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1. What is operational intelligence? Ans.

Operational Intelligence (OI) is a form of real-time dynamic, business analytics that delivers visibility and insight into data, streaming events and business operations. Operational intelligence run queries against streaming data feeds and event data to deliver real-time analytic results as operational instructions. Operational Intelligence provides organizations the ability to make decision and immediately act on these analytic insights, through manual or automated actions. The purpose of OI is to monitor business activities and identify and detect situations relating to inefficiencies, opportunities, and threats and provide operational solutions. Some definitions define operational intelligence an event-centric approach to delivering information that empowers people to make better decisions. OI helps to quantify following: The efficiency of the business activities Impact of IT infrastructure and unexpected events on the business activities. Execution of the business activities contributing to revenue gains or losses.

This is achieved by observing the progress of the business activities and computing several metrics in real-time using these progress events and publishing the metrics to one or more channels. Thresholds can also be placed on these metrics to create notifications or new events. In addition, these metrics act as the starting point for further analysis . Sophisticated OI systems also provide the ability to associate metadata with metrics, process steps, channels, etc. with this, it becomes easy to get related information that tool 60% more time than the norm, “or “ view the acceptance/rejection trend for the customer who was denied approval in this transaction, “ “ Launch the application that this process step interacted with.” Features Different operational intelligence solutions may use many different technologies and be implemented in different ways. This section lists the common features of an operational intelligence solution: - Real-time monitoring - Real-time situation detection - Real-time dashboards for different user roles Correlation of events - Industry-specific dashboards - Multidimensional analysis • Root cause analysis • Time Series and trending analysis Comparison OI is often linked to or compared with business intelligence (BI) or real time business intelligence, in the sense that both help make sense out of large amounts of information. But there are some basic differences: OI is primarily activity-centric, whereas BI is primarily data-centric. (As with most technologies, each of these could be suboptimally coerced to perform the other’s task.) OI is, by definition real-time, unlike BI which is traditionally an afterthe-fact and report based approach to identifying patterns, and unlike real time BI which relies on a database as the sole source off events.

. . With this data. the data integration layer is required to extract. It also regulates the operation of the organization providing two-way integration with operational systems and information feedback analysis. understandable. alerts. This information warehouse is usually developed incrementally over time and is architected to include key business variables and business metrics in a structure that meets all business analysis questions required by the business groups. If you do not capture the data in the operational system. those will only get compounded when you later aggregate and combine it with other data.Based on the overall requirements of business intelligence. What is Business Intelligence? Explain the components of BI architecture. you can’t analyze it. There are various definitions given by the experts. . Think of the BI infrastructure as a set of layers that begin with the operational systems information and Meta data and end in delivery of business intelligence to various business use communities. Within the business intelligence life cycle. alarms. where it is now and where it will be in the near future. If operational system contains error.2. Business Intelligence Infrastructure . the operational systems are the starting point for data you will later want to analyze. consistent. analysis tools. easily manipulated and timely. business users are able to conduct analysis that yield overall understanding of where the business has been. BI is a term that encompasses a broad range of analytical software and solutions for gathering. Ans. analyzing and providing access to information in way that is supposed to let the users of an enterprise make better business decisions. a reusable infrastructure meta data supporting both business and technical users. key-performance indicators and dashboards). Business intelligence serves two main purposes. Business Intelligence is an environment in which business users receive data that is reliable.Business organizations can gain a competitive advantage with well-designed business intelligence (BI) infrastructure. some of the definitions are given below: Converting data into knowledge and making it available throughout the organization are the jobs of processes and applications known as Business Intelligence. . cleanse and transform data into load files for the information warehouse. it monitors the financial and operational health of the organization (reports.Typically this data integration is done using a relational staging database and utilizing flat files extracts from source systems.This layer begins with transaction-level operational data and Meta data about these operational systems.The product of a good data-staging layer is high-quality data. . consolidating.

