WCDMA RAN Fundamental

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Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Objectives
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Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:
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Describe the development of 3G Outline the advantage of CDMA principle Characterize code sequence Outline the fundamentals of RAN Describe feature of wireless propagation

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Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page1

Contents
1. 3G Overview 2. CDMA Principle 3. WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure 4. WCDMA Wireless Fundamental

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page2

Contents
1. 3G Overview 2. CDMA Principle 3. WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure 4. WCDMA Wireless Fundamental

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page3

Different Service, Different Technology
1G 1980s Analog
AMPS

2G 1990s Digital
GSM GSM
Technologies drive

3G IMT-2000

TACS NMT Others

CDMA CDMA IS-95 IS-95 TDMA TDMA IS-136 IS-136 PDC PDC

UMTS UMTS WCDMA WCDMA
Demands drive

cdma cdma 2000 2000 TDTDSCDMA SCDMA

3G provides compositive services for both operators and subscribers
Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page4

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The first generation is the analog cellular mobile communication network in the time period from the middle of 1970s to the middle of 1980s. The most important breakthrough in this period is the concept of cellular networks put forward by the Bell Labs in the 1970s, as compared to the former mobile communication systems. The cellular network system is based on cells to implement frequency reuse and thus greatly enhances the system capacity. The typical examples of the first generation mobile communication systems are the AMPS system and the later enhanced TACS of USA, the NMT and the others. The AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System) uses the 800 MHz band of the analog cellular transmission system and it is widely applied in North America, South America and some Circum-Pacific countries. The TACS (Total Access Communication System) uses the 900 MHz band. It is widely applied in Britain, Japan and some Asian countries. The main feature of the first generation mobile communication systems is that they use the frequency reuse technology, adopt analog modulation for voice signals and provide an analog subscriber channel every other 30 kHz/25 kHz. However, their defects are also obvious:
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Low utilization of the frequency spectrum Limited types of services No high-speed data services Poor confidentiality and high vulnerability to interception and number embezzlement High equipment cost

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They are compatible with the fixed networks and can implement any kind of communication at any time and any place with portable terminals. z z z z z z z The 3G mobile communication systems are a kind of communication system that can provide multiple kinds of high quality multimedia services and implement global seamless coverage and global roaming. their application far lags behind the GSM ones and currently they have only found large-scale commercial applications in North America. the IS-95 and the European GSM system. But the narrowband CDMA technologies come into maturity at a time later than the GSM technologies.z To solve these fundamental technical defects of the analog systems. With the development of networks. Designed as the TDMA standard for mobile digital cellular communications. The major services of mobile communications are currently still voice services and low-speed data services. The CDMA system has a very large capacity that is equivalent to ten or even twenty times that of the analog systems. the 2. it supports the 64 kbps data rate and can interconnect with the ISDN. the digital mobile communication technologies emerged and the second generation mobile communication systems represented by GSM and IS-95 came into being in the middle of 1980s. it specifies the use of the CDMA mode and has already become the first choice among the technologies of American PCS (Personal Communication System) networks. therefore. it is the earlier of the two North America digital cellular standards and specifies the use of the TDMA mode. Korea and China. The GSM system uses the FDD and TDMA modes and each carrier supports eight channels with the signal bandwidth of 200 kHz. The IS-95 standard is another digital cellular standard of North America. Using the 800 MHz bandwidth. Using the 800 MHz or 1900 MHz band. Since the 2G mobile communication systems focus on the transmission of voice and low-speed data services. .5G mobile communication systems emerged in 1996 to address the medium-rate data transmission needs. The typical examples of the second generation cellular mobile communication systems are the DAMPS of USA. data and multimedia communications have also witnessed rapid development. These systems include GPRS and IS-95B. It uses the 900 MHz band while the DCS1800 system uses the 1800 MHz band. The DAMPS (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System) is also called the IS-54 (North America Digital Cellular System). the target of the 3G mobile communication is to implement broadband multimedia communication. The GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) is originated from Europe.

