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Orality's Revenge: Jubiabá and the Defiance of the "Lettered City" Author(s): Chris T.

Schulenburg Source: Latin American Literary Review, Vol. 35, No. 70 (Jul. - Dec., 2007), pp. 43-56 Published by: Latin American Literary Review Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20120000 . Accessed: 29/07/2013 13:03
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38. and and schools in Latin American cities. and mostly the "lettered and force wielded incredible (the aforementioned city") by the a distinct separation between This group quickly encouraged of the Latin American the overwhelming majority population trans which inhabited an illiterate. In his book The Lettered City. However.134. 29 Jul 2013 13:03:09 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . In the 1920's. etc. The incorporation of Amado's certain sambas into the repertoire of Balduino's protagonist Antonio urban mass media available in Salvador da Bahia at first seems to foresee a loss of cultural independence that these sambas once enjoyed. the epic ABC that Balduino receives on the novel's last page. erudite. Rama suggests an intimate connec closed group of literate men tion between an exclusive. Jorge especially case study containing Brazilian these opposite tensions. a dramatic formation of the traditional power dynamic occurred with the proliferation written itself word. and this the centrality of non-written eliminate in the case of Brazil's of orality is frequently liter recognized phenomenon ' an Amado's novel Jubiab? offers instructive ary history.80 on Mon. Still.ORALITY'S REVENGE: JUBIAB? AND THE DEFIANCE OF THE "LETTERED CITY" CHRIST SCHULENBURG UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-PLATTEVILLE of Europe's conquest of Latin America.) of this hegemonic all else represented an essential manifestation European power. According above critic ?ngel Rama. of newspapers. From the first moments politi to the cal thoughts and plans revealed a distinctly urban quality. a marked in Latin did not increase in the overall America literary aptitude elements from its literature. and Amado's novel in general. magazines. writing (in the form of laws. affirm the ongoing presence of the nation's oral tradition in manifestations of "high culture" in Brazil. oral terrain. The ambiguous place that orality occupies in the structural scheme of This content downloaded from 200. urban mappings.

] you do not need a hero in the brought by writing a in old sense to mobilize story form" (Ong 70).. had served a specific function As noted by Ong: "The heroic and marvelous in an oral world. they longer obliged to another literate but upon becoming to these exceptional thus allow their writers characters. therefore.38. Above all. 29 Jul 2013 13:03:09 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Bobby According ABC is a poetic manifestation that is primarily linked with themes of an epic in the novel Jubiab? nature (20). to J. Oral cultures recall these larger-than-life inmind. one the subsequent these of oral from passing representations generation the presence of epic characters presents outstanding alongside of these tools (Ong 35). the former never ceases to divorce from the epic and A study byWalter Ong insists the written word and its vocal articula to demonstrate of important vestiges to consider it is necessary its oral history (8). activating organizational figures capable on which Ong signals this heroic and epic character as the oral cornerstone automatic associations and related events with their traditional discourses are built (69). the of the aforementioned form Chamberlain.134. For discourses sambas sell well. In addition. on the strong connection between tion. the impact that and rhythms are delivers upon its unprinted products. With the control of information in organizing knowledge about and memory [. Novels themselves to employ ordinary personalities since the written the freedom story need not depend upon the spectacular moments that anchor its oral counterpart. indeed. poeta quis capitalist e outras coisas que ABC nao valia nada. Only certain oral themes are still Baldu?no Anisio Pereira: valued inRama's century.2 The various references reflects these heroic itself sists in the novel and of its popular heroes lettered attempts to banish the community's ability to preserve are strong signs of an oral culture that re to a strictly written realm. the idea of the fact that Balduino's the former's text to commemorate fails the ABC dedicated to his hero the same attention tive case of Jubiab?. the overwhelmingly regardless example. Formulas memory means two the remembrance and of facilitating of oral cultural creations. personalities are no to restrict societies.80 on Mon. In the narra knowledge of the epic genre of the ABC and significant artistic decision.44 Latin American Literary Review that is impossible itself is a concept writing urban subtexts that permeate the novel Jubiab?. an curious represents especially memories to receive from the poet and o so os dois "Mas disse que o sambas. que os versos estavam quebrados nao entend?a" (Amado 255). On poetic lettered city during the first decades of the twentieth Brazilian urban-centered the other hand. a written of utilizing Zumbi dos Palmares This content downloaded from 200. the protagonist Antonio Balduino the addition deeds monumental preoccupations by both accomplishing a the and emotional becomes (he champion spark behind boxing a labor strike) and receiving his ABC honors (an prestigious celebrating to the oral character of the ABC legendary feats).. Similarly.

