tvirrop. A sibilant in Greek is exceedingly apt to disappear. is a shape which the active infinitive might be expected to take. for rvirres. and an imperative audi instead of audie . for rvTrroyues is a legitimate form of the active voice . not to verto se. we ought to have had a middle verierler. it seems no violent assumption. the representative of the Latin pronoun Now such an evanescent se. if we are to follow closely the analogy of the other conjugations. rvwreff-ai. rvTrrer-. is an example of such disappearance. Tvirrecr-Oa. we have something very like a sibilant in the 0. for turrie and audie would have been respectively in agreement with ablatives such as rege from rex. TVTTTOVT-. was in origin a significant word. vertis te. are evidently formed by the addition of some common element to the forms of the active force. Now it has been long ago pointed out that such repetition of sound leads to the suppression of one of the repeated syllables.1 or Tvirrea-aQni . is the property of that added element. So from povos and naturally shortened into sfipendium. and with imIn the third conjugation from peratives such as verte from vertere. but really find if Of course the final s or r which is attached to the active verb to constitute a middle or passive. Still we must not conclude that the whole eu. as middles. Thus from which ot'v* is we stips and pendo ought to have proceeded stzpipendium. rvirrecr-. are precise equivalents of vertit se and vertunt se. Tvirrer-ai. or perhaps it would be more correct to regard this word as itself a corruption of Tvirronea-aQa. the forms rvTrrofJL-at. and in fact e.-. an active infinitive vertere. but we find in fact vertier.

non solumad tertiam personam. deren Formen nicht als eine besondere Flexionsart betrachtet z. 11. &c. sed etiam ad subjectum seu nominativum primae et secundae personae referunt Slavi. se. sich anschicken. was nothing else than the accusative se of the reflective pro- A " On noun. says tous les genres et de tous les nombres. andere. V. APRIL THOMAS WATTS. translated by " Sie entspringen Grimm. CA. in the Chair. Thus speaking of the Old Slavic. as the Serbian and Illyrian. viz. principle with the Russian have the affix in the very form which exists in the Latin accusative. By T. . as preserved in the books of the Russian church. particularly on the Formation of the Middle or Passive Voice :" Continued. & soi. says. which is used for the formation of the Latin reflective or passive verb. moi. de toi. soi. de moi. Prep. Dobrowsky says " Reciprocum CEBE. for the I first VOL. Cebt>. of a former Philological Society. uaita a iiBanmce. Hewitt Key. qui est 1'abreviation du pronom personnel reflechi The other members of the Slavonic family share the cebfl. toi. avec toi. 108. &c. de toi. &c. p. Dat. hoffen * A gentleman present observed that the and second persons continued this view. No. Minute-book of that Society. CoGoio. avec moi. &c. in his Grammar of the Modern Russian " Le pronom reflechi est de toutes les personnes. . 1851. 602. as " Gen.^aiimce. Esq. &c." Indeed in his declension of this pronoun he includes all the persons. CeGfl. Ling. auquel on ajoute la terminaison cfl. VOL. O ceGT). in speaking of the reflective verb (p. de moi. has (p. as it continued to be applicable to both numbers and all * is genders." Instit. a moi. Key. soi. V. GpnjeMce (ich rasire mich) Kajemce. " Le verbe reflechi n'est autre chose que le verbe actif. Thus Stephanowitsch. de soi. 126). Ha. was presented to the Society by Mr. Esq. London. se. : : . So again Hamoniere. de (p. 64) this paragraph Reciproca. &c J /*/. Attic use of alrov. in accordance with the wishes of the Members its The MS. and that this pronoun in origin was applicable alike to all persons. in his small Grammar. und unzahiige . pars iii. 19. du bereuest. de soi. 116). Slav. 1 7 ^G Ace. paper was read the Nature of the Verb. avec soi." and some. which had meetings at University College. CeGfl. B." The same writer. jm Serbischen durch den Anhang des Pronomens ce fiir alle drei : Personen. This theory powerfully supported by the fact that all the Slavonic languages possess a reflective pronoun of similar form which has such a privilege. Our last paper ended with the suggestion that the suffix r or s.PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY. k toi.

I. that the Slavonic languages extend to the very coast of the Adriatic in Illyria. uns. also used as reciprocals ' (i. middle voice vertor.. N. sich. Das zuriickkehrende Fiirwort sebe wird nichfe allein fiir die 3. 2. and thus nearly reach to the domain of the Latin language with which we commenced so that an identity in the formation of the middle voices in Latin and Slavonic is less surprising. dir. the only point in which it differs from the Slavonic lies in the reduction of the suffix from se to a single consonant s or r. reflect! ves) . uns. sebi (si). Thus myyife rather sig- nifies I wash myself. . and this not merely in the imperfect tenses. sich. euer. nur dass sie den Zusatz se (sich) bekommen. D. L. sich. we are of course assuming the correctness of the view. sebi. pp. that all svoj. In using : We . will merely add to this division of our subject. Zeitworter werden wie die andern abgewandelt. the first being a p. euch. Ich werde genannt." . Plur. Loc. From Babukic's Ilirische Grammatik. sebe (SB") se. this argument. n. euch. dich. conjugation with se . si. gmenugete se. s. first a simple verb. ich Die zuriickkehrenden empfehle mich. euch. 2. 3. seiner. but even in the present-perfect. mir. e. we write after one another. we quote " G.. w. that the present limits of the Slavic nations are much what they were If we are right in our explanation of the Latin in classical times. rair. gmenuge fe. sebe (se). 232) divides his passive voice under. sebo (seboj. sich. G. sebi. sebe the following i (se). unser.62 werden dtirfen. 1. has Reciprocum fiir alle drey Pevsonen. two heads." The facts we have been stating are of course familiar to all those who are acquainted with the Slavonic languages . gmenugefa fe. ihrer. . 3. A. as the Latin does. . als setati se. sich ergehen. which forms its reflective verb by the addition of a mere s. mangelt. It is also shared by the Lithuanian. p. where he says that in many such verbs an ambiguity arises from their being " Sing. Sing.' : Sprache in Krain. sebom Instr. sich. And he used for adds in a note.KarnAgain Kopitar. sondern ja se preporucam. meiner. sabo). For the purpose of exhibiting a specimen. But the abbreviation of the suffix to an s occurs in the Slavonic tongues themselves when the preceding part ends in a vowel. deiner. 51. dir. 1 gmenugem se. uns. so that we have thought it requisite to quote with some freedom. sondern fiir alle Personen einfacher und vielfacher Zahl gebraucht." So also in Bohemian." That this is really a middle voice is in a manner admitted in the next paragraph of his Grammar. A. graenugj se. Grammatik der Slavisehen " ten und Steyermark. the reciprocal possessive. 282. uns. euch. sebi mir. gmenugi fe. 75 and 69. sich. mich. but the number of these is unfortunately very small in this country. . sebe se. Es heisst daher nieht ja mene preporucam. Dobrnwsky (Lehrgebaude. D. is also three persons. &c. spazieren. . dir. (sobom). sich. sich.

sing. jag kallar (I call). kald inf. pres. ka Ides. for arintpov and rrjfjiepov are but dialectic varieties of one word. our own tongue has substituted an s. passive . Plur. the Icelandic. before which the final r of the second and third persons singular disThe appears. han kallar. . 1. Sing. 2. The hose of the Lithuanian verbs which signify respectively turn and console are suk and linksmin. J>er kalliS 2. past Passive verb. kaldede imper.' in all which the reflective comparison of forms we quote the ' . Thus Dieterich divides his verbs into 1. 2. 2. In the Icelandic there was a slight departure from what we might have expected in the form of the suffix. 2. linksminas. following: 3. From the former we have a present tense Sing. Dual.' att blygas power is unmistakable. 3.' from the simple verb is seen in a comparison of the simple verb. simply because that r is a substitute for an older s. other irregularity in the second person plural. han kallas. kalde. hann kallast. 1. has become a / in the Latin perfect amavisti. . For Simple verb. plur. 3. linksminaties . the article being the first element in the two adverbs. as art.suk1.links. pres. suka 1. kallizt. he for the first time informs his reader that the passive in the Old Norse is used also for a reciprocal (i. That an s and a t should interhave an example in the change is a matter tolerably familiar. The Swedish grammarians naturally follow the system which prevails in the arrangement of verbs in their parent tongue.63 and then one which has the reflective suffix. . 2. now with an s. Plur. 1. 3. 1 sukame 2. head fall att trifvas to thrive. . suka. i 2 We . ' Under the last ' hoppas to hope. l. 3.' att to blush. active . 2. ' The mode of forming the so-called passive Ingi saved himself. . (for all persons) kalder . also support the view for which we but here again the grammarians give an undue preponderance to the passive over the reflective voice. linksminies . . . Sing. 2. Again the Danish (Rask's Gr. linksminas. PI. scarcely deserves mention. sing.sukfi. 3. I. du kallar Plur. haldes inf. . kaldes past kaldedes imper. linksminatos 3. 2. loves. f w kallast It will be here seen that the suffix is st. deponent. 2. Dual. vi kalla. I linksminus 2. de kallas. ' ' ' ' . . Greek article which begins now with a t. Sing. e. sukata whereas the reflective forms of . Pres. Plur. (at) kalde. 239. ek kalla. \>er 3. . 1. hann kaltar. and also in some of our verbs. 3. ek fcollum. the letters st taking the place of what is elsewhere a simple $. . Passive. as Ingi frelsa&ist. de kalla. j kallens 3. Plur. . $u kallar. where tst is replaced by zt. suka. are contending . linksminas. reflective). Sing. ^eir kallast. vi kallas . sukawa. sukate . 1 linksminawos 2. in his Accidence of the Norse. 3. 3. the other verb are. Ind. 40) has. and plur. 1 ver kollumst kallast. ver 3. 1. 3. l. 2. 1. however in his syntax the truth oozes out. ]>> kalla. tninamies . speaks only of the active and In 455 passive voices . j kallen. Thus Rask. (at) : . 2. p. and plur. 3. Conversely what is an s in the second person regis. . The Scandinavian tongues . du kallas. sing. So while the Latin has a final / in its third person regil. with the passive. . jag kallas (I am called). . for the same verb Simple verb.

pass. find a statement that reflective verbs take as their characteristic the sound in (scA or sh). he says that in the present indicative. He an s in the passive infinitive. (Gram. SING. sodu jacka. Other members of ' : an. mije jacketofwebe. p.64 if an s can assume the form of t. oi. and in the following page he quotes an instance of its being attached to a reflective verb of the first inf. mon mon jacketofwab. PLUR. wilt.) We next turn to the Lapp. SING. &c. TO. there was no solecism in the addition of the reflective suffix sin. In page 75 Nesselmann draws attention to the use of sin or si. PASSIVE. G. todn jacka. compared to the suffixes of regis on the one hand and art on the other. 63) that in the passive verb the disyllabic form We tofwa is inserted for all persons and numbers after the base of the verb and before the personal suffixes of the tenses. Lapp. not as superseding what Fiellstrom tells us. as Mi^auiCH ' to hire oneself out and in p. and in the Greek reflective pronoun e. 194. difficulty for it to Now have compared the personal suffixes of the Indo-European verbs. >/. sije jackeh. tije jacketofwebet. and those who wert. it is a less assume the intermediate sound st. accept these statements. PLUR. sije jacketofwe. We here assume. ' . That the suffix toufvca or soufwa should lose its initial consonant. sien as an enclitical affix to reflective verbs in the third person. the same element is often contracted into ton or tu. uva. and assuming the formjuva. 58 and 63 the following : ACTIVE. being jacket. a writer whose statements Lapp language. we find the inserted element which goes to form the passive. is what we see in both the article 6. further tells us that this form tofwa at times changes its t into Thus the inf. 53) we Russia. the . The next language we will point to shall be the Old Prussian.juv. one of a family which we confidently believe to have a strong affinity with the Indo-European languages. act. 198. (See Bopp's V. 207).' felt ' ' the Finn family are the Ostiak of Siberia and the Syriaen of Northern In Castren's Grammar of the former language (p. We Mes mans euimmimai-sin. The authorities differ somewhat widely in their account of the find in Fiellstrom. abbreviated from the ace. wir nehmen uns person plural Thus although mans us had preceded. jackab. 189. mijejackebe. todn jacketofwa. deserve the more value because he reports what he himself heard. Here again the pronominal terminations of an English verb present a parallel in the second person lovest. and above all in the perfect. shalt. uv (see 188. sodn jacketofwa. when we turn to the pages of Rask's Lappisk Sproglaere. tije jackebet. divested of both t and s. will admit that we are justified in assuming. the original identity of these suffixes in all the allied families. Thus we take from pp. \sjactolofwet (jacketoficet ?) or jackesofwet and lastly. On the other hand. Of this language but few remains exist. as given in the work of Nesselmann. 67 the same writer observes that the notion of a passive in Ostiak appears . but as giving another dialectic variety.

' is derived from God and sib. a7ra. a practice of that language to present b. in the lowland Scotch. vefycsor ve<f>e\ri. with its Old Germ. Finnish and Scandinavian tongue?. this passive is borrowed from the Russian. it seems highly probable that the root sib is nothing more or less than the adjective 1 ' sibbe or sib. There is reason however to believe that the b here performs a double office. It is no objection to the theory that tibi. 'personal t this identity. in which. Slavonic. e. representative sippi. sibbost.' . verwandt/ related. and virtually in the Greek ' ' ' ' apa. sincerus. Lithuanian. o/upaXos. under the heading sibbe. It may here be useful to interpose a few remarks on the form of the reflective pronoun. CH) i. p. island. singuli. and that the root of the word is itself entitled to a b. In fact we are probably on the track of that productive root signifying unity. 88. also possess a b or for in pronoun the radical syllable appears to have been teb or something like it. as in ovfyap. sui and the possessive suus. Greek too has the representative of this lip letter in the of a<j>e. beside the Latin uber. similis. sammlung. of the Old Frisian. that sja or cja (Russ. sibber and superl. Old Sax. as well as our own same . uirXovs. In the Latin gen. &c. agree together. But if sib it ffQeTepos. But be this as it may. for <(> is a common where cognate tongues have a or seb be the essential element of the pronoun. and possibly ova/^os+. which in the Latin language takes the form of sim in simplex. to the fact that a the Sanscrit has gentleman present J Attention was called by no distinction in form between the nouns swa. seb or seb enters into the formation of every case.-Sax. with the further remark* that this passive form has often the force of a reflective.. has furnished us with the correlative forms of the A. airas (unusquisque). including the comp. The other lanThe guages of the Slavic family would be found to confirm this. simplus.' sum klang f harmony. sibbest. but gives no . simul.' and swa. sif-iar (pi.65 to coincide with that of a reflective.' sam tidig contemporary .. its original sense of a godfather or godmother. sb. is formed by the addition of the re* * Castren assumes that reason for the assumption. tuus. and of sum in the German sammeln.). the form of sem in semel. sib still remains in use in It is also known that our own term gossip. zusammen. the reflective voice. in the Danish sum tykke consent. A first examination of the Latin dative sibi induces one to consider the two letters bi as the representative of the mere case-ending. 74. 'kinsman. umbilicus. sib . and indeed the adj. nubes. which follows the 5 must of course be considered as the equivalent of the b or pf. what we should write affix of the passive we owe it is is a said sya the verb . tui. f. sibbia. the v. To the same person Grammar of the Syriaen language. or to call it by a better name. and seem sufficient to prove that the middle. the facts we have collected from the Latin. The same writer. It was with a view to this that we gave above at full length the declension of the pronoun from Babukie's It will there be seen that Illyrian and Kopitar's Slavic Grammar. and if it be in origin restricted to no one of the three persons. of which Richt' hofen's Worterbuch gives so many examples.

' 6. in the 13th chapter of the second book of the : . Las armas se inventaron e hizieron para. 'they praise the captains. we find idioms which support the assertion that reflective verbs do take to themselves a passive The phrases si loda I'uomo modesto. of which we will speak presently. to include the notion of a passive. unless we choose to ' the translate the first by the somewhat startling proposition that modest man praises himself.' 7.. A which are there recounted of Sir Lancelot. passive sense is apparent. mi si domanda uno scudo (we take these examples from a common source. we may quote from Vieyra's Grammar examples lxmva-se o capitao. menced. may be a problem difficult to solve. ' they call them- selves Galli. Graglia's Grammar). eight examples of the use of a reflective verb 1 another conversation was comComen^ose otra platica. we opened a small octavo edition of Don Quixote (Antwerp. we claim the same admission for the first chapter in Caesar's stories ' Gallic War. mitted. Ce Fran^ais se parle par toute 1'Europe where the mot-la. Los amores que alii se cuentan de Don Lancarote. for which reason it can (will) not be proved that. si lodano gli uomini mosense. ' the love 8.' (p. French. For the Spanish. and may translate Galli adpellantur. they praise the captain.' Le Again. viz. 1719. except indeed in the perfect participle.' But if this be adthe reflective translation is certainly admissible.' 3. ' a dollar demands itself of me. The languages part) at random. Este rey se convirtio en cuervo. the annals in which are recounted the famous exploits of King first : ' . the French language abounds in such phrases as Comment se fait cela ? . are indisputably reflective in form.' ' 2. comment s'ecrit-il ? Des has se vendent ici . ' this ' king was transformed into a crow. Los anales donde se tratan las famosas fazanas del Rey Arturo. and found in a single page (p. cuya causa no se provara que. derived from the Latin seem to present no trace of the Latin passive. rest was invented for delicate courtiers.' : ' Louviio-se os capitaes. not however to the exclusion of its How the reflective power was thus extended so as original power. he who was called Vivaldo. Still in all these languages. and that the reflective verb evenassumed a passive sense. El reposo se invento para los blandos cortesanos.' In some of these. the Italian. as he who was called (or called himself) Vivaldo. 94). and as indisputably passive in meaning. i. vol. arms were invented and made for..' ' 4. ' ' Arthur.' and the last by the unmeaning phrase.' &c. 5. &c. the For the Portuguese. flective tually but the fact will still remain certain. desti. &c.' &c. Spanish and Portuguese.' . El que se llamava Vivaldo. 106).66 pronoun to the simple verb.

Our own tongue has a phrase which implies some agency in a man's self towards his own suffering. and the verb so far a passive. language abounds in cases where the meaning of Now extended beyond the limits first conceived. because man generally is indebted in some measure to his own carelessness or criminal ignorance for his mistakes. thus bringing us still nearer to the reflective voice of the other languages.' In truth we may safely affirm that no evil consequence ever befalls a man. so that by acting as he did he moved towards the event complained of. The real justification of the use of a reflective phrase in a passive sense. employ one says or on dit. / deceive myself may well be used in the sense of / am deceived. : had these children staid at home or slided on dry ground. when we say. appears to be an equivalent of the German man. &c. Thus even the old verses. it should be considered. that in the really reflective case the agent is a sufferer. about the three " Now are still true children who went and lost their : hum homem. as the French on (Old French horn) is indisputably of the Latin homo. On the other hand. just as a similar Examples principle pervades the whole language of mathematics. as some one did the deed. in which phrases the word one (pronounced wun). abundantly confirms the assertion that reflective forms are used with passive power. But there still remains the question how this transition in meaning is brought about." But independently of this argument. or for any reason it be desirable to throw him out of sight. to 'it will be found. Thus das versteht sick corresponds to our phrase that is understood' es wird sich finden.' ' ' . But we have left some matters belonging to th? Latin passive unexamined. where the agent is unknown. vertebar. down to the infinitive vertier or verti. a thousand pounds to one penny.' &c. they see men. it should be observed. we can ' always have recourse to some vague phrase.' Very different in meaning would be the Ve-se ' ' captain praises himself. Spanish and Portuguese. he got his arm broken in the medley. admit of satisfactory explanais a word . they see a man.67 ' literal translations the a man sees himself. We ' sliding lives. seems to lie in the fact that there are few cases where a man is a sufferer without being more or less the cause of such suffering. vertar. celebrated by Person's Greek translation. of such extension are to be found by the philologist on every side of him. is no great necessity in language.. but what an alteration on his part of some previous act would have prevented it. the reflective pronoun is often appended to the verb as an enclitic. The evidence which has just been drawn from the Romance and German tongues. The German language has also the same construction of a reflective for a passive. also. and the French for the same purpose. Even if it be admitted that vertor. the simplest course is to use the active construction.' It may be observed too that in the Italian. Where the agent is known.' Vem-se homens. A passive verb. they had not all been drowned.' Thus the Germans use their word man in man sagt.

having the front of his thigh But if tied down to the struck. or to use a more correct name. and In the PhorLucretius abound in the construction with the gerund. . Generally it is difficult after a deed to trace the agent. came into use after the gerund vertendum. the so-called future participle. but it may be difficult to identify the tailor.68 upon the theory of the reflective form. poets. in the two genitives second line abundantly testify.' is an idiom found in prose writers." . That the Latin perfect participle is much more commonly used in the passive sense is a point to be but the mere question of number of instances ought at once yielded not to prevail in a discussion of this nature. Thirdly. sacrificandi dabitur. we avail ourselves ' ' of the poetical construction stratus membra sub arbuto. where they differ from prose writers. mio* alone we find mihi habendum est compedes. by the consideration that when an act is over.' conspicatus having beheld. tion We as secutus having followed. the corpse is a visible record of the deed. as versus and vertendus ? that the so-called perfect passive of the Latin was originally an first point to those participles possessed of active participle. the coat is good evidence of blood." " the power of retaining of her. as ejus in both refers to a female " desirous of seeing of her. We have called this construction a poetical one in deference to common practice. The fact is admitted and perhaps to be explained.' for we will not stop to refute the silly doctrine that secundum or Kara is to be understood in these phrases. imperfect participle. in which the active power alone survived. Vocandi. having spread his limbs beneath the arbute tree. the wearing fetters ' . but it must be remembered that adversum femur ictus. we should still be satisfied. juratus. ' is for me' ejus videndi cupidus. two phrases in which the construction is not doubtful. and the laws of construction which hold in Cicero's writings. When a person has been slain. pransus.' &c. what has been done. we have historical evidence that vertendus -a -um. this form which stand in connexion with the verbs called deponent. more with the thing produced than with the producer. secondly to certain participles such as cenatus. inasmuch as poets. and in fact grew out of the latter. 20: Spatium quidem tandem apparandis nuptiis. where the reading should be Spatium as the adparandi nuptias. Terence. passive participles. while the agent has probably lost all traces of his connexion with it. As regards the other participle of the Latin passive. sacruficandi dabitur. differ only in using more antiquated forms and antiquity of construction is for the present argument an advantage rather than the contrary. Thus we find in the text of Terence (even in Bentley's edition) iv. but the murderer may be without any remaining marks even of When a coat has been made. 4. * Our editors often compel Terence to observe the rules of the Eton Grammar. . ejus retinendi copia. Thus Plautus. the thing done remains as an evidence of the act. easy enough And for the most part our thoughts have to deal to see the results. what is to be said of the Our answer is boldly. . Vocandi.

it seems probable that the abstract substantives in ing are ultimatelyidenticalwith the infinitive mood. reminiscor. We if a student's attention were always called to the reason of the form being employed in those cases where our grammars and dictionaries throw the difficulty out of view by using the convenient term. where a is the Old English preposition. it is well known is verted into a participle only a corruption of he was a doing it. itself another name for an abstract substantive. as they already possess an accusative in the suffix r. gaudeo. Indeed the English phrase is itself a good example of the process by which a mere abstract substantive is con he was doing the work. such as habendae mihi sunt compedes. 380. he was a doing of it. This doctrine was not new to the writer.69 used this vulgarism. is de- noted*. with an answer to this difficulty. On the other hand. it is an objection to our theory.justitiae. that so far as meaning is concerned. in Cicero's day such phrase was almost wholly superseded by the gerundive construction. 12mo. are allowed to have an accusative depending upon them. Berlin serious objection 1845). or at least an involuntary act. flective form prevails in such words as the Latin miror. While Terence and the older writers used the gerund habendum mihi est compedes. se. For Virgil attaches to miror a gen.' verbs to denote that with which myself. The older state of things is an answer to the objection. &c.. Thus and fungor by 'I relieve if/rwor and vescor were translated by 'I feed myself. because it accurately represents the Latin idiom. is another proof that doing and words of such form were in origin substantives. for in a reflective sentence the nominative also see the reason why the restands in the place of agent. i. a-sleep.) now go back to a little matter which we purposely postponed. have perfects possessed of a passive form.. the result of an act. and its equivalent in meaning the that verbs of the second conjugation denote a state. and sequor no doubt once was accompanied by a dative. accounts for the fact that audeo. close our paper with a few remarks on some points brought forward by Mr. sequor. (See Madvig's Opuscula. piget. left out of view that the nominative of a passive are now prepared a sufferer instead of an agent. &c. Nay. never ad vastandum Italiam. miit was not is sentence We We sereor. that such verbs as miror. He objects to the common view. they are akin to passives. But we are digressing. sequor. e. seeing that the power of the genitive is commonly German folgen The doctrine . * It would be well reflective .bed. the fact that in many languages the personal suffixes are genitives rather than nominatives. a-foot. in other words. neither did he feel that it constituted any to his own theory. pudet.' we should see why an ablative follows these or from which. in the very theory that the passive grew out of the reflective. a deponent. the Swedish hoffas. i. p. so familiar in the phrases a. for in these phrases a passive idea. vol. and the oc: We have purposely casional insertion of of in the vulgar tongue. Garnett. Thus again this writer says ad vastandam Italiam. we said that the nominative was originally the case of the We When agent. as he had already seen it in the pages of Carl Bock (Analysis Verbi. like its equivalent in form and meaning the Greek eTro/uat. the Greek e\7ro/ucu.

since it is a mere matter of definition whether the abstract idea giving be called a verb or an abstract substantive. Another statement put forward by Mr. we arrive at a residuum. class of his examples. and another. a verb or symbol of an act. as giving or gift of me this. Of course when from a verb we subtract all that denotes person and time.70 admitted to be what we express by from.' we have a genitive fulfilling the office of a nominative. which one person may call an abstract subTo the third stantive.' is no way at variance with all we have contended for. our reply is. and no part of the primitive stratum of language. In pudet me ejus. I am ashamed of him. Garnett.' for I give this. and such a meaning is in thorough keeping with his own definition of a nominative as an agent. that in many languages an abstract substantive supplies the place of a verb.' or he fills me with shame. where sentences expressing a mere state are quoted. Nomen actionis is for us not a bad definition of a verb. that such sentences are of secondary formation. ' ' ' ' ' ' .

iv. which literally signify Peter. on " A In this paper peculiar use of the patronymical termination ing. phrases as Petr suin Alexandrov or Petr suin Alexandr ovich. and a different explanation of this singular usage suggested itself. Watts considers it improbable that the had an have origin and history very similar" Anglo-Saxon ing may to those of the Russian terminations ov and ovich. that ing is really the ending of the common Anglo-Saxon patronymic. termination vich " has often. and the " not Norman.) In a subsequent paper (vol." (Phil. p. Watts. 10. lurks at the foundation of this usage. K VOL. the Alexandrine son. and that as the simple genitive may replace the patronymic. . 83) the subject was re-opened by Mr. so the patronymic may be used to denote a simple ge1. Mr. as if they were substantives. .PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY. He observes. Thus the phrase Ceolmunding haga was used to designate a haga or tenement known. Kemble concludes his paper with the ob" It seems most servation. like ing. the word suin is generally omitted. fitz. No." were cited numerous examples in which words affected with the ending ing appeared to have all the force of genitive cases. Proc. as adjectives rather than as genitive cases. A short time since the writer's attention was particularly called to the consideration of these two papers. in opposition to Mr. and one English author has thought he could trace an analogy between witz. which he now submits to the notice of the Society. MAY 9. been mistaken for a word denoting son. that Russian adjectives ending in ov and ovich are often Thus in such used independently. in the Chair. This gentleman is inclined to consider Ceolmunding. and Alexandrov or Alexandrovich appear as if they were The result has been that the substantives in apposition to Petr. papers were then read : the Origin of certain Anglo-Saxon Idioms. from other sources. 109. Wulfherding. Some two years ago a paper was read before the Society. 1851. Two " On . &c. iv. p. probable that some feeling of the power of the genitive case itself as the generative case. After discussing various theories which seemed to promise an explanation of this singular usage." Mr. Maurice Day was elected a Member of the Society. He inclines to think. a mere erroneous spelling of it. Esq. Watts. : nitive. to have been the property of a nobleman named Ceolmund Wulferding lea. v." By Edwin Guest. to designate a place which belonged to Wulfherd Oswalding villa. a villa or manor belonging to bishop Oswald and Cyneburging tun. the town or homestead where the princess Cyneburh established her nunnery. PROFESSOR KEY. vol. VOL. V.

when affixed to the name of a place. In the Gleeman's Song is the passage and ytum gefwulf. settlement which that chieftain had founded. helm wnlfingum. poetry in the names of our modern English Harlings. &c. and more particularly as we sometimes find the . of one of the many proprietors who bore the name of Wulf. eowum . it seems reasonable to infer that the Wulfingas might denote the family. . they would of course be quite unconnected with the Wulfings who figure in Anglo-Saxon poetry. &c. It is consistent The with the character of the Anglo-Saxon language. but the people. that somefording-as the men of Britford. oswine weold . the mere household. name all hands that when ing is affixed to the proper man. it signifies It is admitted on of a . the Wselsings. and Cyneburging-tun. but at the same time he lias great difficulty in considering words like Ceolmunding. BritIt would seem also. would be represented to the full extent of its meaning by the com- means . as indicating those communities of families or households which he supposes to have constituted " the mark" and he traces the heroic races of Saxon the . and Gefwulf the Yts. as Centing-as the men of Kent. hnaef-hocingnm learn that Hnsef was the son of Hildeburh. Oswine ruled the Eows. &c. Kemble explains a vast number of our local names which take this ending. to express by of a compound phrase the force and meaning of a genitive case thus Bensinga-tun. the people living in such place. The Saxons in England. times when affixed to the names of men. Wulferdlng. jEscing-as the sons or descendants of . possession on the part of a servant indicates property in the master. the daughter of HOCK and we may conclude that the Hocings whom he governed were not the actual descendants of his grandfather. as genitive cases. at least as doubtful. perhaps the inhabitants of some military In his late work. ' From Beowulf we ending ingas applied to designate the inhabitants of a mere tdn or homestead. &c. &c. &c. indicate the According to this law./Esc and that. On such a supposition. of the household which Ceolmund had placed therein for the protection of his property Wulferding-lea would designate the lea or meadow of Wulfherd's people. this ending has the same latitude of meaning as in the examples last quoted. Helm the VVulfings. the clan of Hoce. pound Bensing-tun.72 and ' originally signified a son ' . Hnsef the Hociugs. . The author cannot but consider these latter speculations villages.' as Wodening the son of Woden. it may signify the son or descendant of such person. Ceolmunding -hag a might haga or tenement of the Ceolmundings that is. If the inhabitants of ^EthelswiS's tun were called JElhelswffSe tuningas. the town or homestead of the Bensings. writer is inclined to believe that this very general use of the patronymic form will help us to the true explanation of the idiom whose meaning and origin we have been discussing. the town or homestead As appertaining to the religious society founded by Cyne-burh. &c.' Mr.

. ex. with a finer ear and more linguistic aptitude. .. Caillie's want of education made him an incompetent investigator. firms the judgment which I then formed. : Timbuctu). word for five and six ouwee. R. It is not possible that any two Saxons. kiri. &c. oue. Wulfherd's lea. or Germans. and auwy. are identically the same language. : Caillie spell sixteen of these alike of the eight verbs they spell seven alike.D. When Caillie's book first appeared. and Timbuctoo of Denham. Hodgson. Kissour. gr. Hodgson has eassa for sea Caillie and Denham have the same word (hissa or ma) for river.he Arabs. for two. Take some of Caillie's . rely upon Denham Caillie I doubt. hence he gives the same the Kissour of Caillie (both professing to represent the language of I leave the investigation for future inquiry. I satisfied myself that his Kissour vocabulary was as nearly identical with my Sungai list of A recent comparison conwords. Hodgson and others. Both are perhaps wrong but the idea of a supply of water is conveyed in both words. No two homogloss barbarians will give the same sounds for any given word.. Caillie and Denham have this word for well. and nahinka. are different Out of the three vocabularies. Bahar Nil of J. . should represent the phonology of a foreign. Sungai. much less a barbarous tongue by the same letters. G. head . Latham respecting the language of Timbuctu. . or Tenbokto " As the Sungai vocabulary of Hodgson represents a different language from .. : . G. the word is inka or hinka. and his three verbs are identical with the two . may of course be considered as equivalents for Ceolmund's haga. taken twenty-six names of things which are common to the three. &c. Esq. words which are most dissimilar to Hodgson's fire . . Denham's nouns correspond with Hodgson's and Caillie's in the same proportions." With regard ainka. WuJferding lea. for ten. Sungai. But these three vocabularies do certainly concur in making the Kissour. explain this. " On the 2.73 Ceolmunding haga. These vocabularies afford us an illustration of this remark. are the same . that the Sungai of Hodgson. Kissour of Caillie. hoo-goo homo. Again. . salt. to the numerals. or Gauls. Hodgson has bangoo for river. B. which is both the sea and river of the Nile. Nothing is more common among collectors than to receive the name of one thing for that of another. and the different spellings are merely the negro euphonic prefixes to inka. as circumstances would admit. Caillie is not as correct as Denham. nionee teheree noimez." By W. Denham was incomparably I his superior. it is evident that the words hinka. Latham. M. and Timbuctoo one and the same. The following observations apply to a remark of Dr.. I have spellings for the same sound. of New York communicated by R. and Timbuctu Vocabularies of the Timbuctu Language.

Horse Camel Gold. o/7^o or otio. Caillie". nahinga. . Denham. and by the Moors Keldm essouddn Soudan. attakee. afoo Two. last syllable of The The nasal first syllable : : Mouth. . auwy-kind-afoo. yeo. I have a word to say about" the appellation Kissour I doubt its truth exceedingly. mi mey . events Caillie has the merit of this discovery. ferent tribes whom . River Well Sea . ~ or n. ouwee-kant-afoo Twelve. as Sergoo for Tuaryek. bungo. . Mo h. egoo edoo aggoo. . auwy-kindoo-hinka. One. handoo idou. nahinka. Moo(ng) moh-inka nemode. oinoo ouena Moon Earth Water Fire Salt . . . Six Ten . bari eoo oora vio hora . It Suaiiig (nasal) or Sungai. gunda haree ganda hari gunda.74 novnez corresponds in French to the English ne. bangoo . oue-kindi-fau Eleven. . . They always gave me the term Leo Africanus so called it. iddoo. Cut off ne prefix and de suffix from Caillie's nemoode. affbo. At Numerals. Denham and Hodgson both agree in Caillie caught the sound representing bongo as the word for head. ofitli. making Caillie's kiri his i is always Hodgson's ee. of which he made the absurd homo. Denham heard the last syllable GaUlie" heard both. Three Four Five. wah. KISSOUR. ouwee . issa. jauee. may all be an epithet among the negroes. . . . horgou . and you have Hodgson's moo-fig. I never heard it from the many negroes of dif- Oowa oi . TIMBUCTOO. in oee or ooweeh. harre harree. SUNGAI. bangou eassa. oue . . . barree. ouwee-kante-hinka oue-kindi-inka Nouns. monee teheree beree nounez kiri. houi hissa weey. Mee-(ng) Milk. Mungo Park did not hear it he says it was called by the negroes Jenne-kdmo the language of (Jenne-talk). auwy. Hodgson. two eyes. oora. hinka hinza etakee afau ainka aindhia ataki igou. I do not deny the truth of Kissour I merely doubt. Sun . . I consulted. hari. Man harroo Woman owee . these are identical. Teheree is would be sounded as pronounced at Timbuctoo thus 'heree or fceree. igou . .inka of Denham means Eye.

moo-fig meafig bongo. koey.. KISSOUR.. ak-abara. Denham.. kati.. Hodgson. kay. handjerfoo I taheba . moh-inka. norassee . Sword J House hoogoo .. n'zurfa.. mey. Verbs. Bring Give . .. Milk oowa wah.Nouns SUNGAI. Caillie. kata. kabi nini.. Beard Nose kabee nenee . boiiga homo nemode mi *. ... katenga . ho hoo. . Hand Foot kembee kee lamba na-kidi oi kambah. .. ka koyi kaa.. takeba. Head Eye Mouth .. . There are es-abara .. abara. ema-kowee. kabi. Silver ^abre TIMBUCTOO. dai neau daye. nira... . (continued). There are not ok-abara . ... Buy Sell neree Come Go ema-ka .


in the Chair. would weigh in favour of cortina. In He"cart's dictionary of the dialect of French Flanders eswarder to (which is manifestly our award) is explained to inspect. Having no Latin original to guide us. The same transference of meaning may be found in the case of the word look itself. which becomes oltriga in Venetian. 1851. but that the King in his bond It hulde to an terme that there ilokedvias> (to the Five year some. arbitration : To chese six wise men hii lokede there Three bishops and three barons the wisest that there were And bote hii might accordi. There it was dispeopled the edict I wis That was the Ban of Keningworth. No. Fr. Other hor heirs that dede were. guardare. by inversion of the r and /. and some four. Venet. ever up his trespass. and also of that inspection. having reference in the first instance to the judicial examination of the matter. p. coltrina. Robert of Gl. to consider . By Hensleigh Wedg- AWARD. 568. cortina. Bishops and Abbots and Priors thereto. cognisance. as his council bisai. MAY 23. Esq. and thence being transferred to the decision founded on that examination. VOL. It is true that the analogy of the Lat. give an award declaring the result CURTAIN. that was lo ! this. The mode in which an award has come to signify a determination or deliberate judgement is very generally misunderstood in our dictionaries. that hii the legate took And Sir Henry of Almaine right and law to look Tho let the King someni age the Tiwesday Next before All Hallow tide. which is interpreted in Heaxpe's glossary to Robert of Gloucester. Esq. to look. : A " On :" Continued. there is no primd facie reason why we should consider the Tuscan as a more genuine form of the word than the Venetian. 110. That hii were at Northampton to hear and at stonde To the looking of these twelve of the state of the londe determination or award of these twelve). V. regarder.PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY. determination. to examine. Erles and Barons and Knightes also. Ac that all the othere had agen all hor land. paper was read English Etymologies wood. HENRY MALDKN. but probably other instances might be pointed out in which . The radical import of the word is that preserved in the It. urtica. and looking. That there ne should of high men disherited be none That had iholde agen the King but the Earl of Leicetre one . It.

a coverlet. from the Celtic cylched. culcita. coglionare. and thus coglionare becomes cogionare. curtax. couille. cousin. and our courtelusse. to cozen. is systematically changed into a soft g. to make a fool of one . Cylchedlen. CULLY. Prichard. The sense above given of cogionare agrees so exactly with the familiar expression to gudgeon one. where the total want of radical con- . cutlass. which was in a former paper deduced through the Lat.' geon one. patois coulionner. cois explained by Cotgrave. COZEN. It is certain that the Venetian schinco. whence is the Fr. Diet. *. Prichard as an argument (although he does not lay great stress upon it) in favour of the original unity of the human race. arose in coarser timesJrom the Fr. Now coltrina admits of a very prohable explanation from coltre. Hence the expression of gaping for gudgeons in and in the patois the sense of exposing oneself to be played upon of French Flanders. or prigione to E. fundamentally signifying that which envelopes or incloses. giving rise to Kilian's kortelasse. to make In the Venetian dialect. the double I or gl a tool or impose on one. The same interchange of / and r explains the different modifications found in the older writers of the modern a shin. prison. a pruning-hook or bill. the paramour of a courtesan. &c. augmentative cortelazzo. hangings. . bogere for bollire. to gudFaire avaler des gouvions. Rouchi-Fran9ais. a lubberly coward. a knife. plied to a base wretch either easily deceived or willing to shut his The word eyes to the foul source from whence he draws his living. of which couille a white-livered slim and coglione in low language is a blockhead . glione. He somewhere gives a number of instances. CUTLASS. it would not be difficult to compile a table of resemblances quite as strong. of coltello. were it not that we are able from collateral sources to explain the metaphor involved in the English expression. curtax. The proper meaning of the E. to deceive. precisely as the noun cugino to the E.78 he change was the other way. plaisanter . cha passe comme un gouvion is used in the sense of ' that is easily swallowed ! ' ' to make a person believe lies. oil . agreeing with Bayley's to cully. coltellaccio (from courtelass. as in ogio for oglio. a garment. (Hecart). and its The It. coutelas and our cutlass) is the regular augmentative This in the Venetian dialect becomes cortelo. to boil corresponding to the E. a veil. The narrow shape and slimy skin of the gudgeon seem to have suggested the possibility of slipping it down the throat of any one giving the opportunity of an open mouth. from lien. It. CURTLEAX. is more near the original than the ordinary Italian stinco. a curtain. To GUDGEON. Fr. that one might easily be satisfied with the identity of the verb in the two languages. couillon . curtleax. coglia. . e. where gouvion is a gudgeon. railler. ' ' The resemblance of isolated words like cogionare and gudgeon has been used by Dr. culcitra. too great in his opinion to be merely accidental. cully seems to be Hence apthat given by Bayley. Hecart. of such resemblances taken from languages the most unconnected with each other. To set against the examples given by Dr. curtleax. bed furniture. gladius brevis et anceps.