Page6 z Put forward in 1985 by the ITU (International Telecommunication Union). 1999. the 3G mobile communication system was called the FPLMTS (Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunication System) and was later renamed as IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunication-2000).3G Evolution z Proposal of 3G ‡ IMT-2000: the general name of third generation mobile communication system ‡ The third generation mobile communication was first proposed in 1985,and was renamed as IMT-2000 in the year of 1996 „ Commercialization: around the year of 2000 Work band : around 2000MHz The highest service rate :up to 2000Kbps „ „ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. z z . The major difference between the 3GPP and the 3GPP2 approaches into the air interface specification development is that 3GPP has specified a completely new air interface without any constraints from the past. It promotes the CDMA2000 system.. The major systems include WCDMA. All rights reserved. Ltd. In the world of IMT-2000. cdma2000 and UWC-136. the 18th conference of ITU-R TG8/1 passed the Recommended Specification of Radio Interfaces of IMT-2000 and the TD-SCDMA technologies put forward by China were incorporated into the IMT-2000 CDMA TDD part of the technical specification. The 3GPP2 initiative is the other major 3G standardization organization. The 3GPP is an organization that develops specifications for a 3G system based on the UTRA radio interface and on the enhanced GSM core network. this proposal is known as IMT-MC. whereas 3GPP2 has specified a system that is backward compatible with IS95 systems. which is also based on a form of WCDMA technology. On November 5. This showed that the work of the TG8/1 in formulating the technical specifications of radio interfaces in 3G mobile communication systems had basically come into an end and the development and application of the 3G mobile communication systems would enter a new and essential phase.

3G Spectrum Allocation Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page7 z ITU has allocated 230 MHz frequency for the 3G mobile communication system IMT2000: 1885 ~ 2025MHz in the uplink and 2110~ 2200 MHz in the downlink. Ltd.. . This plan was passed in WRC92 and new additional bands were approved on the basis of the WRC-92 in the WRC2000 conference in the year 2000: 806 MHz ~ 960 MHz. 1710 MHz ~ 1885 MHz and 2500 MHz ~ 2690 MHz. All rights reserved. the frequency range of 1980 MHz ~ 2010 MHz (uplink) and that of 2170 MHz ~ 2200 MHz (downlink) are used for mobile satellite services. Of them. As the uplink and the downlink bands are asymmetrical. the use of dual-frequency FDD mode or the single-frequency TDD mode may be considered.

.. .Bands WCDMA Used z Main bands ‡ 1920 ~ 1980MHz / 2110 ~ 2170MHz 1850 ~ 1910 MHz / 1930 MHz ~ 1990 MHz (USA) 1710 ~ 1785MHz / 1805 ~ 1880MHz (Japan) 890 ~ 915MHz / 935 ~ 960MHz (Australia) . the used frequency spectrum is 1850 MHz ~ 1910 MHz in the uplink and 1930 MHz ~ 1990 MHz in the downlink and the duplex spacing is 80 MHz. z The WCDMA system uses the following frequency spectrum (bands other than those specified by 3GPP may also be used): Uplink 1920 MHz ~ 1980 MHz and downlink 2110 MHz ~ 2170 MHz. z Supplementary bands: different country maybe different ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ z Frequency channel number=central frequency×5. In America. Each carrier frequency has the 5M band and the duplex spacing is 190 MHz. for main band: ‡ ‡ UL frequency channel number :9612~9888 DL frequency channel number : 10562~10838 Page8 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. All rights reserved..

there are several features as follows: ‡ z z Compatible backward with all the services provided by GSM. interactive. new service capabilities are generated. ‡ ‡ .. 3G system has an open integrated service platform to provide a wide prospect for various 3G services. background) is introduced. and more service types are available. Ltd. In a new architecture.3G Application Service Error Ratio conversational streaming interactive background Time Delay Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. so each service features differently. The concept of multimedia service (streaming. Generally. Page9 z Compatible with abundant services and applications of 2G. Service characteristics vary greatly. All rights reserved. Features of 3G Services 3G services are inherited from 2G services. The real-time services (conversational) such as voice service generally have the QoS requirement.