responded the University of S?o Paulo. Writing became but also a nearly religious for the cultural. and the high priority of its function lent it a sacred aspect [. munal and even its use of sense. incorporating a permanent bond with their spoken language. the inclusion of an epic alonside (133-4). removed lettered city in Latin America in 1934 with the creation of a centre of intel from political power. the example of Buenos Aires suggests that discourses such as the newspaper a strong following stimulated their often urban among consumers by embracing the latter's lingering oral tendencies: "These news the inflections of papers changed the language of journalism. Indeed. In the final city imposes upon orality the manifestation of the radio and the sambas sold analysis. radio broadcasts largely originated cities. its concentration In formulas" his novel Jubiab?. for one. by Newspapers. Amado and literature of the lettered to debate the hegemonic control that writing to a purely oral culture. and above all they established their culture and interests" (Sarlo readers. 29 Jul 2013 13:03:09 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .38. in its letters: "The lettered city acted upon and political power preserved the order of signs. Moreover. they do not cease to incorporate oral urban civilization will certainly avoid a return identifies moment another oral Ong ("secondary and radio and the relations of consumption that new bind them with their audience: "This necessarily orality has striking to the old in its participatory mystique. economic. journals..Orality's Revenge: Jubiab? and the Defiance of the "Lettered City" 45 mass media from The was patently unable to exclude each and every trace of orality products. While discourses.80 on Mon. in Latin America's and by the 1920's. Brazil's elites utilized of the written this urban university sign in communicating to more between entrench the value thoroughly themselves and increasingly. Therefore. continues component. to the [Vargas] regime" (Sevcenko resistance lettered 98).] The order of signs appeared as the realm of the Spirit. not only a tool of the literate minority its cultural the rest of the world. twentieth century expansion of the Latin American metropolis an was accompanied urban cultural explosion. in both television orality") This content downloaded from 200. In contrast. was a central point of formidable increasingly in 1922 with the high profile Modern in Brazil beginning cultural diffusion istWeek of Modern Art.. destined to be the bastion of lectual excellence. experience poetic. technological cannot evade an implicit attack on written cultural products by Balduino as an exclusive of a lettered voice. existences around written Western sources. who felt that they represented as Latin America's cities increasingly build their cultural 116). expression itself. and thanks to them. human spirits could speak to one another" (Rama 17). Sao Paulo. resemblances its fostering of a com on the present moment.134. the founding of the University of S?o Paulo proved to be a vivid symbol of the cultural capital accumulated by the as a whole: "The S?o Paulo leaders.

Foi a immortality: cantou que aquele samba sabendo quem em verdade o fizera" is especially After (Amado 93).] of view. Simultaneously. and the loss of his sambas to the poet (as well as businessman) to the city's radio waves celebrates the commercial Pereira and subsequently.134.38. the idea of a written. singular aesthetic illuminate sucesso first reaction to the news como?'of Balduino ela nao telling: 'Mas para que ele queria?'" (Amado 92). In addition. Balduino loses his intellectual carnaval one fell swoop. any specific definitely possible the public to know the name of the writer of this famous samba..80 on Mon.. After all.. returning to its original oral state in Joana's voice. this spoken context is where the oral/written/oral components of Balduino's This content downloaded from 200.] Typography commodity" (Ong 128-9). achieve ?nica pessoa "[. From Joana's point a that is fluid and rejects these poetic products possess constitution an economic unit but rather an ownership. Although in the community's its "writer" does not samba reside comfortably memory. Nevertheless.. the process of case of the that the socioeconomic and linguistic in operates interchange The appearance of Amado's protagonist Antonio on the radio in Salvador seems to declare the victory Balduino's sambas written word sale of these sambas obeys the general transformation of the oral sound in a Instead of existing from a capitalist perspective. and communicative in comparison to power that the written word wields the comparatively limited public of the samba singer.. This last sentence suggestive. in a collective. foram os sambas do poeta Anisio Pereira" (Amado Pereira bought Balduino's and assumed creations 92). Yet.] ela [Joana] cantava o seu samba. Balduino neither reads nor orality of Brazil's Anisio writes. According "O maior newspapers. Still. the initial lettered public sphere that the oral songs of a sambista occupies. reflects a general movement inscription of Balduino's poetic vocabulary toward consumption and individual property: "Print created a new sense of had made the word into a the private ownership of words [. within Salvador's illiterate masses. stake in these sambas in their authorship. there are immediate doubts that a similar the informal with identify the cultural work singers of this samba will correctly at It is for other members of artist all. element mechanisms the published identity of the sambas' and the lettered city as awhole of Joana's general posture toward the "'Vendeu selling sabia como his sambas is um se vendia author and his link to the media's notable loss of her friend's deste to Salvador's sambas. fixed version of these oral performances is violently resisted by the relation that exists between and these published Joana (a friend of Balduino) sambas. Also. They do not comprise or emotional another one. 29 Jul 2013 13:03:09 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. Joana's particularly samba [.46 Latin American Literary Review over the of writing illiterate cultures. there is no clear owner of these poetic products due to the pro visionary and fleet the words of the ing character of the radio as a cultural medium.

