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Experimental Colorless Reception of 16×DP-16QAM at 28 and 30 Gbaud Using a Si-Integrated Coherent Receiver

Mathieu Chagnon1, Mohamed Osman1, Qunbi. Zhuge1, Xian Xu1, Michel Poulin2, Yves Painchaud2, Martin Pelletier2, Carl Paquet2 and David.V. Plant1 1 McGill University, Photonic Systems Group, 3480 University St., Montreal, Canada, H3A 0E9 2 TeraXion, 2716 Rue Einstein, Quebec City, Canada, G1P 4S8, † Abstract: We experimentally study the performance of a colorless Si-based integrated balanced coherent receiver. The receiver performs error free on 16 DP-16QAM channels after 1280 km, providing 3.2 Tbps. LO power and channel count dependence are investigated. OCIS codes: (060.2330) Fiber optics communications; (060.1660) Coherent communications

1. Introduction High speed communications are now running at 100 Gbps using Dual Polarization (DP) QPSK format and coherent detection [1]. Nevertheless, there is a constant pressure for increasing transmission rates, and higher spectral efficiency, per channel and over dense wavelength multiplexing, presents a convenient way to meet the demand. In this context, 16QAM modulation format is perceived as a logical candidate after QPSK for doubling the data rate. On the receiver side, coherent detection allows simple tuning of a Local Oscillator (LO) to select a specific channel. This offers the potential of removing the channel selecting filter in front of the receiver. Additionally, coherent receivers equipped with a balanced architecture can greatly suppress noise terms common to pairs of photodiodes, hence reducing interference terms including self-beat noise from out of band (OOB) channels [1,2,3,4]. In other respects, silicon photonics is drawing a lot of attention due to its potential for high integration at high yield on a small footprint and low cost manufacturing thanks to its compatibility with CMOS process [5]. The receiver used for coherent detection requires integrating the passive optical functions for phase and polarization diversity with balanced photo-detection and electronic amplification. Silicon photonics is thus well suited for this application. In this paper, we experimentally investigate the performance of a SiP-COH-Rx as a colorless receiver for a WDM spectrum of 16 channels modulated in DP-16QAM on a 50 GHz grid at 28 and 30 Gbaud, with signal propagation over dispersion uncompensated, EDFA amplified SMF-28e+ fiber. The receiver performs error free up to a distance of more than 320 km at 28 Gbaud for a HD-FEC threshold of 3.8×10–3 at 12% overhead and up to 1280 km at 30 GBaud for a SD-FEC threshold of 2.4×10–2 at 20% overhead [6], in both cases sustaining a total bit rate of 3.2 Tbps. Secondly, we assess the impact of the number of OOB channels and LO power on the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the recovered signal constellations. In accordance with [2], we demonstrate severe performance degradation for low LO powers when an increasing number of OOB channels are impinging on the receiver. We relate this dependence to the scaling factor β of the signal to noise and interference ratio (SIR) [2, 3], which accounts for the impact of the polarization orientation of aggressor channels on the in-band self beat noise they generate. We experimentally show that presenting more OOB channels to the receiver has an impact on β only when the channels have little in-band ASE noise, which enhances their peak-to-power-average-ratio (PAPR) dependence on their state of polarization (SOP). The receiver performance dependence on the number of OOB channels is shown to be greatly minimized for high LO powers. 2. Experimental Setup A schematic of the experimental setup is shown in Fig. 1. 15 DFB lasers plus an external cavity laser (ECL) are multiplexed and bulk modulated with a dual parallel Mach-Zehnder (DPMZ) modulator, driven by the I- and Qsignal from two 6-bit DACs. Channels are on a 50 GHz grid where λ1=1551.68 nm and λ16=1557.73 nm. The sampling rate of the DACs are either 28 or 30 GSa/s, at 1 sample/symbol. Dual polarization is emulated by two polarization beam splitter/combiners (PBS/PBC) and an optical delay line (ODL). A delay of 363 symbols is imposed at 28 Gbaud and 389 symbols at 30 Gbaud. This 16-channel DP-16QAM signal is then boosted and attenuated to get the desired launch power per channel of –0.5 dBm. It is then launched into an optical recirculating loop consisting of 4 spans of 80 km of SMF 28e+ fiber, all followed by an EDFA with 5 dB noise figure. Neither