The air interface adopts the TD-SCDMA mode. Ltd. All rights reserved. ATM and IP technologies to evolve towards the all-IP network architecture. The core network evolves on the basis of GSM/GPRS. Based on the ATM technology. it provides abundant adaptation layer interfaces. z z . It can be based on the TDM. Page10 z Formulated by the European standardization organization 3GPP. Its standardization work is currently undertaken by 3GPP2. The cdma2000 system is a 3G standard put forward on the basis of the IS-95 standard. Radio Access Network (RAN) is based on the ATM switch platform.. The TD-SCDMA standard is put forward by the Chinese Wireless Telecommunication Standard (CWTS) Group and now it has been merged into the specifications related to the WCDMA-TDD of 3GPP. the core network evolves on the basis of GSM/GPRS and can thus be compatible with the existing GSM/GPRS networks. Circuit Switched (CS) domain is adapted from the 2G IS95 CDMA network.The Core technology of 3G: CDMA WCDMA WCDMA CN: based on MAP and GPRS RTT: WCDMA cdma2000 CN: based on ANSI 41 and MIP RTT: cdma2000 TD-SCDMA CDMA CN: based on MAP and GPRS RTT: TD-SCDMA Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Packet Switched (PS) domain is A packet network based on the Mobile IP technology. the UTRAN uniformly processes voice and packet services and evolves towards the IP network architecture.

CDMA Principle 3. 3G Overview 2. All rights reserved. Ltd. WCDMA Wireless Fundamental Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page11 . WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure 4.Contents 1..

.. cdma2000 and TDSCDMA adopt CDMA. Ltd.Multiple Access and Duplex Technology z Multiple Access Technology ‡ Frequency division multiple access (FDMA) Time division multiple access (TDMA) Code division multiple access (CDMA) ‡ ‡ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. GSM adopts TDMA. All rights reserved. Page12 z In mobile communication systems. WCDMA.

All rights reserved. The key is that every information before transmission should be modulated by different Spreading Code to broadband signal. Ltd. then all the signals should be mixed and send. z z .. Each channel can transmit one-way voice or control information.Multiple Access Technology FDMA TDMA Power y Power Tim e eq Fr nc ue CDMA Tim e qu Fre en cy Power Time Freque ncy Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page13 z Frequency Division Multiple Access means dividing the whole available spectrum into many single radio channels (transmit/receive carrier pair). it is called time division multiple access. Each user occupies a timeslot and receives/transmits signals within this specified timeslot. This multiple access mode is adopted in both digital cellular system and GSM. Analog cellular system is a typical example of FDMA structure. CDMA can transmit the information of multiple users on a channel at the same time. Unlike FDMA and TDMA. CDMA is a multiple access mode implemented by Spreading Modulation. Therefore. both of which separate the user information in terms of time and frequency. Because all the Spreading Code is orthogonal. The mixed signal would be demodulated by different Spreading Code at the different receiver. only the information that was be demodulated by same Spreading Code can be reverted in mixed signal. Time Division Multiple Access means that the wireless carrier of one bandwidth is divided into multiple time division channels in terms of time (or called timeslot).

Page14 z In third generation mobile communication systems.Multiple Access and Duplex Technology z Duplex Technology ‡ Frequency division duplex (FDD) Time division duplex (TDD) ‡ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. TD-SCDMA adopts time division duplex (TDD). . WCDMA and cdma2000 adopt frequency division duplex (FDD). Ltd.. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. Ltd.Duplex Technology Power Time USER 2 FDD UL USER 1 DL Frequency Power Time DL UL DL DL UL USER 2 USER 1 TDD Frequency Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. Page15 .

CDMA Principle 3. WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure 4. Ltd. WCDMA Wireless Fundamental Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page16 .. All rights reserved. 3G Overview 2.Contents 1.

RNC is used to allocate and control the radio resources of the connected or related Node B. it also participates in part of radio resource management. the CN is divided into the CS (Circuit Switched) Domain and the PS (Packet Switched) Domain. Within UTRAN. Logically. while the CN is used to process all voice calls and data connections within the UMTS system. UTRAN. CN and UE (User Equipment) together constitute the whole UMTS system A RNS is composed of one RNC and one or several Node Bs. All rights reserved. The RAN is used to process all the radio-related functions. Node B serves to convert the data flows between the Iub interface and the Uu interface. z z . The Iur interface can connect RNCs via the direct physical connections among them or connect them through the transport network.WCDMA Network Architecture CN RNS Iur RNC RNC Iub Node B Iub Node B Iub Node B Core Network CS Iu-CS PS Iu-PS CS Iu-CS RNS PS Iu-PS UTRAN Iub Node B Uu UE Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. However. The Iu interface is used between RNC and CN while the Iub interface is adopted between RNC and Node B.. RNCs connect with one another through the Iur interface. and at the same time. Ltd. Page17 z WCDMA including the RAN (Radio Access Network) and the CN (Core Network). and implements the function of external network switching and routing.