the most seemingly mini a multitude mal expression in a novel encompasses of intentions and voices to easily reveal their social origins: "For the novelist working in someone else's the is in discourse about it. 32). a hypothetical version dias The tern festa todos os "Vida de negro ? bem boa. who attacks the idea that the word in the novel is a closed. Antonio Balduino's sambas lose certain oral independence when they first fill Salvador's radio tive reaction of its listeners: but this same that refuse the survival of waves. Despite the now stable.134.80 on Mon. and for this reason. mulata. formerly dialogue and conflictive The multi-voiced element of a novel's lexical choices a new concept does not constitute for critics. Also. eu sou ? ? mulata voce minha malandro. but esentially and it is evanescent. but the lexical context of one of his sambas evinces a collective the same linguistic interchange that characterizes song. Thus.] (Amado 91). desgra?a" sense of poetic ownership that a cultural manifestation of the lettered of of as well: is not reached in this heavily multi-voiced city necessitates transcription samba. the elusive nature of this "secondary Balduino's orality" the radio allows experience Another to enjoy amainly auditory sambas of Balduino. In a of their artistic products share ner. [..Orality's Revenge: Jubiab? and the Defiance of the "Lettered City" 47 sambas ultimately nature of cultural to rest.M.. (Ong transcription This content downloaded from 200. slippery nature. the excellence of a given oral culture depends on the instinc new materials consists not in the introduction of "Originality in fitting the traditional materials into each effectively individual. The elusive representation of Balduino's poetic texts on the radio in Salvador immediately disputes the death of auditory components in Brazilian come culture. This phenomenon is most clearly articulated by M. As opposed an that reading entails. always entangled object more man is already present with qualifications" direct (Bakhtin 330).. 29 Jul 2013 13:03:09 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . visual manifestation since each line is only comprehended and relished after its spoken vocabulary exists "Sound when it is going out disappears: only It is not simply perishable of existence. unique situation and/or audience" (Ong 59).38. Bakhtin. monolithic artifact. The "secondary orality" that Ong associates with the mass also the dose of resistance media underlines and incessant present were in offered what Balduino's discourses.. In fact. the often anonymous in oral circles is bound to operate upon these products sambas once again. sensed as evanescent" Pereira's Anisio Therefore. the once-written of its audience salient characteristic of the written word and unique cultural of an in the context oral cultural product is its transitory. it prose. In other listener from the oral public is found in the written words. the oral tale boasts interactive relationship with its audience. as state of Balduino's sambas written graphically-inscribed by the poet from of the radio loses the permanence the electronic medium of its Salvador. oral cultures and the public expositions to the often solitary experience thirst for dialogue.