the power per channel before the COH-Rx is relatively high at –6 dBm/ch for a colorless receiver collecting large numbers of OOB channels [2]. The solid black line represents BER=3. 2. The electrical front end of the SiP integrated COH-Rx offers 4 differential outputs for the +/– values of In. Our assessment is twofold. The wavelength/bandwidth tunable filter is only present when we vary the number of OOB Channels inline dispersion compensation modules nor any gain flattening filters are present in the propagation path: all 16 wavelengths spanning 800 GHz are left amplified as is by the EDFAs. nested in a phase lock loop (PLL) [8] for simultaneous phase tracking. Second. λ=1554. Measurement Results Fig. 3. For these experiments. For fairness in comparison.5 dBm and varying propagation distances of 0. 1. for varying LO powers and propagated distances. We adjusted the bandwidth of the tunable filter to vary the number of Fig. For experiments where all 16 channels are presented to the receiver and the BER is computed for every channel. 320 and 640 km. without any optical pre-filter/pre-amplifier and no gain flattening filters in the propagation path.8×10–3 … AWG … ˆ Qx ˆ I y ˆ Qy ˆ Ix Silicon Integrated COH-Rx Δλ. The signal is not differentially encoded.and ˆ and y ˆ basis. 9 or 16 channels of DP-16QAM at 28 Gbaud are presented to the receiver for LO powers of a) 6 b) 10 c) 15. The ECLs have linewidths below 100 kHz. We terminate every negative output and real-time sample all the positives using Quad-phase of both x four 8-bit ADCs at 80 GSa/s having a 3dB BW of 33 GHz. BER of central channel (Ch. allowing substantial rejection of signal components that are common to pairs of photodiodes and quantified by the common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) [3]. Then a blind Stokes space polarization derotation [7] matrix is estimated and used to initialize the central taps of a 31-tap double input/double output adaptive equalizer operating in the least mean square (LMS) algorithm. and demonstrate the penalty dependence over the LO power. we experimentally analyze and quantify the SNR penalty of the data channel when a varying numbers of OOB channels are presented to the integrated SiP-COH-Rx. The integrated SiP COH-Rx is composed of four balanced photodetectors and differential TIAs. 9. Δδλ Filter sw 3dB coupler . we always maintain a fixed target voltage peak-to-peak swing by adjusting the TIA gain such that we maintain 160 mVpp. apply the inverse chromatic dispersion in the frequency domain and find the intermediate frequency between Signal and LO using the FFT of the signal at 4th power. we always reconfigure the inputs to the arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) such that the “Signal” channel is consistently the ECL. we characterize the performance of the SiP COH-Rx over a dense WDM spectrum under different propagation distances for 28 and 30 Gbaud. We apply this for back-to-back (B2B). Digital signal processing (DSP) is then applied offline for every trace collected and proceeds as follows. The WDM signal can leave the loop after any desired loop rounds and either shine directly on the SiP integrated COH-Rx or previously pass through a tunable bandwidth/tunable central frequency optical filter for experiments where the number of OOB channel presented at the Rx is varied. We first resample at 2 Sa/Sym. the tunable filter in the red dashed box of Fig 1 is removed.9 nm) when 1. 320 km and 640 km transmission and evaluate the impact of the SOP alignment of other aggressor channels. 2 presents the impact of the number of incident channels on the SiP coherent receiver’s performance. When the WDM spectrum leaves the loop. First. Experimental setup.DFB ECL DAC-Q DPMZ DAC-I PBS ODL PC PC ECL PBC Booster fiber EDFA VOA sw DFB Realtime Scope Fig.