but in fact it was not completed until March. As scheduled. After R99. a SGW is added. the R99 version would be completed at the end of 1999. the CS domain of R99 version do not fundamentally change. In the R5 network. the network can use HSS instead of HLR. the HSUPA is supported which can provide UL service rate up to 5. R5. MSC as the CS domain of the CN is divided into the MSC Server and the MGW. which have thus changed the original call procedures. At the same time. In the R6 network.. the version was no longer named by the year. Ltd. To guarantee the investment benefits of operators. 2000. And MBMS (MultiMedia Broadcast Multicast Service) is also supported. the end-to-end VOIP is supported and the core network adopts plentiful new function entities. R4.002.. so as to support the smooth transition of GSM/GPRS/3G. the functions of R2000 are implemented by the following two phases: R4 and R5. In the R5 network. at the same time. In the R4 network. and HLR can be replaced by HSS (not explicitly specified in the specification). 3GPP began to formulate 3G specifications at the end of 1998 and beginning of 1999.76Mbps. there are the following three versions: R99. Page18 z The overall structure of the WCDMA network is defined in 3GPP TS 23. Now. With IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem). HSDPA (High Speed Downlink Packet Access) is also supported. it can support high speed data service. z z z z . All rights reserved.WCDMA Network Version Evolution MBMS HSUPA GSM/GPRS CN WCDMA RTT CS domain change to NGN WCDMA RTT IMS HSDPA 3GPP Rel6 3GPP Rel5 3GPP Rel4 3GPP Rel99 2000 2001 2002 2005 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

Max UL rate: 100Mbps (with 20MHz bandwidth) ‡ ‡ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Max UL rate:11Mbps ‡ z Features of R8 ‡ WCDMA LTE (Long term evolution) is introduced OFDMA is adopted instead of CDMA Max DL rate: 50Mbps.. which adopts higher order modulation and MIMO Max DL rate: 28Mbps. Page19 .WCDMA Network Version Evolution z Features of R6 ‡ MBMS is introduced HSUPA is introduced to achieve the service rate up to 5. All rights reserved.76Mbps ‡ z Features of R7 ‡ HSPA+ is introduced.

. 3G Overview 2. Page20 . CDMA Principle 3. All rights reserved.Contents 1. WCDMA Network Architecture and protocol structure 4. WCDMA Wireless Fundamental Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.

Channel coding can make the transmission more reliable. z Bit. Through the modulation. Symbol. Ltd. All rights reserved. Chip ‡ Bit : data after source coding Symbol: data after channel coding and interleaving Chip: data after spreading ‡ ‡ . Page21 z z z z Source coding can increase the transmitting efficiency.Processing Procedure of WCDMA System Source Coding Service Signal Channel Coding & Interleaving Spreading Modulation Transmission bit symbol chip modulated signal Radio Channel Service Signal Source Decoding Channel Decoding Despreading & Deinterleaving Demodulation Reception Receiver Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Spreading can increase the capability of overcoming interference. the signals will transfer to radio signals from digital signals..

multiplexing and etc. ‡ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.75 Bit Rate (kbps) 12.95 7.20 AMR_7.WCDMA Source Coding z AMR (Adaptive Multi-Rate) Speech ‡ CODEC AMR_12.4 (TDMA EFR) 6. That exchange has to be done as fast as possible in order to better follow the evolution of the channel’s quality. Ltd.40 AMR_6.9 5. Page22 z AMR is compatible with current mobile communication system (GSM. it will make multi-mode terminal design easier. The AMR codec offers the possibility to adapt the coding scheme to the radio channel conditions. During an AMR communication.324 is used for VP Service in CS domain Includes: video codec. The codec mode providing the highest source rate is selected in good propagation conditions..70 AMR_5. The most robust codec mode is selected in bad propagation conditions.90 AMR_5. All rights reserved.2 7. IS-95.15 AMR_4. z z .20 AMR_10.15 4.2 (GSM EFR) 10. PDC and so on).7 (PDC EFR) 5. data protocols. speech codec. the receiver measures the radio link quality and must return to the transmitter either the quality measurements or the actual codec mode the transmitter should use during the next frame. thus.95 AMR_7.75 A integrated speech codec with 8 source rates The AMR bit rates can be controlled by the RAN depending on the system load and quality of the speech connections ‡ z Video Phone Service ‡ H.