While sages are more for action ion" (Slater. is "malandragem" linguistic romantic as the malandro's craftiness allows him also quite significant. Symbolically. Malandragem 148). to enjoy a life on the streets with minimal and maximum responsibilities sambas inevitably experience Antonio Balduino's potential for movement.] this 'newstyle' cordel becomes presently utilize the poet seeks tomold rather than to reflect public opin the oral character de Cordel" 102). sambas demonstrate artistic.. Dizia mais : coisas malandragem liberdade" (Amado profoundly quality will verbal voce est? na lanterna do saveiro. radio Balduino's and of one of his possibly marketable auto-analysis performance of the sambas house that cannot the dialogic. upon them In the end. Traditionally.] stories in spoken word.' amava Falava somente assim duas que o negro Antonio eMaria.48 Latin American Literary Review written to relegate Balduino's artistic ideas to the erudite. and this oral radio adaptation.. by their listeners each and every time this cultural movement nication tendencies eratura of contadores Slater of the sambas oral survival de cordel toward instruments and its continued offers are glimpsed in Brazil as well. (and under the cultural control) of other literate individuals.. chant to take ing verses for an often illiterate public who would buy the booklets de "Literatura home to a literate friend or relative to re-perform" (Slater. is unable to contain these this same freedom on an oral scale. To wit. Maria?' E diz: 'As estrelas dos teus olhos est?o no c?u.. commu artistic of mass in the current Candace de cordel which an especially instructive definition of the lit the idea of the elusive nature of the underscores this type of work consists of.] the cheaper paper booklets called folhetos [.. works Balduino's the oral cultural significances bestowed and the different interchange were the sambas played. However. "Literatura This content downloaded from 200. From the perspective audiences. lost in the presence and could only be re-created after each oral representation. illiterate the of its Cordel" 97). in its personal. na lingua que ele f ala quer dizer the aforementioned samba reveals a tone.. Slater two basic changes in the artistic goals of this informal literature. prison waves to returns the these works realm of orality in the end. the mes the media these that share concerns creative supplied by products a call than aesthetic: "[. 29 Jul 2013 13:03:09 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. o samba. o barulho do teu riso est? no mar.] these vendors travelled from fair to fair. writing sambas encourage in a solely lettered medium. recognizes storytellers themselves applied in which to diffuse their tales. Nevertheless. vocabulary of the literatura its specific elements were de cordel varied greatly.. Once Balduino seems Balduino's interchange only be accentuated by a possible association of freedom with his again. of the lettered but the temporary character of city.38.134.. Today. Truly.. and auditory elusivity vai be separated from these poetic creations: parar essa "Pergunta:'Aonde estrada.. "[.. verse dealing with a wide array of regional subjects [.80 on Mon.

3 between this sambista and the learned members The personal and collective of Balduino's Morro neighborhood experiences form the thematic nucleus of his sambas. In addition. the survival all find an interesting echo in yet another published of its oral foundation samba in Jubiab?: vai cantando baixinho urn samba "[.] ele [Balduino] intitulado operarios. tudo tirado da sua cabe?a" (Amado 90).Orality's Revenge: Jubiab? and the Defiance of the "Lettered City" 49 once again points to a lack of of these electronically performed discourses to inherent the spoken word. 29 Jul 2013 13:03:09 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the sale of many of Balduino's sambas to a poetic member lettered city and the of Brazil's continued maintenance of these oral and popular Brazilian traditions found This content downloaded from 200. Antonio earns as a his and boxer (he factory worker. quando andava pelas ruas da cidade nos seus passeios malandros.80 on Mon. Stories on a String 2). due the of permanence uniqueness mass media-driven The increasingly transmission of Brazil's literatura de cordel. living and the geographical do Capa-Negro itself position of his humble Morro (found outside the city of Salvador da Bahia) suggests a symbolic distance of the lettered city as well. Likewise. known as cantadores famous improvisers and spirited exchanges in verse..] Foi e na cidade. vendido copiosamente era so o que se cantava ?as ruas onde os bondes novamente circulavam" 'Um sindicato samba's mass-merchandised (Amado 326-7). no dia seguinte ao do t?rmino da gr?ve. such as Antonio Balduino this oral connection the literatura de cordel and the sambas in Jubiab? between is strengthened per by the cultural positions by their respective occupied to the erudite members of the lettered city.134. backlands for their on-the-spot compositions of the cordel's features" may explain many (Stories on a relatively original does not represent a learned figure Balduino String 9). ele [Balduino] come?ava a bater no chap?u de palha urna m?sica que inventava e ia cantando urna letra. "A Vitoria Antonio dois dias: da Gr?ve" Balduino que apareceu no dia seguinte vai cantando e se recordando ao triunfo dos dos acidentes se levantou em gr?ve para de operarios daqueles aumentar os seus salarios aderiu todas as classes para refor?ar'[.. and most importantly. Slater and anti-canonical underlines individual the spontaneous that results quality of these works of their "The oral influence gifts original producers: from the of poet the throughout or repentistas.. Although this samba's spread relies as much upon the memories of illiterate citizens as it does upon its written version. two manual professions). its current role as social catalyst. formers in comparison essential aspect of the literatura de cordel is its truly popular Another nature (Slater. and the singular originality of an on these compositions informal mental that depends paral wandering lels the lack of order of the neighborhood's streets: "Muitas vezes. Certainly..38. This post-strike quality and the drive to convince its listeners both parallel the literatura de cordel as does it is sold on the streets of Salvador. its still overwhelming orality. In turn.