saighdear. dolas.' but the same particles seem to be employed in the construction of many pairs of words of contrasted significations where it is not so easy to make out the common element. bondage . saor. Greek. are interpreted ' ineffable' and 'easily spoken. consolation. comfort. Fr. metaphor from that which gives which are probably from the Celtic Rouchi or patois spoken in the neighbourhood of Valenciennes seems to preserve a good specimen of the . E. or may be proved from extrinsic evidence.79 nection is either apparent from the nature of the thing signified. by a process the converse of that which makes us pronounce nation. or patois of Valenciennes has tier. . bwyst-fil (pronounced vil). war. was the sign of the optative mood in ancient Egyptian. sorch. faire sa cour avec bassesse. to love. being a mere modification of the ordinary Fr. E. from cas. which was so great a difficulty in our embassies to that country. saorsa. wild-beast W. What He"cart calls the different rise to the Lat. savage. doilleir. free. an animal. deliverance . as tien for chien. and/jen. cheap . a foot. evil. shady. joy. woe. in Waverley's sidier dhu and sidier roy. from saighid (sagitta). clear. freedom. carpet G. nashon. a dog. as may in E. as It.' is applied to the gout. W. captain. . \ . profit. coriarius. daor. dear. from cad. according to Bunsen. good. a head. Mai. Bret. and mil. currier Lat. The Rouchi. enslaved daorsa. to love. dearth. E. . properly an archer. gratuitous. solas. sodger for soldier. soilleir. obscure. son. And and in the same way. bright. carus. dear . precious. from bwyst. . Do-labhairt and so-labhairt. Thus we have don. cher. E. the total want of connexion between dear and cher is shown by the construction of the Gaelic equivalent The particles do and so are used in Gaelic as Svs and eu in daor. dark. the insurrectionary and royal soldier of '45. cogionare. cam. to gudgeon. grief. defect. E. and brat cloth but a footcloth was by no means the primary destination of a carpet. to care for. W. the humiliating ceremonial of prostrations before screens and pictures required of those who are about to be introduced to the emperor. to make kudoii. light. gicht. G. cher. kudou in the phrase ober kudou. which is undoubtedly from gutta. the primary meaning of which is ' torture. dorch. cadben. The following have occurred in the course of no long period of observation : shown in a former paper. On the other hand. The Sc. an arrow. the vulgar E. agrees remarkably with the Chinese kotou. for example. showing a fundamentally caru. cas-bhrat. might be supposed identical with It is however the Gael. sidier.

for example. chaise. a gardener . to move. wceccan. to stick. petite nape qu'on place sur la grande pour la preserver des taches et qui s'eleve avant de servir le dessert . gartier. showing convincingly the origin of the O.-E. to watch (Baretti). to guard . kaiere. Fr. single stiquer. in the same way that the naperon does the table-cloth. . guet a pens ap- pears in the laws of William the Conqueror. wacian. cherene. wache.-Fr. clause in a guatare. gaitier. Louis. gardenier. to look. a rebuff. to spy. A ' 4 quas usitato vocabulo Guaytas dicunt.' The ' Fr. Hence the meanings of the verb wachten distinguished by Kilian incustodire. whence O. mouver To WAIT. single. the peculiar office of which is to preserve the dress from dirt. adduced by Ducange. encre. agreeing with the O. nante and nonque. Fr. language. charter of St. The same dialect preserves us an important step in the pedigree of theE. in Hecart We : arainer. jar. to accuse judicially. Wete Wete come i prinche ben Look how well he en pau Just look So in Chaucer and Spenser. or with an intention of attacking others. herisson. wacht. ink . to growl. dinier. warten. to watch exspectare. Fr. language. . wachten. hirchon or hurchon. affording another instance of those fallacious resemNow a person may be induced to keep blances above alluded to. quod usitato vocabulo wactas dicunt. grottier. echapper. vigilare. : . to lie in wait wait. and It. an apron. mourdrir. either from some apprehended danger. to grumble. bouger. inke. napron. sidiari.80 dialect forming a large portion of the French incorporated in the E. to wake or watch (G. And weyte aftir our four shippis aftir us doith dryve. The Prologue. opperiri. preaches constantly used in the sense of looking or taking heed ! ! ! ! : Beryn clepid a maryner and bad him sty on loft. to escape . or simply for the purpose of being prepared for some impending event. to show. a churn. wait. to wait or weet is H6cart. to poke. a garter .' The Rouchi wetier. find. ' et de aweit purpensed. Fr. guetter. an urchin or hedgehog Fr.' while the same clause in a charter of Louis le Chauve has of wacta. probably preserves the precise acceptation in which the word was adopted into the E.' et de insidiis praecogitatis. to Fr. v.-Fr.-E. a watch or guard D. a chair. naperon. Fr. Chaucer. moustrer. Fr. a brush bvffe. in the derivation of which our dictionaries vacillate between the A. to adopted into mediaeval Latin under the form . facere non negligant. escaper. naunt and nuncle for aunt and uncle. to keep watch). and the G. watch from different reasons. The word was observare. to murder. arraign. directs that explorationes et excubiae. screper. gueter. to scrape. Mod. 857.jarretiere.-S. to look. a reprimand. G. which is from a totally different root. . whence muster. . wachen. to wait. brouche. brosse. simple. to watch.

the shank (which differs only from its E. zanca. Zapare del cavalo Patriarchi the pawing of a horse. .-E. But schaetse or scutches corresponds to schake pretty nearly as churl to carl. becomes scar lot in in Venetian. Kilian 'grallse. This word. but they have this essential character in common. . so common. and would therefore be properly expressed by a diminutive. long. step. guardare. stramp. was We . zampare. Now the ordinary It. fleshcoloured. from the O. SCARLET. scotches. while in Flanders it retained the original meaning of stilts. and hence probably the derivation of the word. to drain . the shining How the semitransparent flesh produces pink or flesh-coloured.-E. incarnatino. It probably took its rise in some country in which was invented or manufactured a cloth of a good scarlet dye.' showing that the PI. equivalent or the Sp.81 In the same way the original meaning of the G. being supposed to be a cor- The original meaning of ruption of sewer. stappen E. O. to dig. to look or watch. early adopted into all the European languages. . and scarlatina being of a diminutive form. the name being doubtless borrowed with the thing itself from the Dutch. zappare. and those from zappa. to stamp. to wait. and if that were the case. These words. trapp \ trapp ! E. of the word. the word in fact being identical with the It. originally distinct. : . explained by Patriarchi a colour between white and red. a shank zancudo. To SAP has come to us through the military in the confined sense of undermining a building or earth. with whom schaetse was used in this signification. warlen. as compared with the It. ' .work. -D. the simple scarlato would naof which through turally express the full red of the blood. into that of the blood naturally the designation of flesh-colour passes itself is witnessed by Shakespeare's use of incarnadine in the sense of tinging with crimson. But the mixture of any colour with white is considered as a dilution or weakening of the colour. an instrument Hence the origin driven into the ground by the pressure of the foot.shanked Now schaetse is interpreted by zancada. regarder. to step. saper. SEWBR. a spade. SHORE. and shore. have become confounded in later times. a blow with the sole of a foot. for flesh-colour is incarnatino or The latter. tramp. stilts. Formerly written skatzes.echasses. vulgo scacte. Between stilts and skaits there is not much outward resemblance. whence the Fr. zanca in the absence of the nasal). that they are both of them implements by which we are enabled to make long strides and get rapidly over the ground. by that interchange of the liquids which is scarnatino. a stride zancos. sewer was an artificial watercourse. as is evident from the Venetian zapare. there is no quarter in which it is to be looked for with greater probability than in Italy. Zapon. has fallen out of use. Sc. schake. stamp G. It. SKAITS. must formerly have been used in the sense of stilts. to stamp one of the numerous class of words formed in imitation of the tapping sound of a footfall Du. or church to kirk. from the Fr. It. Fr. have in Sp. to sew. has been a great puzzle to etymologists.

It is not easy to decide whether the word has been adopted into the Romance languages from a Teutonic source or vice versd. the pin-fold or pond-falde. though more remote. Here we see maggot or grub used in the like pensive (Kuttner). whence pflinden. afford a satisfactory explanation.pawn. stall. scharren. muser. pledge. schoren. It is not Latin. may fundamentally signify something penned or shut up to abide the event of a certain contingency. to place in pledge cattle found straying. as in Pl. the cleansings. in the same way in which the G. FIND AH. agreeing exactly with E. schaben. schor-grabe. who scrapes up the ordures PINFOLD. fantastical. To amuse is to cause to muse. acceptation in English. connection with the verb pyndan. to give one something to occupy It is his thoughts and prevent ennui. cattle within The as the purpose of every fold is to confine the real derivation is the G. were the outlets of the marshes and stagnant waters. shut in. Er habe grillen. gepyndan.-S. morose. It. however not impossible that there may be a real. if we might coin such a word. to pen. to scrape. gives rise to scavenger. der Pfand-stall. There are many instances in which absorption from the outer world is metaphorically attributed to the motions of some living being within the brain on which the attention is supposed to be engaged. to pound cattle. PP.-D. for the inspection of which the early commissioners were appointed. To MUSE. pyndan. miise-nester in koppe habben. he is maggot-headed. it. nor would the verb musare. According to Kilian. the kennel which receives the drainings of a The root is the G. The origin of the word shore on the other hand is apparent' in the Swiss scharren. and . AMUSE. a person absorbed in thought is said to have mouse-nests in his head. to confine. and the Sc. pfand.82 or water. POUND. muisen. and the condition of such a person is expressed by the phrase. musare. he looks like a pot full of mice. Fr. Fro the Pouke's pond-falde no main-prize may us fetch. in Richardson. till the owner has paid the damage der Pfander. schohren. Du. . aquam deducere ad irrigationem. pfand. ' had no reference to the cleansing of towns.' Ducange and the sewers. But perhaps the mouse may perform a different part in the metaphor. he has his head full of grubs. it is taken from the profound contemplation with which a cat watches for a mouse. the person of the streets. crickets. the Pindar or officer whose business it is to distrain the cattle . to sweep out. to scrape. a pawn or . Thus the Germans represent the internal fancies by which a person is occupied by the term grillen. or er mache grillen. as perhaps the G. whence schorete. The verb to muse or mouse seems a stronger instance of the same metaphor. Shore-ditch. as it is written in PP. say that a person has a bee in her bonnet when she is occupied with something that absorbs her attention from the outer world. He suut vut as een Pott vull Muse. These words are commonly referred without hesitation to the A. to cleanse a cattle-stall. a derivation which would give no peculiar meaning to the word pinfold. ~&. to pen. in the sense of following the Muses.

and in the smaller sort a conspicuous want of straight lines. which were so totally unknown to the scholars of an age which has hardly passed away. a shooting-up and a darting-down. of majesty and grace. v. and in their stately procession across a page. and it has been said that a page of Latin. Many of them present a combination of the straight line and the curve. The absence of this line is an advantage to Hebrew. is the almost unbroken horizontal line on which the letters appear to be tiled. there is a general air of pettiness. 1851.' surpasses a page of English in its look. and which may be censured as too uniform and too stiff. whicli seems to be recognized as pleasing by almost every eye. it is only the Hebrew which in point of appearance can sustain a comparison with the Devanagari. The only drawback in the beauty of the Devanagari. These forms. in the Chair. it might have been deemed to be constructed on a system little short of perfection. an appearance of complication and involvement. JUNE 13. To judge from the terms in which the Devanagari alphabet has been spoken of by some philologists. HBNSLBIGH WEDGWOOD. VOL. 111." : By Thomas Watts. and on the other hand the absence of points is an advantage to Sanscrit. capitals and from the comparatively rare occurrence in Latin of letters that rNc above or sink below the line. Esq. In the Greek." The few Greek books that have been printed entirely in capital letters have been much admired by bibliographers for the beauty of their appearance. A " On paper was read entitled the Devanagari or Sanscrit Alphabet. " unmix'd with baser matter. produce a favourable impression. In other respects there is a sort of conthey consist in formity to be observed between the two alphabets general of letters of a similar height and size.PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY. M . by the union which they exhibit of variety and uniformity. among the familiar alphabets. Perhaps. This indeed has been assigned as a ' VOL. and are so familiar to the eyes of thousands in our own. The forms of the letters are indeed of an elegance which may well justify some warmth of eulogy. This is far from being the case with the characters of some other alphabets. as little apt to project much above the line as to dip much below it. the individual characters have much of the ' ' the capitals of the aspect of the dignitaries of other alphabets Greek and Roman. in the ordinary mixture of lower-case. No. and even this is not considered a drawback by some. and in some respects may claim to be superior. V. even at first sight. Esq. There is a wildness and extravagance about the forms of the Arabic letters. which certainly are far from attractive to the beginner. which is not redeemed by any particular grace in the curvilinear ones which have been adopted.

letter for the ' ' ' The Russians have one English ch. guages. another for the sound of the English * in pleasure and treasure. and so on. as of the same dignity as the consonants and marching in the same ranks they sometimes only cling round the feet of the consonants or perch on their heads. effort which is necessary to remember in what positions a sign forfeits its ordinary attributes and has to assume new ones. which loads the memory with two forms instead of one. The English and Spaniards have adopted one method of writing it. perhaps. How great this advantage is. It also avoids the Semitic absurdity of unravel. who has been painfully taught to feel. the Italians a third. by between twenty and thirty different signs. Never represented. In most of them we rind fifty or sixty different sounds represented.' and when once these are learned. the middle. It is painful to reflect how much time has been thrown away. and bow much they smoothen his progress. the Sanscrit has the important advantage of being written at full. the Devanagari alphabet. and will probably be committed to the end of time. it is having different forms for a letter. be properly appreciated onlyby theSemitic student. as in the Roman. another for the English sh. or the end of a word. The copiousness of the Devanagari alphabet is another theme of An injudicious parsimony in the invention of letters seems praise. If practised with the view of surely was economy so ill-judged. The sparing the memory. who must have remarked with what ease the fewpeculiar letters of Russian are learned by the scholar. ment. or endeavoured to be . to have been the bane of European alphabets. are daily committing. a page of the Orations of Cicero. but at all events in some shape they are present and have a recognized existence. till at last the complication has become almost too intricate to While the Devanagari is judiciously copious in this respect. is largely possessed by the Devanagari. It is not however to appearance only that the admirers of the DeAs compared with the Semitic lanvanagari confine their eulogies. how many thousand mistakes have been committed in pronunciation. can. according to its occurrence at the beginning. for no perceivable purpose. The vowels indeed are not always treated. the Germans a fourth. if it can be called a refinepitals and smaller letters. by every step of his experience. in the Roman alphabet. is a strain on the memory much greater than that of remembering a few additional signs. The order of writing in the Sanscrit language is the same as in . expresses all. the French another. the English ch for instance. the thousand annoyances of the opposite system. merely from the want of a distinct sign to represent one of these sounds. and leaving the rest to deduction or conjecture. This will be acknowledged by all who have had occasion to study the Slavonic languages. the intention is certainly not answered. no doubt that this merit. like the Roman. wisely economical in another. whatever its value. the Poles a fifth. all difficulty about them is at an end. Instead of specifying a few of the vowels only. for it has no distinction of caa refinement.84 reason for the perseverance of type-founders in selecting for the theme There can be of their specimens.

i. This point is. i. by diligent tracing of their origin. The r.ule is precisely as if our rule for writing the word tin were for pit. for instance. but every individual who has had to learn the Roman alphabet. t. that the boustrophedon method. whom the Philological Society is proud to claim as one of its members. The ordinary alphabets present an appearance of absolute chaos in this respect. This however is not the case in other respects. It might perhaps. unscientific as it is. which has been already alluded to. The vowels stand first in order. that as the lines are usually longer in that direction than across. the eye has more trouble in catching the beginning of a fresh line. This seems to be a matter perfectly indifferent. In the word travuiller. of more importance than it is generally thought. which is found in practice a serious one. in French. is certainly inferior both in simplicity and grace to that with which we are familiar in the Roman With one of the alphabet. n Strangely enough. that the reason of their present order of arrangement can be discovered. t. It has been justly observed. as the g before the H 2 . but Devanagari system has not only sustained a often sustained it with advantage. finds place. has certainly lost time. Of all these we have an excellent instance in the article on the Alphabet already quoted in the Penny Cyclopa?dia. there is moreover a whimsical rule of Sanscrit orthography which gives rise to much Its position in a word as written is regulated to inconvenience. and so on. p. / has no vagfio there is something analogous.85 our own from left to right. neither an advantage nor a disadvantage. be before the consonant after which it is sounded in speaking. as we are all aware. the scientific nature of its arrangement is at once apparent. and the consonants follow disposed in certain classes. and by very great ingenuity. in which the lines alternately run from right to left and from left to right. of placing them in the same line. in the aggregate amounting to days and weeks. and of course directly opposed to the practice of the Semitic languages. in some of the European languages. on the contrary. according to certain principles. which was subsequently enlarged and published in a separate shape by its author. to arrange the letters thus. The Chinese method of writing from the top of the page to the bottom is open to the objection. in the article on the Alphabet in the Penny Cyclopaedia. from the difficulty in committing and also in recalling to memory its So arbitrary sequence. that which answers to the Roman short i. be unadvisable to propose to disturb the present order of our own letters. has the prescription of centuries in its favour . The method of attaching some of the vowels to the consonants. a similar peculiarity with regard to the same vowel. far the Sanscrit or parallel with the Roman. vowels. In the Devanagari alphabet. which. which are written from right to left. It is only by minute examination. The arrangement of the characters of the Devanagari alphabet is a point in which it has also a claim for admiration. was more convenient to the eye than any of the methods which have obtained the preference in practice. the i which is placed In the Italian word trabefore the two I's is sounded after them.

into which it introduces a needless intricacy which is often found troublesome. parently the trouble of writing it too often. a short a is supposed to be there also. rf. as we have called it. the student has often no means of knowing if the missing vowel be an a. It would be well. if a person writing in Devanagari wished to express the sound Admetus. and in all other cases. although not written. as there can be no ambiguity in it. and with the same effect. which are of course innumerable. but influences the sound that and the same observation may be made with regard to gn both in French and Italian. however. a short a must be latent there according to rule. negative sign to be affixed to the consonant to show that no vowel follows. an i. Thus in Sanscrit to spell the name of Adam. it is only necessary to put down the characters answering to A. as many signs as are needed to spell it in the Roman alphabet. In the European languages. d and m there being no vowel present between the d and the m. In the cases where the vowels are not written in Arabic. for instance. To save apof this letter is of very frequent occurrence in Sanscrit. is confined to the end of a word. he should not have affixed the negative sign between the d and m as well as after the s. but in Sanscrit the very circumstance of the vowel's being missing shows unmisBut to proceed if no other vowel octakeably that it is a short a. it has been made a rule of orthography not to write it at all except when it occurs at the beginning of a word. There seems at first to be no material objection to this method. and the blemish to the alphabet. and is a sinIn the case mengular chapter in the history of wasted ingenuity. curs at the end of a word. a short a is assumed to be there. in which one consonant is to follow another in pronunciation. There seems no reason why it should not have been employed in the middle as well why. are therefore of less consequence than in the Sanscrit. The blemish however in regard to the short i. but under a system which requires a whole follows . by the rules of Sanscrit orthography this is inadmissible. If no other vowel appears between two consonants in the middle of a word. the two consonants are in writing to be " roll'd into one.86 connection with any sound before it. m. . an o. and the word is pronounced accordingly. or a M. m would therefore be read Adama but for an additional When the word closes with a consonant." Each is to lose or modify its separate shape so as to unite with the other and form . apparatus of explanation. The method which has been adopted in the middle of words is the great distinction between the Devanagari and all alien alphabets. there is a peculiar rule. the letters A. if the difficulties ended here. The letters A d. tioned. the use of the negative sign. Unfortunately. this misplacement of alphabetical signs occurs only with regard to a few particular letters. and the negative sign to intimate that the m closes the word. But it is not so. an e. and inconvenience to the learner. however. or the other languages for which the Arabic alphabet is used. There are thus four signs made use of to spell Adam in Devanagari. is as nothing in imThe sound portance compared to that connected with the short a. : : % .

for d to combine with m. that by these arrangements the practical advantages of an alphabetical system are materially lessened. the letters must be considered between four and five hundred. there must be a new character or combination of characters to represent those particular five coneonants in that particular order of sequence. The same parties would probably have adsophical and refined. some refractory letter has to be so crushed as hardly to retain a vestige of its Of course there will be two ways for every letter original form. all hanging together in a confusion which it requires both patience and skill From a matter so simple that few would suspect to disentangle. mired the Roman system of notation in preference to the Arabic. considers it useless to expect that under the present system the mass of Sanscrit literature can ever be made accessible in a printed form to the European student. The result is. in case it could have been traced to a Sanscrit original. and here the same rules apply. to combine. as something philo. according as it comes first or last. In a pamphlet . indeed. abound with great inconveniences. or four. Professor Hermann Brockhaus. to be that it involved any difficulty at all. where the shapes do not so well agree. There is a practical grievance connected with this unnecessary multiplicity of Sanscrit characters which has lately attracted some It is evident that to the printer this state of affairs must attention. if there is a form. Again. Sometimes the forms of both are still well-preserved. If five consonants come together in Sanscrit. after having made some proficiency. the beautiful sim- The Devanagari alphabet is plicity of its theory all but destroyed. to the progress of the study of the language. There have been found enthusiasts of European birth who have learned to admire these rules of Indian origin. or five. been considered more economical to lithograph a Sanscrit text than to go tlirough the process of printing it. himself a Sanscrit scholar of great eminence. for instance. it may not be two consonants only that are to unite. but three. when d comes first. and they have as much claim to be considered a part of the alphabet as our x and w. It is obvious at first sight. not able to read words at sight. it has the typefounder is enormous. said to consist of fifty letters . the ingenuity of the constructors of the Devanagari alphabet has contrived to manufacture almost a grammarful of perplexity. but is brought to a standstill by arriving at some hitherto unknown cluster of consonants. but if we add these compound forms to the number. which haa been found an obstacle. Not a sound is expressed that could not be expressed as well without it.87 a new compound character. For every combination of consonants throughout the language there must be a separate type. The natural result of this additional expense is an increase in the cost of books. and a serious one. The as well as quantity of additional labour entailed on the compositor On some occasions. and one is only braced to its companion or mounted upon it sometimes. there must be a form for the same two letters to combine when m comes first. Not a single advantage is gained by all this complexity. that the student of the language is often.

yet it has come to nothing. would be reduced in an equal ratio to the difficulty of reading them. and in time to come it would perhaps be as unlikely to meet with a Sanscrit scholar in favour of the old method. retain its advantages it is surely not necessary to has already been pointed out that the alteration of a single rule. in fact. would bear a strong analogy to that which has been made in Greek by discarding the Greek nexus. acalphabet and printing Sanscrit books kritischer a fixed representative for cording to a settled system. rary success. there will be less. Let the use of what has been called the negative sign be introduced into the middle of a word as well as each consonant will then be written out at full in its at the end proper order and its original form. by abandoning the Latin contractions. by discarding the Devanagari in the Roman character. been proposed for other languages . and how strong an attachment the Germans have manifested How few that have for their peculiar form of the black letter. It . . as with a Grecian who would wish to return to the uncial letters and the conglomerated words of the Alexandrian manuscript from the types of a Foulis or a Bodoni. at an earlier period. There seems to be a strong objection in every one's mind against cashiering an alphabet that has once been identified with a language. it is easy to present a text in the Roman character. it would appear advisable to retain the Devanagari alphabet with its beautiful forms and its scientific ar- we rangement. or rather The change.88 he has published on the subject (" Vorschlag iiber den Druck SansWerke mit Lateinischen Buchstaben.") he proposes to meet the difficulty in certain cases. studied Greek could bear the notion of reading Homer or Euripides been tried. We in the If Roman character! are guided therefore by what experience has sanctioned in the case of other languages. or rather the extension of a single principle. which a competent scholar can reproduce with unerring certainty in Devanagari. and after a short practice there will be no more difficulty in reading Sanscrit. This proposal by Professor Brockhaus certainly strikes at the root But it is ominous to observe that similar schemes have of the evil. a fertile source of useits But with absurdities. The appearance of a Sanscrit book to the eye will be materially improved. less trouble. The expense of cutting types. By assigning each of the Sanscrit letters. than in reading Greek or Russian. but that even when they have they have never met with more than partial and tempoThe system of Volney for getting rid of the cumbrous machinery of the Arabic points had certainly still more to recommend it than this system with Sanscrit. and in Latin. will suffice to introduce order and simplicity where before there was chaos and confusion. and the difficulty of setting books in type. know with what obstinacy some of the Anglo-Saxon scholars have contended for the preservation of a mere corruption of the Roman.

&c. VOL. The real distinction peeps out in some measure. If a person read these two articles no farther. 'Mo. they may together furnish a supply of food for a whole evening's consumption. and as synonyms of hisco. same idea stands out where Juvenal tells how the rustic's child shudders at the wide-spread jaws of the pale mask personae palwhere Persius talks of a ranting tragic actor lentis hiatum is by the power of . and the latter. to open. ' find the former word translated towards the close of the article by the phrase article on to speak or utter with the mouth wide open/ while the ' In truth. On By One of may with the uses to which the power of the Philological Society advantage be directed is the collection of fragmentary notices of an etymological character. improbable." the Derivation Professor Key. in the 6th book of the ^Eneid. in the other but a narrow chink. Hiare means ' ' exclusively to open the mouth wide. VOL. The tiny sound. he would justly conclude that the two words were synonymous. to open the . hiare. v.' whereas hiscere is barely to In the one case we have a wide abyss open the lips. an animal distinguished from most others raising the upper jaw to a right angle with the lower. the real hisco adds the translation to mutter. JUNE Professor 27. to open. Such often occur to scholars. If numerous.PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY. when we . in order that they may be duly recorded. Virgil speaks of the Leo immane hians. used of the crocodile. and are lost simply because they are but fragments. stretch wide their jaws and yet give out but a Again.' ' distinction between the two words is most marked. and even a solitary fragment may find a It is proposed on the fitting place at the end of a longer paper. and no ready It is much to be desired that place of deposit presents itself. . Thus Forcellini begins his article with giving as synonyms of hio. V. to say the least.quarters. aperior. 1851. The two verbs hiscere and hiare are commonly regarded as all but equivalents for each other in meaning. to open the mouth. present occasion to give some unconnected suggestions of this kind on a few vocables of the Latin language. KEY in the Chair. mouth hence to gape. ' hisco. 112. yawn. Members of the Society should be invited to forward such chance thoughts to head.' and hisco. No. Thus the former.. The former opinion on examination will be found to be very far from the truth.' Similarly in a aperior' ' popular Latin-English Lexicon. be open. and it has been perhaps by all lexicographers assumed that they are closely related in origin . gape. A " paper was read^ and Meaning of certain Latin Words.' &c. we have hio. It is also employed with effect where the ghosts.' separate before us.

we have a sound nearly equivalent to yaw in our own yawn. of late years a disposition to disparage the great work of the Italian scholar. 16. iii. Nee attollere oculos aut hiscere audeOv. vi. Lastly. not hiscere. or the idle and gaping gobemouche. vix raris turbatus vocibus hisco. Nee hiscere quidquam Ausit. loses its whole spirit for him who with and Forcellini would regard hiscere as a mere equivalent for loqui hiscere audebis. .90 or where Javenal uses the similar phrase Grande might also appeal to pasSophocleo carmen bacchamur hiatu. walk. 4. from hisc-. This c is the remnant.' sages in which the same word happily expresses the greedy glutton ready to devour what is before him. which appears as a whole syllable in the nouns cim-ec-. enough for us Cic. and this although Forcellini quotes three passages from Pliny in support of mention this the more. Such a view is in accordance with what we have asserted in former papers about the final letter in talk. Equally well-adapted is this suffix for our verb Now when the c is removed hiscere. Phil. Aen. we contend. passage from Prop. : We require no picking of passages Those quoted by Forcellini are more than to prove our point. of a diminutival suffix. strangers in blood. cimex. more surprising that this able lexicographer should commit this error. cul-ec. hisc of hiscere has probably a foreign element in the c. On the . xiii. 313. pluck. xv. and unduly to exalt lexicons which have been compiled by We We . 3. but he omits ' its ordinary sense. as it might have been corrected by the next following line. Respondebisne ad haec ? aut omnino Liv. Gell. and the gnat. instead of the loud bawling which Mare always denotes. and most indistinct muttering. culex). In the word hia-. but hiascere. bant. How different is it when we turn to the use of hiscere The first hlanda tragoedo ' . other 'hand. and thus again we are supported by the principle of onomatopoeia. We \ passage quoted by Forcellini himself. ii. The third consists of the two words rima hiscit and when we come to the use of the verb in the sense of speaking. as an Italian reads the word. select these words because no one will doubt the pulex. Even the Virg. we have the lowest . 231. But not only are the words diametrically opposed to each other in it is the meaning they are also. viz. 9. iii. and this sound is precisely that which accompanies the act of yawning. if our translation of it be right. for example. is not merely silent upon its etymology. it may be \rorth while to notice that the inceptive of hiare would be. hark. because there has been this meaning. is of the cracks in ill-seasoned wood. ebbing and flowing as the tide' . we believe. a verb which really exists. Cum homo vultum intorqueret et non hisceret et colores mutaret. Liinemann.(nom. propriety of employing a word of diminutival form for the bug. Parroque tarn magnis admoram fontibus ora. The word reciprocvs seems to deserve some notice from the neglect it has met with in the popular lexicons of the day. pul-ec-. Met. the flea. we have the very sound his which is produced by the rapid passage of air through a narrow chink. 43. so that it would be impossible to find a better example of the onomatopoetic principle.

we find an old phrase in our own language. Thus the question presents itself whether the syllable co. (nom. as in redire and prodire. that their lexicons are immeasurably procus But to return to our adjective recithe crude form of this word is reciproco-. have rig or ryy ' . .' to say nothing of riiclt as an essential syllable of riicken. and the adverb zuriick. would be effective supports of this explanation. ' N . This prepares us for the German ruck. which appears twice over in the adjective reciproco-. it became in course of time of successive elevations applied metaphorically to any surface made up and depressions which extended in parallel lines. and its use as a name for the back/ was perhaps in the term rig at first limited to the backs of animals. viz. Thus we find Icelandic hrygg the root possess Dan. used in the same sense as our more familiar phrase familiar. although the notion of backwards and forwards is so well adapted to explain its meaning. . While the earlier sense of this expression belongs ridge-and-furrow. Again. Thus Jamieson'a ribbed worsted dictionary speaks of rig-and-fur as a name for thicklyElevation seems to have been the primary idea expressed stockings. rally back's-bone). Chaucer has rigge and riggin-bone for the back-bone (or more liteThe old Scotch writers Wallace and Douglas. with the exception of Freund. Thus divided. the form of the word seems to suggest the question whether the two prepositions re and pro do not form the chief substance of the word of course the main difficulty on this supposition lies in the c which follows re and pro. may be a suffix added to each of the prepositions. and added not a little of his own that is unfounded. in the sense of back. at least that dialect of it which prevails in the lowlands of Scotland. and as an i. it will of course be ordinary prefix. performs an office which was in Old Latin. which is a provincial term in the sense of back or ridge. Hence we cannot but hesitate as to the derivation of this word from re and pro. it may be well to look at assigned to o in Greek or the word in the shape reco-proco. Those German writers who have since laboured in the same department. were it not for the long quantity of the vowel which in them precedes the c. which may throw light on the Latin adjective. .91 Germans. ryg. A d after these prepositions would have been sufficiently inferior to that of Forcellini. in whose body it occupies Be this as it may. hryggr). Casting our eyes in a different direction. as really existing adjectives.. when employed as a connecting vowel. according with a change of vowel rug. all the Teutonic languages the highest place. Ang. and is the back. hrieg. The truth is that Scheller borrowed without acknowledgement from Forcellini nearly all that is of merit in his work.-Sax. whereas in reciprocus we have none but short vowels. and Robert of Gloucester to Jamieson. rig-and-fur. Anticus or antiquus and posticus. Old-Frisian hreg or reg. have for the most part avowedly taken Scheller for their basis. to the appearance of a ploughed field. so that recus and promts should be obsolete adjectives formed from the prepositions. and the result is. origin of the d which is thus seems very uncertain but it is the common belief that it forms no essential part of the root. . The fond of attaching itself to prepositions.

mark and marrow. seeing that the liquid r is notorious for the habit of transposition with its adjoining vowel. while the first syllable is identical with that of sper-ling. It has been again and again noticed that this suffix ow corresponds to one which takes a guttural form in allied languages.' are derivatives from juvenis. young It may be objected to our derivation of bird. or ridge-andfurrow. that in the Latin word we find no representative of our copulative particle. youth. We admit this. that in reci-procus we have pro in lieu of por. it is a matter of no great ' ' * If confirmation be needed. taking the form of a guttural. sorge and sorrow.' now proceed to compare the expressions rig-and-fur or ridgeand-furrow with the Latin reciprocus. for example. and point to the Danish "a fyr. But the simple word still exists in the Danish fure. even We nutival power. The substantive sparrow.92 immediately connected with our obsolete subin ridge. a young man. the back of the erect animal. talg Germ. Although elevation be the prevailing notion when we look at the back of a quadruped.' and a Roman by the little words re and retro. we have it in the pair of words.' is more idiomatic than hac atque iliac. is at once disposed of by the well-known fact that the Latin language deems it enough to place opposed words in mere juxtaposition.' that analogy would require us to find a primitive of similar meaning in the first part offarrow. which an Englishman expresses in the idea of going back or looking back.' and the Latin inseparable preposition re. that one can scarcely get rid of the belief that they must be connected. the German name for the same bird. we have but a translation of dorsvm montis." . ' a furrow/ the/" in the former tongue as usual corresponding to a p in the latter. a bullock/ and juvenca. Eng. as was to be expected. . and ow.back. for in the syllable ow we have evidently nothing but a suffix. even if our evidence had been confined to the word furrow. Exactly in the same ' ' way juvencus. Similarly to the English furrow corresponds the German furche. pollingo." to a similar cause. and in fact one of dimiadmitted that ridge stantive rig. iliac. ' a furrow. Secondly. The difficulty. a boy. '. man. when we compare its ordinary form with that which it takes in porrigo. girl. consists of an element sparr with the suffix in question. Thus hac this way and that. polliceor. next turn to the second element in rig -and-fur. has disappeared from our language . as a single word. ' We The preposition pro itself shows this. It is scarely necessary to quote in proof the well-known pairs of words. Nor will any etymologist be stopped by the accident. while the meanings are identical. heifer. Then as to form. boy. but we should not have doubted that it once existed. " Hooves too must owe its various meanings of bullock. a back. porcus. galg-en and gallows. Marcipor) or puer. introduces a new relation.. is Nay. Lat. a heifer. and tallow. Fur. porgo. and it may be noticed that porcus again possesses a diminutival suffix. the English substantive furrow* is accurately represented by the Latin porca. young shoot. as applied to a line of billy country. being a derivative of por (Lucipor. ' porcus from por. and farrow. But after all may not both etymologies be true ? Our old substantive rig.' have so much in common as regards both form and meaning.

the latter of which coexists with separare. there is scarcely a more difficult problem to solve than the claim to primogeniture between two alleged stems. find the very word in the compound recvperare or reciperare. a vowel between two consonants. At any rate no argument in its favour can be drawn from such verbs as volnerare. And indeed it is only thus that we can account for the fact. which evidently obtain the syllable er from the final syllables of the neuter substantives volnes. viz. that pro seems to represent projection rather than recession. has its parallel in the compounds im-perare and se-perare. is or is not an original element of the word ? Again. which appear. which is seen in reciperare. but he is now satisfied that this doctrine is erroneous. whence the derivatives reckon and reckless but who will say whether the guttural. which Forcellini boldly. onerare. It seems indeed at first sight as though reciperare must be a secondary form of redpere. and we think justly. according earth instead of the depressed furrow. who shall decide between ne. le and tin of ftav of e(3r}ffa and /3cuvw deleo and lino. we may ask whether there be more than an accidental identity of form between the first ' three letters of furche and fur ? Undoubtedly pro or porro.v of 0ao$ and <fxnvv. forward/ is an exact antithesis to re or retro. We . a ridge denotes a projection when measured from within the earth. refer to such stems as 0a and q>a. one as a consonant followed by a vowel. ' not/ as seen in the phrase nec-mancipi ? Moreover reciprocus will not be the only Latin word which contains the element reco in its longer form. versd. pignerari. or on the other hand red or reco be a derivative from a simpler stem re. Thus to take examples as parallel as may be. point is. and the present writer has elsewhere too hastily assumed the truth of such derivation . and rather need support themselves than have any to lend to other words. ones-. that with the Romans themselves porca at last reversed its meaning and came to signify the ridge or elevated So also in German. not/ and nee. So in ploughed land. /3a and bu and bib of imbuo and bibo . is a salient angle when referred to a point outside a polygon.(volner-is). . In fact. while liberare owes the same syllable to the adjective liber. It is some answer to this that the two ideas really do change places with each What other when we change the point from which we view them. and so to be anything but synonymous with furrow. and the other in triliteral form.93 importance whether re having lost a final guttural be a corruption of an older form rec. but a recession in reference to the human eye looking down upon it. But can porca. Forcellini justifies the lengthened form of red for re by the examples condpilare for compilare and indtega for intega but these words are of too doubtful a character. ' a furrow/ have any connexion with the preposition pro ? Or looking to the German tongue. as the English has it. 'backward/ just as But the awkward ridge or elevation is to furrow or depression. The change of a to e. regards as a compound of parare and some such preposition as red. ' We . no one will doubt that re of rear corresponds to our old verb reck. . pignes-. is a and vice receding angle referred to a point within the polygon .