Ltd. Channel coding can make the transmission more reliable.. Symbol. Spreading can increase the capability of overcoming interference. the signals will transfer to radio signals from digital signals. Scrambling can make transmission in security. Page23 z z z z z Source coding can increase the transmitting efficiency.Processing Procedure of WCDMA System Transmitter Service Signal Source Coding Channel Coding & Interleaving Spreading Modulation Transmission bit symbol chip modulated signal Radio Channel Service Signal Source Decoding Channel Decoding Despreading & Deinterleaving Demodulation Reception Receiver Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. z Bit. All rights reserved. Chip ‡ Bit : data after source coding Symbol: data after channel coding and interleaving Chip: data after spreading ‡ ‡ . Through the modulation.

All rights reserved. 16 and 24 bits. To guarantee reliable transmission. The CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) is used for error checking of the transport blocks at the receiving end. 12. Ltd. z The cyclic redundancy check (CRC) is a common method of block coding. Block coding: The encoder adds some redundant bits to the block of bits and the decoder uses them to determine whether an error has occurred during the transmission. z z z . although these are not used in WCDMA. the lower is the probability of an undetected error in the transport block in the receiver. Note that certain types of block codes can also be used for error correction. This is used to calculate Block Error Ratio (BLER) used in the outer loop power control. 8. The more bits the CRC contains. channel coding and interleaving. z Adding the CRC bits is done before the channel encoding and they are checked after the channel decoding.. Page24 z During the transmission. there are many interferences and fading.WCDMA Block Coding . system should overcome these influence through the channel coding which includes block coding. Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.CRC z Block coding is used to detect if there are any uncorrected errors left after error correction. The CRC length that can be inserted has four different values: 0.

Turbo codes are found to be very efficient because they can perform close to the theoretical limit set by the Shannon’s Law. and then the block decoder (CRC check) offers its judgment on whether the resulting information is good enough to be used in the higher layers. both Convolution code and Turbo code are used. Note that both block codes and channel codes are used in the UTRAN. Ltd. turbo coding is more efficient than convolutional coding. z z z z . but poor on low rate services. Convolution code applies to voice service while Turbo code applies to high rate data service. Through the technology. the redundant bits can be used to recover the original information. The idea behind this arrangement is that the channel decoder (either a convolutional or turbo decoder) tries to correct as many errors as possible.. The first is convolution that is used for anti-interference. All rights reserved. Convolutional codes are typically used when the timing constraints are tight. many redundant bits will be inserted in original information. In WCDMA network. sO that occasional bit errors can be corrected in the receiving entity.WCDMA Channel Coding z Effect ‡ Enhance the correlation among symbols so as to recover the signal when interference occurs Provides better error correction at receiver. At higher bit rates. The coded data must contain enough redundant information to make it possible to correct some of the detected errors without asking for repeats. but brings increment of the delay ‡ z Types ‡ No Coding Convolutional Coding (1/2. Their efficiency is best with high data rate services. z UTRAN employs two FEC schemes: convolutional codes and turbo codes. When error code is caused by interference. 1/3) Turbo Coding (1/3) No Coding 1/2 Convolutional Coding Code Block of N Bits 1/3 Convolutional Coding 1/3 Turbo Coding Uncoded N bits Coded 2N+16 bits Coded 3N+24 bits Coded 3N+12 bits Page25 ‡ ‡ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. The idea is to add redundancy to the transmitted bit stream.