to the realm of things precarious tion to the spoken word. ven one to in his creative critical considerations of many only investigate to element lends an important thematic motivation tures. the general movement of the regional novel in the 1920's and Despite and 30's in Latin America (which produced La vor?gine. moreover. Giorgio the cultural and political "escravid?o" that protects control exercised by and Brazil's The cultural elites of Latin America (348). this exclusive. Moreover.38. and chose to establish their authority upon a lettered foundation instead: "In Latin the written word became the only binding one.134. shows the topic of orality in literature. must be considered the canonical writer Amado. The city and the country. on the character of in influence succeed its of this work confirming totality of these critical studies and their treat Balduino above all. in particular.80 on Mon. and oral seems to offer an especially theoretical field of promising ity in particular in "New this Directions" As mentioned above. Amado to join an erudite work of art with the local ambiance his capacity typical inclina of "regular people" (Curran 112). Based on his strong socialistic causes was inevitable. the early date of that its critical sensibilities are. Yet. it is difficult for just one side of these This content downloaded from 200.6 The majority are frequently governed by the binary elements which are ment of Balduino the novel in this political approach. this personal and artistic attraction to workers' aesthetic approach is dimension of Jorge Amado's the political However. occupied The relations of power and domination which controlled the oral and cultures far more in Latin America in (Jubiab? was published than suggestive in terms of their lettered preferences. Salvador's encouraged and socialism. as to obey these preconceptions in order to avoid an aesthetic necessary recent critical sociation with the "barbarism" of orality.5 This socialistic and the multiple studies of its impact on the Jubiab?. as a veritable classifies this connection Marotti form of of the 1930's lettered 1931) were Indeed.4 study regard (Slater.in contradistinc America. tions. capitalism and written and workers striking are some of the opposing forces that battle within oral cultural discourses analyses spawned by this novel. and their bosses. The comparatively with postmodernity and its exaltation of "marginal cultures" preoccupation have opened new avenues to question these assertions. 29 Jul 2013 13:03:09 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 103). and Jubiab? in academia in any debate concerning this novel's publication avant la lettre. intelligentsia political truly could not count on the fleeting rapidity of oral language. Do?a B?rbara. can be regarded as unique in Don Segundo Sombra among others). in reality.50 Latin American Literary Review in Balduino's between who artistic efforts require an inquiry into the ambiguous link the writer and his Latin Amado American Jorge contemporaries erudite literary circle. which belonged and uncertain" the region's poetic figures found it (Rama 6).

famous deeds in a enjoys the advantage of inscribing Balduino's than oral songs are capable of doing. um dia aquele h?rnern [Anisio um ABC heroico. On part personal history certainly the other hand.80 on Mon. Pereira] cantar?a as aventuras de um negro livre" (Amado 111). ambiguous position occupies the literary zone of the lettered city and the more illiterate neighborhoods of com seu o mercado "Jubiab? Jer?nimo do ABC que arranjou popular orality: do Povo (colet?nea das melhores poes?as sertanejas. ao do anedotas. etc.. According various kinds of borders (geographical.134." It is possible existence exceptional in lettered form. The writing of his a inhabits central of Balduino's dream. pelos mestres [. Antonio Balduino of its formal definition.] foi decorado pelos estivadores da cidade. trovas populares. modinhas. Once category sociopolitical only belonging this condition before the advancement represents again. He often between through socialist the Morro capitalist and Salvador. por todos de saveiros cais. ora?oes.. 29 Jul 2013 13:03:09 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Yet. recitativos. At the same time. Balduino's sambas and in particular. protagonist binary tween the vital state of cultural hybridity which its a hybrid culture is located be to N?stor Garc?a Canclini. the ABC celebrating the heroic life of Balduino orality within The culminating revealing this ABC more and closing the novel only a canonical Brazilian text. exactly reproducible medium the previous hopes held by Balduino regarding his future ABC uncover the oral roots of the epic genre as well: "Por?m. receitas ?teis. pre?o de 200 r?is) [. the mode of sharing the ABC is still expressed in terms of to capture Balduino's the verb "cantar. for both its epic and symbolic consequences.Orality's Revenge: Jubiab? and the Defiance of the ""LetteredCity" 51 to explain opposites inhabits. he survives but his role in the factory strike indicates a exchanges as well. the lack of "pureza" in this heroic figure under the immaculate mines The hybrid condition image of the epic protagonist. onde ir? escrever o ABC de Antonio Balduino. land" the physical "no man's negotiates As beggar and sambista. (Amado 331). Above the ideas of transformation and resistance in these lines appear to represent open defiance of the hegemonic power of (epic) writing.7 Finally. or one to sociocultural (15). pelos malandros os negros" (Amado 255).. necessary surely and therefore.. the most This content downloaded from 200. for his hero Zumbi dos and subsequently composed published the Balduino between dramatize Palmares. etc.. the element of chaos associated with Balduino's ABC is not out of place. ABC of Jubiab? affirms this defiant mixture to Antonio Balduino of is sa?sse na Biblioteca dedicated As awritten document. historias.38.].) instead of linguistic. Violence a constitutes basic and characteristic of epic literature. perspective the ABC. but the transmission and consumption of this narrative in his imagination: remain clearly oral activities "Negro valente e brig?o/ sem pureza/ mas bom de cora?ao" Desordeiro all. Conversely.