Data mining is also known as Knowledge Discovery in Data (KDD). However a DBMS system alone cannot be used to analyze data. regression and association. k-nearest neighbor.3. hierarchical clustering. which deals with extracting useful and previously unknown information from raw data. constraint-based association). Database management system (DBMS) is a full-fledged system for housing and managing a set of digital databases. apply it to new data. previously unknown and potentially useful (or actionable) patterns from data. It is the process of data-driver extraction of not so obvious but useful information from large databases. Data mining consists of many up-to-date techniques such as classification (decision trees. multilevel association. and density-based clustering). naïve Bayes classifier. Clustering is identifying similar groups from unstructured data. these raw data are stored in very large databases. It is an architectural construct of information that is hard to access or present in traditional operational data stores. manage and even preprocess raw data before and during the data mining process. association (one-dimensional. designing modeling. Regression is finding functions with minimal error to model data. verify the data) Who purchased mutual funds in the last 3 years? Data Mining Knowledge discovery of hidden patterns and insights Insight and Prediction Induction (build the model. learning/feature selection and Evaluation/validation. Differentiate between database management systems (DBMS) and data mining. Ans. Therefore Data miners use the existing functionalities of DBMS to handle. However Data Mining is a technique or a concept in computer science. Classification is learning rules that can be applied to new data and will typically include following steps: preprocessing of data. some DBMS at present have inbuilt data analyzing tools or capabilities. get the result) Who will buy a mutual fund in the next 6 months and why? Data mining is concerned with finding hidden relationships present in business data to allow businesses to market predictions for future use. classifications. Data warehouse is an enabled relational database system designed to support very large databases (VLDB) at a significantly higher level of performance and manageability. clustering (k-means. and neural networks). And association is looking for relationships between variables. Data mining usually deals with following four tasks: clustering. Data warehousing is defined as a process of centralized data management and retrieval. Most of the times. multidimensional. The aim of data mining is to extract implicit. . Area Task Type of result Method Example question DBMS Extraction of detailed and summary data Information Deduction (ask the question. But. Data warehouse is an environment. not a product.

Neural networks are made up of many artificial neurons. The key element of this paradigm is the novel structure of the information processing system. It is composed of large number of highly interconnected processing elements (neurons) working in unison to solve specific problems. However. Number of neurons used on the task at hand.4. There are different types of Neural Networks. Self-Organization: an ANN can create its own organization or representation of the information it receives during learning time. This expert can then be used to provide projections given new situations of interest and answer “what if” questions. with their remarkable ability to derive meaning from complicated or imprecise data. Since neural networks are best at identifying patterns or trends in data. process information. What is Neural Network? Explain in details. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is an information-processing paradigm that is inspired by the way biological nervous systems. The abilities of different networks can be related to their structure dynamics and learning methods. Fault Tolerance via Redundant Information Coding: Partial destruction of a network leads to the corresponding degradation of performance. such as the brain. Real Time Operation: ANN computations may be carried out in parallel. some network capabilities may be retained even with major network damage. each of which has different strengths particular to their applications. and special hardware devices are being designed and manufactured which take advantage of this capability. can be used to extract patterns and detect trends that are too complex to be noticed by either humans or other computer techniques. they are well suited for prediction or forecasting needs including: . Ans. An artificial neuron is an electronically modeled biological neuron. It could be as few as three or as many as several thousand. Neural networks. Other advantages include: Adaptive learning: An ability to learn how to do tasks based on the data given for training or initial experience. A trained neural network can be thought of as an “expert” in the category of information it has been given to analyze. There are many different ways of connecting artificial neurons together to create a neural network.