By interleaving. Ltd. . ⎢ ⎣0 ⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢.. .. Most coding schemes perform better on random data errors than on blocks of errors.. z . or 80 ms 00…010…100…10…11 Output bits Inter-column permutation Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. the better the protection provided by the time diversity.. 10111 ‡ ⎡0 ⎢0 ⎢ ⎢.. which spreads the erroneous bits over a longer period of time. All rights reserved. Page26 z Channel coding works well against random errors. The especially fast moving UE in CDMA systems can cause consecutive errors if the power control is not fast enough to manage the interference.... longer interleaving increases transmission delays and a balance must be found between the error resistance capabilities and the delay introduced.⎥ ⎥ ... but it is quite vulnerable to bursts of errors. This problem can be eased with interleaving... which are typical in mobile radio systems. However... ....... .. . no two adjacent bits are transmitted near to each other. ⎢ ⎢... ⎢ ⎢.. ⎢ ⎣0 1 0⎤ 0 .... 1 ⎥ 1 1 1⎥ ⎦ 1 0 Interleaving periods: 20.⎥ ⎥ . The longer the interleaving period... 40. 1 ⎥ 1 1 1⎥ ⎦ 0 0 0 0⎤ 0 . and the data errors are randomized. .⎥ ⎥ ...WCDMA Interleaving z Effect ‡ Interleaving is used to reduce the probability of consecutive bits error Longer interleaving periods have better data protection with more delay Input bits 0010000 ..⎥ ⎥ ....

Through the modulation. Channel coding can make the transmission more reliable. Ltd.Processing Procedure of WCDMA System Source Coding Service Signal Channel Coding & Interleaving Spreading Modulation Transmission bit symbol chip modulated signal Radio Channel Service Signal Source Decoding Channel Decoding Despreading & Deinterleaving Demodulation Reception Receiver Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. the signals will transfer to radio signals from digital signals. Chip ‡ Bit : data after source coding Symbol: data after channel coding and interleaving Chip: data after spreading ‡ ‡ . All rights reserved. Symbol. z Bit.. Page27 z z z z z Source coding can increase the transmitting efficiency. Scrambling can make transmission in security. Spreading can increase the capability of overcoming interference.

Identical and Orthogonal signals: +1 C1 -1 C2 +1 -1 +1 -1 1 -1 1 ⊗ -1 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1 Correlation = 1 Identical signals C1 C2 +1 -1 +1 +1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 ⊗ 1 1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 Correlation = 0 Orthogonal signals Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co..Correlation z z Correlation measures similarity between any two arbitrary signals. the two signals are uncorrelated. In figure (b) . All rights reserved. Page28 z Correlation is used to measure similarity of any two arbitrary signals. The two signals of figure (a) are identical and therefore their correlation is 1 or 100 percent. however. It is computed by multiplying the two signals and then summing (integrating) the result over a defined time windows. and therefore knowing one of them does not provide any information on the other. . Ltd.

. The product of the user symbols and the spreading code is a sequence of digits that must be transmitted at 4 times the rate of the original encoded binary signal. each symbol is multiplied with all the chips in the orthogonal sequence assigned to the user. All rights reserved. . 4-digit codes are used.Coding UE1: UE1: UE2: UE2: + 1 + 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 - 1 + 1 + 1 :: C 11 C C 2 :: C 2 UE1 × c1 : UE1 × c1 : UE2 × c2 : UE2 × c2 : UE1 × c1 + × c2 : UE1 × c1 +UE2 UE2 × c2 : - 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - 1+ + 1- - 1+ + 1- - 1+ + 1- - 1+ + 1 + 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + 1+ + 1+ + 1+ + 1+ + 1+ + 1+ + 1+ + 1 - 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - 1+ + 1- - 1+ + 1+ + 1- - 1+ + 1- - 1 - 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - 1- - 1- - 1- - 1+ + 1+ + 1+ + 1+ + 1 - 2 2 2 2 - 2 0 0- - 2 0 0 + + 2 0 0+ + 2 0 0 Page29 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. In this figure. The resulting sequence is processed and is then transmitted over the physical channel along with other spread symbols. z By spreading.Orthogonal Code Usage . Ltd.