From this verb we would deduce the preposition per.' a vine. the idea of piercing may perhaps be seen iapor-ta. imperlum and the temptation to assume an obsolete verb vit-. while dig.' Now this verb would also readily form a participle vi-ti-s. to act as a pettifogging lawyer.' so that of cutting gives us \>oth por-lion (nora.' by the adj. portio) and par-ti. vitus). as he does vitiligator in Pliny is If this prefix be deemed to be fairly Plaut.' and so ' Such an adjective we believe to form the first element crooked. established by the evidence here produced.' vi-tor. Under recupero he refers us to recipero.' by the. but without profit. and signifying to pierce or cut. either to take in a wrong sense." would propose then the following solution of the difficulty that porca. 3. a tree of the willow-kind. an excusable abbreviation for viti-lena* viti-litiga-tor. We ' ' ' ' ' ' or adjective vito. and for the original meaning of the word we with some confidence propose. 6. turned to Liinemann to see what his theory about the origin of recuperare might be. ii. . and thus we arrive at porca.' to mis' take.' and also the preposition pro in its sense of advancing.' as in the Casina of In either case from Plaut. die eine to Canape eben so lange Erhohung ausmacht. We : having for its stem per or par. This also with Forcellini we regard as a compound of parare. through.94 "Die von der Pflugschar aufgeworfene Erde. 56. and by our own words wind (the verb) and withy. as also in Plautus and still more clearly is this prefix seen in viti-magi' a magistrate unduly elected. easy to bend. i. 'bend': as vi-men.had originally a meaning not of evil import. as gaudium. or forward.' by vit-ta. We have omitted to notice. but it seems an error to suppose that that very word has entered into the formation of the verb. which would signify bent. we have only to add a ' slight lateral movement.' ' ' . Mostel. 58: Cur omen mihi vituperat? a secondary sense make out to be wrong. als die Furche eine Vertiefung : wird von Einigen auch die Furche genannt. so familiar in our own * It is not unlikely that len-a.' of vitu-perare . in fact the analogue of the Greek Treipw. spoil.' we easily proceed to the ' ' ' notion of ' to blame. made of osiers. seems formed with the same prefix.' or else to make wrong. ad ascribing this word to the fragments of Sallust. a band.(nom. ' a basket-maker. On the derivation of the verb not a word.' The verb ' viti-litiga-. ' a furrow.and len-on.' if Gruter be right in stratu-s. by the forms vit-ex. a trench or furrow. an osier. such as dealer' or trader. A neuter noun in ium is generally deduced from a verb.' is a derivative from an obsolete Latin verb ist. Many of the words connected with this root are formed as from a verb vi-. vit-ilis. and under recipero he refers us back to recupero.' is strengthened into a conviction that such a verb really existed.' whence . that to pass from mere alternate motion to that which produces the mark of a zigzag. To pierce or cut the ground is to Again. 'bend. it must be regarded as an equivalent in meaning of the prefix mis. The verb recuperare naturally reminds one of vituperare. vitiate. Greek Ftr-ea. The first syllable is justly deemed to be connected with vitium. ' a gate.(nom. pars). studium.

to blow. is immediately related to the German verb We would observe too that ventouse. and at the same time adds. and present his young family to the Vice-chan- meaning from its . equivalent to ven-tiva. verb ven. focus foveo. and indeed has already been seen in the preceding quotation from Lucretius. adjective. adjective Now ven-sica has also the appearance of a fern. with the older forms pultare. It would therefore be a very strange fact if it was not found in the Latin also. but we The first step in all shall not stop to discuss this etymology. 130).or Fi'. 62. are reminded of the The moment we see the word vcnto. if we have sufficient faith in etymology to deduce ' the base of arenas. as the French and Italian. m and w (for the Latin v was a tr) readily interchange will be here assumed as a matter proved (see vol. 2246) for the orthography vensica. ought to signify to create a father. for the is familiar enough. arj/ji and its nrjp.' s and t. gives the MS. p.. compare pulsare. ventus. if yet doubtful.' version of the laws of nature. vivo vixi. take. But the matter. shall go up with the candidates for a bachelor's degree. ' The word " cum plena aniraae vensicula parva saepe det haut parvum reading sonitum displosa repente. vcntus).is the representative in form as well as meaning of the Italian mis as seen in That the letters mis-contento. such inquiries is to ascertain the right mode of spelling a word. . see vol. 172).95 Now it is remarkable that this prefix is of very common tongue. as representing the college. p. iii. in its strict sense it is inadmissible. would therefore suggest that our Latin prefix vito. mersare. occurrence. which would come from the obsolete verb ven-. nix nivis. 209). iv. and for that of c and v. &c.from cap-. is known to be derived from the fern. For the change of blow. but also in those descended from the Latin. with which our own bladder is connected. that is an officer. ventosa.' precisely as cap-tivo. An obsolete ascripticius and ascriptivus (see also vol. mis-credere. not merely in the Teutonic languages.' for a cupping-glass. and in fact it is an annual practice at the colleges of Cambridge for the authorities to appoint a father. as for instance the German miss-billigen miss-brauchen. ' ' ' mertare. mis-leale. vannus. and the German verb weh-en. Report tells us that a gentleman at Edinburgh. p. iii. the French blasen. We . seriously proposed a wee sack' as the real explanation of the word. seems decided by the fact that the German blase.(n. in his new edition of Lucretius (vi. vesica is passed over by Forcellini and Lunemann without remark as regards its origin. that de vensica is the reading of the Putean Now Lachmann. The verb patrare. 27 and on the parallelism of words in which an m and v or \o correspond to each other. The objection however is not of force against a metaphorical usage of the word. &c.rima. who. mis-fatto.' just ' But as this translation implies an inas albare is to make white." In his note on this passage he quotes the authority of Caper (Putsch. Caper too supports his mode of writing the word by the argument quoniam non est sine vento. d. not however a Scotchman. misscthat. thus written word connexion between a bladder and wind we of Martial. xiv.

ii.' and only at the end of the article does he arrive at the word as applied to the office of the pater patratus. Thus eventually patrare came to signify to act as a pater patratus.96 cellor. . 25. ' : . p. the verb came into use in the sense of performing the final part in any grave act. . Thus Lunemaun is wrong peace abroad. i. Sal. graecari. 24. throughout his article on patro. "to conclude a peace . xliv. with a solemn eye. where the agent was no longer the pater patratus for example. Why the German editor Plum should attribute to this verb patranti. and this even with the construction Hence patrare jusjurandum. Veil. "to put the finishing stroke to a war. was to commission four of the Fetial college to act in the name of the state. take an oath. &c. 79 and 123. is to of an accusative. ' promissaCic. the rule. Jug." So far we have the verb in connection with the very notions for which it was at first employed but its final use was much wider. ' ' . to appoint a person as father. in Liv. as members " Vater in giving to patrare as its first meaning. . and one of these was placed at the head of the commission under the This phrase. Now we find that something of the same kind was done at When the state had occasion to declare war. sensus venor indeed what authority Liinemann had nereus. pacem. over the notion of this ocello into the other passages where there is no trace of such an idea. and extended to any deeds. vollbringen. fulfil. zuStande bringen). His second head is 'by such (fatherly) look to obtain anything from a person hence to carry through. to have gone astray. by an easy metaphor. But in truth Liinemann seems. bacchari but we are ready to admit that verbs of this class often in a subsequent stage dropped the. bellum. 78." ' . ii. as here used by Persius. 26. ' . bring to pass' (durch solche Blicke etwas von jemand erlangen. us that patrare was a transitive verb. reflective form.' applied to an affected reciter of a grande aliquid quod pulmo animae praelargus anhelet. den Vater ' The of these latter two phrases. his sole auvaterliche Blicke' is his mistranslation of Persius's thority for the It should be observed too. Liv. Ann. e. . that he quietly carries patranti ocello. by its very construction. pacem Liv. whether good or bad. Surely from such an inversion of the meanings he might have been diverted by the mere consideration that there is anything but a connection between a father's coaxing eye as telling upon a child. From this. ancillari.. as we said above. It is perfectly in accordance with this view that we find patrante ocello.' we do not see for translating the verb in this passage by throwing a fatherly or affectionate look upon a person' (vaterliche oder liebevolle Blicke auf jemand werfen). spielen. and primarily signified. if of a serious nature. seyn. daher durchsetzen. in agreement with medicari. to play the father. and the solemn duties of a state ambassador and after all. tells title of pater patratus.' should strictly have been denoted by a reflective verb patrari." p.' . Tac. act as father. as pater patratus to abide by a treaty. Rome. or to make a is well known.

the author thinks he shall not be unnecessarily occupying the attention of the Society by bringing it before their notice. it may be well to remind the reader that Grimm ranges those compounds which consist of two substantives : into three classes. as morgen. generally an adjective. T. 3rdly. escaped the notice of grammarians. Those compounds in which the relation is that which i VOL. as a fir-tree. &c. even in the later stages of our language. a star that shines in the morning. the component parts of such compound will occasionally open and admit some qualifying word. In similar cases the Germans would a hyphen to the first compound. a finch the component parts such as yellow as gold. On following paper was read a curious Tmesis. morning -star. &c.und abend- gebet. As we shall have occasion to dwell a good deal on the nature of Anglo-Saxon compounds. 1851. The writer is not which have been given to explain these different aware of any rules modes of spelling. as foot-soldier. e. for They seem When two affix to be merely the result of convention. such word is often omitted in all save the last ompound. or of a substantive and adjective. in AngloSaxon and Early-English Syntax. or more successive compounds have the same word their last element. No. a soldier that serves on foot. as coal mine. Esq. The idiom may be briefly stated as follows when a compound term consists of two substantives. seems to warrant the conclusion An idiom of a that this idiom has not originated in modern times. 113. . we sometimes write the two words continuously. Those compounds is in which the relation that is exists between generally expressed by a preposition. and not unfrequently led to very unsatisfactory translation. The presence of the copulative between the perfect and imperfect compound. VOL. when one substantive qualifies another. a turtle-dove. According to the modern usage of our language. as seaman sometimes connect them together with the hyphen. The " is sometimes met with. O. as pear-tree and sometimes write them as if they were . goldfinch. i. V. o . 2ndly. somewhat similar kind prevailed in the Anglo-Saxon. COCKAYNE in the Chair. 1st. Those compounds in which the relation is that of apposition. which : distinct words. as house and sign painter. and has left As it has traces behind it. NOVEMBER 21. Rev. an appendage which seems to be due to the grammarians of the last century. mankind. v. in two languages so distinct from each other as the English and German." By Edwin Guest.PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY.

who follows him in making winter-biter a compound. the only meanings that can be given to such a compound as winterbiter are. as water-drinker.C. Thorpe extracted winter's bitter weather. and thec frea mihtig forstas and snawas winter biter weder and folcen faru Caedmon. . ankle-deep. and bright summer Hery their preserver night also and day And thee each land. it will be seen. . He renders geap by patulus. bitter as Mr. According to adopted. in another placet. t D G - - 560. the writer is at a loss to conjecture. Burning fire. or on account of winter. thee mighty Lord ! winter's bitter weather. ! ! Praise in the lyft! assigns winter -biter a place* among our Anglo-Saxon compounds. in the hope of covering a defective syntax. Grimm. 557. and the heavens course. or like. and 2ndly. Praise in the air. is that of curvus or curvatus . g. ii. 1st. As examples of the first class we might quote foot-sore. light and darkness. and the welkin's course . . the frosts and the snows. as cock-crow. irae plenus. Mr. by the genitive. and beorht sumor nergend hergath . god: fall. . deo similis. stone-dead. The bitter winter-weather. marks s<e-geap as an Anglo-Saxon compound. 1 92." it would be difficult to It is submitted that according to the analogies of our language. is equivalent to the writer's own translation " but by what process Mr. &c. the hypothesis we are considering. e. dead as a stone . construed it. Thorpe. &. and biter merely an adjective intruded between its elements. say." from the Anglo-Saxon "winter-biter weder. The first appears to have been forced upon him by the general tenor of the context. glee-singing.98 generally indicated by cases. niht somod and doeg and thec landa gehwilc leoht and theostro herige on hade somod bat and ceald . and the last to have been . &c. blood-red. example of the tmesis we are discussing will be taken from Caedmon first : The byrnende fyr . sistent with each other. . sore in the feet. Thorpe's translation and his text are clearly inconwinter. and without giving any translation of * D. . and of the third. the frosts and the snows. though the only sense in which the writer has ever seen it used in Anglo-Saxon writings.. &c. of the second. Hery in their station also beat and cold And thee mighty Lord. lofige on lyfte. red as blood. winter-weder is the true compound. ireful. and merely How he would have refers to the passage we have just quoted. deep up to the ankles. G. Compounds consisting of a substantive and adjective are divided by the same philologist into corresponding classes. bitter in. . He gives us no translation of the term. translates as follows : Grimm And The This. nightby the accusative. .

143. as following the genitives usses modes. see geap naca hladen here waedum. which we are enis true to nature. for thaem that . &c. is sio an rest . everything is plain and simple. may perhaps be doubted.. In the next quotation from Alfred. Kemble turns the passage differently." If the existence of the idiom. ! Alfred. according to a well-known law of Anglo-Saxon syntax. he refers to the following passage as his authority for the word : tha waes on sarnie . laden with In this case it would seem. on other difficulties. the compound mere-wic. The following example is also taken from Alfred hwaet thu faeder wercest sumur lange dagas swithe hate thaem winter dagum wundrum sceorta . Kemble makes see and geap a in order to cure a broken syntax but with an honesty. 1. a roadstead. First. The objections to it are twofold. the phrase the author's to does at least mind. Alfred. Mr. tida geteohhast. for which the writer of the present paper is answerable. takes its definite form. present an idea which not. heaum ceolum modes usses mere smylta wic. 8. soul's mild roadstead. this translation would require : mare. great. boat. a seastation." His translation of the passage is as follows : There on the sand was the war-weeds. There was on the sand. who has edited the : poetical remains of Alfred. appears to admit the adjective smylta. which it may be observed. . Fox. and renders it in his glossary by " mari curvatus. -Beowulf. renders But not to dwell Of our mind.99 see-geap. a great tranquil station. he makes sce-geap a compound. a sea-boat. it is Mr. desired haven for the lofty barks. Like Grimm. Lo thou Father makest Long summer-days extremely hot. geap is considered as an adjective intruded between the elements of the compound see-naca. sea. he fairly meets the difficulty he has created. the sea. eafra geswinca hyhtlicu hyth . curved over the sea. And to the winter-days wondrously short Times hast given! o 2 . the curved sea-boat Laden with war-habiliments. should be taken as proved. we are not aware of any Anglo-Saxon compound which admits of an " curved over the analogous construction and secondly. Mr. characteristic of this scholar. and which is rarely met with among our other Anglo-Saxon editors. In this translation. compound. 93. For that The Our the last line thus the one rest of all labours. and the passage without difficulty. &c. deavouring to illustrate. . Whether his solution be as happy as it is honest. . 16. instead of mere.

Schmeller. Thorpe's rendering of winter-biter . and he actually translates the passage as if such word formed no part of his text He was puzzled how to translate anes the author can well unIn this passage derstand his difficulty and so he quietly ignores it. In -the next example the word interposed is not an adjective is still : The same idiom of Germany and " swa wraetlice weorod anes god geond middan geard monna craeftas sceop and scyrede. So wondrously the Host-God.days. p. le Lay Freine. the mone was light. According to the analogies of our language." it is open to the same criticism as Mr. so we may infer should the former be. That Fox writes sumur-lange thus : in his text. and " the God of Hosts. that Schmeller appears to have been no more alive than Grimm. it was the year 1844 vide vol. die winterlange But so loose and superficial is the criticism which is genenacht. 332. under the . Thorpe turns the passage thus : Thus wonderously the God of Hosts Over mid-earth. O'er mid-earth. or long as summer. AI the winter long niyht And Thurch The weder was clere. and as the latter phrase is Mr. and renders the two first lines Summer Behold thou. it is inconsistent with the text. O Father. of himself alone. men's powers Shaped and allotted! Exeter MS. . is obliged to shut his eyes to the word anes. current in some of the provincial dialects in his Bavarian dictionary. Here it will it translates be seen he treats weorod god as a compound. If the phrase summer long days be considered equivalent to " long summer. head lang. 139. rally applied to the analysis of language. The phrases summer long day and winter long night in our literature as late as the 14th century : were common The maide toke the childe hir mide. Mr." cites the phrases der summerlange tag. clearly a compound. the phrase sumur-lange can only be rendered. cannot admit of doubt. men's powers Has created and allotted. But to arrive at this meaning." and no doubt such was the mean- ing attached to it by the poet. Thorpe ! : . long in or on account of summer. Mr. And stale away in an euen tide passed ouer a wild heth. feld and thurch wode hye geth. i. we have an example of a very curious Anglo-Saxon idiom. to the unusual character of these anomalous compounds. to which the present writer called the attention of the Philological Society in In the paper referred to. . 264. p.100 in this passage Alfred intended to contrast the sumur-dagas with the winter-dagas. &c. makest long days very hot.

&c.101 shown. in the glossary to his ' Analecta. Handicrafts. " gained life-long glory in the battle. parrots. princes a long train Slew in battle. and besides tir. Of barons the ring-giver. a train. It should be observed. portant ever gained within the island. and it is very doubtful if the phrase tir ge-slean. we have no need of thus torturing lan- guage everything is plain and simple.' proposes another version. Eve walking . there is another AngloSaxon noun of the same form which signifies life. eorla drihten . Mr. At any rate. of the present paper. The author believes that the idiom which is the subject poem : . beorna beag-gifa and his brother eac cadmund aetheling . which signifies glory. and that such adjective-substantives (if we may venture to coin a term) were sometimes used in the genitive case. that the neuter adjectives an and self were frequently used as substantives. They may however be sometimes met with even as late as . Sylv." But the verb ge-slean properly means to slay. peacocks. Thorpe renders ealdor langne tir geslogan at sake. Price gave a translation of this poem in his edition of Warton. a translation resting on so strange an idiom certainly requires some authority to " sanction it. ealdor langne lir geslogan set sake. a prince. Thorpe. will also explain a difficult passage in the Brunanburgh war-song. If the tmesis we have discussed be considered as established. of his one-ness. might be literally translated. Athelstan king. Du Bart. be good Anglo-Saxon. " The phrase weorod ones god sceop. to strike a glory. lifelong glory" was a very inadequate Again. estrich scattered feathers. of earls the lord. an elder. mere the victory was perhaps the most imwhen we remember that fame. that besides the word ealdor. the 1 7th century : forth about the forrests gathers Speights. Mr. to fix by striking. . and his brother eke Edmund the Etheling. It occurs in the opening of that well-known " The Host-God." &c. Examples of this tmesis are rare in the later periods of our literature." &c. to strike. created./Ethelstan cing . which deserves some consideration. another tir. but his rendering of ealdor langne tir is one that is obviously untenable.


the perfect tor-si and participle tor-tus would be deduced with On the Etymology of certain Latin Words. the words verg-ere. is by all lexicographers referred to the verb reip-w . DECEMBER THOMAS WATTS. ' a boring^tool. (better known in the pi. ' Yet under this verb retpw we find only such meanings as ' rub and ' distress. Esq. the g was not a part of the ultimate stem. We somewhat more regularity than from torqueo will be readily admitted. V.' stands. and the adjectives tortivus and torticius. but it has not been always seen that the idea of boring. which has precisely the same meaning as the Latin tornus. and similarly that our English verbs hark. and the same may be said of the derivative substantives tor-men. ' . A " paper was read : Professor Key.' thrilling. On the other hand." In a former paper the writer drew attention to the By fact. as seen by comparison with our own spare. as in veh-i-culum and fer-culum and thus the division of torculum might be represented by a hyphen after tor.' Thus ropos. without etymological notice .' is so called because its action is essentially one of turning. &c.' and justly referred by him to retpw. 12. tormina). pluck. a stirrer or ladle. the Latin language was accustomed to the creation of substantives by an affix culum. That from a stem ter or tor. tor-tor. terg-ere and one which is attached to verbs alone . the second as being derived from a stem tor or rather ter. and the matter seems placed beyond all doubt when we look to the Greek vocabulary. 1851. tor-mentum.' which belongs to this verb and so many of its derivatives. No. ' a lathe.G. in the Chair. familiar fact that the process of piercing is most effectually carried .' Top/jos.PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY. but the substantival suffix JJ. in the Lexicon we allude to. Similarly the adjective ' ' piercing. Liddell to rop/tzos is in agreement. so torc-ulum would be without difficulty deducible from torquere. The Latin verbs parc-ere and torque-re appear to stand in a similar position the first. In the case of torculum.' obtains this secondary sense from the ropos. it must be admitted that as jac-ulum and vinc-ulum are formed from the verbs jac-ere and vincire. Topvvr) is translated ' by Mr.' seems most decidedly to imply the existence of a simple verb tor. merg-ere. walk and talk. is secondary to the meaning of ' turning. and we will venture to affirm that no Greek scholar would hesitate about assigning it to retpw as a parent. Thus the substantive ropros. will discuss more at length the origin of torque-. sists in forcing itself upon our attention..rather than the fuller torque . 114. tor-tura. have in the letter k the remnant of a suffix. ' the socket in which a door turns. provided that the meanings were A second sense assigned by Mr. VOL. ' Thus the idea of turning pera turning-post' (in a race-course). that in . The Latin tor-nus. Liddell.

without considering the question of its being rubbed by a bad driver. witness our words follow. so as to give it a greater senses. that as to form. the phrase We believe it has been torquere hastam is also not uncommon. which has never been disputed . reX). itself a derivative from our stem ter. Moreover it is familiar to all philologers that this English suffix ow? corresponds to a suffix which in many tongues has a guttural.of torquere and throw are perfect analogues.' is the ordinary sense of the Latin word. reXos) by its form claims kindred with reXXw (stem But very possibly the original meaning of this verb may have been to Thus we find Messrs. ' ' '. hollow. viz. bell. to become or put on a new form of existence. Indeed the final <r betrays itself in the forms re-reXea-fiai. balgen. A similar action is seen weapons called the lasso and * The Greek reX-es(nom. is enough to justify the derivation of the word. but it seems incorrect to assume that the Latin language borrowed the word from the Greek. Their meaning too presents Our own verb unites in itself two striking evidence of identity.' Nay. We which primd facie have little in common with each other. The fact that it marks the turning-point in the race-course. bellows.' ' ' turns to good. The suffix par. compared with the more primitive ken. sorrow. for this verb is itself a denominative. Old Latin language also possessed a neuter substantive termen of the same meaning as terminus*. before now suggested by ourselves or others that the union of the two ideas is explained by the ancient habit of whirling a spear round by means of the amentum attached to it. &c. and as regards the final syllable ow. e-reXeff-Qijv. sorge. the Latin torquere will be found to share the double meaning.' However irreconcilable these two senses may at first appear to be.' are senses which well agree with many uses both of reXXetrOai and reXeOeiv. The Latin terminus is of course akin to the Greek rep-pa. repeat then. Another Greek word which will support our view is the noun rep-fia. twist it into a thread. we have in it a suffix to which attention has been repeatedly drawn by other writers and by ourselves. Liddell and Scott translating es x a P lv reXXerat it turn. reversing the stream of derivation. galgen. and thus we again look to the verb retpw .' i. can only attach but surely itself to a verb. derived from reXes-. an error to suppose that the goal in the race-course was so called because the stone is worn by the chariots turning round immediately akin to our verb throw. and 'hurling. If our view as to the original meaning of re\\w be correct. To twist.' e.104 on by such revolution as we see in a centre-bit.. one of the other. gallows. to turn.' and. and on the other hand. as we sometimes say. 'twisting' ' ' velocity at the moment of discharging also in the ordinary sling and the two it. The interchange of a Latin t with an English th belongs to a part of Grimm's so-called law. when it already it is Indeed the possessed the root in common with its Eastern sister. Still more visible is the idea of turning in Those who would derive the noun reXos from the verb reXew are 7reptreXXe<T0rti. just as the Latin finio from finis. Now the Latin verb torque.' Thus we say. to turn up. 'to throw silk. compared with the German folgen. Let us next look to the English language. and to throw a spear. then the stem reX is only a variety of our rep or ter. bellow. e. hole. ' . Of this we have another good example in the teredo. as in know. t orq. as is well known.

If. TOKOS. the suffix ma is one of very ordinary occurrence in Latin.' for such appears to have been its primitive 135. pascuus. ' We is frequently found added to verbs. as seems probable. like the Greek rep-e-rpov. have in the initial consonants the same root as thr-ow. sense twisting. torua-re. equivalent in meaning to Such a word might well be torques. If this view be correct. Again.105 the bolas as used by the South American. it may also be akin in origin . caeduus. &c. viz. a borer or gimlet. both ideas being derived from the earlier sense of ' turning. hasten.' would also ask whether ' tur-ma. and thus we see what little ground scholars have for referring so many of its pared with the stem pected. and in the Greek Xa/i/Sav-w. readily connects itself with the notion of twisting. then throw and turn will. Thus our English thr-ill (and dr-ill). and Columella. so that lexicographers need not treat it as an exotic.' might easily have and so by an easy contraction the compound verb am-trua-re.' did not originally mean the number of horse-soldiers who wheeled round together ? At any rate. then the letters thr must have lost a vowel and none is so likely to have disappeared in the neighbourhood of an r as the vowel e. The first is ' the substantive ter-e-bra. with a piercing look. as fj.' This very verb turn belongs to the same family. the old language had a substantive tores. But if in throw the syllable ow forms no part of the root. But the very verb tero of the Latin is used of turning in a lathe. that we are able . ample of a Latin derivative. open. a strand of a rope. a troop of cavalry. return then to the Latin. hearken.avdav-ut. the substantive torus. re*-. &c. trux has never been very &c. * From this been deduced a verb adjective toruoturning. and the word being now virtually disyllabic in connect together many words which to a common stem have attached different suffixes. In the adjective torvus we have a termination uus. xi. to turn. if we may trust Charisius. Thus the Greek vopos. the German noun being deduced immediately from the verb dreh-en. f Here again thr alone is radical. ' p2 . ter. having probably the same suffix which appears in a fuller form in reck-on. One of the advantages of thus breaking up a secondary verb into its component parts is. ceases to stand out as the solitary example of a monosyllabic adjective in the Latin language.' has in the first The adjective teres teretis is another exsyllable all that we want.' just as our own ' ' ' German representative draht. The meaning of the Latin adjective children to a Greek parentage. We tor without any guttural suffix. deduced from the verb tor. it be akin in meaning distinctly established. aruus (obs. 3). meaning (as may be seen in Cato. as inperspicuus.twist. to torvus.). and always connected with verbs. and make further search for words which shall exhibit the root ter or . continuus. Now a derivation from ter is consistent with the sense commonly assigned to which torvus*. have for their first thread'f. the last two of which are better known when used as neuter substantives. which is no doubt an indigenous word. comand its ' the change of vowel is what was to be exare from bases ve/u-. which. pascua and arva.' As to the precise form of torus. beckon.' Again.

even if convinced of their relationship. stand to each other in the same relation as our nouns morn and morrow. words are by Mr. 'stirring up to violent action' is the sole meaning of the Latin verb.' Other examples of our root appearing with an initial 5 are seen in <rrpe0-a> and its derivatives ' ' arpoftos whirling. vol.' bore pierce.' and secondly. for turbare aquam is ' to stir the water' and so make it muddy. we would observe that the process by which torquere was formed may have been this : from ter. and then from this substantive fide-. as translated.and the eTro^ai and sequor.' must not leave our root till we have given a thought to the forms which disguise themselves by the addition of an initial s.first a secondary verb torq. Thus we must claim our own verb stir. Tr. iii. as when an object is suspended at a point.' In the Greek rpeir-ta we again see our root ter . ' ' suffix CTT. short. both of which ropvvrj. these letters being. if indeed it be really a new one. and the noun ' a ladle. for which we need only quote the familiar examples Hence too we get the substantive rpvirri. 211. or atop. for as we showed on a previous occasion*. The connexion between the ideas may in part be explained by the fact that rubbing is very apt to take a circular appearance. ' whirl wind f.. The Latin verb con-sterna-re has in the first syllable of ster-na. twisted.106 regards form. the original idea of which includes that of circular motion. ' stir up. as is well-known.' orpe/3\os.' partly because we have some faint doubt whether it be really related to the verb terere. with the same meaning . The same notion of stirring is seen in the Latin substantive turba and its derived verb turbare. and still more the noun turbo. But a simpler course perhaps is to make the circular motion of 'grinding' ' in a mortar the point of transition from ' turning' to rubbing . fidtorque-.the very same element as stir. a barometer in a ship's cabin. in the latter a suffix ow for we know from the German equivalent of morrow/ that its original sense was the very same as morn.' Before concluding. interchangeable between the two languages. verb rpuTra. fact-. and indeed the same meaning exists in the Greek verb ropvv-w. for example. The Greek rvp/3aw. In this inquiry we have so far endeavoured to keep out of view the verb terere.' the more so as this operation belongs to the least advanced form of civilized life. a primitive element mor having in the former taken a suffix en. * t In whence the . a denominative verb tor-que. Liddell referred to the base rep of retpw. In this new sense the Greek retpw is commonly em- with a new Greek is We ' .or ^orewas deduced . a chain of a door. ' to rub. although a different impression is often created by Latin dictionaries. for a TT in a legitimate representative of a q. a hearth-brush beside a fire. from this came a substantive torque-. because.and the adj.' which has been already quoted. as specie-. turbido. Philolog.' ' trouble. from verbs sped-. which have been led astray by con' founding the word with consternere. subst. 'to turn. turb-a and turb-on. we are justified in assuming a secondary verb turb-. p. as seen in torque-.' confirms this view. facie-. we should ' still regard the notion of turning' as entitled to precedence.

' 'colour of the skin or complexion. be referred to some verb as its parent. The Latin noun color is commonly left by lexicographers without and those others who an attempt at etymological explanation content themselves with the words " from the verb colo. pavor. useful to note down our own verb thr-esh. cms beside oxeXos. and the German dr-esch-en. celeber beside creber. shall not go through the series of Greek words deduced from the stem But it may be rep by the addition of various suffixes. in Cic. by compression before another syllable.Both compare it with the Greek nouns XP ' these words are admitted to have skin for their first meaning. Thus raXuTrrw stands beside tcpvirrw. In making this assertion we do not rely merely on such passages as candiduli denies. much as the same consonant does in jussi and jussum compared to jubeo.' and 'colour' geNow it has escaped the notice of those to whom we are nerally. ' But if the primitive meaning of color be skin. the right course in all probability is to regard these as deduced from a secondary present not very unlike the Greek rpe/3w. but the ultimate root we suspect to be entitled X/>ov-. color suavis.or rather colour. sed etiam colorem et speciem pristinam civitatis. and nowhere does it occur more frequently than in Greek and Latin. while succus and sanguis refer to the blood and juices of the body. ' . indebted for our Latin dictionaries. Thus. venusti oculi. . &c. Probably the best mode of throwing light upon the Latin word color will be to WS XP wr ' os > XP^A"*. clamor. 'skin. as candor. scru-ta-ri beside o-ica\eu-eiv. if they are expected to supply the different links which connect the meanings That such a word as col-or is to of the verb and the substantive. In the selection of these words we have purposely confined ourselves to those examples in which a guttural precedes. and the three leading meanings which are assigned to xP w f a aie i Q order. The interchange of these liquids is perhaps the commonest accident in language. merely lost its vowel. but rp-t/3w should also be regarded as a secondary formation. tritum. as its stem to no larger part of the word than the consonants ^p." must suppose their readers to have a powerful imagination. in both of which the ultimate stem has lost its vowel. to have not We . but to have changed its liquid I to an r.' we have yet to * We quote all three passages from Forcellini's Lexicon. we believe col.107 ployed. In other words. color as clearly points to the skin. is proved by the habit of the nouns whose suffix is or. gelu beside Kpv-os. but seem to ourselves to have abundant evidence in the metaphorical use of the word in such passages as amisimus non modo succum ac sanguinem. the b disappearing from them. . the two commencing consonants having been robbed of the middle vowel . which correspond to the first syllable of col-or. including of course its The Greek verb ^uv-vvfii has evidently XP W>/ . as rpvx-w. and when we see the Latin tero making so irregular a perfect and supine as trivi. and ornatur oratio genere primum et quasi colore quodam et succo suo*. that they may be more parallel to the words in discussion. that color has the same three meanings.

vatives from a base ter ' > l>} > Xpoct. and so also (?KV\OV.' is the parent of color.' has but one liquid. ' a tanner of hides.' belong to the same family. ' a scabbard. We * The English term for the word belonging scrotum presents an example of this change in a to the same family. we had In a former part of this paper relation to other connected words. the second of the word in the im- The passage from the one meaning to the other is intelligible when we think of the wild hunter. Hence we find in the Greek language (TKVVIOV. m. which Varro himself assures us was used in the old language for 'leather'.' Within the last few lines we have had occasion to put forward the pair of words oreXos and crus. was interchangeable with an n also. It would be easy to quote a long series of indisputable instances of such a prefixed s. where the substitution of a. lacruma dacruma. mate. which is evidently a diminutive in form.' and perhaps also the Greek KoXeos. &c. and indeed we may perhaps account for the word becoming obsolete in this sense. Ulixes Qfivaaevs. The Latin scrotum too has been long admitted to be only a variety of scortum. &c. occasion to speak of the Greek words arpe<j>-w and arpef3-\os. d for / is the ordinary law of the lanalso find a t superseding an /. Accordingly the neuter noun <?KV\OS. . we do not hesitate to say that an obsolete verb equivalent to the radical part of the Greek verb atcvXto flay or skin. ' vello. Nay. a skin or hide. This premised. which we hold to be the parent of the Latin color and Greek o-icuXXw. and so was well suited to denote the skin above the eyes. as well as our English verb stir. and of XP WS XP ljLft \eiv. to whom the skin of the animal slain in the chase was so valuable for clothing.' to the root. as in the Greek TOTTOS guage. so as in some measure to conceal its find its parent verb. and especially in the Sicilian dialect of modern Italian. the Latin possessed the very substantive from which this adjective scorteus is formed in the neuter substantive scortum. return to the stem col or cul. ' We ' . as in the Greek oreXXw and o-^aXXw. as in lingua dingua. I. I is also interchangeable with the dental series. by the supposition that the metaphorical use of the word in later times unfitted it for polite ears.108 The Greek language must again be our helpBut before we venture to produce the verb to which we allude. That this word VKV\OV ' originally meant a skin' rather than the spoils of an enemy.Aoc)ei/7s. the Latin fallo. But apart from the liquids. all of which we held to be deri' turn. or over the brows' and so we bring in our own noun skin. culeus. The Latin substantive a large leathern sack. lying between r and n in the natural series of liquids r. and remained as a memorial of his success long after the flesh had been eaten. in order to start afresh in search of derived words. Of (TKy\\tv but one X can be due being added as usual to strengthen the form perfect tenses. The letter Z. we deem it prudent to remind our hearers that an initial s often attaches itself to a root. With still more certainty may we include cor-ium. is admitted by those who derive from it <i. n. Examples of its changing places with a d* are of course familiar. and the adjective scorteus. to say nothing of those animals which had no value as food.

' a skin or hide.109 compared with the Latin locus. a skin or The all but identity of meaning in these two words (for the hide. the discussion which followed. and so was entitled to . but retained in the compound term fell-monger* is . no identity of origin beyond all doubt resistance can be made to the doctrine that both scutum and cults But with aitis it has been long agreed also belong to the family. may yet dwell on a letter-change which affects the initial have already in this paper had consonant of our stem col.' is not exclusively used of dressed leather) seems to place the and this point admitted. just the converse of what usually occurs between the two languages. Greek OKV\OV and the Latin spolium.' as in origin merely a dialectic variety of OKV\-OS. that we must identify the German haut and our own hide. now nearly if not quite obsolete as a single word. we are tempted to claim kindred for pellis. former . as they are identical in sense. suggested that glub-ere. occasion to avail ourselves of the fact that c and p are at times conNow it has long been an admitted truth.' had in the letters gl a contraction of the a place in the family. We We It is true that the change so also are virtually identical in form. * 1 A gc ntleman present at to peel. and so also for the German pelz. then as the * is not radically part of the root. but the example has its parallel in \VKOS and lupus. But if spolium belong to the family. that the vertible letters. stem col-. Thus we claim ' CTKVT-OS. and our own fell.


And so of many a Russian linguist who has had the reputation of speaking French or English like a native. when English nurses are in fashion at St. in the years when the intellect is as yet comparatively unaroused. HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD. perform the feat in a shorter time and with equal certainty. Yet many a Frenchman who has attained this power is utterly unable to understand what two Englishmen are saying to each other. to our own. still and Dr. there seems no reason why faculties which have received cultivation should not. on a second trial." By Thomas Watts. Since the times when Greece became . Stewart Rose. VOL. A " paper was read On the extraordinary powers of Cardinal Mezzofanti as a lin- guist. an unerring knowledge of his mother tongue. seems to have been to impart the elements of two languages at once but even then it may be doubted if the two are learned equally well. living or dead. The most effectual method. how few hundreds have ever understood a foreign language so well At first sight the task is far from appearing insuas their own As every one of average powers of mind acquires perably difficult. Esq. the other began sensibly to sink. even the easiest are seldom entirely mastered by those who have given their first attention to another. and the language and literature of Greece took the victor captive.. A knowledge to this extent. of course. to take a part in the conversation Q VOL. ! . but of the many millions who have made the attempt. JANUARY 23. But experience tells a different tale. from the times when Roman children had Grecian nurses. there has been no civilized nation in which it has not been a chief object with the educated classes to acquire a mastery over some foreign idiom. in the Chair. V. but that the two were never balanced. Franklin less. While the most difficult and complicated languages in the world are not recorded to have baffled on any occasion the faculties of children. It is said that an English scholar. No. Latin and English. and after he had been abroad some time he found that he understood Italian better than English. v. declared that when he went abroad he of course understood English better than Italian. the Frenchman who can peruse without difficulty Hume and Macaulay will be generally admitted to 'know' Greek. The classical scholar who can read Herodotus and Sallust at sight. 115. it has often been equally true that he spoke Russian like a foreigner. . 1852. is by no means necessarily implied. who once resided for some years in Italy and pursued with unusual ardour the study of Italian. Mr. subject to Rome. when the one began to rise. however.PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY. Esq. when it is said of a person that he knows a foreign language. Petersburg.


language with propriety is still more than to speak it. However this may he, it seems clear that the scholar who has pursued the study of a foreign language so successfully as to he able to speak it with perfect fluency and correctness, is then, in the knowledge of it, on a level with the majority of the natives, and that such a power is seldom attained with a still more rarely, of course, with several. single foreign language It is not surprising, therefore, that the statement made by an ancient historian, to the effect that a certain Asiatic king, who lived before the Christian era, was able to speak the languages of two -and- twenty From different nations, should have appeared to many incredible. a lapse of the time of Mithridates, king of Pontus, to the present
said, that to write a foreign

no instance was on record that the faculties of nearly 2000 years the human mind had been found equal to such an achievement as the knowledge of so many languages in that degree. Even the attainments of the admirable Crichton, who was recorded to have publicly challenged all the world to disputation in twelve different languages, were considered to border on the apocryphal. There had been those who had studied an equal or even a superior number of idioms with sufficient success to follow their historians, to enjoy their poets, and to draw from their literature all the instruction and almost all the pleasure it was capable of affording, but their knowledge was of a passive, not an active character. Within the last half century, ' however, a modern Mithridates' arose, whose powers, if they are truly reported, cast even those of his predecessor into the shade. For the future the name of Mithridates must yield to that of Mezzofanti. Nearly three years have now elapsed since the death of Cardinal Mezzofanti, and as yet no memoir of him appears to have been given to the public by any of his friends or literary associates. This deficiency is probably to be attributed to the disordered condition of the Papal States at the date of his decease and since. From whatever cause it proceeds it is much to be regretted. To trace the origin and development of the powers of such a man, the means by which he how much of it appeared to be the gift attained to his pre-eminence, of nature, how much the meed of cultivation, the period at which the faculty manifested itself, and the period at which it began to the degree of pleasure which it produced, and the degree of decay, exertion which its exercise required, would be to add an interesting chapter not only to literary history, but to the history of the human mind. So much of Mezzofanti's life was spent in circles of literary cultivation, in a country where the career of any distinguished scholar has generally formed, after his decease, the theme of public eulogy, that there is every reason to hope that in due time some such notice



It has

been thought that

in the




not be unin-

teresting to the Philological Society to see brought together a few of the notices which, scattered through different publications, periodical and otherwise, of a very varied character, are at present the only materials for forming a judgement on the character and abilities of



so distinguished.

Fragmentary and imperfect as they are

of them evidently exaggerated in their tone of panegyric, some of depreciatory they throw so much light on each other, that with the help of a little attention it is not difficult to arrive at


them unduly

of the man they describe. By letting them follow in chronological order, they will of themselves form a sort of broken biography but before entering upon them, a few facts and dates ought perhaps to be given to point out the landmarks of his career. Joseph Mezzofanti or Mezzofante (for the name is written either

some conception

way) was born at Bologna. There have been statements as to the time of his birth varying by several years, but in the ' Diario di Roma' of 1838, in the official announcement of his creation as cardinal, the date of his birth is stated to be the 19th of September, 1774. He was the son of a poor carpenter, but never followed the trade for a livelihood, like one of our eminent English linguists, Professor Lee. Even in early life his abilities attracted the patronage of Father Respighi, a priest of the congregation of the Oratory, who taught him Latin and procured him instruction in Greek and Hebrew. He entered into holy orders towards the close of the eighteenth century, and about the same time was appointed Professor of Arabic at the university of Bologna. From that period till 1831 he still continued a constant resident in his native city, in the university of which he held various professorships and the post He was also chaplain and confessor to the public of librarian. hospital, and it was during his attendance in that capacity on the wounded soldiers of Napoleon's and the Austrian armies, men from almost every country on the continent, that his astonishing faculty for the acquisition of languages began to develope itself, to his own In a few years after the return of surprise as well as that of others. peace, though Mezzofanti himself had never quitted Bologna, his fame had spread through Europe. The troubles which arose out of the French occupation of Ancona, after the revolution of 1830, occasioned him to be sent with a deputation to Rome, where the friendship and patronage of Pope Gregory the Sixteenth induced him to remain. In 1833 he succeeded the famous Angelo Mai as Prefect of the Vatican. His nomination as cardinal priest took place on the 13th of February, 1838. On that occasion Pasquin remarked that it was a very proper appointment, for there could be no doubt ' that the Tower of Babel' (an old nickname for the Court of Rome)

The reforming pope who succeeded Gregory was no less partial to the cardinal, than his original patron, and the cardinal was no less attached to him. The death of Mezzofanti, which took place on the 16th of March, 1849, amidst the tumult of revolution and war, when Rome was a republic and the Pope at Gaeta, was attributed in no small degree to the shock his him and the feelings had sustained from the crash of events around danger which appeared to menace the Papal throne. His valuable 1 philological library was sold at Rome in 1 85 The earliest notice of Mezzofanti which was given to the public seems to be that in Stewart Rose's Letters from the North of Italy,'
stood in need of an interpreter.




which were published in 1819. The account is contained in a letter which bears the date of November 1817, and is as follows " The lion to whom I allude is the Mezzofanti of

Signer Bologna, who, when I saw him, though he was only thirty-six years This is the old, read twenty and conversed in eighteen languages. he spoke all these fluently, and least marvellous part of the story those of which I could judge, with the most extraordinary precision. I had the pleasure of dining in his company formerly in the house of a Bolognese lady, at whose table a German officer declared that he could not have distinguished him from a German. He passed the told me that he and myself, and G whole of the next day with G should have taken him for an Englishman who had been some time out of England. A Smyrniote servant who was with me bore equal testimony to his skill in other languages, and declared that he might pass for a Greek or a Turk throughout the dominions of the Grand

Seignior. But what most surprised me was his accuracy for during long and repeated conversations in English, he never once misapplied the sign of a tense, that fearful stumbling-block to Scotch and Irish, in whose writings there is almost always to be found some abuse of The marvel was, if possible, rendered these undefinable niceties. more marvellous by this gentleman's accomplishments and information, things rare in linguists, who generally mistake the means It ought also to be stated that his various acquisitions for the end. had all been made in Bologna, from which, when I saw him, he had never wandered above thirty miles*." A very lively account of the Professor was given not long after by Baron Zach, the Hungarian astronomer, himself a linguist of no ordinary attainments, who had edited a scientific periodical in German, and was at the time bringing out a continuation of it in

French at Genoa: " The annular

eclipse of the sun was one great curiosity for us, and Professor Mezzofanti was another. This extraordinary man is

really a rival of Mithridates ; he speaks thirty-two languages living and dead, in the manner I am going to describe. He accosted me

in Hungarian, and with a compliment so well turned and in such excellent Magyar, that I was quite taken by surprise and stupefied. He afterwards spoke to me in German, at first in good Saxon (the Crusca of the Germans), and then in the Austrian and Swabian dialects, with a correctness of accent that amazed me to the last degree, and made me burst into a fit of laughter at the thought of the contrast between the language and the appearance of this astonish-

ing professor. He spoke English to Captain Smyth, Russian and Polish to Prince Volkonski not stuttering and stammering, but with the same volubility as if he had been speaking his mother tongue, the dialect of Bologna. I was quite unable to tear myself away from him. At a dinner at the cardinal legate's, Spina, his eminence placed him at table next to me after having chatted with him in several languages, all of which he spoke much better than I did, it

* Letters from the North of

Italy, vol.


p. 54.


language of the Zigans, or gipsies, whom the French so improperly call Bohemians, at which the good and genuine Bohemians, that is to say, the inhabitants of the kingdom of Bohemia, are not a little indignant. But how could an Italian abbe, who had never been out of his native town, find means to learn a language which is neither written nor printed ? In the Italian wars, an Hungarian regiment was in garrison at Bologna the language-loving Professor discovered a gipsy in it, and made him his teacher, and with the facility and happy memory that nature has gifted him with, he was soon master of the language, which it is believed is nothing but a dialect, and a corrupted one into the bargain, of some tribes of Parias in Hindostan*." Some doubt had been thrown on the accuracy of the Baron's narrative, for in another number of his periodical he thus resumes the

head to address to him on a eudden some words in Without hesitation, and without appearing to remark what an out-of-the-way dialect I had branched off to, off went my polyglott in the same language, and so fast that I was obliged to say to him, Gently, gently, Mr. Abbe I really can't follow you I am at the end of my Latin- Wallachian.' It was more than forty years since I had spoken the language or even thought of it, though I knew it very well in my youth, when I served in an Hungarian regiment and was in garrison in Transylvania. The Professor was not only more ready in the language than I, but he informed me on this occasion that he knew another which I had never been able to get hold of, though I had enjoyed better opportunities of doing so than he, as I formerly had men who spoke it in my regiment. This was the







subject " Valerius Maximus says, in book viii. chap. 7. of his History, or rather his abridgement, ' Cyrus omnium militum suorum nomina, Mithridates duarum et viginti gentium, quae sub regno ejus erant, Some of those linguas ediscendo [industrise laudem partiti sunt].' who came centuries after Valerius, and who very likely did not know more than one language, and that not very correctly, have made out

that the two-and-twenty languages of Mithridates were only so many different dialects, and that Cyrus only knew the names of his generals. It maybe so we know nothing about it, and in consequence we will not contradict these critics but what we do know is, that Professor Mezzofanti speaks very good German, Hungarian, Slavonic,
; ;

Wallachian, Russian, Polish, French, and English. I have menIt has been said that Prince Volkonski and tioned my authorities. Captain Smyth gave their testimony in favour of this wonderful But I asked the prince quite alone, professor out of politeness only. how M. Mezzofanti spoke Russian, and he told me he should be very glad if his own son spoke it as well. The child spoke English and French better than Russian, having always been in foreign countries ' with his father. The captain said, The professor speaks English more correctly than I do. We sailors knock the language to pieces on board our vessels, where we have Irish and Scotch and foreigners of all sorts there is often an odd kind of jargon spoken in a ship



Zach, Correspondance Astronomique,

vol. iv. p.