However. the final analysis. his life encourages alliteration of the last two lines of this ABC forges another important con future oral works nection verses these version and its oral origins. transformative only literary agent.80 on Mon. but the unjust and violent end of the protagonist's own the its oral and popular version as well. This association verses of this ABC give the public a tantalizing hint about their hero's dra matic death: "morreu de morte matada/ mas ferido a trai?ao" (Amado 331). originate death. to include the in epic necessity light of Ong's proposal regarding gestive in their repetition characters and incidents in order to guarantee marvelous (69). deadening in immobilizing the sonorous element Increasingly. the tragic death of Balduino seems to in his ABC briefly attack this importance of orality by virtue of the possible effect of writing.38. It is not easy to kill this hero of the people. 29 Jul 2013 13:03:09 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .52 Latin American Literary Review the classic poetic limits has once again confused a Not is this sambista of the epic hero. Balduino's but he is also a frightening ability to introduce various organic examples of orality in Brazil's written circles of Balduino's character will not disappear with his passing. print succeeds their visual signifiers. In the the death of this celebrated character. The graphic transcription of this ABC does protect successes for eternity. Finally. sense of permanence that writing makes there are at least three possible. are oral aspects that implicitly associated with this ABC as well. By can only ABC it is understood that Antonio Balduino's novel Jubiab?. one for the lettered elites. be so easily linked with the protagonist's life depends on the the epic summary of Antonio Balduino's Although sambas radio waves? Yet. (80). First.134. sense that the in the of of orality deeper principles obey in initial letter and its this section central topic of (death itself) Portuguese the remembrance of other factors in ("m") are also capable of encouraging The description "morreu de morte matada" utilizes the death of Balduino. between its written a number alliteration employing epic work to underline the betrayal behind this death while at the same time to reinforce the termination of the the binary verbs morrer/matar the thoroughly epic component and the life of Balduino. he only ceases to live due to the coldblooded is sug the monumental death of Balduino efforts of traitors. Second. Ong adds one more in favor of elevating of words note in the face of this Western "One infatuation with writing: cautionary in inherent is its close association of the most writing startling paradoxes with in Plato's charge that writing is is suggested the the end of and that it destroys memory" inhuman. to the "extinction of orality" that his death correspond Could Balduino's the loss of orality in ABC cannot. thing-like. that appears to be located in Balduino's death in Jubiab?. seem to suffer on Salvador's This content downloaded from 200. In other words. For example. last two from fact. the sambista's death itself resists any ordinary poetic treatment.

] a camponeses mocos..8 cordel.] whenever interactions I consider is illuminated the relations well between admirably. image of the lettered city is a durable one.]" (Amado 331). marinheiros a a dos cais do mulheres alvos. que amam os jovens carregadores porto.] ? vendido The erudite corporeal considerations. backgrounds consumers of Antonio Balduino's In contrast.80 on Mon. hybrid discourses as well: "[. Ultimately. po literate group is capable of imposing litical.. 29 Jul 2013 13:03:09 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in the city of Salvador confusion of the lettered itself.) that an exclusive. this dramatic written of this ABC. Memory and its ability to preserve specific details are only enhanced by this technique of accumulation. Violent end reaches ridiculous heights with the killing of death itself. This city upon Latin America's of questioning the continent's literary circles (Slater..38... and directly defy an elite characterization in general.. The presence of these names inscribed on bodies of the illiterate population the mixing of literary only aggravates and oral worlds in Jubiab?. Stories on a String the hegemonic power exercised by the lettered other cultural voices is even extended to more are the rule of the day Indeed. cultural..] e a negros oral cultural consumers Similar product are incapable of actually understand of a more literate individual: "[. the public that enjoys this ABC proves to Nevertheless. of their nations' populations. be the most provocative evidence of the oral flavor that persists throughout the pages of Jubiab?.Orality's Revenge: Jubiab? and the Defiance of the "Lettered City" 53 of exaggeration represents the last oral device that invades the written limits as the death of Balduino may be. oral. nas feiras [. etc. de largo sorriso. public consumption of the original literatura de an Balduino's textual ABC welcomes audience. It encapsulates the power (administrative. among almost exclusively tatuados. ou um cora?ao e um nome gravado no peito" (Amado 331). For critics of Latin American This content downloaded from 200. que trazem ou urna ancora. it is also possible ABC. These links of control that upon the majority fill the literary history by Raymond Williams: of rural and urban "[. nos saveiros. that defines the members of the lettered city is the illiterate of the various by indirectly questioned personal. e os e marinheiros tatuados [. to the traditional. the revelation of this multitude of oral elements of an aesthetic demonstrates inAntonio process Balduino's ABC serves as the final dramatization of "high literature" of hybridization that this work the theoretical narrative.. communal the material manifestation of this epic work will be distributed Furthermore.. Many camponeses anegros are not noted for in this passage (if not all) of the individuals mentioned their literary talents.. auditory poetic representations the continued confirms consolidation of oral typical of Brazil's Northeast forces within 1).134. and this symbolic traditions of this urban center and the rural. that privilege the "readers" of this cultural the assistance ing it without nos cais.