We show that the penalty from increasing the number of OOB channels presented to the receiver is strongly mitigated after propagation. this penalty significantly drops to 1.8 to 1. 3 c) depicts this and shows electrical SNR.8 dB compared to receiving a single channel. This shows that even if some λ‘s get more amplified than others after 20 EDFAs. OFC’2012. et al. pp. The SNR in B2B varies the most over different data channels. When more channels are present. for all 16 wavelengths. We can see in Fig. After a propagation of 640 km where the WDM signal passed through 8 EDFAs.2 Tbps. Huang.2 to 0. The 12. 2012 [7] M. This severe performance degradation in B2B is due to the worst β factor (γ factor) in the SIR. Zhang. 4. 10339-10352. 2012. and the dependence is masked for increasing LO power. et al. 2011 [5] L. ECOC’12.. et al. 3. the β value is very sensitive to the SOPs of OOB channels. ECOC’2011. The interference of coincident channels on the data channel is dependent on the polarization alignment of said adjacent channels with respect to the PBS axis of the coherent receiver. IEEE Trans. which also confirms conclusions drawn in Fig. their in-band noise floor increases accordingly in such a way that their SNR varies little.channels going into the receiver to be either 1. in both cases sustaining a total bit rate of 3. OE. pp.66 dB amongst all channels from 320 km to 1600 km.2 dB and at 15.5. 7605.9 nm) from the recovered constellations. thus improving and maintaining system performance for increasing numbers of OOB channels [2]. 5. et al.. the interference penalty significantly drops for both high and low LO powers: at 6 dBm.2. Nelson. on Comm. manuscript submitted [8] D.3. drops from 1.91 dB. of SPIE. more are likely to be misoriented and yield high PAPRs. 28. Vol. 2933-2943.34 dB marker in c) is the theoretical required SNR for a BER of 2. 2012 [3] L. increasing β as it scales with the signal-signal beat noise current variance [3]. 2010 [6] X. 3 b) the relative BER flatness of all 16 channels for Fig. Godard. in Proc. Zhou et al. the receiver performs error free up to a distance of more than 320 km at 28 Gbaud for a HD-FEC and up to 1280 km at 30 GBaud for a SD-FEC.2. 28. We compute both the BER and the SNR of only the central channel (λ9=1554.2 dB when the LO power is high at 15.. by 0. Vol. 2. BER and SNR results for all channels. 3..1 dB. Fig. We also demonstrate error free operation on all 16×DP-16QAM channels after 1280 km at 30 GBaud for a total bit rate of 3.. 1980 . is also well depicted by figures a) through c) when comparing the slope of the BER against channel count after 320 and 640 km for increasing LO powers.4×10-2 for 16QAM modulation format using Grey coding and a standard threshold detector for AWGN channels up to 1600 km even without any gain flattening filters. OE. We observe that the SNR doesn’t vary by more than 0. In B2B at a low LO power of 6 dBm.2 Tbps. the coherent receiver seeing 16 channels has a penalty of 4. Conclusion We experimentally studied the sensitivity of a colorless integrated SiP COH-Rx packaged with TIAs.B. These results confirm that for low ASE noise power (in B2B). 20.13. 9 or 16.5 dBm.5 dBm. paper We. With a LO power fixed at 15. Acknowledgments: We would like to thank MICRAM© for the DACs. paper OM2A. for all LO powers. as predicted by [2] ([3]). [2] B. Xie et al. as different SOPs yield different PAPRs [2. A higher LO power increases the numerator of the SIR and helps suppress the effect of residual self-beat noise. paper Th.. All channels are DP-16QAM at 28 Gbaud.5 dBm. Chen. 2010 [4] C. penalty drops from 4. Chagnon et al. The results of the overall performance of the SiP COH-Rx for detecting every channels of the DWDM spectrum it is presented with are shown in Fig..A.3]. Vol. JLT Vol. after final constellations are recovered. References [1] Y. The impact of the LO power. or of the LO-to-signal-power-ratio (LOSPR) [4].. The dependence of the PAPR over SOP is masked after propagation as ASE noise is added independently on all polarizations by several EDFAs [2].