191, for February 1820.

Conversing with this very learned person on the subject of his forty languages. as is considered throughout all Europe as a linguistic prodigy. I cannot but remark that the account recently given in the fourth and fifth volumes of Von Zach's ' Correspondance Astronomique' is very much exaggerated. and said. His statement on the face of it appears rather highly coloured. librarian to the Institute. . that he was a very good Italian. ii. I have heard few Italians speak German so well as Mezzofanti. : nuscripts*. readers. Mezzofanti came one day to see me at the hotel where I was staying I happened not to be in my own rooms." The notice of ' * Blame's Iter Italicum. a somewhat angry note: " Bianconi and Mezzofanti are the is librarians. a second Mithridates.116 the professor speaks with correctness. the baroness took an opportunity of . an idiom of the most formidable description. Judge of the astonishment of all the company and the explanations that followed. p. will not think the testimony of Baroness Ulmeustein to be suspected. . but I have also heard him maintain that between Platt-Deutsch or the Low. founded with philological knowledge." The Baron goes on to relate that Mezzofanti had shown himself equally master of Bohemian. though he had gone over the outline of forty languages.' " M. and speaks herself four languages in great was no German My perfection. Mezzofanti librarian in an Italian university. as he had dropped such as had ciatory. but on a visit to another traveller who lodged in the same hotel. asking and me aside. that it would be unadvisable to give it at length. He does not appear either to be always quite polite to strangers. Mezzofanti was brought to me. was of our party. sation. a colonel in the king of Hanover's service. of that very city of Bologna. especially of a man whose countrymen usually display little talent for the acquisition of foreign tongues. and is said to speak and write with Willingly as I fluency two-and-thirty dead and living languages. join in this admiration. but to make use of the ma- Lady Morgan about the same period is less deprethough not in so warm a tone as the Baron's " The well-known Abate Mezzofaute. who was travelling with M. which was being carried on in German and after this had gone on for a considerable time. how it came to pass that a German was professor I replied that M. and even with elegance it is easy to see that he has studied the language. The baroness is a thorough German. I introduced him to the company as a professor and librarian of the university. of a cultivated mind. He took part in the conver. Baron Ulmenstein. Readiness in speaking a language should not be conwell known. but introduces so many irrelevant circumstances into his narrative.German and the Dutch language there was no difference whatever. person who knew him. 1827. who visit the library not merely to converse with him. and that he had never been out of it. who visited Bologna not long after. vol. and it drew from Blume.' he smiled at the exaggeration. I am sure. 152 (the visit was in 1821). and as I was the only his lady. he was not master of them. The latter.

selection of ' : gondoliers. vol. who is a monster of languages. which appears to have impressed him most favourably: " At last in the afternoon I succeeded in meeting one of the living wonders of Italy.' and it is probable he was most conversant with the English works of that day. This learned Italian. pilots. scarcely any educated traveller leaves Bologna without having paid him a visit. " I don't remember a man amongst them whom I ever wished to see twice. for far as Venice. vetturini. 1821. sailors. p. taught him Spanish. who has never been so far from his birthplace." It must have been about this time also that he met with Byron. I now spent a couple of hours with him at his lodgings in the university building. posthorses. savages. except perhaps Mezzophanti. the Briareus of parts of speech. 290. for his sake alone. 805 (edit. ." writer. who ought to have existed at the time of the Tower of Babel as universal He is indeed a marvel unassuming also. but there is scarcely any European dialect. he was again made Greek professor by the Austrians. It is said the total t Lady Morgan's Italy. ii. and. whom I had only spoken with for a few moments in the gallery. The German. Mezzofante was pensioned off. the learned and candid Danish one of the librarians of Copenhagen. With us he always spoke English and with scarcely any accent. Bohemian. Moore's Letters and Journals of Lord Byron. whether Romanic. as to Florence or Rome. With all this superfluity of languages. The Abate Mezzofante was professor of Greek and Oriental languages under the French when Buonaparte abolished the Greek professorship. the librarian Mezzofanti. post-everything. Speaking of foreign literary men in general. had an interview with Mezzofanti. post-houses. though I believe he has never been out of Bologna. and at the library. Scandinavian or Slavonic. that It was this miraculous polyglottist does not speak. when I passed through Bologna before. vol. and the hired guides never omit to name him among the first curiosities of the town. camel-drivers. is certainly one of the world's greatest geniuses in point of languages. who has recorded his impression of him in one of the fragments of his journal. post-masters. Tartars. he spoke nothing but Bolognese in his own family. again set aside by the French. in all the tongues of which I knew a single oath or adjuration to the gods against post-boys. and Hungarian tongues he originally acquired during the occupation of Bologna by the Austrian power. Bologna. egad ! he astounded me even to my Englishf . a walking polyglott and more. have prolonged my stay at Bologna for a couple of days. and again restored by the Pope*. he says. and would willingly. of 1830). His Greek master being a Spaniard. boatmen. His turn of phrase and peculiar words were those of the Spectator. I tried him interpreter.117 not books worth reading. p. Polish. muleteers. i. in 1820 that Molbech. if I had not been bound by contract with the vetturino as His celebrity must be an -inconvenience to him. I do not know the number he understands. and English by reading and by conversing with English travellers. and afterwards he had learned French from the French.

on a visit to Italy to consult the biblical manuscripts of that country. daily. Books are bought to the amount of about 1000 scudi. not of a philologist. . England og Aarene 1819 og 1820. or more than 200 sterling. . I found in his rich and excellent philological collection. he some length i * Molbech's Reise giennem en Deel af Tythkland. and among them is that of the gipsies. perhaps would be least expected from a learned man who has been unceasingly occupied with linguistic studies and has hardly been out of his native town. what present to be no older than about forty. according to his own polite expression. almost all the time I continued with him. Of Danish books. but is well acquainted with literary history ' and bibliography. had frequent intercourse with him.118 amounts to more than thirty languages. with whom German : when we were ' . he interrupted me with a question in Danish. was a pleasure he did not often enjoy and he spoke the language. and in the library Haldorson's Icelandic Dictionary. I talren . which he has succeeded in bringing into fashion with the ladies of Bologna. as well as his attainments in the study of languages. One forenoon in the Vatican. Imagine my delight at such a conversation." says " I have had occasion to see him His talent is that of Fleck. containing fresh particulars of his character and career. there is an under-librarian. and also with the library under his charge. and at the same time the most engaging good-nature*. in which it is arranged in dark presses with wire gratings. no more than Baden's Grammar and Hallager's Norwegian with him. iii. and is said to contain about 120. p. vol.' and three other servants. as this. Our next informant presents him at the Vatican. As an author he is not known. a linguist. This collection occupies a finely-built saloon. in which he made me read him a couple of pages of the preface as a lesson in pronunciation.000 volumes. so far as I am aware and he seems at I must add. and he is very fond of German poetry. Besides Mezzofanti. two assistants. Hvorledes har det behaget dem i Italien?' (How have you been pleased with Italy?) After this he pursued the conversation in Danish." A long interval elapses before we again meet with a description of Mezzofanti. 319 et seq. The last he is pretty minutely acquainted with. certainly not with the same fluency and ease as English or German. that he has the finest and most polished manners. Our conversation turned mostly on Northern and German literature. Our extracts will be confined to the latter subject: " Since he has been Prefect of the Vatican in Mai's stead. Vocabulary. from want of exercise. so that Schiller and Goethe. whom the Romans hardly knew by name. Mezzofanti is not merely a linguist. however. but with almost entire correctness. are here read in the original. A German student named Fleck. Frankrige. and their works are to be had in the library. I found a German he was conversing in fluent and well-sounding alone and I began to speak to him in the same language. He enters at into the reports which were current about Mezzofanti's timidity in political matters and the favour in which he stood with the Pope. a year. which he learned to speak from a gipsy who was quartered with an Hungarian regiment at Bologna. by his own desire.

. even Italians. and believe his reputation to be not only European. was eagerly sought after by Mezzofanti when in Rome. his visits to the hospitals gave him Russian. His predilection for acquiring foreign idioms is so strong. It is said to have been observed. cannot be denied his good. but of course not all with equal readiness. Sebastiani. He has never travelled except to Rome and Naples. German he speaks well. Italian with many. who in Napoleon's time played an important political part in Persia. Mezzofanti understands this well. but it is a gift nevertheless. and there he fell dangerously ill. owing to its having been so scattered. and thought very highly of altogether. Thrice he told me he has been dangerously ill. that he might learn Modern Persian from him. are certainly above him his reading appears at times shallow. He told me that he had learnt Russian at Bologna from a Pole. showed himself disinclined tolas society. This is indeed a gift of no very high order . and to Naples he went to study Chinese at the Institute (for the education of natives of China as missionaries). and when exercised in its more dazzling points of practice.' He is altogether a man of a sensitive nervous system. that the Italians have great difficulties to cope with in He will always remain a wonderful learning a foreign language. but almost too softly. Even of Wendish he is not ignorant. Russian with a magnate who passed through to the manuscript-rooms. which pained Mezzofanti much. There is something about him that reminds me of a he does not parrot seem to abound in ideas but his talent is the more deserving of admiration. In an intellectual point of view many learned men. if not a miracle in the dogmatic sense. sets one in amaze- ment. Latin he does not speak particularly well. an excellent opportunity of seeing and conversing with men of different nations. and it has occurred that he has often repeated the same thing to stran: But his great and peculiar linguistic talent. but Asiatic and African also. were to spring from some innate sense. example. Sebastiani. and his English is just as middling. English with the English. that he observes and imitates the proHe has carried this so far. and in a kind of confusion of languages. and the march of the Austrians made him acquainted with the dialect of the gipsies. Danish with a young Danish archaeologist who was present. He is said to speak some thirty languages and The Persian dialects. which seems as it gers. missionary. and so had been in danger of introducing Polonicisms into his In the French wars. Latin and German with scrittore* of me. . like a Hamburgher. for vincial dialects and accents. The Italians admire this distinguished and unassuming man as the eighth wonder of the world. he can distinguish the Hamburgh and Hanoverian German very well. Hebrew with a the library. that he often repeats the same ideas in conversation. phenomenon. and much more decidedly and more pusillanimously attached to Catholicism than Mai.119 spoke Modern Greek to a young rabbi or ' man who came in.. Mezzofanti has been called the modern Mithridates. that. ' He with every one in his seeks the society of foreigners very eagerly in order to converse own language. however.

On me his first appearance produced an unfavourable impression. &c. and his pronunciation is not bad. from the pen of a Transylvanian lady. (TV [iev iravruy apx'' eort Kal ^ Kat "Ey re ffoi etpi]yri " An allusion that I made to the meaning of his name in Greek. He has written kv neary <paiveTai. but to my shame I was unable to answer. whose account of her visit to the Vatican it has been thought proper to give. We . but a gift nevertheless. by birth Miss Wesselenyi. Latin and Hebrew. p. Wissenschaftlicbe Reise. he read out from them in Ancient and Modern Greek.120 nature and politeness to the students who frequent the Vatican are very great. i. Some English being prewith me he sent. but it seemed to me that he rather studies the words than the subject of what he reads. dry." The style of magisterial superiority in which this German student thinks himself entitled to speak of Mezzofanti. reminded me rather of a monkey or a parrot. Pethe's Natural History. His whole person was in monkey-like restless motion. . though it is written in a spirit with which few will be disposed to sympathise. and he even addressed me in Wallachian. His age might be about seventy he was small in stature. and some other Hungarian books. . excite a smile. many pleasant memorials for many different people in different languages*. I asked him from whom he had learned it he said. " had hardly time to take even a glance at the objects presented to our view. a talking-machine or a sort of organ wound up for the performance of certain tunes. To a priest who was with us and who had travelled in Palestine he spoke in Turkish. he spoke English with them very fluently and well afterwards spoke French and German. We . &c." is certainly calculated to The same tone pervades the remarks which follow. from the information it contains. than of a being enI asked him ' how many I ! ' replied. " when Mezzofanti entered. is fond of perpetuating his memory in the albums He wrote in mine avdpuTrots Xadpaiws ea^aro Ol Xptore e irepl ^tarjs TroXXa fj. " Mezzofanti of his friends. was very well received by him." says Mrs. Fleck. 93. He had read the works of Kisfaludi and Csokonai. vol. Paget. whose gift he considers " of no high order. for . 1837. He asked if I knew Slowakiaru In showing us some books. and of a pale unhealthy look.' he languages he knew ? only speak forty or fifty. and the innocently-exhibited small vanity with which he is filled. conversed together for some time.ovovai fjtarr}v. and turning to us asked us to be seated. from the common soldiers at Milan.' Amazing incomprehensible faculty but not one that I should in the least be tempted to envy for the empty unreflecting word-knowledge. He speaks Hungarian well enough. in conversation with two young Moors. Not many.

W. without once looking into it. and all nations. the curiosities of the Vatican. . p. Ah igen szep igen szep munka. ' ' : : . szep. Irta Paget Janosne Wesselenyi Polyxena. " At parting I took the opportunity of asking if he would allow me to present an Hungarian book to the Vatican library. own hand. and he sent me the name of God. 1842. it is necessary to use the language of books in talking with him for the conversation to flow freely. seventeen Asiatic. very fine work. and one that will scarcely be repeated unless the gift of tongues be given anew. but by some curious student of philology like Mezzofanti. p. i. never looked at out of their own country. very fine thank you very much). In his person the confusion that arose at the building of Babel is annihilated. written with his teletekrol. in advanced life. igen koszonom. in my presence he expressed himself in Russian very purely and corbut as he is more accustomed to the style of books than that rectly of ordinary discourse. very fine. handsomely bound in white leather. similar ? Mezzofanti is one of the most wonderful curiosities of Romef. in fact. igen szep. that even now. Paget (who surely might have studied the book On Prejudices' with advantage) is the highest as yet mentioned. dowed with first care. 144." During the latter years of the Cardinal. and a few days aftertook it. vol. whom I found in a hurry to go and baptize some Jews and Moors.' my hotel. are again of one tongue. and is constantly visiting the Propaganda for practice in conI asked him to give versation with its pupils of all sorts of races. if veller. As soon as he saw the book. not counting their subdivisions or dialects. Szepen van bekotve. as at the dawn of Cardinal Mezzofanti spoke eight languages fluently Christianity. of which thirty were European. at ' to the binder. and in their own country read by how few!*" The number of languages stated by Mrs. f Rimskiya Pisnaa. Unhappy Magyar volumes. ' Bali- wards I ' ! . only be looked upon as one of reason. according to the sublime expression of ScripWill posterity ever see anything ture.121 He can. each in his * Olaszhoni es Schweizi Utazas.' (Ah very fine. &. ! .'s My book. is more extraordinary still " Twice I have visited this remarkable man. also without reckoning dialects. a phenomenon as yet unparalleled in the learned world. 1846. &c. . was to On Prejudices. to Mezzofanti. Aranyos. and four American. his singular powers were annually put to a public test.' there is a statement which. entitled taken as the narrator took it. i. At the September examination of the pupils of the college of the Propaganda. szdp. vol. me a list of all the languages and dialects in which he was able to express himself. Beautiful. in fifty-six languages. five African. even to ascertain the name of the author. the young missionaries of various countries are accustomed to deliver an oration. His passion for acquiring languages is so great. 180. he called out.' send a copy of M. very finely bound. he continues to study fresh dialects he learned Chinese not long ago. but in the work of an anonymous Russian traLetters from Rome. and put it away in a bookcase.

having been in the Tower of Babel all the morning.' It must be added. that he spoke * Miss Mitford's ' ' forty or fifty. Baines. which he was is described by Miss Mitford in the following passage. p. ' Ah said he. passing with equal ease from the dialects of the extreme west to those of the extreme east from Irish. the result. Recollections of a Literary Life.122 native language. Mrs. so far as is known. the cardinal understood them all. At these meetings Mezzofanti was accustomed to attend and converse with almost all the scholars. and an opportunity is thus afforded. Ellis even felt certain that he could not read with facility an idiom. ' we went together to the Propaganda. . Baines) gave a most amusing account of Cardinal Mezzofanti a man in all but his marvellous gift of tongues as simple ' as an infant. to let us stick to English for the rest of the day. I have done with it*. Amongst natives of no less than three tribes of Tartars.' instead of before my time. and could tell with critical nicety the points in which one jargon differed from the others. Accordingly he did stick to English. Cardinal Mezzofanti never. In the course of the evening his servant brought a Welsh Bible which had been left for him. ' this is the very thing. and with the same accuracy not only of grammar but of His only trip was in saying.' he said.' appears to have been given ii. don't think it will do me any harm. to Chinese. each spoken in perfection. The last time I was in Rome/ said he. ' I probability not the authorized version. which he spoke as fluently as we do. Baines.' vol. a Welsh gentleman who saw him more than once in his later years. Paget. and I entreated him.' replied he. and heard speeches delivered in thirty: particularly fond of. which he spoke with fluency. I found that my way was either provincial or old-fashioned. But when I returned to ' England. and that I was wrong and he was right. 203. that he was quite unable to keep up or even to understand a conversation in the language of the Cymry. unique in its kind. made a plain and His answer to serious statement of how many languages he knew.' Then he remembered that it was in all ' Never mind. on the authority of Dr. Mr. that it should not be inferred from this statement that Mezzofanti could speak the language which he had thus acquired from a printed source.' continued Dr. One of these meetings languages by converts of various nations.' Once too I thought him mistaken in the pronunciation of a word.' Six weeks after I met the cardinal and asked him how he got on with his Welsh ? Oh. the Principal of the Roman Catholic college of Prior Park near Bath " He (Dr. Thomas Ellis of the British Museum. We have been told by Mr. That was before the time when I remember. I know it now. of hearing all the principal dialects of the world. but talking his own dialect. dined five or thirty-six them were We together. each They did not understand each other. I wanted to learn Welsh. Our list of testimonies has now extended to sufficient length to Let us examine dispense with the necessity of pursuing it further. ' ' ' ! ' ' ' ordinary book.

" eight twenty-eight languages." and There can be no doubt studied least perfectly. in the case of a chance dialogue with a casual acquaintance." that if Mezzofanti had followed his example. It is well known that Sir William Jones left a paper in his own handwriting. that to give a satisfactory answer to such an inquiry would have entailed upon him a necessity of detailed explanations and qualifications. or in receiving the shoals of foreigners who called on the librarian of Bologna or the Vatican. avows that it him. some from the mouths of living instructors and even in the case of those which he must have had many opportunities of speaking. there can be no reasonable doubt that he was master of all the prominent idioms of Europe that he was also master of some of the most obscure and difficult is shown with certainty by the evidence that has been produced. . Left as we are to ascertain the compass of Mezzofanti's powers from the unconnected reports of various persons. the evidence of that kind which we Unwilling as he appears possess is remarkably copious and strong. he rather seems to have evaded the question than to have distinctly asserted The reason of his reticence that he understood fifty-six languages. eight critically. husband. he was never unwilling to afford an opportunity of putting them to the proof. had studied cannot all have been equally familiar. who lived for baffled years in the countries in which it is spoken. Whenever an occasion was offered of displaying his powers he eagerly embraced it whether in attending the yearly meetings at the Propaganda.123 and in his note to the Russian traveller. but all intelligible with a dictionary. " twelve less perfectly. with none of whom he was on very intimate terms. the difference appears to have made itself felt. He was so ready to do this that he exposed himself while by avoiding it he would probably to the charge of vanity have subjected himself to the charge of imposture. The testimony of Mrs. such as might have informed his contemporaries and posterity of the real compass of his wonderful genius. . From circumstances like this it seems to have been inferred by the inconsiderate that all the obscure languages of Europe were at his command but though Mezzofanti might meet with Hungarian . Paget. From the position that he maintained and the society that he met. but all attainable. in these cases may very probably have been. with each of whom he seems to have made it a point to speak in his own language. a man of education and accomplishments. which is that of an unwilling witness. who after all might have reBut it is certainly unfortunate that ceived it in an uncandid spirit. he never appears to have put into writing once for all a distinct account of his attainments. to have been to state his own claims to the gigantic reputation which he enjoyed. establishes most conclusively that he was well acquainted with Hungarian. he too would have felt the necessity of distributing the languages he knew into different The forty or fifty tongues which he classes on the same principle. such as he might not feel disposed to expend his time upon. in which he stated that he had given his attention to " " studied studied in a jocular tone . that her . Some had been learned from books. an idiom so bristling with difficulties. .

Mezzofanti was not a Rask. In an age which was remarkable for the vastness of its discoveries in the field of philology. it has been objected to Mezzofanti. after all. He has been accused of often repeating the same remarks in conversation. . It is evident. It has been said that Mezzofanti had a remarkable faculty of putting together from the disjecta membra of a language that he heard a few words of. guage which he had the means of acquiring. Lastly. but never attempted. As a man of general learning. Molbech describes him as well acquainted with the library under his charge. But with the happiest organization. evidently expected. but there is nothing to lead us to suppose him a second Magliabecchi. that he should be so in other things. it was requisite to have . with certainly superior powers in his peculiar line. not even a dissertation. a skeleton of its grammar. it would have been long ere he met with "Welshmen or Icelanders and he was a Rapidly and surely as he acquired a lanprodigy. it is to be observed.124 and Wallachian soldiers in the hospital of Bologna. the acquirement of even twenty or thirty languages cannot but require an expenditure of time and exertion which must operate as a bar to other studies. To detect and explore the affinities of cognate dialects. something to work on. the vast fund of materials at his command would have enabled him to erect an edifice which would have stood conspicuous in the history of the science. to point out their relations to each other and their place in the great family of human speech. Even when over seventy we are told of his engaging with ardour in the study of a fresh language. speak of his memory as remarkable in other points than that of language. and in that case it would be unreasonable to expect any great variety in the answers. that. the great linguist did absolutely nothing. acquired the command of forty or fifty languages. not a miracle. from what has been stated of his success with the language of the gipsies. it may almost be said required. Mezzofanti would appear to have held a respectable rank and no more. was a task that he not only never accomplished. even ordinary powers of mind for the comparison of language and for investigations into its origin. survived to seventy-four. his career. He wrote no book. that this must have been the case. That he was a linguist only and not a philologist has been often Had he possessed stated. and was a student to the From this alone we might be led to infer that he may have last. and evidently with too much justice. but it must be observed that he was continually meeting a round of fresh company who were likely to put the same questions on the same topics. his range of command over the languages which he spoke may have been very To exchange a few words on the common-places of an limited. then an unwritten jargon. One of the most surprising facts in his biography is the freedom from decay in his extraordinary powers that we trace in the narrative of Age seems to have spared his memory and his energy together. Some of those who found him such a prodigy in that respect. None of our informants. Sir William Jones died at the age of forty-eight: Mezzofanti.

but to every one who speaks a and if it be really so easy to hold a short converforeign language Besides. or to the who would go ' bottom with the sailors in the first scene of the . . as we take leave of the name of Mezzofanti.125 ordinary visit to request a stranger to take a chair. On the whole. . when the Cardinal was requested to keep to English. perhaps too much for it will apply not to Mezzofanti only. Baines's evidence. why is not the talent general ? gotten that. so far as evidence extends.' There is certainly much in this. it must not be forsation. it is that On that account of the greatest linguist the world has ever seen. according to Dr. we are bound to acknowledge that. what he thinks all this. to ask him how long he purposes to remain in Rome said. Tempest. he did so for hours. might easily be done in English by an Italian. it has a claim to be held justly memorable in the annals of mankind. it is of Italy.


. shrivel. kriepen K VOL. protuberant crub. i. and w. b. a disease of children in which life is endangered by a contraction of the windpipe crupach. Du. to contract. A good instance of such a series is exhibited in the numerous class of words which may be grouped around a root KRUP or KRUK. which maybe compared with the Gr." By " A On Words Hensleigh Wedgwood. to stoop. and (as a creature in creeping . has to draw his limbs together) to CREEP. No./). VOL. k. shrink. . g. in the Chair. shrivel fold. ypwrros. Chinese Moral Manners. paper was then read fundamentally connected with the notion of contraction and formally referable to a Root KRUP or KRUK. ment . or crioplach. but often wholly divested of all resemblance in sound or appearance. a wrinkle. . . crubach. and the E. or an s is prefixed in those Thus every element of dialects which favour the sound scr or schr. 1852. one drawn together by crub. hr. signifying con- drawing together. respective authors " Hien Wun Shoo. Esq. crub. crup. and their derivatives. From each of these modifications of the root a numerous progeny is reared by a few processes of ordinary application in the developtraction or of language." by Sir John Davis and " Persian Chess. presented by their : . The development of ideas out of the radical sense of contraction the root is finite variety of is have crup. to contract. giving rise to an inwords collaterally related to each other. or a the final consonant runs through the entire series of the class to which it belongs. crook.PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY. The vowel appears under the form of u. a CRIPPLK wheel. crup. curved. We ." by Nathaniel Bland. v. a fang. as exemplified in the Gael. fr . kruppen. the boss of a bodily infirmity. wr. the initial ftr interchanges with gr. or plait crupadh. FEBRUARY THOMAS WATTS. crupag or criopag.f. v. hooked. though all resemblance between distant collaterals may be wholly lost. 116. ch (both guttural and paa nasal is inserted before the final mute and sometimes altolatal) gether supersedes it . 6. It sometimes happens that a relationship of very ancient standing may be established between words by an extensive chain of links. and it may often not be easy to point out the primitive form which must be considered as the common ancestor. the connexion of each of which with its immediate neighbours cannot be doubted. shrink. and in particular the CHOUP. to crouch. The following works were laid on the table. Esq. r. the r itself is exchanged for an I. Esq. a claw. successively subjected to variation. illustrated from original sources. to bend. . . a contraction . well exhibited in the Gael. V.

: For in the fatness of these pursy times. . like water crisped with a breeze. the p passes into an/. screwing up the mouth . CRABBED. GROUP. gruppo. from whence the Fr. Virtue itself of vice must pardon beg. . crooked. intricate. a brace or cramp. crapio. to scratch Bret. . O. to crouch. gripsen. to scratch. iron for binding together . krappi. withered Bret. a round hunch. kriupa. a swelling out . Fr. or anything used in an analogous manner. . to seize. gasp. . E. and sometimes to bow or cringe ." is owing. a hump on the back. crob. raper) gives Lat. Fr. grypkrapsen. and probably the Sw. a texture in which the entire surface is gathered up into an infinity of little The with gripe. cabin'd and confined. clasp. probably from its harsh. but originally probably nothing but grebti. to catch. vulgar E. signification in theE. grapsen. SCRAPE. crispus. The Du. rapacious. and G. kroppna. a claw E. grappare. crib that the vigour of Shakespeare's expression. curled . Hamlet. scraba. compared clip. crab. crebog. to be stiffened with cold Isl. whence E.-E. to confine krappr. and to GRASP. a crookback. a collection of objects brought together in a single point of view crubain. shrunk. tongues gives W. to GRIPE. a GRIPE or griffon. difficult . Bret. or a narrow sleepingIt is to the vitality of this radical place confined within boards. to contract. to seize craff. to seize. cripio. or crwb. a CHAB. to be contracted or stiffened with cold . Fr. but of somewhat different application. courber may or may not be directly derived. The inversion of the r and in the radical crub gives rise to the Lat. from In G. kraban. voghel. graibyti. a cramp-iron. as in W. a crouching attitude. a knot or thrum in weaving. W. croupir. to snatch . reminds us of the Gr. to steal. narrow. cringe. also a wild apple. gape. kreppa. corresponding to Lith. Isl. to seize. to GRAB. curvus. the creature in which the faculty of pinching and clawing is most strikingly exemplified . a wrinkle . is in the formation of words signifying some kind of action performed by the instrumentality of hooks or claws. Bret. to snatch. greiffen.128 crubag. From the latter we have to CURB. wrinkles. to crouch. It. CRISP. shrug . a knot. Isl. CRAB. " cribb'd. a bird of prey. Yea curb and woo for leave to do him good. curled. krapschen. krabisa. crespa. crub. CRIB. whence E. with or without an initial s. . crooked . a stall for the confinement of a beast. krippe. to grab. whence Jcryppill. CRAPLE. . It. Thus we have W. a Fr. cripple . G.) . steal scrapa. to creep go double (Cotgr. to seize. Bret. rasp. CRAPE. bow. craffu. CURVED. a word of analogous formation. to restrain. crSpu. . krabisa. craff or grav. hold in. from grypen. to scratch. krubba. ypv\p. astringent taste. kryppa. Isl. gripper. By far the most extensive application of the root crap or grab. a bird of prey. graibus. . the shell-fish. any crooked The same development of ideas in the related creature. and with the Du. to seize whence the frequentative to GRAPPLE. to creep. indicating the origin of the It. cropa. the shoulders with cold cruban. insertion of an 5 (as in grasp. with the W. a wrinkle. krokna.

curry. to draw oneself on by the hooking action of the hands or claws. krallen." To scramble. to GROPE.-E groof. a nail. faire des pieds de mouche. lead us as well to the Fr. of which the E. where the notion of scratching up the earth or scoring anything with the claws is extended to signify digging or Hence G. a GRIP. a beetle. to lie face downwards. a hollow slit graven in wood or the like . mond war he grabanou. and G. The Du. to GRUB. Fr. ecrtvisse. by a like analogy. to go on all fours. claws. to scratch. It. is also used in the sense of our SCRIBBLE or scrawl.' literally. claws (whence era/one. griffes. CRAWFISH is a disguised corruption. graffio. The same signification is conveyed by the Danish kravle. not for the purpose of seizing. a crawfish. and from escarabajo. fleshhook. and in the north of England to scraffle. crabben. to scrabble or SCRAWL. crauwen. sgriob. a crab-fish). or to attain an end by clutching with the hands Du. to scratch. graben. and the Pl. and E. is to struggle for anything. Swiss krapen. Hence G. grab. to scrabble or scrawl. krabbelen formed escarabajear. krauwen. groppen. to stoop. krabbeln. SCRABBLE. the converse development of signification has taken place. as David when " he fained himself mad in their hands and scrabled on the doors of the gate. R2 . as to the Fr. talons beak and claws. flat on the ground. representing a repetition of the clutching or clawing action of the hands and nails. . . graffiare. explains the origin of the Fr. are all used in senses closely allied. that in Sp. has been . to CRAWL. In A. to scratch. to bow down liggia i grufu. The Languedoc escarabisse. scribo. grnppe. a pit. to throw a thing to be scrambled for . in It. to scratch hooked Fr. for burying a corpse. to mount by the clutching action of the hands. a fabulous animal with The W. scarabceus derives its name and so characteristic is this kind of action of the beetle. dim. showing the primitive sense of the E. to dig in the earth with an inefficient tool. a hook. (Wachter). whence the O. claw. gravir. SCRAMBLE. It is probably from its scrabbling action that the Lat. agraffe. expressed in Fr. which is indeed identical with the Gael. a clasp . E. to cover paper with scratches. has crabbelen. to climb. corresponding to the G. kropen. equivalent grufla is creeping on the hands and knees. The frequentatives krabbeln. scrape. GROOVE. craf. whence GRIFFON. to scrape. a hook . to scratch. to scribble unmeaningly on paper. and krallen.129 iron. prone. to GRAVE or carve. grube. a GRAVE or pit carving with an appropriate tool. crafio. te grabbel werpen. TheDu. a ditch. but simply of ascertaining what is before us. SCRAFFLE. a claw. unguibus sca/pere(Biglotton). the clawing action of the hands is applied. graver.-D. The transition from b or v to w gives the Du. may be illustrated by the corresponding expression in Breton. used in the sense of groping in the dark the simple grufa signifies . fare alia grappa. bringing us to the sense of scratching or scoring as the primitive meaning of the Lat. GROVEL to be ' The Isl. . ysgrafu. The G. kronen. to go on his claws. a little ditch. grabbeln. krauwel.-S. grapian.

Du. to frizzle up the nose as in . scrymman. crooked. as schrumpfel to shrivel. The sense of contraction is conveyed by the syllable crimp. of which the simple form may be seen in the Gael. rompe. in the W. to straiten. os distorquere and E. RUMPLE. E. Bret. Du. so it seems that cramp is related to the Dan.-S. crimp acquires the sense of crisp (in which the same development of meaning has taken place). or indeed with almost any creature used for food. In A.. The E. The Du.-E. rimpel. (because things commonly contract in losing moisture. CRAMP. texture is to compress it in irregular wrinkles . to contract. deal sparingly. a wrinkle (KiL). may be seen in E. to wither. G. crimpio. to pinch Sw. a crumpled horn is a crooked horn. fr. FRUMPLE. krimpen. to dry up. ruga. a hook or buckle . corresponds to E. is a mere variation of rimple without the nasal. of allowing the fibres to contract to crimp a frill. and To crimp cod is to cut it transversely for the sake in the E. crack with drought. rumpfen (das maul oder die nase iiber etwas). . crom. Bavarian rimpfen. widely spread in the sense of curvature. FRUMP. krammeken. kramme. O. schriimpfele. Du. an involuntary muscular contraction to cramp. a buckle. anything small of its kind. to press upon one. kroumm. G. CRIMP. krumm. rompel. through hr. crack. RIVEL. . rimpe.). CRUMP. Fr. shrink. cramp. adoption of an initial s gives E. Then as that which is under the influence of a contractile force offers a proportional resistance to action having a tendency to smooth it out. confine one for room . As we have seen crump pass into Celtic and G. lable cramp. to dry up.130 The insertion of a nasal before the final p gives the roots crump. and in particular the shell-fish so called as a creature of diminutive size as compared with lobsters. scanty and SHRIMP. to contract. . crampon. or again in Kilian's krimp-neusen. scramble. schrompe. to crawl. Kilian's wrimpen or wrempen. bring us very near the E. SCRIMP. schrompele. krompen. crump. curl. to a simple r. kramme. RIPPLE. krympa. the intrusive To CRUMPLE a nasal has absorbed the sound of the final mute.) we have another instance of the absorption of the final p in the sound of the intrusive nasal. In Gael. hrympelle. naribus in rugas contractis irridere . krampe.shouldered. a holdfast . The We . . &c. a cramp-iron or iron used for holding together. jeer. scrampa. The substitution of J for p. sgreubh. of which we have seen so many instances in the foregoing .-S. as in E. to contract E. as crump-footed. or mock. contracted. a and as . krumpna. verschrumpfen). The degradation of the primitive kr. exemplifies the positive form of the E. krumm. The G. rumpfen. to throw a texture into irregular folds RIMPLE. contraction. to flout. applied to the surface of water crisped by the wind or current. crumple or CRIMPLE. bowed together . . and thence to wr. crooked in the limbs. to draw it up in regular pleats or folds. a wrinkle (crympelle or rympelle. A. rigid in The same meaning is as frequently expressed by the syltexture. to press together. have Sw. SHRIVEL (G. a wrinkle. In the same way the Bret. G. a frequentative. Promptorium. to scorn a thing (Ludwig) . derision (Bailey). crimp. an adjective. to CRAM Du. wrinkle.

gives Kilian's ruyffel, a wrinkle ruyffelen, to wrinkle, to corresponding to the E. RUFFLE, to raise the surface of a thing in alternate hollows and eminences ; BUFF, RUFFLE, a collar or frill standing out in deep plaits. The instances of the loss of an initial k or g before r are abundant.




rheibus, rapacious;

Venetian rapa, a wrinkle Lith. graibus, W. and it thus becomes exceedingly difficult to separate Lat. rapio and its numerous progeny in modern Europe from the series of which gripe and grasp form part. The Italian
; ; ;


has grampa, a nail or claw rampa, a clutch or paw rampo, a hook, and the augmentative rampone, corresponding to the Fr. crampon, a cramp-iron. From rampa, a paw, is formed rampare, to paw like a To ROMP is lion, to RAMP, and Fr. ramper, to creep, to climb. another pronunciation of the same word applied to clumsy play, in

which the action of the hands


compared to that of an animal's
; ;

paws. In like manner the It. has both graffio, a hook

grajfiare, to scratch a hook or drag ; raffare, to seize ; arraffare, arraffiare, arrappare, and arrampignare, to seize, to snatch, to tear with hooks. The corresponding Teutonic forms are G. raffen, to scrape together




raufen, rupfen, to pluck;

Du. ruppen, rukken,

Pl.-D. repen, reppen, repeln ; through a wooden or iron comb (in G. raufe) for the purpose of stripping off the heads of seeds ; Pl.-D. rapen, to scrape things
rappen, rapsen (parallel with grapsen), to pluck hastily together hastily. The Fr. raper signifies to scrape, answering to Bret, scrapa, as ramper to scrampa. The insertion of an * as in grasp, gasp, gives

to strip, to pluck; G. riefeln, to RIPPLE flax, to draw it

Parallel with G. raffen, It. raffare, It. raspa, E. RASP, a coarse file. the Fr. has raffler, to scrape, to scratch, to sweep all away (Cotgr.), whence a RAFFLE, a sweepstakes, originally a game at dice at which a certain throw swept the board : also, to RIFLE, to strip one forcibly Faire une rqfftade, to gripe, seize hastily, to of his possessions. The RIFLING of a gun-barrel must be explained from rifle (Cotgr.). the notion of scoring or scratching ; G. reife, a stripe or streak Pl.-D. riefeln, to make strokes or furrows, to flute a column or rifle Du. rijve, a rake, a rasp, an instrument for scoring or a gun. scratching the earth, for wearing down metal or wood by a series of scratches; riiven, to rake, to scrape, to RUB ; G. reiben ; Pl.-D. riven; Sw. rifwa, to scratch, to tear, to wear, to pluck, to scrape, to card wool, to RIVE or tear asunder (whence RIFT, a cleft). The parallel series with an initial sh or sch comprises Du. schrabben, to scrape, to shave, to score ; schrabbe, a scratch, a wound ; schraeffen,

schrae/elen, to scrape, to sweep ; schrobben, to scrape, to shave, to rub, to SCRUB ; Sw. skrapa, to rake, to scratch, to rub, to scrape ; skrubba, to rub, whence skrubbel, a wool card, and skrubbla, to card or SCRIBBLE wool ; Gael, sgriob, to scrape, rub off the surface,
scratch, score, curry, grate, lay waste.

[To be continued.]



20, 1852.

No. 117.


in the Chair.

Secretary wished to call the attention of the members present which had, on several occasions, been mentioned at the meetings of the Society. It had often been referred to, as matter for regret, that other Societies which in point of time had preceded their own, and which were formed with similar, or nearly similar objects, had brought their labours' to a close, without leaving any record of those labours, or at least any which was easily accessible. It seemed
to a subject


on several accounts, to possess such a record. Without the history of English scholarship could hardly be considered as complete ; and there was danger, lest in subsequent inquiries questions might be opened which had already been sufficiently invesThe members therefore of the Philological Society would tigated. be pleased to hear, that with respect to one Society, to which many of them once belonged, they had now the means of supplying the want complained of. The Secretary had received the following communication from the Master of Trinity

"Trinity Lodge, Cambridge, Feb.