At the end of the Phase I. The algorithm executes in two phases. The partition algorithm is based on the observation that the frequent sets are normally very few in number compared to the set of all item sets. so that the partitions are read only once in each phase. i. counters for each of these item sets are set up and their actual support is measured in one scan of the database. Undersea mine detection. A partition P of the databases refers to any subset of the transactions contained in the database. the partition algorithm logically divides the database into a number of non-overlapping partitions. In this step. Phase I of the algorithm take n iterations. it generates a set of all potentially frequent item sets. It is assumed that these sets (set of local frequent sets) contain a reasonably small number of items sets. Hence we can read the whole database (the un-segmented one) once. What is partition algorithm? Explain with the help of suitable example Ans.Sales forecasting Industrial process control Customer research Data validation Risk management Target marketing ANN is also used in the following specific paradigm like Recognition of speakers in communication. In the first phase. Thus. the local frequent items of same lengths from all n partitions are combined to generate the global candidate item sets. A local frequent item set may or may not be frequent in the context of the entire database.e. We defined local support for an item set as the fraction of the transaction containing that particular item set in partition. 5. Three dimensional object recognition. if we partition the set of transactions to smaller such that each segment can be accommodated in the main memory. During the second scan. We define a local frequent item set as an item set whose local support in a partition is at least the user-defined minimum support. Recovery of telecommunication from faulty software. . The algorithm reads the entire database once during Phase I and once during Phase II. Texture analysis. Diagnosis of hepatitis. As a result. it may contain false positives. to count the support of the set of all local frequent sets. The partition sizes are chosen such that each partition can be accommodated in the main memory. the actual supports for these item sets are generated and the frequent item sets are identified. The partition algorithm uses two scans of the database to discover all frequent sets. if there are n partitions. In one scan. Any two partitions are non-overlapping. Hand written work recognition and facial recognition. In Phase II. but no false negatives are reported. The partitions are considered one at a time and all frequent item sets for that partition are generated. then we can compute the set of frequent sets of each of these partitions. Interpretation of multi-meaning Chinese words. these frequent item sets are merged to generate a set of all potential frequent item sets.

which provides modules for text clustering. E-commerce and E-Services are claimed to be the killer applications for web mining. SAS data quality solution provides an enterprise solution for profiling. b. A few applications are: . The different objects are linked in some way.Search engine . Web usage mining focuses on techniques that could predict the behavior of users while they are interacting with the WWW. and visualization. which are embedded in or linked to the web pages. regression. collate and examine data by search engine algorithms. Weka contains tools for data preprocessing. video and audio. Describe the following with respect to Web Mining: a.Web advertisement . Web usage mining. clustering. . Wed Content Mining 2. discover user navigation patterns from web data. in which the main objects are the traditional collections of multimedia documents such as images. With the rapid growth of World Wide Web. and sentiment analysis. web mining becomes a very hot and popular topic in Web research. Each of them focuses on different mining objects of the web.Online auction Open source software for web mining includes RapidMiner. previously unknown and potentially useful information from the web. and web mining now also plays an important role for E-Commerce website and E-services to understand how their websites and services are used and to provide better services for their customers and users. RapidMiner is used for example in applications like automated news filtering for personalized news surveys. Web Usage Mining All of the three categories focus on the process of knowledge discovery of implicit. Web structure mining focuses on analysis of the link structure of the web and one of its purposes is to identify more preferable documents. Applications of Web Mining (5) Ans. Categories of Web Mining (5) Ans. The algorithms can either be applied directly to a dataset or called from your own data code. tries to discover the useful information from the secondary data derived from the interactions of the users while surfing on the web. Web is broadly defined as the discovery and analysis of useful information from the World Wide Web. association rules. Web content mining targets the knowledge discovery. Web Structure Mining 3. Web mining is divided into three categories: 1. augmenting and integrating data to create consistent.Commerce transaction analysis . Weka is a collection of machine learning algorithms for data mining tasks. information extraction. named entity recognition. Content mining is used to search.E-commerce customer behavior analysis . classifications.6. reliable information. text categorization.E-banking . cleansing.E-commerce website design .M-commerce .