in Latin Also deserving of critical attention is Candace Slater's "New Directions American Oral Traditions." Romance Notes 13. it is impossible that flows and cities alike. but of rent and interest.] I find this history active and continuous: are not only of ideas and experiences.. amore detailed study of orality and Brazilian literature in the figure of the folheto is found in Slater's book Stories on a String: The Brazilian Literatura de Cordel (Berkeley: University of California Press. Duarte contends that his exploration of the city is necessary in order to affirm his personal worth (96). In the case of Balduino. 1982). For a study of the chronicler's changing role and of an overall cultural challenge to the hegemony of the Latin American lettered city. Also.. see Jean Franco's The Decline and Fall of the Lettered City: Latin America in the Cold War (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 3In Jorge Amado: Romance em tempo de utopia (Natal: Editora Universitaria.1 (!971): 67-70. 2 The ABC is an important theme in a variety of critical studies based on Ju biab?. As a possible expression of the city's popular classes. the connections between theABC and itsmedieval echoes are explored inMalcolm Silverman's "Allegory in Two Works of Jorge Amado.." Latin American Literary Review 20 (1992): 99-103.54 Latin American Literary Review the relations country and city [. 29 Jul 2013 13:03:09 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .]" (7). Curran's article "Influencia da Literatura Of particular importance is na de Cordel Literatura Brasileira. see Andrea Ciacchi's article "A irresistivel ascens?o de Antonio Balduino. This content downloaded from 200." Revista Brasileira de Folclore 8(1968): 111 -22. Truly. despite this increasing presence of mass media-dominated written urban and the sense of orality that they promise.38.134.. 2002). NOTES 1 Mark J. 4 discourses Still. Regardless legacy in issues raised by the voices of illiterate and working the novel. Its shouts become clearer by the day.80 on Mon. Finally. through population and Antonio Balduino's character in Amado's Jubiab? call at the Morro tention to the serious cultural influence that this heroic figure and his oral of the political thrust upon the (lettered) city of Salvador. Jubiab? in of resistance the model cultural of recognized example lettered city. Eduardo de Assis Duarte conceptualizes and Salvador as one in which innocence faces corruption and evil in general. The most pressing theoretical difficulty current state is the following: what is the of the Latin American (aesthetic) city? to avoid the hybridity In the case of Brazil." Quaderni ibero-americani 74 (1993): 95-104. the its suburbios mixed of Likewise. the overwhelmingly chronicle continues to exert a formidable grip on the collective imagination of Latin American consumers. this opposition between theMorro 1995). the people and its survival in oral cultural tendencies of this often illiterate population Brazil's offers elite discourses a hybrid Latin America's require more critical investigation. of situation in this context and power [.