My dear Sir,


are aware that

an Etymological Society was

formed at Cambridge, at a period a little previous to the establishment of the Philological Society in London. Many of the original members of the latter Society are aware of the existence of the former, from having taken a leading part in its proceedings ; but some account of the plans and some specimens of the labours of the Etymological Society of Cambridge may not be without interest for the members of the Philological Society in general : and the office of drawing up such a memorandum of the Cambridge Society appears to devolve upon me more especially, inasmuch as the papers contributed by the members of that Society, except so far as they have been used for publication, remain in my hands. " The first mode of proceeding of the Etymological Society was to designate certain Classes of words, marked by some peculiarity in and to assign one of these Classes to each their relation or history member of the Society, with the injunction to collect as many specimens as he could of the Class, and to produce them at the next I will mention some of or some succeeding meeting of the Society. these Classes and some of the examples which we collected ; but I must also observe, in justice to the Society, that these Classes were


for each

upon mainly as means of marking out a definite portion of work member, and of providing interesting subjects of etymoloWe were well aware that our Classes gical discussion and research. were not philosophically framed, nor coordinated according to sound
VOL. v.

philological views had something in

but they served to bring together words which

common as to their structure or historical relation and we conceived that when we had in this way acquainted ourselves with the derivation and history of many separate words, we
might arrange them
in some more philosophical manner afterwards. that the assignment of any word to its place in one of our Classes was but one step in the deduction of its pedigree, and required other steps in order to complete the etymological story of the word ; but besides that we held one step made to be something done, we found that the appropriation of a word to such a Class generally led to a thorough investigation of the history of the word, so far as our knowledge of languages enabled us to go. " Any examples which I can give of the words which we thus classified must now appear to great disadvantage, in consequence of the progress which philology in general, and English etymology in particular, has since made. Many of the words which we then fastened upon as showing the most remarkable etymological features, to us then new and entertaining, have since been pointed out to public notice, especially by the members of your Society ; and thus our speculations have lost their novelty. And in many cases, Classes of words which depend on the relations of languages, have been collected by more recent philologers in a far more complete and philosophical manner than we, most of us then beginners in the study of etymology as a definite pursuit, could accomplish. It must be understood, then, that I offer these examples rather as belonging to the history of the Etymological Society, than as contributions which are worthy of the Philological Society. "The following were, I think, all the original members of the

We knew too

Etymological Society. The late Thomas Shelford, John Lodge, Hugh James Rose, Henry Coddington, John Wordsworth, James Kennedy, and William Sidney Walker the present Archbishop of York, Bishop of St. David's, and Bishop of Manchester the Master of Downing College, Archdeacon Hare, Mr. Romilly, Professors Chevallier, Maiden, and Jeremie, the Rev. Mr. Gwatkin, Mr. Henry Rose, and Mr. Riddell and the present writer. " Some of our Classes depended upon the relations of the several languages from which the English is derived thus it being understood that the portion of English which is derived from Saxon is, for the most part, also connected with German, it was thought and interesting to pick out words which are exceptions to this thus we had







Thus we have

Saxon-English words which are not German. little (A.-S. lytel), which is not a German word

except in certain dialects.
look (A.-S. locian). dust (A.-S. dust : if this be not connected with L. advstus). (admonish, A.-S. amanian, obviously is L.) worse, worst (A.-S. wyrs, wyrrest).

quash (A.-S. cwysan).

skirmish (It. novel. ombre. caval: Italian cade. xebec. may Several other classes of this kind were designated. muck (It. brav). to squat (It. coach (It. schiajfo). mulatto. broth (It. but I will not maintain their Spanish origin without further research : aboard. busco). to sconce (It. From bagnio. Other English words have been more clearly adopted from the Southern European languages. Others exist in Italian as well as French and the Northern languages. ledger. buoy. trinquer (G. pendant. citron. bark. souper (G. balustrade. bush (It. bewacheri).135 Again. . English words from Italian. junta. schermire. rocca). tamborine. siderable CLASS II. cocchio). negro. &c. galley. mutiny (It. but the above serve as a sufficient exemplification of their scheme. grata). marmalade. knuckle (It. a bar). hence we had . . bravo. escrimer). pay the scot (It.feudo). lanzknecht). scot. and form CLASS IV. s 2 . cape (of a coat). polacre. Others are Latin adopted into French from German . G. a stang (It. aggrappare). bivouac (G. nocca). but still a connumber are German it was thought desirable to collect these . pago lo scotto). parade. vermicelli. pinnace. mucchio. the greater part of French roots are Latin. Fr. stanga. broccoli. lemon. carrack. suppe). trinciare). shore (prop). to to to trench (It. gown (It. feud (It. casemate. castanet. drinkeri). fee (It. squadron. cork. chocolate. acquattarsi). as lansquenet (G. and may be called CLASS III. barrack. German-French words. brodd). maccaroni. scavenger ? scamp ? cash ? junket ? From Spanish: armada. rock (It. stopper. I find also the following words mentioned by the member to whom this Class was committed . Spanish. sheet (rope). as . Creole. brave (It. embargo. scuttle. a heap). ammutinarsi) grapple (It. sconciare). esplanade. fandango. Non-Latin Italian words such are . cuff (It. gonua). grate (It. cocoa.

) (So mantua. castanea. an earthen vessel. carriages introduced at those cities. from the inventors : a stanhope. from Cordovan leather.-S. cloth landau. chestnut. but is really terrine. from Epicurus modern times such words become frequent . of carriages. (tureen. peach. " Mantua vse miserse " nimium vicina Cremona when the lady's r<?be swept down ! the fiddle. macadamized (roads). from names of persons. epicure. a dennet. a Spanish dog. cordwainer. Words derived.) This Class is much more numerous than might at first be supposed. such for instance are . for instance. currant. damask. as CLASS V.136 Other Classes were founded upon something more special in the history of the word . bechamelle. the first word is from Cambray. But these names (see Voltaire's Louis XIV. Yet the perversion has become classical by the application of the line. who appeared in Europe at first with some peculiar scarf tied about their necks. A. . Such is the case with the words In more platonic affection. a forehead jewel. cloth. in a mood of etymological meditation. Other such terms are mansarde. appears as if from the Italian city. porcelain from China. sevignd. he found he had got hold of three cases . These have generally at first an intentional reference to the proper name from which the word is derived. appears as if from Turin. from Plato. are often transient. . most familiar in mantua-maker. Articles of food sandwich. berlin. from Castania in Asia Minor. from the river Phasis. from Corinth. maintenon cutlets. Many occur in the poems of Pope and Gay. china.) Another Class of the same kind is GLASS VI. damson plums. which are now obsolete. Articles of dress : spencer (a short coat). a tilbury.). a brougham. the neck. from the Damascus blade. spaniel. from Calicut. from the Damascus rose. phasianus. a kind of roof. but is really manteau. and wad. from craw. Richardson. pheasant. for in cambric muslin cravat. (Though Ihre says cravat or crabat is certainly a Teutonic word. namely Damascene. : Names Wellington (boots). the third from the Croats. Words derived from names of places or nations. The member to whom the collection of such examples was committed related that on putting his hand to his neck. of colour. the second from Mosul in the East. persica mala (It. from a disciplinarian officer of Louis XIV. damask. of figured work. from the name of the architect martinet. also calico. roquelaure. persice). from Persia. but in the course of time the term becomes a common name.

dephlegmated. emrods. catarrh. Many other classes derived from their subjects might be made. prison and prehension. CLASS XII. parable (TrapafioXrj) caresme. apoplexy. not merely technical such are melancholy. megrim. at different times and by different roads these we called . Fr. of these words have a curious history of opinions belonging which I will not now dwell upon. sciatica. Many of these words are much contracted and distorted in form. colic. fromfactio. martial. aspect. origin a reference (verb). (quadragesima) . these are . reclaim. Bifurcating etymologies from ratio. noble metals. poison and potion. as CLASS VII. Many to them. church. priest. Fr. . Ecclesiastical words from Greek or Latin : which they belonged bishop. charity (caritas) whence palabra. . fashion and faction. tympany. highflyer. alms. Words implying ancient customs contemplate. ill-starred. have come two different words in English. A to Class was formed of words which had in their some ancient custom. animal spirits (a remnant of the Cartesian doctrines). Germ. paralysis. Fr. alembic.137 Several Classes of words were selected according to the subject to or alluded . dropsy. rickets. cholera. . as having been derived in rude and CLASS VIII. imposthume. down of standing corn) tribulation (a thrashing) (an agreement made with the use of straws as a for. of course. haggard. or opinion. from fldes. Hawking terms quarry. dysentery. defecated. . Sp. palsy. pentecdte. illiterate times. quintessence. phthisic or tisick. from prehensio. from potio. jovial (hence jolly). phlegm. rifle : retrieve. as CLASS IX. saturnine. Astrological and alchemical terms : mercurial. sphere of action. styptic. cala. hypochondriac. ascendancy. . deacon (irevTeKOffTTi) . Meaning. arthritic. treacle. such as are in common. Medical words from Greek and Latin use . mality) It happens in several cases that from one word in some other language (for instance. lure. hysterics. quinsey. prevaricate (to walk on unequal legs) person (persona. diabetes. Latin). . disastrous. CLASS X. influence. . as . faith and fidelity. . or metaphor. : CLASS XI. pfingst. diarrhoea. consider (words from Roman augural practices) mity (a beating stipulation . caput mortuum. reason and ration.. a mask with a voiceagricultural allusions hole in it). to imp his unngs. par6le. exorbitant.

: reference or supposed reference to its meaning. . as derived from way. illiads (Merry Wives of Winds.). G. from redemptio. Germ walschenuss. waist C at ' * from clothin & the ( waist.. [^ sirs are called. chastaigne. f moral (Shaksp. Instances in which a word not compounded of significant English elements has had some part transformed so as to have some . as if the name by which f < .7 jf . advowson and advocacy. f belfry. heart of oak. .. G. as from its flying. . (which Lat from oculus). j f \ rency. another guess. [ f lantAorn.. wall nut. . hausenblas (the bladder of the fish hasen or huso). veste. crayfish. . i another guise trit kings of Yorkshire (one. combined with coat . . (painter's stick) rbmern maul stick. from calx) tcrevisse WE HAVE which is causey. kings and queens. ransom and redemption. as if from if its G transpa- sequin hazard (played for sequins) . Lat. f v . 7 taterna . causetcay. as if because made with M I contre danse horn. \ . si'rname. as if ejrrc from containing the bells. These we called CLASS XIII. f chicken hazard. Fr.third! v part g) | hiirte of oak (hardest part). country dance. if it were (which is from va/aapos) wermuth. ridings of Yorkshire. contemptuously. isingglass. lesson and prelection.. . . .. . brautigam. rummers.138 from advocatio. chest nut or chess nut. M surname . G I bridegroom. . if " " shuttle cock. ' as harmless. False etymologies and these might be variously I send them to you as they stand in our old paper 1. jr. '. mahler stock. We also made a considerable collection of cases in which a word had been in some way modified in consequence of an erroneous opinion as to the meaning or analogy of some part of it. Fr. or | L from pluckin g> as if quelquechose toilette / Pshaws. < wormtcoorf. a strong resemblance. twilight (so written by Evelyn). barberry. subdivided. .). as if intended for rum.Germ. FROM chausste (via calciata. coat cards x ' (having painted coats) shuttle cork co " r < cards ( [ * because the y '. is things to be used ceillades berberis. from lectio. (a foreign nut) castanea.

.. 7.. ..... . bolt-sprit.............. Charter -house........ (some s&yjaics harp)....... salpetra ... this Many names dent de leon of plants have been transformed in ... (from race. < ^ ....... signi- where some part of the word has been made FROM ficant but not appropriate. understanding..) . .139 renegade (renegare) ....... ...... ay sand fine.. umverstand ........ quatre saisons (rose) ........ ... billiards bird-cage walk.) .. caruon (icapvor) .......... Bemoin . giresol (artichoke) ..... gillv flower.... portiomsta magistn .. way : Gr.......... asparagus .. dandy lion.. f | runagate (Psalms)....... rake f hell. girqfle ^apvo(j>v\\oy... hausmann (house-man) .... ....... salt-c<?//ar..... sceleratus (ranunculus) . at Merton College.... ....... carrawcy........ herb Benjamin............ bocage walk ............. /. rosemary..... ta-fung.... as if from runn g & ^...... pyrethrum .. Jerusalem artichoke.............. Leather hall .. WE HAVE salt-peter. . verd de gris ...... .. The ... like cases occur in Scotch necessity ..... as if it were an axe....... .. Gr..... a great wind..... (introduced . as if from the soil. aufruhr (insurrection) .... as if from rvfywv. amberyrease................. buffetier .. typhoon. < | coutelas (a cutlass) ... as f if from need............ Chinese.... f abominable . verdigrease... celery -leaved ranunculus. uproar..... .... ............. sparrow grass......... Menage...... .... husband. saint foin (a kind of grass) . as if from the ma- {to nure racaille they produce. as if like a bolt....... < \ bow-sprit .... ambergris ..... .. nmfcessity. saliere (for salt) .... quarter sessions rose.... July flower.. Instances Bertram (a herb).... ^ * ...... 2. as if bird-cages were hung there. rosmarinus . Jew's harp....... soil cattle (to feed them within doors)... Leadenli&ll. beefeater. curtal axe.......... ^postmasters.................... jeu harpe (a toy harp) ..... x petticoat tails by |* M&ry g tuart) ...... as : if up and roar..... ball yards (in some old writers)........ abhominable (in Shakspear's time) c c as if from homo. Chartreuse............ pet** gatels (little cakes) .. ..

W. bonne weissager (soothsayer) genevre (juniperus) Janitor e or Jaune doree spina bifida (a disease) f wise-acre. A. \ Several sign-post designs have been changed into strange phrases Catharine-wheel. . i j TIT TTT \ J otherwise explained . niari. to a cow's thumb Skinner). o. wormtt'oorf or wormwort. rock parsley. the root of these forms. pastinaca (parsnip) became pfingsternakel. cat and fiddle (?).. geneva.-S. in Low Latin it is wantus. connected with verleumden. ... to call . but the converse. . is spelt as if it and hence has been explained to mean in der Leute mund bringen' (to bring a person into the people's mouth). Lothian) . cat Boulogne mouth (harbour) belle sauvage golden boot bag o' nails. Spanish beefeater.. according to The old word is handske . Gloster Gritstone stairs (Lincoln) Grecian stairs. Transformed words in other Languages Similar perversions occur in other languages . clamare and calumblance.. axe and gate. hlem Eng. gantus. . and wheel. .. . the plant being a medicine used against worms. bull and mouth. Lightning -in-the-morning coppersmith.) Cloister court (Blackfriars) . had something to do with mund (mouth) ' .. . claim Lat. ancient (Pistol).. \ W. bell and savage (Spectator). Probably however the word hunt or hand is at gwantus. leumund.. casemate. is perhaps a word formed by taking advantage of a casual resemoriginally. as if it had something to do with Whitsuntide (Pfingst). Gands therefore are not derived from the town of Gand. . court. made into ask (ax) and get chat fidele bacchanals God encompass us (motto) . became Petersilie in German. Names of places have been transformed in the same way : Godalming Leighton-le-Morthen (Yorkshire) Cockburn's path (E. and with the Isl. : <Uac0tt ' MWe casamatta enseigne (exactly .. goat and compasses. John Dory. f r j\ 1 c ld harbour (this has lately been Collis arooreus (near Stamford) < .140 FROM belle et WE HAVE belly-bone. and then Peter lein and Peter ling. Godly man (so in Pepys).. which seems so clearly to describe a glove (handshoe). calumny. goat and boot. Human. handschut. UerpoffeXivov. : thus in German wermuth was Adelung.

...) with auge .. .. to throw (Adelung). as if boucle. . but from mo//. postumus was written posthumus. ... augen lied... similarly a transposition of the letters of Vera Icon......... mouldewarp.. From Jerusalem they have formed pounded with the adjective lepos..... as if from dienst.. ueberglaube turnois... " * fr m ^^ {^rotT*' {9^ubunden S re 7 league. to soil cattle.. dear..... afierglaube. acaslor. sol. I : ....... Saint Veronica... a mole.... In Latin.<> 7 ... was made into partisane.. a spark . / uv \ (kraut. edepol. (from 'ita me deus Pollux. Demorgorgon is said to be a corruption of the Platonic Demiurgos.... and werfen. as if from wesen. the assidui. (Eng.. panacea (a herb) ... a weapon (from pertundere ?)... : dienstag. The provincial English name of the animal therefore. as if it were com- .. as if fromfunke.. eyelid Fr ... is made choux croute..141 Maulwerf.. lepo<ro\vpoi. by a mistake of the written word S. as if from lied. In Italian. as if from theuer. as if from choux and croute... escar6owc/e.. ecastor.. turnwesen. avanture . which seems to be derived from the they have formed assoler.. gratia (Rhatia). In Greek. .... merfiws-fidius.) without . choux) is transferred tQ in gratu- and the bread put itously... In French From our phrase French saoul.. if from post and humus. mehercule... abentheuer. kar/Kn&e-/. those who paid an as (ab asse dando)... a song.. being..... is correct. satiated... Lat .. geier a vulture) was in Low Latin called jryrofalco.. San Oreste is said to have derived his existence from the mountain Soracte.. del Popolo at Rome is properly the gate of the poplars. Oracle. .) are often spelt tedepol... becomes carbunculus... <ye6ro(Eng.. t as if from gran bund... carbunculus . Other examples in German Distag (Tuesday) . were sometimes written adsidui.. is not from maul (a mouth)..' like as if compounded of cedes. . service.... a thought.... ita me Castor. pensee.... as the ger falcon (geier falke.. as if it came from Apertuisane. The cabbage sauer kraut (sour cabbage) . The Porta the venerated representation of the true image of the Saviour's face. mould.

that a more systematic investigation of our language might lead to a much more satisfactory knowledge of its peculiarities. but is an original flovTvpov. Among these I may mention an article On English Adjectives. . as was adopted in the Etymological Society of Cambridge. promised advantages that could not be expected from the isolated efforts of individuals .142 seems to be formed from a and Siaflaivw. C. Teutonic. garunfel (Arab. and the impression seemed very general. " Some of our were inserted in the Mupassable . and one On English Preterites. whose authors. but I fear hopeless.. . I may also point out in the same work an article On English Diminutives." . butter. seems to mean cow cheese Scythian word according to Hippocrates. and especially by the members of the Philological Society. and articles On the Names of the Days of the Week. allowed us to regard them as our fellow-labourers. The reading of this paper was followed by a long and interesting conversation as to the best mode of promoting the objects of English It was suggested that an organization of labour. they were very instructive for us at that period. signed G. . by the present writer. such scholarship. and Latin. scheme of a new Etymological Dictionary of the English language . and On English Orthography. but though. my dear Sir. Esq. easily enable an etymological reader to refer to their author. " To Edwin " W. C. "I might mention some others of the speculations of our Etymological Society . were to be ranged under separate alphabets. WHEWELL. as I have said. " I must beg very sincerely your indulgence and that of the Society for the defects of the speculations which I thus venture to communicate to them through you and I am. siderable portion of additional matter was printed from the MS.. of which one main feature was to be that the three great divisions of our etymologies. signed J. H. which the initials J. L. but has not yet A been published. In particular we had a grand.) spice KapvoQvXXov.' . as if from <f>v\\ov. of the author of the paper on English Orthography. Norman. . M. speculations Philological seum. " Yours very truly. as if it were imbut the name comes from the river Adiab or Zab. K. they have been superseded in a great degree by what has been done since by philologers." Guest. which was published at Cambridge in 1832 and 1833. I conthink.

H. drawn back up^n itself. crook-back. 1852. curl. but when a peculiar form of support was contrived for that purpose. a hook. to be conThe implement first used for the tracted or stiffened with cold. Pl. VOL. the ss of which arises from the Fr. accrocher. by the Rev. krilkeln. and its derivatives crochet. bending in linear extension v. CROSIER. krokna and kroppna. as in Brussels from Bruxelles. as in E. W. On Words gruccia. a curl.PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY. The root appears in its original form in most of the European languages in the sense of what is bent. paw of a beast Gael. CHABOT. a frequent source in our language of double forms and synonyms of more or less modified significations. a hook. to ENCROACH. but is brought over to the other side. G. It. Esq. to sweep over a district crossing backwards and forwards. crog. kriillen. J. V. From Fr. crux. a paw Du. In Lat. The words in our language which may be traced to the root knife are hardly less numerous than those of which the syllable krup was shown to be the basis in a former part of the present paper. a CROCHET . croiser. illustrate the formation of E. crull. the term is is applied to a crook of which the bent end not only drawn down towards the limb of the staff. plait. croccia. were laid on the table. in the Chair. we have also CRUSADE . wrinkle. croupir. In Isl.-E. H. a claw. . croc. croix. J. T VOL. Sw. CURL through the O. crwy. and is parallel with Fr. 118. a crook or corner . clasp. The diminutive extant in the Norwegian krokle. both forms are extant. . J. To CROUCH is to crook oneself together as for the purpose of concealment or under the influence of fear or cold. By H. P. CRUTCH. pronunciation of x. The crook then becomes a CROSS. itrok. to CRUISE. . krokr. the original crook grew into the E. MARCH 5. Esq. In the Fr. to grasp or catch at as with a hook. hooked. No. a clutch. kriicke. Wedgwood. The Sc. crouchie answers to E. support of a lame man was doubtless a crook or hooked stick. s'accroupir of the labial series. and the essential identity of the roots in the two cases is witnessed by the perpetual correspondence of analogous forms in either series. CROOK. . Esq. C. Two Pamphlets on the Gond A paper " traction was then read fundamentally connected with the notion of conand formally referable to a Root KRUP or KRUK :" (concluded). Language. Dickenson. as contrasted with sailing direct to a certain destination. a hook hook. we see the passage of the guttural k into the palatal ch. Presented by F. kroke. Driberg and the Rev. a bending. krilhel. Pol. Harrison. to curl. a small hook. v. a kruk. Isl.-D.

wrempen. showing the constant equivalence of crank and cramp. a CIRCLE. in Lat. a ring. being the satisfaction of the moral judgement. Dan. RING. a word formerly used as synonymous with crooked in the ordinary sense. omkring. Gael. intricate. vringle. the Sw. of the labial series) Du. IV. CRINGE. wringen (parallel with wrimpen. having a crumple-horn. a wrinkle (parallel with Sw. . whence rauku..144 There is no reason why the Gr. equivalent to E. a ring. rukti. and E. involved. to pinch. crud and crull into curd and curl would then give the Gr. a link. to shrink. the passage is easy. a wrinkle.' but now applied only in the metaphorical sense to designate what is not adapted to attain a definite end. wrinkle. winding about. also a holdfast or cramp-iron. a twist. Hence WRONG. to compress. CRANKLE is explained by Bailey to go in and out. to wrinkle the forehead. . circa. also a hook or anything curved. which has transformed the O. The Isl. granof all that is crooked and tenacious in action. part 1. The sense of twisting is further developed in the Du. or in somp dialects of that language hringr. bringing us on the one side to the Fr. should he regarded as an inversion of the ordinary KipKos. . plait ' . turned aside from the right. in which the passage of the vowel from an i to an a is well illustrated.-E. the type Hence the It. cuts me from the best of all my land A huge half moon. which again adopts a preceding w in Du. The same word in W. From KpiKos to the Isl. firing.froncer. crooked or wrong. hruckr. chio. a whirl. Hen. kronkel. ruku or runku. Corresponding forms are exhibited Isl. arid Breton signifies a crab. kringla. to wrinkle. wronck. a wrinkle. KipKos and the Lat. a bend. and with crimple. a wrinkle. E. a coil. and on the supposition of their radical identity. Kptnos. The E. CRINCLE. and on the other to the G. fronsselen. argues strongly in favour of The same inversion the originality of the first-mentioned form. circum. . a crab. The primitive sense of the root is preserved under the simplest external form in the Lith. to twist. when the word is used without qualification. a WRINKLE whence vringle-hornet. to shrink from injury O. CRINCUM-CRANCUM. to contract. prep. exhibit the degradation of the initial kr through hr to a simple r.-S. ruga. a fold. of the labial series).-E. Dan. twisted. as witnessed by the translation in the Promptorium. And A croak in machinery is a handle bent at right angles for turning a wheel. to WRING. and Dan. to turn forcibly upon itself. would he in form an exact inversion of the The same formal modification of the root appears in Lat. To CKANK is to cramp. runzel. . kringr. confine . fronssen. curvus. The extensive range of the root kruk (easily passing into An'A:) in the sense of curvature. A. press upon. around. curl kronkelwronkel. . circum. crumple. : See how this river comes me cranking in. winding. a circle. kringr. and the diminutive circulus. The passage curl of the w into an f gives Kilian's fronckelcn. to FROWN (parallel with frump of the former series). roc. to a wreath wronckel. that end. a curl. to bow down.

to dry up. and CLASP.-E. in the same way as Sw. and hence perhaps may be explained the radical identity of the To CLIP. to shrivel. stand in the closest relation The W. f. and Gael. makes it difficult to stop short of another extensive family in which an / supersedes the r of the preceding classes. a crumpled mass or heap of things thrown confusedly together. CLUTCH and Polish clucz. a crotchet or little hook). a key. with the E. The natural connexion between the idea of a compact mass earth. shrinks. in the same way that the W. a round hunch. clavis.145 not sensibly altered by a prosthetic a in the Norto shrink. the relation between skrynka and rynka being precisely that of which we have already seen an instance in shrivel and rivel. especially of fuel (explaining the Lat. to emLat. sometimes used in the sense of a lump. we have Sc. Prov. with a tenacious mass. to scratch. a paw (Armstrong).-S. CLAW. tuch schrumpelt is translated by Ludwig. hrauka. a nail. the back. SHRINK are related. as shown by the diminutive cluczka. a mass or lump (the representative of club in the series with a guttural instead of a labial termination). A RUGGED surface is one gathered up into wrinkles or encumbered with eminences. to Lith. SHRUG. is The conception wegian skrucke. applied especially to the contraction of the shoulders. E. claw. and E. cloggy. krauwen. rogus) . globus. crimp. is essentially or cockles. rynka. klibba. crwb. krok. must be explained from the same root. a ridge. The addition of a nasal to forms like club or globe gives E. and the notion of parts sticking together gives rise to the Sw. The idea of drawing together is somewhat differently applied in W. hruga or hruka. clammy. CLUB (still to grip and grasp. unctuous. hryggr. a swelling out. a clutch. the same word. and gleba. a hook. x2 . a CLEW. To these last the Sw. to adhere . clceg. throwing them into a common fund or mass). RUCK. CLEAVE. to contract. In the same way from CLOG. a knob or boss. a stack. crug. a heap . the cloth shrugs. To CLOY is to clog the stomach . Isl. dob. is nothing but adhesive earth. A. No one has ever hesitated to connect the Du. E. clavus. kleben.-E. to hold tightly. ruga. It is probable that the O. a claw. e. rauka and Lat. and the modern RIDGE. and E. a ball of thread. to draw toDas gether. is derived from the sense of compression so generally expressed by that syllable. a GLOBE. HUG or RIG. a clod or lump of glomus. W. The same modicroft. a round mass. brace. a paw. crub. as when we speak of clubbing contributions. must be considered as representatives of the Sw. The Gael. G. RICK. a key (originally doubtless a hook. which has led us so far in the investigation of the foregoing series. a nail. and E. klibbig. a hook. crub. skrynka and E. In the same way the kramcel. The same impossibility of separating forms unmistakeably connected with each other. E. a wrinkle. fication of the root appears in Lat. a stack. signifying things of a shape apparently produced by pinching or contraction. a clasp. a boss. are identical in meaning with Gael. CLUMP. adhesive (Jamieson) and doubtless CLAY. Sw. sgreag. Isl. sticky. crog.

and the clomsid or comelyd of the Promptorium (whence perhaps CLUMSY). and subsequently a hanging strip of stuff sewed round a gown for ornament. fruit clung or withered singer above given. had formerly the signification of the foregoing klinken. originally a tuck or hanging fold. Pl. to be stiffened or contracted with cold. klompe. a piece. a clod Isl. crowded. klamm. which at present is used only in the sense of cleaving or sticking to. to compress. clammy G. The absorption of the final p in the sound of the preceding m gives A. whence klumba-fotr. de Berri) E. close-pressed. corresponding with Isl. a pleat. showing the relation as well of club and clump as of clump and crump. Pl. to shrink. Hence O. to .-D. frump.-D. a bird of prey. CLING. the same degradation is repeated in the / series. bend back upon itself. to pinch (parallel with E. to crimp or lay in pleats. inklingen. to pinch with hunger. klemmen. LOG from clog. corresponds with the Fr. bloc. . klump. having the same sense. are the equivalents of the Bret. to bend (Vocab. It is impossible to separate LUMP from clump. sticky. kroppna. The adoption of a nasal in the division having a guttural termination gives Prov. is identical with the E. klingen. CLINCH. while its augmentative to CLAMBER may be compared with scramble. must be compared with forms like froncer.-E. fronds. The Fr. agreeing exactly with the sense of clam in the quotation from MasSchrumpfichte obst. . club-footed or crump-footed. To CLIMB or draw oneself on by the clutching action of the hands. klampe. Dan. with keeping a perpetual Massinger in Nares. we . to CLEM.146 Sw. or wrinkle. klamen. observe that the final m in the foregoing instances is the remnant of an*original b or p. a nail. The E. The FT. it will appear probable that the Pl. verklamen. in which the initial liquid has been strengthened by the addition of a preceding labial. klemme. inklingen. skrynka. cram of the r series). putting out of consideration in both cases the prosthetic s which adds nothing to the signification. a .-S. to contract. bonds. a hook. klumbr.-E. klem-voghel and that of the synonymous grip-voghel. cramp-iron. . where klinken with Sw. FLOUNCE. (Ludwig).-Fr. Macbeth. Du.-D. may be compared klinken. kropa. The same relation holds good between the first syllable of the Du. a mass. klam or klamp. clam or clom. kramr in the same sense . as clamber with scramble. to shrink. to shrink : Upon Till the next bough sbalt tliou hang alive famine cling thee. Isl. and still Prov. Again. grimper of the r series. a heap Du. to be stiffened with cold. starve : Were clammed If My entrails fast. a mass or BLOCK. The E. CLENCH. a mass. CLAMP is used almost indifferently with cramp in the sense of holding things together Du. CLAMMY. as we found the initial kr or gr occasionally reduced to a simple r. clencher.

lenkti. to seize. a curl or LOCK of hair Sw. Words comprised in the foregoing paper. .-G. as log to clog). a noose. to close. flexible. where we cannot overlook the parallelism of link and ring. is formed on a gutpliant. a LOOP. flexible. the mere insertion of the nasal). and G. G. tural instead of a labial termination. a joint. . whence the E. LIMB. Lith. a loop of metal or other material constituting a single joint in a chain. The analogous group in Lith. to bend (answering to Fr. It comprises G. a LINK. lycka. clencher. a curve . or substantively a noose. E. whence Hence also in all probability (by lubach. linkus. Lith. crooked. as LUB to KRUP. galukan. to stoop. lenken. cringing. bow. lockr. gelenk.147 The original to force of the root is preserved in the Gael. a joint. to bend. The modification of the root corresponding to KRUK. linkimas. Recapitulation of the Eng. Isl. maybe found in the M. a loop. to fasten . to shut . limber. clench. Lith. lub. a running knot. to shut. E. lycka. LIMBER. LOCK.

Climb. Loop. Link. Cling. Clumsy. Log. Flounce. Block. Clamber. Lump. . Lock. Clan. Clinch. Clench. Limber.148 Clammy. Limb.

of which the and sixth is necessarily a spondee. I must disclaim all title to the praise or blame of originality. in some way or another. with one rhythmical movement from beginning to end and we say that it contains six feet. the most ancient and indigenous national metre. V. Manchester. Even what may now be considered a mere elementary knowledge of Greek metres would have saved many really learned scholars of the last century from corrupting the text of the Greek dramatists by inadmissible conjectural changes : and we may trust fearlessly that a more thorough insight into them will continue to aid us in preserving or restoring the purity of our texts. sooner or later. was A paper was On Greek then read Hexameters. . O. COCKAIGNE The Rev. and consequently we call the verse an u VOL. John Member " I in the Chair. I believe to be the fact. Ovid or Virgil . But before I explain what I conceive to be the true theory of it. Such. In the course of my present observations I hope to show that they have a direct bearing upon do not think some etymological I will questions. to conduce to an accurate knowledge of the language itself. not proceed therefore. is to be found in But Thiersch himself has not worked out the subject fully . 119. but I probably also in centuries before hope at some future time to show in what manner a very large class of Greek lyrical metres sprang out of the elements : Homer and of the old hexameter. nor am I aware of any other scholar who has followed his guiding hints.PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY. of Higher Broughton. v. in the only from Homer downwards. and we form a conception of it as a We simple whole. Very many respectable scholars will undoubtedly be startled by the assertion. 1852. necessary to make any apology for bringing before the Philological Society inquiries respecting the metres and rhythms of the Greek poets. to examine the original structure of the Greek hexamer dactylic verse. and that the original construction of it is very commonly not understood at all. No." it By Professor Maiden. MARCH 19. . first place. The germ. . elected a Davies. of the Society. that the structure of the Greek hexameter is imperfectly understood . of my opinions on the subject 143 of Thiersch's Homeric Greek Grammar. however. An accurate knowledge of the metrical forms of any language is sure. dactyls or spondees. VOL. the metre of all the old epic poets. and the fifth usually a dactyl we call these feet also metres. and more than the germ. commonly get our first notions of the hexameter verse from the Latin poets. The Rev.

17. if we turn to Catullus. Quidve dolens. Take for example the passage of which vv. 31. 9. w. 62. in the first hundred lines of the Epithalamium of Peleus and Thetis we find only eight lines thus divided. and examine the structure of Homer's verse. w. and if they had been called upon as grammarians to explain the structure of it. In the first hundred lines of the first book) the yneid. in Iliad I. hexameter . 133 and 199. gether. 23. mihi causas memora. 9 and 10 are a part. If now we look to Greek versification. in v. 16 Very frequently the sense . quite ready to acknowledge that the Latin poets themselves had the same conception of the verse : and I believe that the later Greek poets. vv. : Ac media line. quo numine laeso. Impulerit : tantaene animis caelestibus irae ? In the next hundred lines there are five examples of the division of the verse by the feminine caesura of a dactyl in the third place. viz. are of this form. 23. and often in continuous succession. If Latin and Greek hexameters be compared. 87 . regina I>eum tot volvere casus Insignem pietate virum. at least one wellmarked difference is observable in their construction. 156. viz. 26. 47. 43 . described.150 but we do not conceive it as compounded of parts. 187. but in no one of them does a pause in the sense coincide with this division of the verse. 43. a stop in the sense falls at the same point of the line . tot adire labores. 199. 85. v. guided them to results in practice more in harmony with what I consider the true theory of its construction. eight lines to23. and in two of these. conceived it in the same manner. Generally the sense determines the pause to another part of the 26 : Sacra Jovi facturus erat : jubet ire ministros. 36. In like manner. after the recitations of the rhapsodists were forgotten. plus parte leves erectus in auras. as in v. 8-11 : Musa. In the first hundred lines of the third book of Ovid's Metamorphoses there are eight such verses. The Latin hexameter admits but sparingly the feminine caesura of a dactyl in the third place of the line : I mean the division of the dactyl after the second syllable. w. as in 199 : O passi graviora. although their ear. dabit Deus his quoque fin em. vv. in the same way as the elegiac verse is compounded of two parts. there are (if I have noted them correctly) seven lines so constructed. 131. we shall find in the first hundred lines of the first book of the Iliad fifty-five lines divided in the manner which I have In many parts of Homer such lines come thick together. 10. 16. would have described it as I have just now described it . 100 and in one only of these can any pause in the sense be said to agree with the division of the verse. each I am of which has a complete rhythmical movement within itself. Thus. 133. w. and the imitation of ancient models.

except that a short syllable (what Thus is technically called a syllable in anacrusi) was prefixed to it. compounded of two parts. repeated by Homer. there can be little doubt that the in the language. The first part was made to end with a catalectic foot which was u -2 . wanting the last syllable and the second part was the same. and then dactyl. containing a dactyl. but would consist of two parts. No doubt the Greek language has a much greater number of words that end in trochees than the Latin and the difference in the versification has a relation to this difference in the forms of the languages. to be measured from beginning to end by six continuous feet. containing a short syllable prefixed to the rhythmical series. with one rhythmical movement from beginning to end but that it was a compound verse. But I think that it would be a mistake to consider the difference in grammatical forms as absolutely the cause of the difference in versification.151 compels or admits a pause in recitation at the break in the verse. 23 : ivtf d\\ot pkv iravret icat evev<^f] alSelffOai tf tep>7. In the first two hundred lines of the eleventh book there are no less than 123 lines with a dactyl in the third place divided by the feminine caesura. was caused by the dactylic metre for in all forms of composition except epic verse these grammatical forms became obsolete. emrere vvv fiot. abundant use in the epic poetry of Greece of the antique forms of datives plural in eovn. there are sixty lines of this description . It is manifest that the influence of gramIf the exigencies of rhythm matical and rhythmical forms is mutual. Movaai. the line. do not actually cause the production of certain grammatical forms. is this that the verse was . . of the prevalence of this construction of the verse. of which the first consisted of two dactyls or spondees. frequent recurrence of verses of this kind gives to Greek epic poetry in recitation a peculiar rhythmical movement. which the ear at once distinguishes from the cadence of the Virgilian hexameter. in the second hundred there are In the first hundred But these passages scarcely give an adequate notion forty-nine. Movirac. "Eo-Trere vvv /uot. as in vv. dactyl. and of genitives singular in ao and ou>. spondee. I conceive that the true cause of the prevalence in Homer's versification (and in Greek hexameter poetry generally) of the peculiar form of verse which I have pointed out. . | 'OXu/iwta ai/zar" eyovaat. 22. and then 'OXu/xTTia t>w/mr' tyivaai. containing the ancient formula of invocation many times . The : not originally one simple whole. they at least affect the frequency of their use and their permanence For example. ayXaa lines of the eighth book of the Iliad. would not be considered as a whole. It is manifest that the time of the first catalectic foot is completed and this by the short syllable which is prefixed to the second part circumstance led to the combination of the parts in another way. . with a close. and catalectic foot. which was an imperfect dactyl. and catalectic foot.

nor does he even hazard the conjecture. however. And sometimes If I the third foot ferit : contained in one word.152 reduced to the one long syllable on which the ictus of the foot fell. the twc short syllables prefixed to the second part were condensed into one long one . such a construction oi the verse is unknown to Homer*. v. as in II. 494 The last step. ments of the Dorian rhythm. an example of a verse so made in a choric song in the Medea of EuOne of the eleripides. as in J&n. is not great . and that they were regarded as coalescing into one verse is the construction of a verse in which the third foot is not divided at all. as in pronusque magister. and then the third foot begins with a monosyllable . The number Hie currus fuit : hoc regnum dea gentibus is esse. He makes He does not mean tc this merely a step in-iiis scientific analysis. : TroXAds 2e Spvs aa\eas. and supposes the second part to be added to the first without the intervention of the introductory short syllable ( 143. ' subject. and Anm.). v. By the next step in the progress of change. see Thiersch. . v. v. den. of lines in Virgil. TroXXas 2e re irevnas. 17. dactyl. while two short syllables were prefixed to the second ^rhythmical movement . long syllable . may have been a ruder form of the verse. 6. dactyl. . that rls T ap tr<f>we M. rls T up <T0d5e Qe&v \ epiSi %vvli)Ke p. XI The number v.TJVIV aeile. which is composed in the Dorian rhythm.a^eadai . as in the line (II. in which the third foot is contained in one word. 6ewv. 144. but the number of verses is considerable in which the second foot ends at the end of a word. the word which contains the third foot of the line is a proper name. dactyl. 1 1 5 In puppim excutitur. 221 : *I0icjuas 'Avrijvopt'Sqs. dactyl. spondee. and there is a marked pause in the sense at the same place . is the first half of the epic verse in its original form. and we obtain such a verse as is. two short syllables in anacrusi. 8). but in none of them ia there the sligh teat pause in the tense at that place. that verses so composed were used by bards before the age of Homer. in which the second foot ends at the end of a word. F/H& ZvveijKe pdxeffdai. as in IL XI. of such lines in Homer is comparatively small and ir the greater number of instances in which they occur. Thiersch carries the analysis of the verse a step further back. 14. catalectic foot. have Such. may trust my memory on such a We * On Homeric lines without caesura of the third foot. Thiersch gives examples of lines. &. I. affirm historically. as we shall see more plainly hereafter. by which it is shown that the distinction of the parts was lost. rjvs re fjteyas re. I. \ HqXriidSeu 'A\i\rjos.

. However. and was used alike for the heroic narrative of Homer and the homely didactic poetry of In the hands of Archilochus another and distinct genus of Hesiod. or a foot catalectic on a weak syllable. is greatly strengthened by a consideration of the first variation which was made in this genus of metres. But as the antistrophic verses are fjT)$eiroT a. Person joined the lines in one but. catalectic foot. in Mat- aperav et & a\is <*\6oi. we know was Callinus. it follows that these two lines must be considered as forming one comis which the word opyas pound verse. The hypothesis that the ancient epic verse was originally composed of two parts. yas aKopeffra re in divided between the lines . ere. verse. has no obvious affinity with it and we do not feel how the poets A . was so transformed as to be capable of a continuous rhythm.fjL<pi\6yovs opI'eiKrj. equivalent spondees) were followed by a long syllable. and he was closely followed by Tyrtaeus and Mimnermus. in each of which two dactyls (or. ovS" &peraf irapeSwKav ev ay^pafftv' el ft a\ts eX6oi. made up of two distinct rhythmical parts. had become a form of literary composition : and then followed a variation in the compound dactylic metre. is precisely the improvement by which we may conceive that a compound verse which was originally asynartete. inserted by conjecture the preposition ev. the elegiac verse. making the verse oi/3' of the . the trochaic and iambic verse. The time aperoy irapifiuKav dvSpaatv' el o* &\is eXdot. Now. in triple time. according to the common conception of the hexameter verse. Anciently the epos or hexameter was the only species of metre. thinking that a regular hexameter was required. in each of which two dactyls were followed by a catalectic foot of two syllables. poems in the Dorian rhythm are not found to contain complete hexameters. and as the idea of a verse requires that it should end at the end of a word. Verses 626. by which it is measured as a whole from beginning to end. made up of parts with a pause between them. composed of two parts. that is. a foot catalectic on the strong syllable. that is. first half of the verse is completed by a pause after the short final syllable of irapeSdiKar. was alternated with The earliest author of elegiac verse whom the ancient epic verse. 627. rhythm. and consequently that the strophic lines also must be compounded into one verse. ^jTjSeiror' a/z^>i\oyoi/s opyas a/aJpeara re veurij. -'^^-vw-'^.153 dactyl. thiae's edition. in the first part. But although one of the elements of the Dorian rhythm is the original element of the hexameter. the improvement which Porson supposed himself to have made in this particular instance. the introduction of the elegiac verse.

