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Bluetooth Technology

"Automatic communication between various devices within a small area in a house or an office makes it possible to provide unique and innovative services to a professional worker or a small group of workers using portable devices. Bluetooth technology has this potential and is coming along fast and quick. It will replace clumsy wires, make information transfer automatic without synchronization cradles and

handheld PCs. copiers. Technology visionaries hope that it will do what infra red could not do over the past six years. and Puma Technology. and many future digital appliances at home -. Ericsson. the companies have created a single synchronization protocol to address end-user problems arising from the proliferation of various mobile devices -. smart pagers. notebooks. printers. Intel and Microsoft established in 1998 a major industry consortium that included IBM.that need to keep data consistent from one . Code-named Blue Tooth for the 10th century Danish king who unified Denmark. Nokia.introduce many new applications. PDAs. Toshiba." .Editor In an attempt to standardize data transfer and synchronization between disparate mobile devices in the short-distance range.including smart phones.

Intel and others are designing the sending and receiving radio frequency chip sets. as far as we know. In our opinion. there are no production-quality end-user products using blue tooth technology as of now. However.device to another.signified by 1800 members of Bluetooth consortium by mid 2000.there is some . interest in Bluetooth has grown tremendously . Since the start of this initiative in 1998. IrDA is a competing technology and has been implemented in many products for over 6-7 years now but Bluetooth has a few distinct advantages with Ericsson/Microsoft/Intel team behind it. While Bluetooth consortium demonstrated prototype products in the 1999-2000. there are relative benefits with several competing technologies . Price point for hardware is in $520 range eventually. here is an opportunity for more start-up companies. Component products (radios and chips) that can be integrated into finished products have started becoming available from Ericsson and others. The proposed Bluetooth solutions (hardware and software-based) would automatically synchronize mobile devices when end-users enter their offices or home.

With Bluetooth it is Possible to be in another room and still be able to access another device with no use of Wires. . which is used for most television remotes. The Bluetooth SIG was Founded by five companies to develop the Bluetooth concept as a possible wireless Technology standard. low power" radio technology to connect to each other.overlap too. there is no doubt whether or not it will replace the inconsistency of Infrared. connections in the sense that there Does not need to be a line-of-sight connection to other devices. The Bluetooth Special Interest Group. which means real freedom to working? Environment regardless of location and wire availability. notebooks. personal digital assistant and other handy gadgets To make use of "short range. The new innovation has given a solution To give cable-free computer connections. or SIG. The technology allows portable Computers. Let competitive products thrive so that we the users get the best solutions The art of connecting things is becoming more and more complex every day. With This new invention. mobile phones. With the invention of Bluetooth technology. it is made to simplify the way people use Electronics in accordance to other electronics. is a group of companies working Together to promote and define the Bluetooth specifications.

which are Ericsson. it is very uncommon for people to have something that would interfere With the direct connection to that receiver. The main competing technology against Bluetooth is infrared. Infrared is a “line of sight” Technology. published and promoted by the Bluetooth SIG. Intel. Bluetooth’s goals Expanded to include standardized wireless communications between any electrical Devices and created a notion of Personal Area Network.500 companies have joined this group and the specifications Are developed. 3Com and Motorola later joined the Bluetooth SIG. Toshiba and Nokia. however. Because it allows numerous devices to communicate back and forth without needing a . but not Able to send data from a laptop to a computer. meaning that you can only send Data from one device to another. Today there are more than 1. One of the main downsides to Infrared. Infrared communications are also a lot more Cost efficient and cost a lot less to install into devices. is that it is a one-to-one technology. which now is the Standard that most people use for wireless connections. This is where Bluetooth comes into play. Lucent. IBM. meaning a direct connection is needed from the transmitter to the receiver. Other Companies like Microsoft. Knowing this. such as a personal digital assistant to a computer.

The Radio is responsible for Transmitting data via radio waves over the air. The interface of a Bluetooth device consists of the Radio and Baseband layer and the Link Manager Protocol (LMP). a link control unit. information exchange happens Through packets on a channel. provided . and full-duplex signal at up to 1600 hops/sec. frequency hopping. where the link Management takes place.Line-of-sight connection. and a support unit. and link configuration. The Radio transceiver operates on the 2. which has both soft and Hardware controls the radio and is responsible for lower level encryption.483 MHz’s These radios use a spread spectrum. The signal hops among 79 frequencies at 1 MHz intervals to give a high Degree of interference immunity. which Functions as a low cost and short range radio link (see picture below) A Bluetooth Device consists of a radio unit. Up to seven simultaneous connections can established For Bluetooth. The technology of Bluetooth centers around a 9mm x 9mm microchip.400-2. authentication.4 GHz IM band which is defined as 2. The Baseband. where each packet as a different hop frequency. The Link Manager Protocol is in charge of link setup.

If two devices fail to communicate with Each other. The Link Manager Protocol is Responsible for link setup. For Authentication. control. and the asynchronous connectionless Link (ACL). which in turn calculates a response. Using two or more of these units forms a personal-area network (PAN) or piconet with one master. where slots are reserved for synchronous packets. Two Types of links between the master and slaves are possible: the synchronous connectionOriented link (SCO). being the point-to-point link. the verifier (either master or slave) sends a random number to the Claimant. a common link key has to be initiated in order to transfer data. Any more than 2 units are called a point-to-multipoint connection.by the baseband to the radio. In the picture Above. are called slaves. Both devices . being the point-to-multipoint link. and the other devices being the slaves. 7 at maximum. The process of establishing links in order to transfer data at a future time is called a pairing. The minimum number of Devices communicating is 2 units. the PDA is serving as the master. including the secret key. A combination of circuit switching and packet switching is used. and security. which is the Controlling channel – the other units. which are referred to as a point-to-point connection.

. If a link key has already been established. and has a maximum range of roughly 30ft. it declines the incoming request first. Then. the master is configured to only receive encrypted packages after what the slave is configured to transmit and receive encrypted packages. it first accepts the incoming request by an authentication response and then starts its Own attempt. One of the main disadvantages is that Bluetooth operates on a Relatively small bandwidth of about 721kb.Share the same secret key. There is much strength to this new Bluetooth technology. Authentication takes place directly. when two devices communicated before. For encryption. If a slave is receiving and sending an authentication request at Once. and then the latter can restart another attempt. a temporary link key must. while every device as to agree on the use of encryption. however. while the slave is accepting the master's Request. Be issued from the master to the whole piconet. for example whether point-to-point or broadcasting packets should be Encrypted. However. there are also a few disadvantages. if a master is receiving and sending an authentication request at Once.

Network managers must plan for users toting around. and even though it tends to be less reliable. therefore being a lot More convenient for them rather than the average computer user. There is a huge chance that packets of data can be intercepted as information is being transferred between devices. such as crowded situations in which two people wish to Exchange information. the average user might tend to be skeptical about accepting a new standard. unintentionally exposing access and data to unauthorized Users. Bluetooth's discovery protocol lets devices automatically find and start Interacting with each other. . The problem with this is That Infrared communication is already the standard. type of application. Instant access to their corporate networks wherever they travel. point and Shoot. The narrow. Security is also a Problem. Bluetooth was originally created for the businessman on the go. The elimination of spaghetti cords is the main Advantage that most technical and non-technical can relate to.There is also limited voice compatibility.