M. Natal: Editora Universitaria. Mark J. Jorge.38. "Jubiab? ou a pedagogia da revolu?ao.Orality's 5 Revenge: Jubiab? and the Defiance of the "Lettered City" 55 Indeed. Amado's presentation of Afro-Brazilian religion as more of a per formance rather than amore profound way of life is examined "Aspectos de la representaci?n de las religiones afro-americanas in Jason Summers's en los textos negristas y afro-hispanos. Jorge Amado. this connection of popular components in the novel with a moment of transition inAmado's general literary evolution is in Jubiab? di Jorge studied in Carmen M. Eduardo de Assis. 2002. Michael Holquist. M?xico. M." Quaderni ibero-americani 74 (1993): 35-42. Review/Revista Monogr?fica 15 (1999): 6 To explore the relations between politics and poverty in general in Jubiab?. Bobby J. Franco. Jorge Amado: 74 (1993): 35-42." Quaderni ibero americani 74 (1993): 95-104. Chamberlain." Monographie 130-44. Jubiab?.: h?bridas: Grijalbo. Macumba in the character of Jubiab? himself and Afro-Brazilian Culture is noted inDavid Tul lio Amado's Jubiab?'. 46th ed. Rio de Janeiro: Editora Record." La Letteratura Latino Americana e La Sua Problem?tica Europea (Roma: Istituto ?talo-Latino Americano. The Decline and Fall of the Lettered City: Latin America War.1 (1969): 53-58. 29 Jul 2013 13:03:09 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . ou a pedagogia da revolu?ao. Austin: University of Texas Press. para entrar in the Cold y salir de la This content downloaded from 200. Caryl Emerson and Michael Ed. "Influencia da Literatura de Cordel na Literatura Brasileira. 1981. The Dialogic Imagination.80 on Mon." Quaderni ibero-americani _.F. Holquist. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Garcia Canclini. see Andrea Ciacchi's "A irresistivel ascens?o de Antonio Balduino. 7 The application of Amado's socialist ideas to an aesthetic development of a collective and Brazilian class-based battle in the figure of Antonio Balduino in Jubiab? is studied inEduardo de Assis Duarte's "Jorge Amado e o 'Bildungsroman' proletario. Curran." Quaderni is ex ibero-americani 74 (1993): 95-104." Quaderni ibero americani 74 (1993): 25-34. 1984. N?stor. Culturas D. Romance em tempo de utopia. Duarte. Trans. Radulet's "Cordel. modernidad. Andrea.134. Cristov?o. 8 cultural tra The merging of these popular elements with theAfro-Brazilian dition of themacumba Russo's "Bahia. samba e macumba Amado. Also. Ciacchi. Boston: Twayne Publishers." Revista Brasileira de Folclore 23 (1969): 111-23." in Jorge Western Review 6." Quaderni ibero-americani 74 (1993): 25-34. "Jorge Amadoeo 'Bildungsroman'proletario. "A irresistivel ascens?o de Antonio Balduino. Bakhtin. Fernando. Also. Jean. WORKS CITED Amado. 1995. 1990. Balduino's political development amined in detail in Fernando Cristovao's "Jubiab?. 1978): 317-22. estrategias 1989.

The Lettered City. Trans. Beatriz. of the Word. samba e macumba La Letteratura Latino Americana e La Sua Problem?tica Europea. "New Directions in Latin American Oral Traditions. Lorraine Leu. Stories on a String: The Brazilian Literatura de Cordel." Trans. "Cordel. 2000. in Jubiab? di Jorge Amado." Trans. en los "Aspectos textos de la representaci?n y afro-hispanos. S arlo. Nicolau. Candace." de las religiones afro-america Review/Revista negristas Monographie 15 (1999): 130-44. Vivian Schelling.38. Durham: Duke University Press. Harry Lawton and Maria O. Russo. 108-23. Macumba andAfro-Brazilian Culture in Jorge Amado's Jubiab?. 1987. Malcolm. 1982." Romance Notes 13. Summers. "TheModern City: Buenos Aires." Radulet. New York: Oxford University Press. The Peripheral Metropolis. ary Review 20 (1992): 100-3. the Backlands become the City and the City becomes the Backlands. 75-107. Routledge. 2000. London: Verso. This content downloaded from 200. Berkeley: University of California Press. Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing 1982.1 (1969): 53-8. Ed. Roma: Istituto ?talo-Latino Americano. Trans. Through the Kaleidoscope: The Experience of Modernity in Latin America.1 (1971): 67-70. Slater. _.80 on Mon. London: Ong. Walter J. Carmen M. London: Verso. "Peregrinations." Latin American Liter _. John Charles Chasteen. Los Angeles: Center for Afro-American Studies. Raymond. Rama." Western Review 6. "Literatura de Cordel [Folk-Popular Poetry] and theMass Media in Today's Brazil.134. 29 Jul 2013 13:03:09 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Giorgio. ?ngel. Ed. Through the Kaleidoscope: Latin America. 1996. Monogr?fica Williams. The Country and the City. Visions and theCity: From Canudos toBrasilia. Vivian Schelling. The Experience of Modernity in Lorraine Leu. Marotti. Silverman. "Allegory in Two Works of Jorge Amado. nas Jason. 1973. Black Characters in theBrazilian Novel. "Bahia." Studies in Latin American Popular Culture 7 (1988): 97-106. 317-22. Sevcenko. David Tullio.56 Latin American Literary Review Marotti. 1978.