233 Q. 151. The effect even to modern ears is monotonous . and Thiersch. so that the first half of each is exactly the same as the first half of the elegiac lines. 388. 898 . O. A. which is very alien from the orIn this monody all the hexameter lines dinary forms of tragedy. o Be finXa >. \ and ey yaty KaTeirrjKro. 424. B. Thus in II. 285. A. while the parts in the elegiac verse were closed by catalectic feet. 848 V. vv. In the Andromache of Euripides. Examples of this hiatus are to be found in II. there are so many instances of hiatus which cannot be got over. then we perceive their affinity. 376 . and the fragments of Tyrtaeus. 821. and this apology I conceive to be the fact.569 . n. 47. ev ' oitcy fj. jjrot 6 fiev dwpijKa. 283. .oipa. \ 'Ayaorpo^ov lydipoio. that the parts in the epic verse were closed by catalectic feet. in the fact. that when the verse is divided by the feminine caesura of a dactyl in the third place. . But if we conceive both alike to be made up of two parts. catalectic on the strong syllable . and I think that this construction is evidence that Euripides was not a master of his metre. progress of etymological knowledge. Qavurov. in the feminine able. . 270. In the extant fragment of Callinus. Kt-^ev COVKUV OKOVTWV Call. 57. 247. Some have been removed in other ways. S8. 402.Su ye\a<rffas. (See Heyne. has enabled us to remove most of the apparent hiatuses in other parts of the line. . vv. H. 373. 447 . which would not be tolerable under other circumstances. 412 . Gr. XI. there is often an hiatus at the division of the line. In some circumstances it has been shown that a hiatus was probably allowBut in this particular division of the line. 697 . 373 and 378. There is an important indication that the hexameter verse was originally composed of two distinct parts. lectic the hexameter verses have most commonly the feminine caesura. that the parts of the verse were originally distinct. 209. T. 3. cataou the weak syllable. 479 I.154 were led to altercate the one with the other. 1316. 154. Excursus on II.) This is not intended for a complete list. without exception have the masculine caesura . 565. 310 K. . caesura of the third foot. O. 637. and are conscious how the elegiac was a fitting accompaniment and complement of the epic. E. that there is a strong presumption that there was a special apology for them. thus: ov yap KUS Bt'trarov ye tyvyei di'dp'. 426 343. The 9. Gr. 256. A.Ki ^rjioTrj^a \ fyvywv | KCLI ep^erat. which justifies us in restoring to many words a lost initial vau or a lost initial sigma. 731. b. 285. an elegiac monody of fourteen 103-116). 378. 63. we have lines is introduced (vv. 88. and differing only in this. of this hiatus. and might be considered even as two distinct verses. oi/o' ei irpoyovwv y yeros u | \ iru\\a. but is large enough to show the frequency . N.

XX. The peculiar augment of the aorist eTXoi'. two are slightly corrupt. But of the seventeen lines there first . at least in some circumstances . But as the verb eXetv had undoubtedly lost the consonant in the Homeric language. and found that the restitution of the digamma was not absolutely a panacea. J ejuoi iroftirtjas oiraeit>. and the Homeric form y^j TO. he ventured on the speculation that /ucou and fieol might be legitimate forms of the genitive and dative cases of the then the hiatus in the for writing argument personal pronoun. 4. as well as ifiov and epoi and that the corresponding possessive pronoun might be peos. are considered sufficient to establish the principle. anciently began with one or more consonants. Ka\\ety(i>. fourteen present the words epov. or ifios. But the conclusion which has been drawn from these three lines II. are arguments that the root eX. there is no presumption that the noun eXwp still retained it. v. fipudiv' avTOvs $k eXwptu Tev% Kvveoolv. which seems to have been tolerated. 165. /UT/TTWS juoi eXwpo Mevotrta^ew cnroriffy. apyaXeov irpo fyofloio <?Xwp Sq'ioiffi XtTroiev. npiafJLlSrj. for instance. that the occurrence of a hiatus before certain words at this point is not a sufficient ground for supposing them to have lost an initial consonant. and was yeX or yFeX. the metrical eXwp with a vau becomes very weak. P. 93. viz. then it will follow of course. as. 667.155 If the number of examples. E. Evpv/zax'. When Bentley was intent upon removing all hiatus from Homeric verse. Of the other three. with an hiatus before them in that part of the line. unless the examples of the hiatus are both uniform and numerous. It is true that with regard to this particular word other arguments may be brought. the word H\wp. like the Latin meus. These few instances will serve to show that the metrical question which I have raised is not without some bearing upon etymological iTCLTpl | epy n/XjY' o cP awr* e/jot researches. eXwp dXXoiai yevrjrai. These are commonly included in the lists of Homeric words beginning with the vau or digamma. take. ia opposed by the following passages II. Take. /e eAwp bartunttv caaps. p>} 2. which I think that Od. 364 I have shown it to be admissible . and the remaining one presents an hiatus of the in the dative singular. and the probability of the cause assigned. and the cognate words eXwpta and e'/Wpa. 684. : S. If 208. in fj. Donaldson has adopted this hypothesis in the 'New Cratylus. and have been emended by recent editors . Dr. XXIII. ourt a avwya. as well as cpus. 164. II. that a hiatus was tolerated in this division of the verse . first three lines be admissible.ol. for example.' pp. IlarpoicXoto 3' Od. 278 : eyyvaXi&v. upon the strength of the following lines : A. It may confirm the view which I have taken of the original com- . cited in support of this opinion.

And I in | Cowper : am m6narch of the J centre brute. and of Cowper's Poem on Alexander Selkirk.156 posite construction of the hexameter verse. 60). is regular time of the same number then the spondees ought to have the quantity of the second syllable . that the tendency of English rhythm is to terminate with a strong syllable. is the metre of Shenstone's Pastoral Ballad. so that in our rhyming verse a double rhyme is comparatively rare then we shall see that the English metre which legitimately corresponds to the Greek hexameter. And if it be not possible to maintain this equable rhythm. that rarely preserved. the dactylic and trochaic. and that those rhythms which begin with a weak syllable. and it seems to have escaped their notice. In English pronunciation . has been little used in English poetry. lines are much more rhythmical and musical than the greater number of professed hexameters which have been poured out upon our sufThe cause of this is. the feet are all dactyls and at the break the pause supplies the defect of a syllable. she will say 'twas a barbarous j deed. No. my right there is to the sea I am lord of the f6wl and the | | | | j But the two hexameters broken up into four verses in English versification are considered as and the division. that it already exists in our language. or if it become monotonous. iii. syllabic quantity is so imperfectly marked and distinguished (as I have explained at large in another paper. with only such modifications as the genius of English versification requires. or rather of anapaestic verse. unless all the feet of a verse consist of syllables. Otherwise the verses are hexameters . is invariably and necessarily at that point which I have indicated as the original point of division in the composite . Instead of beginning. began with a strong syllable. : : : I have } | found out a | gift for my fair | . the anapaestic and iambic. if we consider that the corresponding English metre is uniformly divided in a similar manner. in anacrusi. or syllables. the lines end on a strong syllable. vol. and prefix the weak syllable. Consequently the best English hexameters are those which are purely dactylic. to the beginning of the rhythm. If we bear in mind that the primitive Greek rhythms. as in Greek. with a strong syllable. Greek verse. I have | | found where the | wood] pigeons | bree'd: But let me that | plunder for|bear . | all I j From all | round t)6ne to disjpute : sur|vey. The writers of English hexameters have commonly apologized for their metre as a novelty in English rhythm . and is not well suited to elevated and serious But I have no hesitation in affirming that Shenstone's subjects. and sprang out of the earlier forms while the natural movement of English verse is to begin with a weak syllable and if we bear in mind. break of the double lines. moreover. This species of dactylic. except that it falls after a strong syllable. except sometimes at the fering ears. and ending with a foot catalectic on a weak syllable. were later in their origin. that.

and which makes it a fundamental error to suppose that in translating Greek poetry we ought to preserve the forms of Greek metre. to recite in such a manner as to make the time of the one accented syllable really equal the time of the two unaccented syllables. Few and short were the prayers we And we spoke not a word of sorrow . which were in triple time . III. in the car. 234-237. than ordinary English versification. I see whom But most writers of English hexameters give us disyllabic feet. the long syllable being equivalent to two short. : Clearly the rest I behold of the dark-eyed sons of Achaia . Kastor. vv. and where the solemnity of the sentiment allowed the voice to dwell upon sible. the accented syllables. This might be done with some passages of Campbell's Lochiel. remain. so that the line is not divided into equal portions. and musical time is utterly lost. The trisyllabic feet run and triple time is much les far more naturally into triple time fitted than common time to be the vehicle of what is serious. and would soon become monotonous and wearisome. . said. posed of disyllabic feet. it was the metres comTriple Time. the trochaic and iambic verse. as in the lines. But English measures composed of trisyllabic feet run almost unavoidably into In Greek. solemn. or with Wolfe's Burial of Sir John Moore. There is an incongruity which lies deeper than any which we have yet mentioned. where English anapaestic verse was skilfully constructed. on the other hand. In Greek dactylic or anapaestic verse the weak part of the foot is equal in time to the strong part. which are mere trochees . But such a mode of recital would savour 'of affectation. But even if English dactylic or anapaestic verses were constructed purely of trisyllabic feet. lost labour to attempt to naturalize in English other forms of ancient metre. fleet not among the commanders . still such verses would not adequately represent Greek dactylic or anapaestic verse. Known to me well are the faces of all . and majestic. or else a distinct pause in the sense ought to supply the defective time as in the following lines . either for the purposes of translation or for original com- position. thought on the morrow. so that equable time should be preserved according to the requirement of English rhythm.157 strongly marked. It would be postrochaic and iambic verses are in common time. and the metre was in Common Time. B. which falls I that it is by English dactylic verse and in like manner suspect . brave with the cestus. But we steadfastly And we bitterly gazed on the fSce of the dead. the two short syllables to the one long . . For these reasons I believe that the sustained dignity of Greek epic narrative is better represented by some form of our into common time. Iliad. Polydeukes. and But our either trochee or iambus being resolvable into a tribrach. their names I remember : Two two only.


120. and qualified manner. The vast extent of time over which the compositions of authors we esteem classical. we find poetic forms). The following works were presented by Thomas Watts. There are several branches of inquiry which still continue open to the diligent investigator. On this topic we ask. 1852.irKrarov. however. (See Suidas. v. and aval-. No. at least in the active and middle. was appropriated to prose. they are the representatives of very similar ideas they are both very common in Homer. Again. both aireKTeiva and a. whose valuable work upon Homer. that at this day our lexicographers have not got many bestows its chief attention steps beyond Passow. V. fia<ri\evs On the Greek Middle Verb. It is true that many of these distinctions are very obvious . I propose to x . the lexicographer does not venture (the to lay it down for us that the former . naturally gives rise to perplexing varieties in the vocabulary and structure. APRIL Professor 2. but one aorist same is probably true of the passive.) The fact is. are spread. yet many also might easily escape notice : and dictionaries. VOL. so. if we exclude archaic and But when. aid from our lexicons in vain. it is a maxim known more from observation than from written instruction. VOL. Stein thai of the University of Berlin and " A Glossary of Words in the Language of the Yule : ." A " paper was then read the Rev. in contravention of that usage. we discover that the word Ka. Esq. Greek render a tolerable acquisition of the language a complex instead of a simple task. that is. latter belongs to poetry obtain it . the though this observation has at least a great show of verisimilitude about it. Between the easy license of Homeric verse and the measured exactness of the periods of Demosthenes how wide is the distance ! Yet our lexicons and grammars are as yet mostly dumb upon the more detailed distinctions which separate poetic from prosaic usage." By The numerous idioms and dialects of the . KEY in the Chair. was a favourite expression of the prose author Xenophon. that a Greek verb has. ought to give all the information upon Thus flaatXevs and a a are synthese points which is to be had. onyms . which are intended to supply our defects in erudition. and it appears that in later times (with exception of the title of the Dioscuri).TeKavnt> t which wears a very poetical aspect.PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY. became poetic. O. is regular in Attic prose. and Attic from Homeric Greek. On the present occasion. Where it comes traditionally we do is therefore worth giving. Cockayne. for example. Indians. " Der Ursprung der Sprache. and is either true altogether or in a Knowledge of this sort is worth receiving." by Dr.

i. dolore afficere opeyetv. the middle. deal with '. refrain. adopt. . of intermediate agency. eiv. "laraoQai. send <popeiv. march. faireadai. attach. .wpeiaQa. fear. iroielv. Koipdadat. redeem. mortgage. K\ripwaat. ducere write y(jd<j>eiv. stare. K\TjpwfatrOat. claim. be in love with. and builds. appetere. Thirdly. appear. aTror ipfjaai. lull At/Treir. KOLrdeadat. meum est. take security. avenge say deceive take vengeance. porrigere jropeveiv. stop areXXetr. quod or the like : dpvveiv.p. aVo0r//erao-0cu. dolere. hypothecate diroTipiiaaattai. experiri. verdrre^effdai. acquire. <j>pde(rQa. suggestive than as complete. feel shame. eireiye/rOai. add irpoairoieiaQai. deadai it*. eireaQai. nubere. alaxyveadat. bewail. make '. frighten ^atVetv. allot loose XvaaaOm. show (in light) 0TAAe<r0cu. convey opeyeaQai. equip. ruTrrojucu. eyyvdaQai. follow.. \^evleadai.160 commence.i.vr)aKfoQa. buy by weight. facere ut alius verberet : diroffTTJaai.).1. consider. consider. iroieiotiai. 7rave<r0cu. confiscate. . upon the old treatise of Kuster. forget. of course. urge. urgere statuere chop. lie. SuveioaaOai. Kaieadai. to make signal airoaqnt'ivafftiai. festinare. quit. rip. ^o/SeTorOat. . restrain .. go bail. a Table of those Middle Verbs which in one way or other so vary their signification. XarQdveaQai. iroieladat. defend. that in other languages but Greek they must be expressed by words which The paper is meant more as are not the equivalents of the actives.. Take. lend on goods. make. disgrace eyyvdv. cease. secondly. . tentare TTOielv. KoirreaQai. remind remember. Xvireladui. . by weight . dva. beat i. Travetv. by way of moving the subject. Sarelaat.iii. borrow. lie hid iretpd)-. ya/jeltrtiai. burn put to bed . Kopeveadat. indict. the collateral reflex verbero mihi. lend flelvai \)TfoQiiKT]v. sleep. . sell dTroffr] pat veil'. ward off Xavddveiv. me . go to bed. pawn ypdyevOai.. dpvreadai.go(dulyaccompanied). To bero take : first those which exhibit the direct reflex. impledge e7retv(in comp. . uxorem yaueu'. ireipdvQai. elv.

....... irepaiaxTaodai.. Tvirrevdat.. OTrXiffafrOai.... vd^aaQai. make truce.. irXavdaOai.. jjera/3aX\6(T0a(.. this has not been noticed . punish.. v. plan. The usual significations have been chosen . . N viroKpiveavai. Xovaaadai.... / judge a:\ haXeyeaOcu. pay. Thus we say. Kadi^etrdat. plot . ^qtyifeerdai. lend... Mera/3a\Xeiv.ecrdat.. ct7roff0aaa0at... .... how many more verbs are incapable of any form but the active ? Especially in the immediate reflexive signification it would not be unworthy of an industrious scholar to give us a list of such as can. rrt.. (ftvXdrrcffOat. a. alternate flovXevetv. ..TTiv. go to law.. Qvaai and OvffaaOat..... ....... pour . dirdy^aaQai. Fourthly. wager. answer. yeueodai... ..... dfi- Triar^eadai.. Kpiveadai. it is probable that the active vocable has occasionally borrowed a new signification from its own derivative. aironvrreffdai.. . enjoy. .. as TTUS other. and e^ifjieOiei>ai intransitively and p.. / -ft. dt'cnraveadai....... e'utppaiveardai... i. . ct7ro<70dui eavrov. the object has been to develope strongly and exemplify the significations of the middle voice .. since from the laxity and audacity of the Greek language. participate in.. aTre^ecrdai.. Xvirreadai. xpi'iiraadai. seem to be used one as often as the And e\u intransitively with an adverb is used in a middle sense.. Kpepuadai.. diroKptveodai. In this list. ayeaQai yvvaiKa....... To all the significations belongs the question what verbs are excluded. diroKrelvai eavrpv. give oracle ... or It might be more difficult to reduce the second class to rule. vote... speak select 1 .. .... Kpirciv. also inhabit... and not aTroKreiVaaflcu. . diro^/i'iffaaOai. . The Greeks said irrijffai or aTt^aaaQai rpoTrcuov. .. count .161 i.aoOai t d^<j>i(3a\\. . *.. act (in a play). elff/3d\XeaOai being possible... is made intransitive by an ellipsis.. .. /.. interchange ....... comment vons portez vous ? * Ei<r/3d\\6tv but unusual. rd^atrdai... such verbs as are reciprocal..... and yet can say iSeydat or Kpv\^affdat......... ireptSoadat. and of such as cannot assume the middle form..TTO[Ji6pE.. fyepeaOat. and if the active does sometimes come nearer to the sense of the middle. leaving its reference to the active unexamined.. xpi'iaaarOai... be reconciled... deliberate. If we cannot say -^alpecrdai. consult oracle... t.. fjLitrddjffaadai. let ...eQiiaQai. TrapaffKeva^etrOai.... TiauaOdt.. hire. d/^Kpiecraadni.... give . (silt on). < . verbero atque invicem verieror : ttueffkt.. answer.. (sift). borrow. but on the contrary we must say... ycuJvcu envroy. separate f I t distribute .. 'xpiaaadat .... a'juet/3e<r0at... converse.. fiovXeveadat. except in classifying. ^taX\drre(rOat... .. $ta\\a. Zovvai eavrov..

anov&is iroielffdai. 54. of form. . but Achilles Thus in Xen. A. office . but eiriKripviceveadat of the belligerents. Passow treats the middle as to call to oneself. we have diroypd-^aatiai. and reciprocals belong e<r0eu. eTriSiKdvaffdcn. More diligent examination of the language would produce other instances . : KaXew. from signification Thus o/ioXoyeiV. etc. In the third category. pivyeadat (in re obscena). undertake a payment (^opov T(iavTo KO. that of agency. both arpureveii' and arrpareveffQcu evdvfje'iaOat (the active of which is almost a nullity) and eTridvpeiv .I %<3pa eVe/ijrov). c?ta'a<70cu (TrulSas). rda<r0ai. to many deponents. the evidence is all in favour of KaXeo-curo. of an affair given up . but in 2ev0?js. the agency of a Kovpevs may be implied. /iera/3aXXe<70cu. and p. cifuXXdo-flcu. of a capitulation. . to con- A tend with a rival for excellence. claim by process of law (or otherwise) . Kov$v\ova&(u. tvavTiovaQai. Kotvo\oyeiaQa. d^wo-ao-flou. Anab. send for).aprvpeada. but Xe7T7oXoye?<T0cu. to scold. Thus KrjpvKeveiy is the office of the herald. such as i^e<r0ai for iSelf.rt delirvov KoXeo-at-o In the former of these passages the readings vary. Kuster specifies with laudable ingenuity XotdopeTj'. dicpifloXoyeladai. if my memoranda deceive me not. iii. StKatoXoyelv. to wrangle. TcpoairTvaaeaQai.iv is . oro)a'e<T0cu . fJid^effOai. the latter. eKTrocJwv 7roi/. ecu eiceivovs KaXeaai (arcesse. but Certain anomalies are not unfrequent : . VII. etc. olfjiai .of hindrances and the like . 18. get enrolled. to scold one who scolds in return.<7aff0ai. It is not unlikely that usage has sometimes so . of the arrangement of affairs. we might have reand XoiSupe'ioOai.i. and irpoKTjpvKevetrdai of the go- vernment. of enmity. and &<i>p'ieiv . the true sense appears to be. 30. TrXjjcr/^effSat. . ferred to this carelessness Xoidopelv herd belong the Homeric orw and the Attic d^iKvelaQai. of expressions in which usage supports with preponderant weight the application of the middle vrpoeffdat. is seen in /uaprupijtrcu. and SiapiffTeveffOai. To the same and Deponents appear oftener middles than passives and deserve some classification. el ovv ftovXet Triarorepav eivcu Ttjv irpaZiv. to excel. SiaOeaOai. and VII. the last rarer in the active sometimes Svawvely. and were it not that the distinction drawn by Kuster delicately fine. The same distinction. ii. and . 6iw as also the poetic forms. that the KijpvKes ocdXeeray. but also eK^ovat. Seiov<j6at.1.162 There is however a long list loaQat OvyaTepa. epevyeadai. yet the active is in another form always oio/ioXoyeI<r0eu. thus in avdi)v & Under direkelparo -^airrfv. good illustration is found in dpivreveiv. 717 detcdTr) 3' dyopt'iv^e naXearaaTO \aov 'A^eXXevs. eK^MpieveaOai . invoke witness. get taught. requires two parties agreeing usual though we also have o/uoXoyet<r6/a. accompanied by a slight difference to bear witness. wore e. d-irodeffOai. dywrldKpofio\iea6ai (which has an active). as dffirdeaQai . To Xoitiopeladai. but always djveladm evoro^eFr. of enemies and dangers . Instances are not rare in which verbs which seem to demand a middle form are found in the active. and quotes But Iliad. anger. but epvyydve. Karadecrdai. thus we have SiKoXoyeir. of garments . acting through them eicaXe<7aro.

: Thus dypotKeveadat. yet used of uttering obscure language. as i&wevety. I adventure one. Xarpeveiv.eveffda.1G3 far favoured the middle form as to render the active obsolete. assume airs of greatness. to be self-willed. be immoral. play at riddles.^to be debauched. live expensively. Kopie<rdai. . dypoticifeadai. avOadieffdat. behave like a little miss. To any one who would examine the whole subject of deponents. t. a\novev'e<70ai. nVwreve<70at. i. as probably in tdvlatreffdai. be of a go-a-head character. KaxorjOeveffQai. play the harlot. act the eipwi>. play the mountebank. observations of value would occur. a\L/t\eveoQai. Kopit'dideorQat. which is not reciprocal. probably of no value that many verbs of behaviour assume by preference the middle form. fipevQveffdat. play the simpleton.1. etc. in the reciprocal sense. similar ideas are often ex- Yet to mock our attempts pressed by the active form. irafj. at analysis. play the arrogant. behave as a rustic. /ueyaXo7rp7T6ueor0at. -eirOat and -evevdat. play the young man.


a bird distinguished by its length of beak. V. E. No. To the G. a beak. E. snoppa. with various consonantal On Words paper was read formed from the Roots Wedgwood. sznurksle. defluxio capitis ad nares (Kil. or of the different functions in which it performs a prominent part the terms in the Teutonic stock being founded for the most part on the articulation SNU.). T . renifler (with a loss of the initial s). snyfta. snuffen. snor. R. The root is exhibited in its simplest form in the Dan. 23. and in the Celtic and classical upon the articulation MU. Sw. the snout. A " Smu and Snu imitative of Sounds made by Breathing or Blowing through the Nose. snukkis. schnauben. nares. to inhale through the nose. The imitation of sounds made by through the nose has given rise to . as snoozing in E. snipe. snokta. schnauben. The adoption of a labial termination gives the G. the nose or face. to speak through the nose. . must be referred the G. snocken. schnaufen often with a special reference to the sense of smell . To this form of the root also belongs the P1. . catarrhus. the mucus of the nose Lat. . snue. Fr. snaw. snapas. to snore.PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY.. Lith. nifler.-D. a snout or muzzle. to snift . snoffen. 121. to sob . to snvff or sniff. snavel. the organ in which the nostrils are placed. The Prov.-D.-G. Dan. In snift and the frequen. The guttural termination gives us Du. snuffle. on the other hand. a snout. muzzle. rheuma. and as VOL. snabbe or snebbe. v. Sw. or perhaps more properly SMU. to lie lurking for a thing' (Bailey) . to scent. to snuff or draw the breath strongly through the nose and as there is a tendency to breathe through the nose in sleep. Lith.-Du. now a beak. Isl. n'ubb. APRIL Dr. to snook. E. snore and snort pass into each other. and in Du. to snuff." By H. Esq. ' . endings. to slumbering or sleeping at irregular hours. schnaupe. snorka. Lith. sznoksti.-D. tatives to snivel and snifter. but in all probability (as it is ludicrously applied to the human face) originally a snout the O. the nostrils . ntif. 1852. I. of the moisture which it secretes. to wheeze . the simple snof or snuf. The terminations r. The Sw. schnabel. snovle. Hence the substantive snivel. snofel. neb. is used in the sense of sobbing. as the Du. Sw. snuven. snofla. G. bring us to E. the term is familiarly applied. sznuboti. VOL. Lith. A. schnieben. Sc. Pl. . snoka. the snout of a beast Sw. LATHAM in the Chair. s and t are closely connected with and readily With the former we have E. inhaling or exspiring strongly a numerous class of words used as the designation of that organ. and Lith. Sw. the term is applied to snuffing up the mucous secretion. P1. nocken . to snore.-S.

to sneeze. strepitu narium flocfivffffo) cifacio. schneutzen. . The G. niesen. sneeze. may be compared with the Sw. . moucher. and Lith. . and thence the name has been ex- tended to the disagreeable taste and smell by which objects deteriorated are distinguished. a pocket handkerchief. to wipe the nose.-S. The analogy between the accumulation of mucus stopping up the passages of the nose. The syllable pv in Greek is used to represent the inarticulate sound uttered by one in grief. smuig. to utter such a sound. apparently the immediate parent of the O. snytan. to snite or clear the nose from moisture (by blowing strongly through it) E. mucus and its descendants with the series founded on the articulation snu is well illustrated by the Gael. snoppa.-G. G. introduces us to a new series. quendam ex naribus sonum emitto. clausis labris . has universally caused the cleansing of the wick to be called by the name applicable in the first instance to the act of blowing the nose. a speaking through the nose smug. smucail. which seems only a modification of smug. as the mould or moss which gathers on things kept too long or left unattended to. nasus. Dan. and the like analogy has apparently in other cases supplied a designation for the growths. musg. to slumber (like the Dan. to blow the nose. mucketer or muckender. The terminal s gives Dan. by which objects are rendered unfit for their proper functions. . like the Fr. . and G. smuc. to sneer is to speak maliciously. ground tobacco Lith. whence //vw. the moisture of the nose mungere or emungere. mocadero. with a nasal tone. snypti. a snivel. are applied both to blowing the nose and snuffing a candle. snuffle. snooze. schnautze. moucher. a nasal sound (Shaw) smugadair. snusti and E. to snift. a beast. en-t/^vrrw. mucus moccolaja. for the spasmodic expulsion of through the nostrils. snue above-men.166 snuffing the air is the natural expression of anger and ill temper. phlegm. snuff. to snuff. snuff of a candle Fr. to snuff a candle. snort A. . With a terminal t we have Gael. The connexion of the Lat. have seen how universally an analogy has been felt between the dirt accumulating in the nose. The Prov. . the nose. Thus we speak in E. to blow the nose or snuff a candle Sp. phlegm. E. and the soot which chokes the wick of a candle. . the muzzle of ." to snift. The loss of the initial s gives the Lat. snus and Sc. . to suck a sound made through the nose as in sucking or groaning or PVTTW. a snore. snuffling. Sw. to smell. . to snuff up the air . snout. explaining the vulgar E. . sc . ' pvyjjios. the mucus of the nose HVKTT)P or ffpvKTr)p. . . schnaupen. Polish nos. tioned) air E. to snore Dan. From mucus are descended the It. snuse.-E. /IVKJ/S. nose. also a snout or face. and the growth of soot which dims the flame of a candle. of snuffing the candle. saliva muckender or handkerchief. moccio. to blow the nose . sneeshin. The Gael. dirt. mug in the same sense. to snuff at one pva. has mucus or mucous. airo/jiv&a. We arising from neglect. snusa. snout or nostrils . The Lat. the snuff of a lamp. snyde. snot.

musgad. . the cryptogamous growth on decaying provisions. or from a cognate Celtic root still represented by the W. mullen and mouldy to the actual growth of fungus. to be mouldy or musty. appears in the Dan. and mucor. moss. as well as rheumy. is applied only to the taste and smell. rotten.-Sw. mouldy. cumbers neglected provisions. decayed.-E. mucere. faded. musty. vapid. muggen and Prov. mozir. moskered. musk. Prov. mould. mucere. mucor. . In like manner from Lat. mould musken. mucus. mosgain. mosach. but only to the disagreeable taste and smell by which it is accompanied.. connecting the Gael. mucus are formed mucere. and of mould or the like upon decaying organized matter. moggot are connected by the Hambro' muchlich with the G.VKT)S in Gr. to become mouldy or musty Catalon. P. musg is used to express the rheum or mucous secretion of the eyes. which cannot easily be brought in direct connexion with the Lat. moisir. mould. mould.-Dan. which is never applied to the actual growth of mould. musg with Lat. and the Sw. filthy from whence we appear to have our musty. mouldy. mofo. mws. both for the snuff of a candle and the mushroom tribe. Port. It is remarkable that the Dan. like E. stinking. the growth on decaying trees. musty. muscus. The Sp. is witnessed by the use of the term fungus in Lat. musty. But musg is also used in the sense of growing mouldy or musty .. mul and E. moho. are directly descended from the Lat. may . The same articulation which lies at the root of the Lat. It W. mould showing apparently that the guttural has been lost from the middle of the Dan. Sp. and thus bring us round to the It. musty Gael. mouldy. muffa. mogel. . moho is used both for mould. mouldy N. nasty. mustich. to which the term smug itself is also applied. musty. the growth which en. .167 The Gael. muggen. rank. muggen. E. as mucus the nose. The analogy between the growth of soot upon the wick of a candle. musty. perhaps be doubted whether the Prov. rotten. . Fr. The Dan. muffig. and for moss. mwswg.


in the Chair. by any one who has careauthorities we fully considered Bede's VOL. have been paralleled by similar speculations with respect to the origin and nature of our own race and language.PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY. It can hardly be doubted. will see difficulty. modern writers of eminence have drawn conclusions with respect to the origin of the people who spoke that language. from what was considered to be the composite character of their language. and in its vocabulary and structure presents only remote affinities with that great family of languages to which alike the Celtic and the German dialects belong. prior to Guest. The inferences which were drawn as to the composite character of the Roman people. while every modern philologist knows that the Estish is one of the Finnish dialects. or at any rate uncertainty. Tacitus hesitated to consider the vEstii of the Baltic as Germans. Esq. as is little likely to recommend it even to uncritical readers. because their language approximated to the British. from certain characteristics of the Latin. The inquirer. VOL. shall find almost every fact which presents itself opposed to such a conclusion. and which even scholars have received as acknowledged truths. That the English are essentially a mixed race half Celtic and half German has been asserted so often and so positively." By Edwin knowledge. that when Aui . 7. which the best philologists of the present day It is true the theory has been lately again agree in repudiating. V. 1852. brought forward. and it may be prudent to disclaim pretensions which are liable to serious question. which no philologist of the present day could advance without injury to his reputation. adopted by our Ancestors.. that it almost requires some moral courage to oppose the current of upon this subject. The " following paper was read certain Foreign On Terms. y. But it may be doubted whether ethnography has hitherto profited as largely by the labours of the philologist as is sometimes asserted. account of the transaction. 122. No speculations connected with the study of philology have attracted more general notice than those which relate to the origin and affinity of races. but with such an evident want of philological their settlement in the British Islands. in many conclusions which philology is supposed to sanction. if we consider how many eminent men have committed themselves to opinions and statements on matters connected with ethnography. Yet if we examine our early history. The hazardous nature of these speculations will become apparent. who has learnt caution by experience. No. Again. MAY RICHAHD TAYLOR. Esq.

Indeed the almost exclusive reliance which the advocates of the opposite theory place on philological arguments. prevented such gross anachronisms as these. in short. see small bodies of strangers establishing themselves on different points of the coast. We numerous localities along the frontiers of Wales. but more generally (as at Oswestry) a brook. being the line of demarcation. The hypothesis which would derive these synonyms from some remote and common origin confessedly fails in the majority of instances. The usual mode of applying philology to this question has been to adduce a list of Welsh words which agree more or less closely synonyms in our own language. of late. . If we trace the growth and history of the different English settlements. where the intrusion of a foreign heathen element among a civilized and Christian people has extinguished their Christianity and as Christianity and heathendom seem to have been respectively conterminous with the Welsh and English races. the two races are found in day. we have no reason for supposing that at that period Kent contained a single Christian. If we except the immediate attendants on the queen. It has been maintained. terms which had been borrowed from the Breton by the Romance of Oil during the tenth and eleventh centuries. are too unqualified." and west of it were latter further westward. behind the Tamar. we are led to the same conclusions with respect to the nature and character of . So great was the ignorance on philological subjects which prevailed in this country some twenty or thirty years ago. that a large proportion of the words so adduced had been only known to our language since the Norman conquest they were. is a virtual admission that they can derive little or no aid from history. that our earlier dialect contained no admixture of any Celtic dialect a misstatement which was not likely to escape the notice of such men as Garnett and Kemble. the Exe was the south-western boundary of Wessex. East of this river were " En" Welshmen. and in the district west of this river their descendants have continued to the present As a result of the same causes. their population.170 gustin landed in Kent. The greater extent to which Anglo-Saxon is now studied has. it must be confessed. Now it is believed there is no instance in history. in form with their . In the time of Ina. he found himself in the midst of a people who were altogether heathen. but seems also to have led to assertions which. gradually advancing their borders and slowly driving the natives from river to river. it would follow that the English of that day were descended from an ancestry purely heathen. These facts seem to show a strong feeling of repulsion between the two races. for example. living in close sometimes a mounproximity. when Augustin charged the former with not imparting the blessings of Christianity to their neighbours." Athelstan drove the glishmen. Both these scholars have given lists of words used in the Anglo-Saxon which have counterparts in the Welsh. but still most distinctly separated tain. and go far to negative the hypothesis of any extensive amalgamation. and subsequently brought into this country by the Normans. and after protracted and bloody wars.

c. Besides the German tribes which settled west of the river. The account which Tacitus gives us of their agriculture shows a very imperfect state of civilization : et superest ager. have all a a tendency to bring in new terms. mente animoque nobiscum rentiam. . it was impossible that such a barrier as the Rhine could long prevent the improvements in social life from passing further onwards. it may be observed that there may easily be a great importation of words from one language into another. agunt. Our inquiry therefore takes the shape Did any of these influences act upon the language of our ancestors sufficiently to account for the introduction of the terms in question ? It is clear. beorhta beaga . without there being any intermixture of the two races. the Germans were living in a state of comparative rudeness. and the civilization of Rome was brought to the frontiers of Germany. In the first place.It is clear that a large number of the terms in question must have been introduced into the Anglo-Saxon from a foreign source. mon-cynnes mine gefraege leohteste bond lofes to wyrcenne heortan unhneaweste hringa gedales . we are expressly told there were others to the east of it who were submissive to Roman influence : Protulit enim magniEst in eodem obsequio et Mattiacorum gens. When Gaul was made a province. . . the opening of new sources of commerce. digerunt species Arva per annos mutant. . mid aelfwine . The circumstances under which the introduction took place. c. of was in Italy with ^Elfwine all mankind. . it is not altogether easy to say. Germ. 29. nee enim cum ubertate et amplitudine soli labore contendunt. 26. z 2 . and the various influences which a superior civilization exercises over the less favoured races in its neighbourhood. . Likewise I He had. though probably unattended with any considerable admixture of a new population. from the accounts of Caesar and of Tacitus. tude populi Romani ultra Rhenum. Sola terne seges imperatur. ultraque veteres terminos imperii reveIta sede fiuibusque in sua ripa. it will be the object of this and of some following papers to investigate. The introduction of new religion into a country. Unde annum quoque ipsum non in totidem hiems et ver et eestas intellectum ac vocabula habent. Germ. The intercourse which took place between the Gauls and their German neighbours must have had a constant tendency to raise the To what standard and to widen the area of German civilization. that immediately before and immediately after the Christian sera. extent our own and other remote tribes partook of this advancement. et hortos rigent. The writer of the Gleeman's Song represents himself as having accompanied the son of bis early patron into Italy: swilce ic waes on eatule se hsefde . to my mind. beam eadwines . autumni perinde uomen ac bona ignorantur. ut pomaria conserant.

it may be inferred that a German prince. their starting with the hypothesis that the Germans received knowledge of Roman civilization chiefly through the medium of the Gauls. and as the verb debenn-a means to lop. in the time of Tacitus. long before he was able to make out the first element of the compound harv-est. Germ.172 Hand Heart most And the readiest in earning of praise. who. In the Breton the substantive ' est or eost (which is clearly a corruption of Augustus) signifies both There is harvest and autumn.' also a Breton compound debenn-eost. were compounds ejusdem generis. is a corruption of the Latin Augustus. to top trees. . corn. was at this period in Italy. -Sax. Germans. and probably one of Alaric's officers at the conquest of Rome. A. in dealing out of rings.-Sax. were brought thus closely into contact with Roman civilization. " r interposito. so that the word might refer to the labours required Graff refers us to the Greek of the husbandman at that season. herbst. the importance of which had not sufficiently forced itself upon theii attention in the time of Tacitus. Ihre supposes that the Swedish host. We may upon harvest as a Celtic compound signifying thf corn-reaping. and the verb eost-a means to reap. which likewise signifies both harvest and autumn. . harvest. or his liberality could If the Myrgings hardly have found so large a scope for its exercise. and suggests that the A. whose country bordered on that of the ancient Engle. toil. may be the root of harvest." Adelung dismisses this etymology without ceremony. of no very great antiquity. had neither gardens nor orchards. verb Kapirau- Now. there is reason to believe. have been certainly less absurd. or not appreciated by. free. this element seems to have been long preserved in the Irish. and as having been borrowed by the Germans as soon as they felt the necessity of having a special name for the season. have been hardly more successful. nor even a name for Autumn. It would be a waste of time to notice herfst. yrfe. their immediate neighbours. this compound seems to allude to the operation of reaping That harv-est and debenn-eosi to the cutting off the ears of corn. we need not feel surprise if the word harvest should take the form of a Celtic compound. the writer was fully persuaded. as a word occurring therefore look in Irish MSS. Though now obsolete. Now latter half of the fourth and the beginning of the fifth century. though their attempts . A few centuries later they used the word harvest to designate this portion of the year hcerfest. and surmises that harvest may have been derived from host. the attempts which our English lexicographers have made to explain the etymology of this word and foreigners. Dutch . for Riley gives us arbha. were settled in the immediate neighbourhood of the continental Engle and as the Gleeman must have flourished during the . Eadwine's bairn ! bright beighs Eadwine was Lord of the Myrgings. One of the first steps in the path of social improvement would It has been seen that the naturally be an improved agriculture. we can hardly suppose that its advantages were unknown to.

mor-beam a mulberry. and the ard-r may have been a familiar name with them. at a time when the Romans and themselves were alike living in a state of social rudeness. it would seem they had neither green-crops nor cultivated fruits. however. ntepe a turnip. and which as certainly carried with it a Latin term into the German languages. should have been unacquainted with the names of these simple esculents... and the simple implement which in ancient times was used to turn up the surface of the ground may have been as At any rate. per a pear. He would regard as contemporaneous in origin the Latin verb ar-are and the A." knowledge of this luxury suppose was long confined to the neighbourhood of the river. cultural people. if they were not among the conquerors of Rome. ceirios cherries. cawl colewort. is well aware that caution is necessary in He knows how difficult it sometimes speculations of this nature. a product of the husbandman's labour as yet unnoticed. but they certainly were neither a stupid nor a barbarous people. The Germans are said to have drunk ale or beer for their ordinary beverage. must have been in closest connexion with those that were. that the Icelandic ard-r is merely a Gothicised form of the Latin The Gothic races were probably from the first an agriaratrum. fruits . There is. which was long preserved in our Old-English Nor does he see reason to believe dialect under the form to ear. also for the Latin names which fera. (pys Welsh). is to distinguish between terms which have come down contemporaneously in kindred dialects from a common source. requires an amount of scepticism which good sense will hardly sanction. agrestia poma. &c." to the and fruit-trees which at a later period they cultivated. Our pagan ancestors may have been a rude. &c. which our ancestors certainly borrowed from their neighbours. The writer. : We . we are prepared for the account which Tacitus gives us of their " cibi recens aut lac concretum diet : and simplices. and who. but we are told that those who " dwelt near the Gauls purchased wine proximi ripae et vinum that the cannot mercantur. they must have used some kind of plough long before the Romans approached their borders. however. The white crop Hence alone engaged their attention sola terra seges imperatur. and those which have been imported from the one language into the other. The same remarks seem also to apply to the names given by the Anglo-Saxons to the common culinary vegetables pysa a pea .173 As our ancestors had neither gardens nor orchards. make it further probable that the Latin forms came into the German dialects through a Celtic medium.tree. er-ian. The Anglo-Saxon peru a pear. were commonly given . early known to them as to the Greeks and Latins. To suppose that men who for two or three centuries had been in the habit of making incursions into the Roman provinces. &c. -Sax. The word was used in all the Gothic dialects at a period as early as our MS. have cognate terms in most of the other Gothic dialects and in all probability the Latin names were familiar to our The Welsh words ancestors long before their arrival in this island. eyrs-treow a cherry-tree.

The rude seamen who sailed from the mouth of the Elbe to " harry" the banks of the Seine or the Loire.174 authorities reach to . no doubt. as familiar to Hengist and Horsa.] . [To be continued. as to the Romanized Britons who invited them. when they landed in Thanet. must have been better acquainted with the Gaulish wines than were their descendants the stationary tribes centuries before the and comparatively peaceful colonists of the opposite coasts and the name was. and was probably known to all the German English settlement of Great Britain. .

The inscription : : : ffvXrjv TO. 123. 1850. dra ru e ras OlavBi^os fjirj^e -^pi'jfjiara a'i n avXw. At aSiKoavXy. CEkonomides so fur as to examine the text before proceeding to the interpretation.evos TW /caret TroXtv. differences back. e%6os Trpo&vat KCU Ft^to^eKt*. Tq. could not satisfactorily be reported without remark. e 6a\d(r\_ff]as K' &yev aavXor. ciyev e ras XoXei^os rbv QlavBea. and it will consequently be found that some measure of criticism accompanies a that : condensation of the readings of the publication OiKovofiidov.) The Accounts of the Society for the preceding year were presented by the Auditors. ijfjitoXiov o^Xerw Fon crvXaaat. allowing for one error of the pen. preserved in the museum of Mr." By the Rev. say what you will. A " paper was then read as follows : On a Lokrian Inscription. nXi]6vv be convenient to follow the order of M. It is found upon a plate of brass weighing about five and a half pounds English. . little room for variety of opinion there lies the record. double. Tj At ^/ev^ea Trpofcveoi. consisting of two paragraphs of a Convention between two small Lokrian states on the Korinthian Gulf. irevTeKa&eK av^tpas. Woodhouse at Corfu. No. SnrXe? ol Q(g>i]OT<i>.eviKa. KEY in the Chair. with a copy of the inscription itself. O. . iKa "XpiiffTia Twi' Trpo'tfvvv. 1852. The title AoKpiKrjs 'Avek'^orou 'ETnypa^/Js Atartwncrts VTTO 'Ei' is of his I. eTrwjLtoras eXeorw 6 %evos wiraywv rhv SiKav. TTOI TOV Faff[<r]ro' ^tKa^jjrai varas avrfioXbs. there is. would be acceptable to Members who cannot readily obtain access This paper. K o At Fa<rcrros avSpas. l A'i K uv^f^a^wvTi rot evo(5/Kai. was originally intended simto the library. TCTOpes Spa^/uat* TrXeov CK' ayuapdV eX P. Tws It may op KM floras TOV avrov opKOv Oj-ivvev. KepKupa. Johnson. 6 XaXeieus iv OiavQeq. of Eton. apierrivSat'' enl f*cv TCUS ert rats jueto'j'ots kvve /uratcit'ais icat ir\fov. and it was thought some account of the work. prjce TOV XaXetea Tov 3e avXtSfra. Cockayne. TJ 'QctuQevs ev XaXe/w. irXav at e XifJ. MAY Professor 21.TJVOS Al /ueraFotKeeu TrXeov T " ovXov. therefore. In merely reading off the letters. (Anniversary. eTTifiafjtiy. V. An essay on a recently discovered inscription was lately presented to the Society by W. to which you must come But even in an arena so small. Esq. arise it seems impossible to assent to all the readings of the editor. pointed out subsequently by himself TOV evov /j. He thus prints the text. ply as a report but some passages in the essay appearing defective. N. is first editor. of course.PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY.

S " scribebant brevitati infor Kara. cites from Hesychius. In the Elean inscription Trap TroXe^w is surely Compare . p. eras. He inscriptions. oieipus. and so on. Au AI. Compare orap). per OVK TTI. 22 poets which illustrates the subject. ra. allel : : .oi Biyijs. i. AAIKOSYAOI. he observes. p. ras. and Building upon the tradition of Hesychius. wiraipittKia. for Kttfaftait-ttv. The Elean inscription never writes the same letter twice together ours does we have ten instances in which the duplication would be possible or convenient and four examples of the same letter repeated. cards. Karrds. oropos. cddaXaaaas. which could be obtained from our text by reading the requisite letters twice. them Alkman. p. Here Kafiaiwv is kretics. he declines to admit the idea that this preposition recurring four times in the same shape can be an error of the workman and so far his conclusion appears just. which Hesychius explains to be CK daXaaarjs. having overlooked probably the remark of Boeckh above XAAEIAOS. A PAN for i/jucpwr. de Dial.ii p. tr-as. M. and hold of : = as dialectic varieties for iQQaXaaaas. The Delphic AIK. If our reading be constructed on this ponentes ut fit in Kcnrerov. however. frag. He finds the middle a and the spiritus lenis for the first time in this inscription." This hypothesis our editor has not noticed. as in BaXnaas. and in KUTUS for KUTTO. and u'picos for epicos in Alkman and Alkseus. and the single consonant prefers XaXet^os to XaXjjfdos. CEkonomides 2YAOI. etcXvatv. 725) steps in to deter he says.p. precedent. eXXuatv. Boeckh (Corpus Inscriptionum. raXXa TAA. first occurrence of the word : AM [Of this variation we may add as exrlpap. The single sigma he attributes to inattention . In the Elean inscription aXXi'iXots is written AAAAOiS. vol. A passage.176 Syev for ayeiv for the presence of the aspirate no parhas been produced only a very doubtful analogy is traced in The editor allows also that E for c/c is unprecedented i/yeiffflat. fluctuate between (TvXeia and vvXaw. Whether these letters are to be read twice. AioXiiaSs. but the feet are all necessary to the verse. The prefers to disunite at ira. . eXt^eVos. . the analogy of iepovvXeiv would lead him to expect &dun>ffvXe<V. cited. 6AAASAS. Thus HArEN. Greg.npyos $' "Epws ola irdls Trnia^et acp' err' : \ ' /3a/vw>'. 139). Doric a/zap. I have noticed but one passage in the : : . present letters which are to be read twice. Jam Bceoti us from considering this resource necessary eykTri(nv from longius proyressi dixerunt emruaiv (that is e^iraaiv * * Kairireffov deinde etiam simplex IT pro duplici Traopai) et eirafftv. Kpiyres. Payne Knight dulgebant et literas singulas irruiv. and (ye)ypa/i/uerj> FPAMENOI.iii. is a fj. or interpreted as double is a question not worth debating. we should get errdt. and HI A PON for 'lepw in inscriptions. Triaw for 7rtew. vol. eXXt^eVos. qui pro binis et duplici potentate prseditis tantum non in omnibus adhibuerunt. by two glosses he etc TWV. or rather the two inscriptions. iapov for iepbi'.229. It is however supported. and eXXifjei os. in this instance especially. It has been suggested that in numerous cases the inscription. amples "Aprapis for"A|orejuis (Koen. and orapos for ovetpos in Herotlian(apudCrameri Anekdota. we shall write eflaXacras.

ilboi: :!) I PA P OM OT>A j: -f- A/A /A OMOTACTO/V A V TO .Society Pel. f.


illustration of these changes. in inscriptions. entirely ignored the aspirate. the editor cites ofyovSvXos and airoi-- 2uXo$. yet the original score was at least sometimes Trap. and thinks the Doric contraction would be 1. 82. A FPATPA TOIP FAAEIO1S ?/ p'//rpa rots 'HXet'ois. to which the Lokrian is akin. yit'ot'Tai at yvtHp. %i\a fiiKUffTtipiov. expressly reads OIAN9EAIas OiavOly. <r^>oyyos and awoyyos.. a^eXis and oxeXts. frag. is hitherto known of Fooru written with the digamma. and he proceeds to conjecture that adevos is the root of forms . for though the editions of Alkacus and Sappho give ircp for vepl. p. EX00S for X J. HEAESTAl and that for In for eXtvOu. The grammarians say it was TT\TJOV to the yEolians and He also Dorians.%u for rpe^w is cited (ad Alkman. p. and Koen. he observes.MOTAS new. IIEAE2TO spiritus lenis.] No instance. yet in this case the question is. p. 123. the paroxytone accent being a variation by dialect. also eXe<rrcu for eXerflat. that till further evidence shall be produced. In OIAN0EYS he considers the article indispensable. XPHSTil for x/. whatever their dialect. but this unsustained assertion the editor rejects. writes Omi) like wj and Khaeroboskos dual like Tpwat. 138.o-0w and below FOTI. W7rdy(>v=: 6 eirayuv. eXeffBat.orw (he says) for t)yd or Qyij earw. Thus Gregorius de Dialectis. 716: KO. [Such krases are frequent: three occur in the Sigean inscription. But the dative onrXrj would be intolerable in this place. 93) from Eustathius. and till some new proof appears we shall read I1OTI. Khaeroboskos apud Bekkeri Anekdota. /tar9os and paaros. CUUWTTOS. are we bound even by errors of the graver's tool. 6 Olavdevs. and he goes no further. M. tence is <7rXij ot Oyq earu. O. Kivdos and KIOTO*. noWlavBi'i^. CEkonomides observes he quotes to express hitherto unknown : that ftr^t-^n'Cfiv is a the same idea. Eustathius.177 . The article unaspirated is not uncommon The a the editor reminds us that the first word of the Elean inscription is feminine article unaspirated. Although the doctrine of the digamma be far from simple. II. ayepaqios and aKipatyos. he assures us. o Xeyw ori ol A('oXe?s ev rats idiais Xefeffi rijV Saacmv bXws ayi'oovtnv^] OnAFON. Was the engraver or stamper infallible? The digamma is evidently to be preferred to the aspirate for these people. 969. and its employment not uniform. word ANAIKAZiiNTI. affords ITAPATEPQ for Trepcurepw (Koen. Here it seems impossible to accept The natural construction of the senthe words SurXfj ot 0^/. ZKTOS. lovers of the 3t7rXet .) Tpa. 6lIESTi for 0w. Greg. AICTAEI for instead of SurXrj.] HEAESTQ.KJJV yap eariv. pp. and atieXtpoi. were visibly -JsiXwrai. we cannot The most believe that the relative pronoun was spelt with the F? palpable errors abound in inscriptions (I have noted 'Eoiu'as instead of Foucfaf). eirrw. TovppoKpdreos.yos and tiairdpayos . if it made any ? or may we say by the reading we adopt. aa<f>dpa. for eXeodu. 7. de and also tells us that ear 2t'x '/ feceX^ta yerijrut ^ TO is He EIK1. and a simple correction of the text FOI for 1OI gives this reading. [In fact we are assured that the ^Eolic dialect. I1AEON.

as admitted by TrpoorpoTrtos Herman (Griech. TrtaXeovrais. 82 Trpjjfrs o' jjti' Icttr). Etymologicon Magnum (678. tyvXa^as p. Alkaeus. which we read HO. etra avvo^u.ap-vpos KOI o QvXaKos KXii'ovaiv (01 AtoXeis). Ta and the dvofiariicd 6 p. But a reference to Seberi Index shows that the passages in which it occurs are but two. ia^vpuv fj oa<pes also proposes to take the passage of ^Eschylus. After these remarks. and neither of them decisive. KivSvvi instead of KIV$VVU>. d<Ware?. seven inscriptions exhibit the name of a month. the editor thinks the words should not be separated iroiTov. been equally successful in the exegesis. ' The editor remarks that orthography HOI. though Heyne did not.44). see Bekkeri Anekdota. JMonatskunde.178 inHesychius with (daQaXes). which. as above. And in order to lay the We . : >/ /xra. For the parallel KivSvv instead of Kii'dvros. TI.VTI TOV irorl a(j)aipe(Ti TOV r. that Aristotle ^ivaValos <f>i). He FIAIO7EN1. ov ct'if-itos. -xapuyaywv ce air' avrfjs perd KOI TrXeovaff/Jov rov IcSra TO fivdidios. i. In a Boeotian inscription occurs the supplicatorius. T. r. poematis for poematibus. Odyss. It may be added. that be written pvaiatos without the diaeresis. M. p. MNAIAIAIS. 278. p. Zvptyepei Sw^jooreZ*' viro orevei (Eumenid. that a : wider scope to be given to this heteroklisis there the text is. The ApHraro-yelrwv in inscriptions. cijptov jj "i^iov. for among the perplexities of the subject Bentley held. by turning is for quibus. 73). as cited by Bergk. also ei'oreyes. that Heyne in his Excursus on the Digamma classes the word among such as refuse it. yepovrois.kv D/r Tpiypdfjifiarov evQelav. p. it may perhaps MEIONOIS instead of peioai. Eustathius informs us. Ahrens. TI. b fie ev rols TOIOVTOIS TrXeovaapos TOV t ^rjXovrai Kal er rut Kapiviaia ulddXr] KQI kv ijirep TJV TW TaXavTialos Knt Iv aXXots. Xidos TV\OV lardHv rj ^a\Kos fj TI erepov. 22. further on. like what is attributed (we are in- formed) by Aristophanes the grammarian to the ^Etolians. F ASTON. 7ro077judrois and errvy^aroi'Tois. we FO. tells us expressly. To this is added. o. 132. M. a word found hitherto only in Lucian. aorqi'ei. Toce /uoi vripepres eviaire. Ahrens believes these terminations are formed It by synkope. note gives a copious illustration. iii. TroirpoTrto?. y. it clear that this archaeologist has sufficiently explained and defended shall next consider whether he has the readings of the text. fjv dyopeuw. what is found in Delphic inscriptions. says the treatise before us. that ce before digamma might lose its vowel. aywvois. Other remarks have been here omitted as too relevant. as quis may be seen. See Priscian. 1389. irol Trap' 'Ap-yelots In the Delphic Anekdota O. FASSTOS. ovrois. 515) as a dialectic form for atievft. to Koen's Gregorius. strange name \\oihKos for UpoaZiws perhaps. 314. is facile or too little With the exception of . propose to read ^ITT\^ Foi and of AIQAEIOl. most of which have been remarked by M. which is fluctuates as aptaros. probably. Aajuieois. GEkonomides merely observes that FIAIOS with the digamma is discovered in the tables of Heraklea. who compares from a Boeotian monument * * * 7/yus or aiyots for oi|t.

This word is the stumbling-block. e^eorw aur^J -^fjirdni TTJ eirilrjfjiovaii' eis n/K TroXt^." ought but the next words are. .vti)v cam OdXaaaav. iceicXjrai. it is desirable to hear Stephanus Byzantinus about these two obscure little cities Omvflij. Terrapin ?'pa\f*als r)piovadtit' el Se cat TO avXov TrXeo*' era iipepdtv Kare^ot. et irore Xjj^^e/i. TO eOviKov QiavOeus. evikd -^pf^uTa Kara QdXaaaav KH\ ror &vov eiccWev dcews dyerw . eart 2e K~at OidvOeiov Kal Olavdis' XeiXatov. CEkonomides translates. In to follow These distorthe text is not a syllable about his being captured. 101.v Ik QidvOr) TroXts (a 0ouvu?t'^$ y'. his paraphrase is here appended M/re rw Qlavde? eeoTU ayeiv CK rrjs XaXetSos 701* ivov pi/re ry XaXetet CK rfjsOlavdicos [ir)e ^t'lfia-a e'i ri vvXyri' 6 $e ent rrvXuv* etw'. ei'vea 2e ei eXaffaoros. ro eQviKov Xa'Xatos. presents some difficulty. says M. 'EX'Afft'^i (a slip : XdviKOS fie Olat'deiav avri]v TroXts fyrjaiv. El irXeoy /ui/i'os neToucoiT) q o XaXeteui ev irpodiK'up 17 o QiavOeus iv XaXe/w. o evos 6 TIJV eAeerOw CKTOS Trpo^evov Kal ISto&vov. fXeaQwaav ror avTov rots Sripiovpyols opKov opvvTutffai'. Kparet'rw ^e (TVfjftoXa. 'Eraralos EJ/JWTTJ' Ao^ot' ev $e XdXaiov iroXis. 'E*:ara?o$ of the pen. tions of the sense only prove that the commentator had not hit upon .v Tip ffvXdv TO. Ptolemy Skylax Me<7<ra7rt'ous cat The first clause is not mistakeable : it protects a foreigner's person and property while within the limits of either of the contracting The next states from hostile or predatory attacks from the other. rtyuwro. "if his friends can save him.evov 17 S/} ireidupKta. airuXov by d^ews. eeara eKeWev <\ffvXr)Tov if the plunderer be captured it shall be lawful to fetch him home undamaged. eiri is to be looked ai)Xi}i>. CEkonomide?.e. . * Read I apprehend the true explanation but better in the dative. M.evos rov Kara iroXtv.a. a liberty which can by no means be permitted. ol ^rjpiovpyol ofjoTOVS opKw/tioras* ot 2' a/pc0crre$ // ra rwj/ irXet- Before we proceed. and in Stephanus. from cat 'llcraiovs cat Olavdeas. e% avrov Oldidios. ?/$ a*' OtavOe^ f) eorni rois at yvup.<TTQV ^t^a^jjrai icara aavres Tr)v irevQopKiav. book iii. irevTeKai^eKa per et prds KO.179 matter entire: fairly before the Society. / irpos TOV U. Tptrateas icai XaXa/ous cat ToXo^wvt'ovs which is much corrupted in the text of M.I 'Ea 6 TO eiritiiKov xprjfia. a proper solution. 0-vXwy ra TMV TOIS XaXetewo't*' } Oiai-Oevffi carayeiv E. and the forms Ewoi>0t's. . fjfjiioXiov airoriodTb) TOVTOV o ~i at> avXfjaeiei'. e. for EV^WTTTJ).1. Sikdaovtrt Ttjy rwffav S' OVTOI TWV apiaTwv. it seems. cited in Westerman's edition. The passage is quotation). Eua^flt'a for the above town. avdpas otrtres Toy TUV vet'Of^iia'p. And ^terti again of the other oe Aocpwr. CEkonomides finds the names elsewhere. "Os e)' uv TI irapd rd vet'opiafievu avXyrj. except from the town harbour.TroXis AoK-jowr. f. 7rX)}> eic \ip. but there it stands visible and In a note he sees advantage in a fresh rendering legible enough. TI>V Se ffi/Xwi ro QlavOea ij XaXetea.

Tjrbs fj o XaXeieus ev Qiai'6ei<f q 6 OiarOevs tv XaXet'w. . irXrjv tic Xi/jei'os TOV Kara TioXiv' But be it lawful for the privateerer. or three other inscriptions. AeX$oi ecwcaj' <fr(Xt7T7rw 'A/roXXwi/ov avrtS KCU eKyovois Trpo%e)'iat>. : i//evea irpofeveoi which is he is obliged to translate et i^eur^evos e\ey\oiro. and have the right of acquiring land and house. KUI e'ioirXovv KOI eKTrXovv vat TroXe/'ou It consisted in this. to seize at sea one who holds a patent of rw crv\av rd In other words. rjj eTTt^ij/j/^ diKy -^pi'iado) [Yjj] TUV irpo. goods belonging to citizens of these towns might become prize and then. the privileged man could recover his goods by process of law. and exemption from taxes and from depredation both by land and sea. 1564) eCoe TV $dpv '[p]x~ /jtertbJi' 'AyeSikov Aa</>irao 'HoXeta OITT' 'AXesarcpe/as Trpofevot' elp. under his That the Trpofcvoi were privileged treatment. K >l avrov K>J evyovtits KTJ el/jiev avrv yds Kt] Fvct'as eirairiv KI) itatyaXiav o) dreXiav KTJ acrovXiav .eri(i)y.evoi introduced he takes to be mennegative conclusion. be proxenos and benefactor of the city of the Orchomenians. He supposes a suit about the dSiKoavXia. 284). by the clause et agents. The preceding clauses refer solely to foreign persons and property. his privilege davXia.ev \_K]>) evepyerai' rds rro'Xtos ^E>p^op. an JEolian of Alexandria. it into a paraphrase . Juxtaposition is not enough to overbear the The irp6. and pursuing this idea he is fain to tioned as privileged persons slur over hastily the concluding clause. eenrw Sf TW avXwvn ev CK QaXdaaijs ayetv rov davXiq. . which reads et pe-roiKoiri or iji/ [Ae-oiKfj irXeov fj. persons is unquestionable. eipi'irijs prize of. . the penalty was but half a . absolute nonsense. I find it slightly varied in one cited (p. that if made atrvXel KCLI dairovSei . and personal security. both himself and his descendants. son of Daphites. vpoThe same privilege is voted in aVvXt'ar. From the nature of things it : . subjects of the contracting parties.180 by states to favoured persons. 292) from Gruter. if surrendered within ten days. xjowyueror. which becomes. "A&K-oo-uXw may be explained wrongfully seize. however. by which is probably meant make prize of goods protected by the terms of this convention. two by Rose KUI (Rose. the whole sense will be easy Now : decessor we may put ei IKU. inscription . . npoelptcn'. if we assume that a man enjoying d&vXia is called in our to follow our preinscription aavXos. dreXeiav iravruv... To me this assumption appears land and groundless the preceding lines refer to privateering by sea this opens the subject of lawsuits and there is no allusion to the previous subject. wpoparreiav. crown ! In interpreting a succeeding clause.evwv. but they appear here in their capacity of The editor's hypothesis is demolished. It was decreed by the demus KTJ Kara yav Kr] Kara flaXarrav of the Orchomenians thai Agedikus. but other clauses not preserved would render it illegal to plunder By mistake. protects him only within the limits of the friendly state. except in the town harbour. p. the editor assumes tacitly that it stands in coherence with the preceding. in pursuit offoreign merchandise. In the Orchoraenian inscription (Boeckh. nothing like the original. at sea. Again in a Delphic for in the aavXia often voted .

rat <f>povTiovras <j>i\uv caperet detrimenti. I imagine the step intended was nearly analogous to praying a tales." irp6. and to forward them by all means in his power. xai ret a'AAa 3toivei KOI StaTTpa'rret f. 79. have before remarked that the Corfiote editor. as the equivalent of the praetor peregrinus at originally probable that. evo&k. was probably defined by custom. If the sons present in court. To follow out the interpretation given above. -yeviKTJ. : : He quotes Erotiarius. wer des Interesse einen andern Staats und seiner Burger nach dazu erhaltnem Anftrage vertritt und auf alle Weise befordern hilft. " IlXou- p. ne quid publica istius civitatis res a civibus to have cities. K TOV caret MetSiov.ii-y cW^epoyro. commissioners should be named on each side in equal numbers. per. w dvT\ TOV eTriorarw. the iirwp. who uses it. in a treaty between two states.erotKos. as a p. we may observe that the We irpo&ros. has failed in interpreting the next clause. cause must be reheard. that if he do not discharge his duty to his principals : he shall pay double. that among various remedies open to plaintiffs. rjs This clause then provides. living among his own people. that. to put the party in the position of residence. Ta. in the instance before us. an agent to take charge of the interests of a foreign state and of its citizens. and In that dilemma the first thus an even division might easily occur. v. 163. says Valckenaer (on Ammonius. being irpotevfl. What the 7r/>oeros was to do. It is somewhat singular. His id muneris erat prsecipue injunctum.p\ov 7zvoe-et. thirdly.oTai become assessors. 201) ut sedulo prospicerent. Consuln oder Agenten that is.s. would sometimes be tempted it is therefore to betray his trust towards those whose agent he was here provided. clause provides a remedy. that if a party to a suit. and also Suidas. OVK orrtav 2e TroAtrwv.v TTJ irarpili rfj eavrov ra rrj TroXet eKe. wie unsre Residenten. The intent is. try these causes between native and alien we have here a word. And corrupted to Rome. In dealing with the clause about Sqptovpyot M. It was We see Thukyd. having lost the thread of the sense. one in particular is here assigned to suits arising out of the convention. ?rpoej Phrynikus apud Bekkeri Anekdota. any provision should have been made for process of law between fellowcitizens.eros ytip eanv o Trp6ffrrtrr}s xrat <f>povri(rrfis. he must go to the Trpoevos or consul. and the cause decided upon at once. the plaintiff selecting respectable jurors and administering an oath This might be done from perto do justice between the litigants. according to the nature of their plaint. a subject of one of the contracting powers.181 was been expected that states would want agents in other and who so likely to be employed as the Trp6evot ? Passow. either an appeal or by adding assessors. may however suppose. CEkonomides has forgotten the indications of the sense obtainable from the use of the . as the editor informs us. only known ZevoSiKat appointed by a correction of Dindorf's in Johannes Laurentius. To . roTs 2e ercus KCLTTCL Trdrpia SiKdeirdai. in pursuance of a commission obtained for the purpose. goes on 7rpoe'os. p. after giving the significations which we do not want here. have resided more than a month in the territory of the other.

38. Among the many significations of the word Ajjyutoupyoi. sheriffs. whatever it were.. in which the nomenclature is unknown or unfamiliar.). Ajjyittoupyot* The Attic tribes originally were divided into three fratrias or trithings or nations. with his brother. Greek. This oath. by Vesta. the Etymologicon Magnum have not given Suidas only names it. the orparT/yov is a predicate. as Lysias. five oaths in one formulary... 'Opvwjras ing: ^rjfj. in his idea. Oi opcw/zorcu are the officers that administer oaths call them. . It would be an unworthy TiS HOPKQMOTAS. that which i. for shortness. ol opjcw^iorcu e\ead(i)(rui> Srjuiovpyovs. But besides that. and so on (Diod. are compelled by the rules of syntax to construct thus.and opcw/xoras to be jurejurando astrictos. and of willingness to do even justice between the par- What mean . let the sheriffs select master craftsmen to try We the cause. This word opKoi/^oTrjs is almost a stranger to the Lexicons. Suidas much more confusedly among the rest wore e teal TOVS dpxtrtKTovas. and with predicates they omit an article even when logic seems to demand one. it Now M. But neither of these notions is correct in this passage. Into these mistakes he was led by the difficulties naturally attending a technical subject. People in this position were among the richest in Athens. Jurejurando astrictus. nobles. quijuramento adstringunt. Ajj/uioupyds. In fact. in that sense. viii. as if wore ccrai orparTjyoi'. Photius. In Henry Stephens I could out that the second syllable has omega. eXeaOctt article. Mars. the Sun. Magn.182 The Greeks said of the vacant office. Pollux tamen ponit. Etym.iovpyovs to for : fOpcuras] ov^l opjaaras ovSe opKioporas \eyovai. remember that slaves did all the drudgery. It is true that the term included all craftsmen. as they here prick a jury. 111. rp/'a 2e TJV ra edvr) TraXcu EwTrarp/^cu. if you want to say swearing in officers. The word ought to mean quintuple oath. for the words opx&rrai and dpc&yiorai are not classical Greek. dpHTrirSav.e\iav . rroXXa o-7/jua/vet i] Xeis' . which would suffice for the object in view. beDemarchs. it must be supposed to be a declaration of indifference. as Philip swore by Capitolian Jove. Tewyuopoi. landholders. and handicraftsmen where we must . both masters and journeymen. the Earth. as Kuster remarks. manufacturers.. Sic. Srjfjuovpyol eXeffduxrar TOVS opK-w/joYas. CEkonomides is vapid and unmeaning. he has not got ol 2i^uovpyot in the text task to collect examples.W. which a gloss might be produced. you must use opnmd. LL. and the father of Demosthenes. Aeyoirai KCU ol Trept rds ^eipovpyias Kal rrjv TUV re^rwv Trtp. but our inscription says capiupyus eXeorru Pollux. not adstricti. of pointing it. But the new edition by Hase and Dindorf has the follow" 'OpKu>poTT]s. not find it. 11. : the editor conjectures it to TrevropKia may be is uncertain the invocation of five deities. Harpokration. CEkonomides sees in his text and therefore prints in his paraphrase ol which is not. and the interpretation of M. Hesychius. ... xxvii. was to be taken by the sheriffs and jury . He believes is only AAMIQPf^lS without the article. for the sake. not e\effdai TOV orparTjyoV." Photius means. is suitable in this passage is xeipore^vai. From this it is perfectly evident that opKufiorai meant.

if he keep the booty more than fully. have added the following I Be it not lawful for the (Eanthian to carry off the alien out of Khalseum. nor property. tca\ Sia\^r)(f>i(ivnai I will accept no bribes: am not under irepl avrov ov av 77 f] %i<i>is. the value of the ideas here set out. p. or the CEanthian in Khataum above a month. and embraces a variety of clauses the earlier refer to the political functions of the court those applicable in civil cases appear last.183 ties. and let them take the Quintuple oath. Pollux. laid on him. where law spoke i]v T<5v WKaorwK. excepting the proxenus and his own immediate friends. and a majority decide. nine. If either the Khalsean reside in CEanthea.ovs The oath e?<ri. Let the sheriffs take the same oath. except from the town harbour.i] given in Demosthenes (adv. Timokr. and vote on the merits of the case. and in Lokris a irtvropKia. It is of great length. But be it allowed to one using rapine. 746. to decide o oe opKos by law. thirty : will hear both sides. says the oath of the dikasts in Athens was . %e wt> is trepl [lev by equity. let him sue as one domiciled. in \}/r)(f>teladai. If the court be equally divided. in his depredation upon aliens. If citizen against citizen have a suit arising out of this treaty. To test. let him pay the value of whatever he seized and half as much more. 122.rj^ai'fj ov: a\\y Sepiy' Kal yeyora OVK eXarrov T) rpiaKorr errf' KOI aKpodrro/jiai rov re Kar>jyopou Kal ruv ajroXoyouyuej'Ou o/jolcjs dfi^olv. where law was wv vofjiot cirri. Kara TOVS silent : ro/j. a reference for which I am indebted to a friend). these words OVG& duipa Beo/ucu TTJS j/Xmrrews ereira our' avros eyw OVT dXXos fuol OVT ei^oros e/i/ou. let him pay four drachmae ten days. from among the most respectable men in suits of a hundred and : . Trepl of the Heliasts : . These are specimens of oaths taken by jurymen at Athens. let the alien plaintiff choose assessors. avv yvw^j. if one use rapine. [j. ovre T%vr) ovre p. viii. more drachmae. to carry off from sea one holding a patent If one make prize wrongof dirvXla. through the If the proxenus betray his trust. by a translation. . rij StKaiordrr]. An oath embodying five such clauses would in our parliamentary language be denominated a consolidated oath. fifteen . in less. let double damages be proxeni. nor for the Khalsean out of CEanthea. let the sheriffs choose master craftsmen of the most respectable.


VOL. those nrts which are connected with the science of construction seem most likely to engage the attention of rude but intelligent men. ne pati quidcm Colunt discreti ac diversi. et citra speciem aut delectationem. he found villas and houses built after the Roman fashion. ac lineamenta colorum imitetur. in our limestone " Certain portions of the building were districts. . Ut enim rebus amat fieri dnbiis et turbatis. the Germans at least those in the different kind of Julian crossed the Rhine. V. and the beauty of this material appears to have given the German houses the only These dwellings were scattered attractive feature they possessed. evadendi subsidium velox locorum invenere prudentes quorum digressu : VOL. The houses of the Germans must. Two or three centuries later. social condition of a people is furnished by the structures in which they dwell. . but we are informed that no mortar was used. adopted by our Ancestors prior to their Settlement in the British Islands:" Continued.D. trans Moenum nomine fluvium ad opitulandum suis necessitudinibus avolarunt. are not told what were have been of the humblest description. atque desertis insidiis. 124. as dry walling. ut campus. sive adversus casus Ne caementorum aut tegularum ignis remedium. Vicos locant. ut picturam Germ. JUNE 11. HENSLEIOH WEDGWOOD. Quae res Germanorum perculit animos. No. when first brought under the influences of a " A On One of the most striking peculiarities in the superior civilization. paper was read certain Foreign Terms. A. indicantia nostros perruptas populari terras hostiles. perhaps with some preparation of gypsum. quas per arcta loca et latebrosa struxerant nostris. neighbourhood of the river architecture. in the time of Tacitus. 15. Quaedam loca diligentius illinunt terra ita pura ac splendente. and may therefore infer. hinc equitum nostrorum accursu. ad celsiora dunulloque invento (hoc siquidem opinati discessere confestim) eminusingentiafumi volumina visebantur. Nullas Gertnanorum populis urbes habitari satis notum est. usus nrateria ad omnia utuntur inform!. 2 A . without order. much in the same manner as the cottages of some of We otir English villages. By Edwin Guest. connexis et cohaerentrbus aedificiis snam quisque domum spatio circumdat. 357. 1852. that the roof (probably of thatch) was supported on what is commonly known. Esq. ut f'ons." plastered. the materials they were built with. V. Esq. ut inter se junctas sedes. inde navigiis vectorum militum impetu repentino perterrifacti. in the Chair.PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY. non in nostrum morem. Next to the improvements in social life which tend to increase the supplies of food. sive ihscitia aedificandi. nemus placuit. had adopted a very When solis primo exortu. : visis cebatur alacrior miles per montium vertices barbaris.

He is ended and the kebars sheuk the chorus* roar. aperta populatur. opulentas pecore villas. dyr Icel. may then. union. These subterranean structures are probably referred to in the following passage. per subterranea quaedara . At first sight we might be disposed to regard kebar as one of the many Gaelic terms which have been introduced into the Lowland Scotch . Marc. 16. quod quaerenda sunt. and mauer a wall.-Sax. tegelT>u. tigna fibulis conjuncta. it would seem. eosque multo insuper fimo onerant. we learn from the Roman remains at Treves. &c. Jolly Beggars. Kilian. but as corresponding terms are widely spread throughout the Indo-European languages. is bricks (tegulae) was common in the northern parts of Gaul. The German phrases fenster a window. answering to the Welsh fenestyr and mur. look upon kebar as one of the terms which passed from Gaul into Germany in the wake of Roman improvement during the third and fourth centuries. duru a door. The ancient Germans. praecipue autem domorum.. The A.. in acutum desinentium. may possibly represent the Welsh and Breton dor. aut eo ipso fallunt. tfvur Germ.. Ammianus Marcellinus informs us. That the use of Roman Breton Germ. That the foreign with so many terms. when we trace the word in the Old Flemish. teol represents a word...-Sax. should novelties of construction also introduce many novel what we might naturally expect. extractisque captivis. If so. and 6 or 8 feet thick. which has the same signification. that when Julian approached the forest which bounded the valley of the Maine stetit diu cuuctando. and its introduction into the German dialects tigle A. et frugibus rapiebat. where we see walls 30 or 40 feet The high.186 miles libere gradiens. which must have been introduced into the Celtic dialects long before the third century . a joint. evidently the Breton kebr and Welsh ceber a rafter. Germ. Aboon Burns. may be importations of equal antiquity. till a better explanation offers itself. but as these words have not been found in any A. nulli parcendo. constructa flammis subditis exurebat. 17. indicio perfugae edoctus. quia rigorem frigorum ejusmodi locis molliunt. ziegel architects employed to build these villas. domicilia cuncta curatius ritu Romano Amm. they must have been used by the Germans as late as the fourth century. which appear to be connected with the Irish cabar. Kepcrs. MS. The northern word kebar a rafter. abdita autem et defossa aut ignorantur. but this hypothesis is no longer tenable. conjunction.. had no fortified enclosures. built entirely with these bricks. et si quando hostis advenit. they probably were not adopted by our ancestors. Their places of refuge appear to have been of a very different character : We Solent et subterraneos specus aperire. suffugium hienii et receptacuium frugibus.-Sax. it will be safer to consider duru as an indigenous term. cannot with reason be assigned to a much later period.

lead to small afford barely chambers roofed in with large stonea which overlap one another. the remains of some iron implements were found in one of these labyrinths. which show them to have served. Its introduction in to the Anglo. ubi habile visum fucrit. however. -Saxon charters. No one could understand how such a place could have served the purposes of habitation at the comparatively late period when this metal came into use. among the Romanized Celts its Latin name porth Welsh.Saxon language probably took place when our ancestors first began to harass the provincials of Gaul with their ' Ceaster a city cannot. Though the Germans had no fortresses in their own country. the Bretons He tells us that Severus. nor is it known to any German language except our own. &c. Great was the surprise." Low country by the name of passages. they must have been well acquainted with the castella that were built to restrain their inroads into the castel is Roman provinces. pfort-e Germ. poort Du. The extracts we have quoted go far to show that similar structures were used by some of the most civilized of the German races.. Anglice vero Peneltun dicitur. The writer is not aware that there is any authority for saying that the Picts had such retreats but the same habits and modes of life may have prevailed among all the ruder races in the North of Europe. like " the roofing-stones in the " Treasury of Atreus and other Cyclopean of ancient Greece. etvocatur Britannico sermone Gaaul. No philologist will subscribe to the opinion that it came directly from the Latin castrum. Amm. Marc. less than a century before our ancestors settled in this island. From them it must have passed at a very early period to their neighbours. According to Nennius. -Sax. when they attribute the " Picts' . retained . and in our A. murura et aggerem a mari usque ad mare per latitudinem Britannia? id estper cxxxii millia passuum deduxit. The avenue by which it found its way into the A. fossasque multifidas latere plurimos. The word found both in Welsh and Breton in some of the earliest of the German MSS. he attributes its construction. antiquary can read these passages without being reminded of those curious structures which are commonly known in this " Picts' Houses. -Saxon may furnish a subject for consideration hereafter. In like manner the Latin vallum must have furnished both Celts and Germans with : their name for the rampart. that man room for a to enter on his knees. roboreque objecto magno semitas invenere constratas. These chambers sometimes contain buildings the bones of animals of the chase. id est a Pengaaul. ' The gate which led into a city or fortress. turos.187 occulta. pors Breton. when a short time since. erupAusi tamen omnes accedere fidentissime. port A. to whom called Hadrian's wall the gaaul. same category with castel.. No word answering to ceaster is found in the Celtic dialects.. &c. quae villa Scotice Cenail. though the word is not recognised by the compilers of our Anglo-Saxon Dictionaries. . 17. No Houses" to that people. at times. and possibly our antiquaries may not be in error. and other relics. be placed in the piratical inroads. ilicibua incisis et fraxinis. as places of habitation. 2 A -2 .

weall.' This confusion of meanings in our northern dialect may have gradually affected the meaning of the word in our standard English. answering to the A. with a small addition of lead and the proportion in which these metals were mixed together appears to be nearly the same * in all the specimens examined. Auson. Germ. and the term streete. and the German dialects. was probably first adopted into their language. through the Breton kegin and Welsh cegin . afterwards so common. quo murus ille finitur Hist. the Welsh melen. but It is found both in the Celtic the later Latinists employ it freely. wherever those specimens were found whether in France or in England. Stridentesque trahens per laevia marmora serras Audit perpetuos ripa in utraque tumultus. -Sax. eylene 'an oven' (Lat. but (in the writer's judgment) without sufficient reason. At that period. The A. ' . The metal which was first used by the Celts and Germans in the fabrication of their weapons and other implements was a mixture of copper and tin. and the Irish muilean. keuken a kitchen. the great highways. culina) may have entered our language at a date quite as early as either mylen or cycene. and Icelandic mylna. cycene and Du. The same current of influences probably introduced the word into all these languages. and must have passed into the latter at least as early as the fourth century. In the North of England wall was pronounced wa'. -Sax. The earliest writer in whose works the word occurs is Eutropius. Du. : then rapidus Gelbis. Te The name for such a mill in the fourth century appears to have been molina. who used them. wal. Mills were objects of too obvious utility not to fix the attention of the Germans and that water-mills were of no very uncommon occurrence in the neighbourhood of the Rhine and its tributaries. and in some cases actually filled with the metal in question. the Du. te marmore clarus Erubrus. -Sax. molen. c.188 usque ad ostium fluminis Cluth rustico opere. -Sax. The magnificent causeways which connected together the Roman fortresses were known in the fourth century by the name of stratte. Mosella.' from the Latin coquina. or on the coaste of the know these ancient weapons were made by the men Baltic. The writer is also inclined to trace the A. and also the A. were familiarly known to our ancestors. Britannia. The wider meaning assigned to the English word may perhaps admit of the following explanation. &c. wah ' a partition. properly signify a wall of defence. for the casting-moulds have been found in many localities. whence no doubt came the Breton milin. -Sax. et Cairpentaloch. We * This fact has been lately questioned. . as all was pronounced '. and the A. mylen. Festinant famulis quam primum adlambere lymphis Nobilibus Gelbis celebratus piscibus.. 19. and thus it seems to have been confounded with wa. wall. may perhaps be gathered from the casual way in which one of them is noticed by Ausonius in his poem on the Moselle . ille Prsecipiti torquens cerealia saxa rotatu. both in Gaul and Britain.

' In the ar. ar. not the representative of an initial J See his paper in the Society's Proceedings. GarnettJ./Ere The z in zinn st. and it certainly affords a satisfactory etymology in a case which has hitherto baffled all the efforts both of our own and of the German philologists. even if Caesar had not expressly asserted as much. penning Du.-Sax. cinq centimes. g. p. On a ensuite donn& ce nom a la vingtieme On entend par ce mot aujourd'hui partie de la livre tournois. and Gonidec gives us the St. and the Friesish eren ' brazen. The Welsh ystaen refers to the ductility of the metal. pfennig Germ. Icelandic eir brass. Olave Street.] ... Audry's laces. This word was pointed out to the writer by the late Mr. tin A. as being evidently the origin of the A. and is of course the origin In the German dialects the initial sibilant of the Latin st annum. zinn-\ Germ. While on this subject we may refer to the etymology of our English word penny. Tawdry laces for St.. The south-western extremity of Britain was the only district in Europe which produced tin.' in the later stages of our language. Tantony pig for Anthony's pig. gwenn means white. m.-Sax. et peutetre de France. and the Welsh is the only language in Europe in which that word has a significant meaning. 5).. s. vol.-Sax. was rejected. Ancienne monnaie de Bretagne. e.-Sax. la vingtieme partie d'un franc. * ( . utuntur importato (B. penig A. G.' Our English ore of course represents the A.189 might therefore infer that this mixed metal was one of the artiimported by the Greek and -Roman traders. ii. penig. though sufficiently in any Celtic dialect.. is merely the equivalent of our English t. un sou. In the Breton. as regards Britain*. 237.-Sax. &c. [To be continued. &c. que Ton nommait un blanc. common following definition of its derivative gwennek : GWENNEK. Tooley Street for St. &c. This loss of the * before a t was very unusual at so early a period. It is however a curious circumstance that we find no traces of the Latin word ees cles We German dialects are found the A.


Camb. Member A paper " was read*. an undue precedence has been hastily allowed to viz..PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY. Widdin. F. Loo-choo. Okhotsk. and . Alabama. Koondooz. Moscow. Paraguay. Tennessee. Toungous. but there is perhaps reason for fearing that their inquiries have not been altogether based upon selves. Aral. Lemberg. because the Sanscrit and Gothic have but three simple characters for vowels. Warsawa. &c.S. Hose. B. to the employment of the same or similar vowels in the formation of words and the fact admitted. Sooloo. Walach. Ararat. Japan. and the whole printed only in February. . Revel and Stockholm and when such forms have their parallel beyond the Atlantic in Mississippi. When the eye. Kalpach occurs a series of names. Angara. Oronoco.A. Sarawak. Appalach-ian. Thus. Yarkand. Irtish. 125. Palawan. Lhassa.. H. Strictly speaking. to be led astray by paying more attention to the symbols of spund than to sounds themselves. Chili. 1852. Lombok. inquiry. Balambangan. only the substance of this paper was given The gentleman who had in question from very imperfect notes. Banca. Novogorod. for a. Kazan. Tatar. * . was elected of the Society. it first principles." By T. 1854. Ladak. Kirghiz. when in a passage Sibir (the town that gave name to Siberia) through Central Asia it finds Kara-korum. Java.S. in the Chair. Esq. Ishim. present paper were consequently written at a much later date. Huron. Jenisei. a J. when along the coast E.. Simbirsk. Some among them have allowed themwould appear. on the evening undertaken to provide a paper had been kept away by an attack of illness so sudden and severe of Parts the that no notice could be sent to the Society. Kiou-siou. comes in succession across such names as Kamtchatka. of Asia there Kasak. running over the northern parts of Asia. . Andaman.. JUNE 25. one cannot but admit the tendency Erie. the why is a fitting subject for . entitled in relation to Professor Willis's On Vowel. Celebes. especially Experiment on Vowel-sounds. Arkansas. Esq. Balkach. Kachgar. Kokonor. V. together with the races called Mongol. Esq. Coll. Sourgout. Hitchi. Vitim. Memel. Vilini. Hewitt Key. Aldan. HENSLEIGH WEDGWOOD. The consideration of the vowels has for some time been deemed of the utmost importance by the numerous German scholars who have applied themselves to linguistic science . i.assimilation. and S. VOL. Malacca. Trin. Tobol. followed by Madagascar and Comoro when in Eastern and North-eastern Europe we meet with Astrakhan. .. Samarang. Sambawa. No. . Samarcand. Grodno.

o. 1 829. passing by imperceptible gradations from one to another of those which have been favoured with a special notation. Willis (p. M. that one thus ventures to criticise the writings of foreign philologists. when speaking of the vowels (D. confines the honorary title of pure vowels (reine vocale) to a. the rarity of original inquiry among Englishmen in matters of a linguistic character. u. In the first place. and March 1 6. but this must not be allowed to hide from us the sounds themselves are infinite. Nay. Even Grimm. to define precisely the number of vowels is a problem akin to that of defining the number of points that make up a finite line. that the some excuse to foreigners for ignoring what is done in this country and indeed as regards the very paper which we now charge the Germans with having neglected. and this for two reasons. it must be admitted that the author was in some respects unfortunate in his mode of publication. escaped the affords . p. but few Englishmen can escape from pleading guilty to the same charge of neglect or error which we have brought against Germany. and now Jacksonian Professor of Natural Philosophy. probably for the reason we have given. the gratitude of classical scholars is due in no ordinary degree to a nation which has done more for philology in the last century than all the other races of the world united . i. Of necessity the symbols for vowel-sound must be limited. and phrases often occur which seem to imply that e and o partake of a diphthongal character because they happen. in the above-named languages. treated on the vowel sounds appear never to have looked beyond the vocal organs for their origin. and abridge or less other parts which are important to philology. since it treats the problem with the accuracy of modern physics." says Mr. Nov. It is with some feeling of awkwardness. as well as diffidence. In fact. somewhat less rein general strained by the accidents of outward form. 231).192 these vowels. In the third volume of the Transactions of the Cambridge Philo" On the Vowel Sounds and sophical Society occurs a paper." by Robert Willis. not but that the paper itself has an indisputable claim to such a position. It was read in two parts. to the exclusion of e. has led many to speak of these as the only vowels. From this paper we purpose to make some quotations. 1 828. when published in a series of treatises almost exclusively of a mathematical character. Apparently assuming the actual forms of these organs to be essential to their production. G. more " The " who have generality of writers.A. Again. Still it has unfortunately happened that it has. 5). they have . as though they admitted of enumeration. 24. Scholars seldom unite the love of classical and scientific pursuits .. to be represented by such compound symbols as ai and au. the alphabet which prevails in Europe having but five symbols. Fellow of Caius College. fact. have endeavoured to ascertain what the full number of vowels may be. while others. entitled on Reed Organ-pipes. and on the other hand. and a paper of the highest value for philology might well fail to meet with all the attention it deserved from the students of language. attention of nearly all English and perhaps all foreign philologists. i.

" he goes on " Kempelen's mistake." After verifying and subsequently modifying the experiments of Kempelen. IEAOU* UOAEIIEAOU Let the line abed represent the length of the pipe measured from and take ab. respectively equal to the length of the stopped pipe in unison with the reed employed. however paradoxical the assertion may appear." . lead to any accurate knowledge of the subject The vowels are mere affections of sound. although they are most perfectly produced by them. that every illustration [of vowel-sound] is to be sought for in the form and action of the organs of speech themselves.. peculiar to each vowel. that is. the said organ chest and reed performing the parts which in the human body are assigned to the lungs and the chordae vocales of the larynx. and so on in cycles. " Now if the pipe be drawn out gradually. impossible.193 contented themselves with describing with minute precision the and teeth. Mr. which are not at all beyond the reach of human imitation in many ways. are described by Mr. like that of every other writer on this subject. &c. and not inseparably connected with the human organs. 3). The results. a. first puts on in succession the vowel qualities on approaching c the same series makes its appearance in inverse order. I contend. Adjusting together a succession of cylindrical tubes which ran upon each other like the joints of a telescope. equal to half the length of the sonorous wave of the reed. but the vowels becoming less distinct in each successive cycle. retaining its pitch. then in direct order again. each cycle being merely the repetition of bd. Willis was in the end led to the construction of a human body than Soon after : very simple apparatus. the pitch of the reed is high. which partly depended upon the musical note of the reed. c. 1. be. palate as a branch of acoustics. let the wave of the reed =ac (No. " When * " I use these letters throughout with the continental pronunciation. some of the vowels become For instance. which. &c. being always the same in all. and of the tongue and uvula. he placed at one end a socket with an organ reed fitted to it. through which the air was thrown from a wind chest. as represented in the diagram. The distance of any given vowel from its respective centre points a. Willis in these words : "No. can never. The object of the shifting cylindrical joints was to secure the means of lengthening or shortening at pleasure the tube through which the air passed on quitting the reed. appears to lie in the tacit assumption. the tone of the reed. considering vowels in fact more in the light of physiological functions of the relative positions of the tongue. IEAOU. or with giving accurate measurements of the corresponding separation of the lips. cd. where ae is less than the length producing U.

manner. and go through the inverse series. 3. occupy the lengths. is that this case it " In higher than begin with O O .194 No. " In the in table the vowel following third column. more vowels will be cut off. I have given in the second column the English word containing the vowel in question : I . instead of coming to U. female and O on the higher notes of singers are unable to pronounce their voice. For example. we should In like again. and beyond this note it will be found impossible to pronounce a distinct O. For want of a different notation. in singing. if still higher notes be taken for the reed. This is exactly the case in the human voice . the proper length of pipe for O. IE A U u A fcl would be found that the series would never reach that on passing b. U which corresponds to the note c". inches.

has a nom. v-ler and again. e). but v. o. It is by a modification of the first syllable that the object is attained in the German. a limitation of such variety. and Hungary. and so far as the prinOn the other hand. we may find in them an explanation of that identity of vowel-sound. Thus in Turkish. Those which in Mr. o. Or to take an example from the Hungarian.' in opposition to the ' others as ' thin. As the consonants are affections of sound produced by the several organs of speech. where there is to be variety. a. o. u) and weak (i. Tennessee. &c. Guest uses the terms i. a. it a clue to the solution of if would be strange many linguistic problems. by a mutual approach to some intermediate sound. u full vowels. and their production is independent of the distance between the extreme parts of the oral apparatus. &c. spoken by the Finns. He has ' also proposed to give to the former series the name of thick. In uniting such discordant elements there is a general tendency to assimilation. a cap. which characterizes the series of geographical terms with which we began. by the adaptation of the vowel in the first syllable to the nature of that which follows. u. kalpak. Willis's scale to be pairs of neighbour vowels. Other writers use the names strong (a. terms in the Gaelic grammar of the Highland Society. viz.' In Rask. the datives pi. a house. then. bama. &c. u. e. of these nouns are respectively kalpaklar-ah and evler-eh. o. This may be effected in several ways. Turkey. as well as those in Northern Europe and Asia. by the agglutination where of course the separate elements of significant monosyllables before their junction must for the most part contain vowels of a more or less different character. terms which also occur in Hungarian grammars. o. Willis's first produced series of vowels lie at the greatest distance from the reed.195 they did not furnish In the first place. that is.. But words are made up chiefly. in such words as of mathematical science. has nom. ' ' . the speaker is naturally tempted to leave this distance unaltered in the production of a word. . are called by Grimm ' ' clear vowels (reine). Latham seems to vary in his nomenclature. The formation of the consonants is in itself a sufficient effort. Scandinavian. where i and e. in opposition to others which he calls dull (triibe). guages of Tartary. which terms we employ here. Dr. o and u. . which with a common power have no other difference in form than the interchange of a strong and weak vowel*. broad a. Kokonor. Loochoo hence also. pi. between the chordae vocales on the one hand and the lips on the other. the verbs vdr ' wait. appear from Mr.. are called hard/ in opposition to the soft Dr.' in opposition to r. Icalpak-lar. . Jenisei and Huron. Ostiaks. if not wholly. in opposition to i. or something near to identity. pi. without that required for varying the length of Hence such words as Mississippi. Lapps. or . small vowels while in 36 he speaks of o and u as ' broad. the syllable suffixed is compelled to take a vowel more or less similar to Hence in languages of this the vowel of the preceding syllable. and narrow e. ' ' in 71. in the lanciple prevails in Greek and Latin. which he would proAgain. and Celtic languages. ' : terminology that has been employed to distinguish the vowels. as far as possible. u. It * may be convenient to notice the varied ' ' ' ' *'. 'broad' and 'small' are the distinctive bably call 'slender' (see 71). y. e. calling a.' and ismer know.' form the following persons thirdly. Alathe vocal tube. or the converse . class we find suffixes to a great extent running in pairs.

-it 2. sing. cation is not found in the other persons. u which are subject to the influence of the In spite of the argument which Grimm has put forward umlaut. But in the other division of languages. ismertek. varnak. Nay. to such an extent is the law of assimilation carried out in the Mongolian. we know. in which symbols the dots are admitted to be the corruption of an e. But it is not merely the a. for these are but abbreviations of fuller forms in which the true suffix of Nay. to sleep. like the German. a common symbol is used in all syllables after the first. oe. varunk. the loss of the suffix is in plurality contained a weak vowel. as schlaf-en. so that ae. Thus thiir. 3. d. -ant. for that syllable. vL . geese. ismere'tek. are apt to become ii. wir schlafen. stossen. . it is the If we look to first syllable that adapts itself to those which follow. 1 . that the principle is turned to account in reducing As the first occurring vowel the number of alphabetical characters. 7). ye wait. where the suffixes of the several persons are. 7 wait. as we have said. the German languages. ismerek. er schlaft . o. u. vol. o. 7 know.196 varok. du schlafest. And here we may call the attention of English scholars to a point which is distinctly noticed by German writers. viz. gives previous notice of the weak suffix which is to follow. is seen in the second and third persons of many so-called irregular du verbs.. some such plural as manner. if followed by a syllable containing either i or e.. -am&. An attention to justly regarded as a corruption of an earlier thiire. the familiar modification called ' umlaut' is for the most part made in the direction of exchanging strong for weaker vowels. they wait. they know. ue denote One a sound more or less weak than those which they displace. ye know. -at. ich schlafe. a door. &c. in the Society's Proceedings. er stb'sst. is often passes away after producing its effect. decides the character of those that follow. that the element in the suffix which led to the modification of the preceding vowel . . by the very fact of its modified sound. ye knew. to push. which passed through an intermediate m'dnne to man or men*. some sort a consequence of the effect it has produced upon the vowel of the preceding syllable. &c. are precisely those for which it is claimed. both for a and e. ismernek. ii. -is plur. and so renders the pronunciation of that suffix in great measure a superfluity. p. . 3. varatok. we wait. ye waited. vartok. Thus a. It is no doubt in this way that our noun man first formed. so that the only persons which by the weak vowel of their suffixes were originally entitled to the influence. and the answer is only to be found in the formation of the Old German. 1. * This principle was enounced in a paper p. a second common syllable for o and 6 (Schmidt's Gr. 2. ismeriink. But it may be asked why the same modifistossest. this principle would have prevented our grammarians from attributing plurality to the modified vowel seen in men. of the most interesting cases of the umlaut to be found in German. 121.

hull . which in the singular has for its first two syllables kallaft-. bran. \er kollu&uS. -Sax. dat. 1738. er isst geschehen. ac. . darra. gen.. derir. and wolo. weal A. that the Norse has a higher claim upon our attention than the German. er bricht essen. Thus from the same verb kalla is deduced a past tense. we cannot but attribute to the same cause the modification of sound which occurs in the second and third persons of brechen. world. gen. a spear. katla. \>eir kolluftu. to happen. has in the plural. But while the weakening of stronger vowels is the phenomenon so commdn in German. But the advantage of taking Mr. to call. deri. dttrum. to drink. which in the plural has nom. to break. a change which corresponds with that produced in the verbs previously quoted under the influence of the Old German suffixes is and it. we call . but taking a w in the three suffixes of the plural. Thus kalla. ac.197 (in p.vowel by virtue of a weak vowel in the suffix : : baz. forks. du issest. most handy. bells. katlar. is drycki. purses.taking our examples chiefly from the grammar of Legonidec. wela. presents us with ver kolluftum. dat. has a past imperfect or rather preterite sing. church-bell. . . according to the character of the two vowels brought into collision. . drack. son mipien. sticks. the strengthening of weaker sounds. the Norse besides this abounds in examples of the contrary action. hogustum. drecka. It is by the twofold influence of assimilation. We shall confine ourselves for the most part to the Breton branch . Willis's order of the vowels for = measuring the influence of vowel upon vowel is seen in the Celtic languages as distinctly as in the Norse. a suffixed a strengthens the initial vowel of the root from the weak sound e to its own form. . tirvi. as . falch. sack . has kollum. which for the most part presents instances of weakening We say for the most part. seier. purse tar 6. the influence of the added suffix often extends over two syllables. druckum. worolt in Otfried for weralt. brini. fork . whence du brichst. scythe filchier. the form hagast. sacks. on the one hand. katla. sons. bulls. sack. in which. Nay. to eat. The weakening of a strong stem. kotlum. forch. Similarly among the adjectives. some few from that of Gregoire de Rostrenen (12mo. though the power of attraction varied inversely as the distance. Again. mdb. while the subj. Rennes). n. crows. bisier. Still more effective is the power of attraction in the instance of kel U. for there occur in Old German alone. yalch. but pi. pi. ylchyer. ferchier. scythes. while the preceding a is drawn but half-way from its original position into that of u. Similarly dor. a kettle. uftrum. in which o has a sound more nearly akin to u than to o itself. . In these changes it may be observed that the nearest a is converted into a vowel-sound identical with that of the suffix. stick. and the weakening of stronger sounds. es geschieht. annar (= Latin alter) have for the dat. and on the other the datival um draws the same sound one stage further to an o. as those quoted by Grimm. 82). also occasional examples. crow. kloch (cA=x). The formation of the plural for many irregular nouns may be considered under four heads 1. kleier.

aebestel. troad. sheep dehved. ein. bone eskern. tomcat* cats. would constitute them vowels pronounced with all possible shortness. hens. stones. sheep. J An example valuable for It is often . enez. seen only those modifications which take the next turn to the irregular verbs. Modification of a previous loss of that suffix : vowel or vowels by a louarn. targaz. apo- danvad. islands.gouzoch. 2. and accordingly the long vowel expressed by the diphthong ou is weakened. be vowels or consonants. Thus you in English just begins with an i sound (of the continent). as used before vowel. dridi. foxes. 3. askourn. We . so that it becomes an almost insoluble problem. root Ft<r-. maid-servant maid-servants. skins. A true decision. bastard. . 1 gouzomp 3. * Lit. that so-called irregularity of formation means only obedience to the old laws of a language. lern. . l. married man . treid. skin . bones. goat. we think. boat . goats. . ozach. lambs. and the truncated. ier. tirgisier. wisdom) has in Breton the form gouzwhence on the one hand an infinitive gouzout and a present tense So far we have direction of greater weakness. Thus the verb corresponding to the Greek to our wit. Hence we have gwez-iz. 4. . kalvez. besterd. gevr. . stone mein. ezech. bishop . teeth. abostol. but dwells upon the u vowel. bishops J.. apostle stles f. the full one. shell krochen. . and wis (of wise. disputed whether w and y. .: \. whence icrr/p. followed dant. pi. shells. Again. tards. just as is enters into . 1 gwi-enn. &c. kregin. the future gwez-inn. suffix. oan. I knew. bas- manach. . carpenter .of videwot. carpenters. whether the primary root had a strong or weak vowel. hen . fregit (lot fregisf)fregistis. of the original suffix. and we need hardly repeat what has now become an admitted fact among philologists. by the idr. listri. feet. means of the tom- suffix matez. The weakening still further of a vowel already | weak : dred. mean.198 2. inizi. lestr. the Latin perfect freg-is-ti.goar. devil vilsf. I shall know . B. de- married men. island . azrouand. But in the perfect tenses of the Celtic tongues the formation would appear to have included a suffix iz. Here then we find most instructive instances of the twofold modifications. Conversely. gouzoht. starlings. but not to the extinction of the sound. monks.gouzonn. lamb. boats. The : modification of two previous syllables by mitisien. . monk . foot .gouzoud. starling. oi$a to the Lat. esquebyen or esqeb. which takes its feeblest form as a tr. bull-cat. ezrevend. vid.. our pronoun we gives a u followed shortened by a prolonged i sound. . dent. bastard . gavr. the past imperfect throughout. krechin. menech. fox . . less t Here we have no than three preceding syllables assimilated to the vowel its double plural. . tooth . escob. sing. krogen. kilvizien. .

believe. 2. thou sayest . while the first defies it. that gell has to contend with a rival gill .' viz. gelliz or gilliz 2. 3. stem is accompanied by an t throughout. I shall say say . we find in the syllables. thou knowest. PRES. INDIC. 1. is. an i in either suffix or through two . gioiez .. gattzot gellzoud. having lost its proper vowel in the rest.. in the others there is a wavering between weak and strong vowels. to pick out instances. kred desk me"d berv . . . and we take from it a few examples INFER. But here it is probable that the retention of the sound in goufenn is in deference to the lip-letter/. itself. gwie pi. the near relative of a v. known. . . The tense suffix of the Breton perfect is. 1 gellimp or gillimp where it may be observed whenever the weak i follows.. livirimp.. . furnishes other interesting examples. the last two obeying the vowel. goufenn. ' I could. . guild or . to be stole. birvi. Thus the suffix iz of the perfect has been crushed and destroyed in the persons of that tense which follow the first singular. liviliviri. 3. kredann deskann diski. and so of I . gallzomp or gellzomp or gellzot . gell6\ pi. From the verb Still amid all the violations of the law. and with gall whenever the 2. according as obedience is paid to the obscured * of iz. kridi. gellinn or gillinn . the syllable iz.pp. 3. 1 gwiemp 2. gallzont or gellzoht. . Hence only in the first person is the weak vowel fixed in the first syllable.' 1. Thus we have for the perf.. INFIN. as well as the perfect participle gwez-et. gellint or ffillint. I said . But it must not be supposed that such extreme obedience to the vowel-law will be found to run through this verb. \ . ye say liviriz. because here we have the law of assimilation acting Thus..gwizenn. 163. gwiech 3. learn mow boil .. and thus without the aid of comparative grammar we should fail in the explanation of So again the three forms of the conditional gwtsoud. whose root is no doubt identical with that of the Latin valere. livirinn. is also very instructive . gwijen. gelli or gilli 3. This full form has maintained its ground only in the first person. 1ST PER. so that z alone of the suffix remains. to say. would furnish examples contradictory to the principle for which we are contending.. gallaz or gellaz pi. g&rann gwiri. The verb gall-out. 2. I say leverez. exhibit some regularity. just as fregimus has superseded the form freg-is-imus. as we just noticed. as it now exists. acknowledge the presence of the weak-vowel-ed suffix by their adaptation to it. We have here that extreme case of assimilation on the weak side . medann bervann midi. . No doubt the Breton. gallzoud or . 1 . ' for I should know. The table of irregular infinitives given by Legonidec. .199 knew 2. thou wilt rit. conjugation of this verb. Thus the future . g6r brood . 3. suffix has a strong o. we will say. gallot or gellot . gwient all the imperative mood. or to the strong vowel of the personal suffixes. lavarann. we must be permitted to quote a few forms. 162. : in connexion with the imperative and first person indicative.

g. explanation in English grammars. that the umlaut in these words has been produced by the weak vowel of a lost suffix in their fuller forms. g. and thus we are the more justified view. find to found. dog . men. teeth. law rotha. a knife sgine. neul. . lice. sail. geese. . bricht (for in opposing Grimm's brichit). g. which possessing the fitting . . cow. swine. who would reject in such case the doctrine of the umlaut. as bb. women. The idea of comparing such plurals with the strong perfects is surely upset by the very nature of the vowel-change. mice.sfeci through feaci from fefaci. a bell. . In particular the umlaut-ed plurals appear not to have yet found a . alt. . g. as gleann. sebl. a joint. the strengthening of weaker sounds. of a raven mic. of a head. the substitution of a weak vowel for a strong one is apparent. . glinne. for the o in women has a sound very different from what belongs to that vowel. . coise. of a son ceann. valley . of a wheel. of a stone cos or cas. as a sister of the German. of a foot cloy or dag. the weakened vowel commonly bears testimony to its previous mac. cloud. a. There are two points already dwelt upon. we have precisely the converse action. which may receive useful viz. coin. Besides. as clock or clack. . cuir . g. of a knife but this only when the preceding vowel of the stem is a strong one. still to retain a remnant of its original character Now the fullest form of the geniin the form of the sound we or wi. g. . car. modified vowel.200 which was before noticed in the German brechen. ganse. Accordingly those writers on our language who have come to the study with a knowledge of the German languages. valley sgian. as the disyllabic German manner. uilt . In the passage from swim to swam. &c. a raven fithich. or even a of the stem passes into ui or oi under the influence of a dog (Gaelic Gram.fregi from frango and there is little doubt that these arise from a compression of two sylNow in all the lables into one. g. of the Highland Society. cloige . as veni from veni-o. and very different from what we have in the singular woman. the tendency of the u sound under the weakening process. kine. our own language also contains words. . . neoil. . m'duse. 7 b). cow . earn. of a cow . or at least of the Anglo-Saxon. the loss of a illustration from the Gaelic branch of the Celtic suffix after it has influenced and because it has influenced the preceding vowel and secondly. liluse. it is to be expected that some traces of the law of assimilated vowels should appear. This sometimes degenerates into a final e. . of a sometimes into a final a. . Nay. have not wholly neglected the principle yet it has scarcely received even in them the attention it deserves. a son existence. see to saw. tival suffix in Gaelic is in. of law commonly the suffix is itself lost still if the stem ends in a consonant. still retain the plural suffix. cti. which distinguish themselves from the present by a longer vowel. a heap of stones. in many cases the u. . Besides. boin. siuil . the cognate languages clearly exhibit the fact. roth. there seems much truth in the theory that such perfects are to be compared with those of the Latin third conjugation. sow. as brethren. p. plurals. stone. feet. . a head cinn. o. a turn. a foot. In our own language. cuirn. Lastly. of the weak suffix. Most as lagh. . wheel lagha. g. as fitheach. bnckst. doiche. beside the strong or at least stronger vowels in brother.

fetter. cock. Margaret. &c. firkin. precisely in this way that the Breton having first formed an irregular gwell-och. Emily. let t (obsol. grazier. where a weak suffix has influenced the formation. The o in mother is no longer the true o of our alphabet. glazier. On the other hand. kernel. wolk {obsol. one.fiichsinn.). by the addition of the ordinary comparatival suffix och. twain. Jemmy. muchf. subsequently drops this och. fodder. vixen*. pray. when It is the addition of that suffix has led to a modification of the body of the word. Jane. So too in Jenny and English we write an e and pronounce a short English i. beside Little //</ham. Angle. partakes in part of the strong sound The following then may serve as a very imperfect list of umlaut-ed English words: . fifty.). Jenkins. pipe. welkin. brittle. For this superlative we may compare latest. have here assumed the correctness of the argument which was published In that paper not in the year 1844 (Alphabet. hudkin. mickle. glass. Peggie. quake. radish. besser. The AngloSaxon adverbs ma. grass. 153) upon this subject.' as in Much Hadham. shiver. better. little. kitten. because the first part is sufficiently distinguished from the positive. still preserved in the Latin ma-ter. elder. been reduced to less. chicken. English. + We assume that let' is the original stem-syllable of little. foal. sufficient stress was laid upon the change from good or German gut. prythee. partly on the evidence of lesser and least for letter and letest. twenty. brass. and gwas-och. In the following list of English words. Meggie. Again. Amelia. filly. break. better . five.201 seems therefore a violation of all principle to ascribe to the modivowel any intrinsic power of denoting plurality.through gwetter also in mavolo We VOL. compared with what is heard in the root-vowel a of the Latin fra-ter and Italian fra. four. pipkin. and best from an older betest while the twofold That lesser should have letter and lesser correspond to Eng. corn. food. green. SB . girkin. foot. cat. John. v. but represents a sound already influenced by the weak vowel in the suffix (her. (whence maid) has the same truncated ma for ntagis. fox. on the confines of Hertfordshire and Essex. better. p. brethren. brother. hood. and bet. Jenny. better. any. better. t Note the old use of much for great. mistress. good. children. mister. pipe. old. now reduced to last. Germ. gourd. care should be taken by the youthful reader It fied not to be led astray by the anomalies of English writing. is only another example of a word discarding a suffix. more. Brother has suffered a similar modification. and so we find the monosyllabic gwell. child. are examples at home. shake. James. * This is more clearly seen in the German fuchs. gwaz. worse. The original root-syllable was no doubt ma. in the first syllable of any we have a sound which is weaker even than what a German represents by his umlauted a. worse. brazier. and the Latin ' . and we might well have written the word enny. root. quiver. master. Greenwich. the i heard in five.

Mr. Bryn-ing-land. the modification of the vowels falls under . from Pada. Buck's Nottingham. Kemble himself suggests. iv. guerra. * Vol. Welsh.202 Again. in some the vowel of the pression. where. to brood. dearth. death. Society's Proceedings. Birmingham. Willis's vowel-order when considering the laws according to which a Greek strengthens the short vowels of a root. Wedgwood has explained on a different view*. 234. we should have reason to regard Read-ing as originally meaning only Read's farm. beside nob and top. dear. p. Fr. We Read's . Broom's . from Kama. Lancing. vol. tip. Copp's. . would have been an apt illustration of the change. which however Mr. the principle we are considering. next pass to the so-called classical languages . Buckingham. Nott's and thus possibly Teddington may be Mr. . worth. Tooke's . from a stem gor. We 1 Let the following tabular view be kept in mind t ot) to better. guerre. who. length. with only a slight We have already quoted not a variety of sense. die. long. p. heilig. filth. Mr. steal. assuffix has disappeared under com(obsol. as Mr. In the same way and it would seem that chicken from cock has been reduced to chick In some cases may be difficult to assign mitive. Lance's . &c. The example which has been quoted from the Breton of gouz in gouzout becoming gwet before a weak vowel. wide. Perhaps too it would not be unreasonable to assume an old Latin guella. then disappears. Paedingtun. ii. war. So also (as given above) gioiri. Hemingford and 200. 113. vowel. Here a friend has pointed out to us the advantage of keeping in view Mr. Mr.of volv-o and again we have. whilk. war. hallow and Germ. and on the other the more modern forms. Mr. Mr. canal and kennel. stealth. cannot quit the domain of the English language without a brief reference to Mr. from the proper name Briin . if what we say be correct. p. Hann's . .or guerra-. as in Eng. Mr. 1-10. Kemble's list there occur instances of the modified en. Mr. whence on the one hand duello. and in our two verbs wallow and welter. Wales. lav e : d o v r) W ov (ev .. birth. few instances where a suffix having performed its unintended office of modifying a preceding vowel. If the same principle be applied to names in our existing maps. bear. 199. Twickenham. Chippenham. it the form of the priwhere derivatives contain either two strong or two weak vowels. as 125. possibly a similar process may be the real explanation of the forms nib. of the f Ibid. Ital. wor . foul. 2. heal health. Mr.). Hemingtnin. Cobb's or Mr. Todd's Hennington. So Jemmy from James is subsequently cut down to Jem or Jim. Eng. width. Kemble's interesting paper f on those names of towns in England which contain the syllable ing . and first to the Greek. and we would include therewith those which possess the perhaps equivalent suffix In Mr.and hello-. . both from a root which occurs in the Greek Fe\of eiAw and vol. France. French.

velim. vw/za-. one of the most marked advantages which attend the observation of Mr. ' . yovo-.-. because there is reason to believe that this compound pronoun is formed by reduplication alone. the last with something like uniformity maintaining the original sound. oo sound one derived from the weak end of the series. materie. The outlying forms ot and eu (like our sounds we and you) may possibly owe their adoption to another cause. In the Latin language. volam. Lastly. rovro. with strong vowels. have also some distinct examples of the umlaut in bene. e-yepfle. volunt. vo/ii.. That we are not wrong in treating the vowel o of ov as a virtual w. fico. as Mr. beside volo. beside the verbal stem epe(p-.and torque-. as from vep. &c. is best On the "same principle. * Yet the interposition of a double consonant seems to stop the current of Thus we have icXoirevs but jr\67rrjs also e\9pa. Willis's arrangement is found in the As i and e explanation of the double declension of many nouns. we find beside each other luxurie. compared with the Latin. each performing the office for the pair of short vowels which so adjoin it. Secondly. o-8vp-. vellem. a-ya0-o-. so we have nubi. The law of similar vowels is also visible in those Greek words which prefix a euphonic vowel. and w to represent au. beside <rrpe$..and luxuria-. principle explains the appearance of an o in such perOther instances of strong vowels herding nepova. a-/ua.and materia-. yeres-.203 The four diphthongs or long vowels which lie under the gaps separating the short vowels are precisely those which are employed to strengthen them. The same fects as etXo^a. Here it may be observed that rj seems to represent at. can scarcely be brought under the principle of example . Willis especially observes. intermingling their declensions.and bona-. the neighbourhood of a and o accounts for the union of two declensions in such adjectives as bono. although many of our Latin grammars find it convenient to ignore such nominatives as aedis.and domu-. are neighbour vowels. so to say. The former two nearly always require a substitution of o for e. ex^pos. and neuters in es. &c. as is the case in the allied languages. The of OVTOS. e-yeip- . we have an example of the influence extending through two vowels. the close relationship between o and u explains the confusion between domo.t yev-. raXas and roA/zjj. would appear from the forms otca. aurrf. ropo-. But the most clearly marked instances are seen In the contrast of masculine nouns with the suffix o. If we wish to draw special attention to the sound (of the continent). aedi- and aede-.and ficu-. the one or other being adopted according as the attraction lies in the direction of the weak or the strong vowels. are orpw^a-. &c. 0-%-.*. 2n2 . assimilated vowels. of a vowel sound belonging to the other end of the gamut for the clear perception of vowel sound. velle. ve/ues- . oivos. o-(j>pv. beside In optumus we bono.and rep. we cannot do better than prefix to it a small dose. And lastly. tOpa. We attraction. feminines in r). as ct-vayK-?/-.and nube-. yo'?j. e-6e\-. ev prefixes to the felt by sudden contrast. when derived from a stem with e. Thirdly. in opo^os and opo<f>r). torqui. as e and a are neighbours.

the weak vowel being modified by the following . &c. whence commonly represented by Latin adjecto ftpa^v. we have in such old form incolumu-. while bonumus. in a similar relation stands pedis to irotios. to O>KV-. i for a in such words is . eorum. seem to show that the substitution of not due to the nature of the vowel in the preposition.) as a derivative from ped-. habit of using e as an equivalent for a y sound before the vowels o We . e. in the Norse.and incolumi. from the have verb kalla grew out a perfect first pers. There t. pingui-. id. Thus the Latin language having a special love for weak vowels. odor. and on the This brings to mind the Anglo-Saxon other eo.(obsol. as seen in the privative particle in-. the influence of the vowels upon the consonants. lingua. to Hence In three of these words we see the stem vowel adaptxaxy-. &c. to semi. to an obsol.sibilants.corresponds brevi-. ea. the compounds suscipio. But all such questions may be postponed to another occasion. elsewhere claimed the Latin substantive pol-lubro. shot. ceding syllable to influence a following one. igni. ff. But at times such change appears to have been neglected.t are here brought to a new branch of the subject.represents the Sanscrit agni-. langue. as home to exchange that vowel for a weak tives in e (fern. In the same Tra^v-. Another instance of our principle is seen at work in the declension of is. already well disposed at way the Greek adjectives in v. sceolon.. * So t No concipio. or u. o. too our own bet-est. iens. eXa^u-. and the conjugation of the verb ire . eum. eunt.. that is/ and ch English and French. kolluft-um. &c. ea. adj.). which analogy would demand. by no violent letter-change. itis. from the adj.are closely related words has been stated before this. That calamitat. earl. beside oyu/3po. where the o serves the same euphonic purpose as v in oq>pv-.. are i. while the long o of ociseems to owe its preservation to its weight.supplanted an earlier u. beside the French sans. believed that the law of assimilated vowels would furnish a more correct explanation than usually given of the alleged metathesis in the case of liquids. scedt. the vowel e is preferred to i. precisely that double vowel-change by which. We are also other relations between vowels and consonants on which the In particular it is vowel-order i. levi-. earn. it is no way surprising to find the Latin imbri-. u would throw light. ow^-. a. the Lat. Tra^e-ta). partly because it is at variance with the European law of vowel-change for the preBesides this. from capio. as in changing the sounds of d. ing itself to the" weak i of the Latin suffix . instiiuo. k. as eo. shall. notice has been taken of the change in such words as statuo. and sine. becomes. and if the final i of incolumi. Lithuanian ugni-. plur. ociter. now best). a. while in the verb we have on the one hand ire. o. pl.204 have probably an abbreviation of a form o-bot-umus. beside the Greek av-. or rather imberi-*. It may also be useful to contrast Latin with Greek forms. euntis. oci. and as e-orl or e-arl. botumus (comp.(n. whenever in these words the initial vowel is followed by one of the vowels a.

Derivations of words * the second. O. not a simple. Article. Anglo-Saxon examples of a term intruded 98-101. 97-101. origin of Hi. before 450 A. Gothic settlements in.INDEX TO VOL. in. 175-183. Latin and Russian. verb. V. ADAMS (E. 13-24. 159-163. and some speci- Cockayne (T. Alphabets of Greece and Rome. of. 55 a state. Anglo-Saxon and Early-English Syntax on a curious tmesis sometimes met with in. its and history of the. 12. meaning and derivation . partly derived from the Egyptian. Belgae. their origin Bopp. 71. an account of mens of its labours. the third. 15. B. 26. 3. 83-88. 22 . 1-6. the Devanagari or Sanscrit. in Britain pre- Alphabet. 9-12. the origin of certain. is part of the noun in form. : abie. 53. . 14 Gothic. Brunanburgh war-song. 101. into. . Conjugation. 33. in Britain. extent of their distribution in Gaul. 22. Sanscrit. 107. in Latin.) on the Greek Middle Verb.. 133-142. the demonstrative. 56. and denotes action. the oldest. remarks on the probability of Gothic settlements i>. his mistake in taking the ancient Slavonic instead of the modern. derived from eating. 54. Compounds. on a Lokrian inscription. explanation of a passage Cambridge Etymological Society. an abstract. Britain. . 13.. nature . . Anglo-Saxon idioms.) vious to 450 A.D. Color. . it and its plans.

206 .

Maurice. W. . F. cyrs-treow (a cherry-tree). 51-70." 41-49.. examples of. cawl (colewort). - on the derivation and meaning of hiscere and hiare. ing. R. origin of the forms. origin of its form. port (a gate). article. 61. . win (wine). 56. and Timbuctu Vocabularies of the Timbuctu language. H. M and N. Normans. 7. meaning of. 58 the suffix r or * of it is the accusative . tin. 25 Day. the simple verb the one fountain 51-55.. 29. in Latin. particularly on the formation of the Middle or Passive Voice. Members elected Case. 71 Davies. kebar (a rafter). ter-ere.) on Greek Hexameters. how related to other European languages. cycene (a kitchen). col-or. . Philological Society. on the origin of certain Anglo-Saxon idioms. . on his extraordinary powers as a linguist. 149.. reflective. 61. 89. streete (a road). 191. has no S. influence of their conquest of Russia on its people and literature. the " abrupt tone. originally an active participle. &c. Nominative. ceaster (a city). cylene (an oven). brick). pysa (a pea). G. in Anglo-Saxon and on certain foreign terms. 71-73. weall (a wall of defence). 25 Clarke. vitupe89-96 torque-re.) on the Kissour. J. : . their arrangement and their accidents. Sungai. Roots which substitute a final t for of. mar-beam (a mulberry-tree). how Perfect.207 Guest (H. 191-204. MEZZOFANTI. 149-157. pent (a pear). ought to collect single etymologies. 169-174 . on Vowel-Assimilation. 65. 103-109. Pronoun.. Kosaks. Voice. on a curious tmesis. 83-88. especially ments on Vowel-Sounds. 27. their names. adopted by our ancestors prior to their settlement in the British Islands heerf-eat (harvest). patrare. . 3. J. 185-189. 68. the B. 57. 25. and their literature. Maiden (H. Sanscrit or Devanagari alphabet. J. and meaning of formed. Middle or Passive Voice. tigle (a tile.) on the Roots of Language. the form of the Russian. er-ian (to ear).. our ore). 97-101. origin of the forms. 4. reciprocus. in Latin.. 57. rare. A. mylen (a mill). Anglo-Saxon termination. 7. ar (brass Hodgson (W. Cardinal. which Early-English Syntax. : nape (a turnip).. 60. H. A. 41-50. on the formation of. 69. W. in relation to Professor Willis's Experi- KKUP or tion.penig (a penny). castel (a fortress). 127-131. KRUK. is sometimes met with. H.) on the nature of the Verb. its Language. Hose. 143-148. vesica. & and . Passive or Middle Voice. on words fundamentally connected with the notion of Contracand formally referable to a root Krup or Kruk. duru (a door). denotes the agent. Key (T. Munro. 5. 111-125. 73-75. . 25 Weyraouth. se.

an account of the late Cambridge Etymological Society and its plans. with some specimens of its labours. Writing. a curious one in Anglo-Saxon and Early-English Syntax. freeze. Tmesis. 26. particularly the formation of the Middle or Passive Voice. and formally referable to a root KRUP or KRUK. and a list of the 114 English words derived from this root. 77-82.). on the Kissour. of simplex. PRINTED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS. pinfold.. 2. Whewell (W. on words fundamentally connected with the notion of contraction. 31-39. of.208 sim-. sin-. to 6lear. to haunt. Trithen (F. 25-29. 25-29. FLEET STREET. bug. Slavonic Dialects. 7-12. sewer. to gudgeon. on English etymologies award. RED LION COURT. pindar. on words formed from the roots Smu and Snu imitative of sounds made by breathing or blowing through the nose. island. 97101. sincerus. : amuse. of.) on the Traces of an Egyptian Origin in the alphabets of Greece and Rome. 147-148. to sound. Watts (T. and Timbuctu Vocabularies of 73-75. pound. among the other languages of the written. means unity. bugbear. Words similar in form. : stave. among the Verb. to soar. 133-142. Timbuctu language. to beg. 65. to sap. 7-12. risk. H. to dade. &c. not the oral Literature ence. Wedgwood (H. earnest. 79. is solely the result of Western influ- Race is divided into two great branches. on the Nature 51-70. . 143-147. a on English etymologies Old Nick. 1-6. frieze. 27. Sungai. cozen. 111-125. on the extraordinary powers of Cardinal Mezzofanti as a linguist. scarlet. to able.) on the Devanagari or Sanscrit alphabet. causeway or causey. cully. dock. the position occupied by them the Indo-European family. cutlass. shore. . 127-131. 26 characteristics of both. frizzle. the.) on the position occupied by the Slavonic Dialects other languages of the Indo-European family. but radically distinct. 28. our system derived from Egypt. to muse. curtleax. to wait. bogle. 83-88. the eastern and western. skaits. to earn. 165-167.