the resulting correlation yields an average of zero. z . but CDMA system employ Forward Error Correction techniques to combat the effects of noise and enhance the performance of the system. the symbols or digits are completely recovered without any error. In reality. the resulting correlation is always zero because of the orthogonal property of codes.. When the wrong code is used for dispreading. This is a clear demonstration of the advantage of the orthogonal property of the codes.Decoding UE1 × C + × C :: 11 22 UE1 × C +UE2 UE2 × C - 2 2 2 2 - 2 0 0- - 2 0 0 + + 2 0 0+ + 2 0 0 - 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - 1+ + 1- - 1+ + 1- - 1+ + 1- - 1+ + 1 + 2 2 2 2 + 2 0 0+ + 2 0 0 - - 2 0 0- - 2 0 0 + 4 + 1) 4 - 1) + 4(means (means + 1) - - 4(means (means - 1) UE1 UE1Dispreading Dispreadingby byc1: c1: Dispreading Dispreadingresult: result: Integral Integraljudgment: judgment: UE2 UE2Dispreading Dispreadingby byc2: c2: Dispreading Dispreadingresult: result: Integral Integraljudgment: judgment: + 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 + 1+ + 1+ + 1+ + 1+ + 1+ + 1+ + 1+ + 1 - 2 2 2 2 - 2 0 0- - 2 0 0 + + 2 0 0 + + 2 0 0 - 4 - 1) 4 + 1) - 4(means (means - 1) + + 4(means (means + 1) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.Orthogonal Code Usage . Ltd. Page30 z The receiver dispreads the chips by using the same code used in the transmitter. Whether the wrong code is mistakenly used by the target user or other users attempting to decode the received signal. All rights reserved. Notice that under no-noise conditions. the channel is not noise-free.

Spectrum Analysis of Spreading & Dispreading P(f) Spreading code P(f) f Narrowband signal f Broadband signal P(f) f Noise & Other Signal Recovered signal P(f) Signal Combination Noise+Broadband signal P(f) f Spreading code f Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. A digital bit stream sent over a radio link requires a definite bandwidth to be successfully transmitted and received. or both. Ltd. CDMA system mix their input data with a fast spreading sequence and transmit a wideband signal. The gain can be used to increase system performance and range. .. The dispreading gives substantial gain proportional to the bandwidth of the spread-spectrum signal. The spreading sequence is independently regenerated at the receiver and mixed with the incoming wideband signal to recover the original data. or allow multiple coded users. Page31 z Traditional radio communication systems transmit data using the minimum bandwidth required to carry it as a narrowband signal.

Spectrum Analysis of Spreading & Dispreading Eb / No = Ec / No ×PG Power Ebit Eb/No Requiremen t Max allowed interference Processing Gain Max interference caused by UE and others Interference from other UE Echip Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page32 . All rights reserved.. Ltd.

Process Gain z Process Gain Pr ocess Gain = 10 log( chip rate ) bit rate ‡ Process gain differs for each service. the bit rate of video phone is 64kbps. and the highest packet service bit rate is 384kbps(R99).2kbps. After the spreading. vice versa. .. UE needs more power for this service. then the coverage of this service will be smaller. Ltd.84Mcps. If the service bit rate is greater. the bit rate of voice call is 12. ‡ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. the process gain is smaller. Page33 z For common services. All rights reserved. the chip rate of different service all become 3.

The spreading process in UTRAN consists of two separate operations: channelization and scrambling.. Page34 z Spreading means increasing the bandwidth of the signal beyond the bandwidth normally required to accommodate the information. which transforms data symbols into chips Scrambling operation is applied to the spreading signal ‡ Data symbol Chips after spreading channelization scrambling Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. thus increasing the bandwidth of the signal.Spreading Technology z Spreading consists of 2 steps: ‡ Channelization operation. Scrambling is used on top of spreading. so it does not change the signal bandwidth but only makes the signals from different sources separable from each other. As the chip rate is already achieved in channelization by the channelization codes. The number of chips per data symbol is called the Spreading Factor (SF). The second operation is the scrambling operation. Ltd. meaning that in ideal environment they do not interfere each other. The first operation is the channelization operation. which transforms every data symbol into a number of chips. the chip rate is not affected by the scrambling. All rights reserved. z z . Channelization codes are orthogonal codes.

3 = (1.8.1.-1. and the left most value of each spreading code character is corresponding to the chip which is transmitted earliest.1.1.1) Cch.1) Cch.1. Channelization uses OVSF code.-1) Cch.1.-1.-1.1.-1. where.1.5 = (1.-1..2.-1.1.-1) Cch.-1.-1. and then complementing the -1 diagonally.3 = (1.1) Cch.-1.2.8. All rights reserved.6 = (1.4.0 = (1.-1.-1.7 = (1. and k is the sequence of code.8.1.-1) Cch.1.4 = (1.-1.4. Channelization code is defined as Cch SF.. for keeping the orthogonality of different subscriber physical channels.1) Cch. Ltd.0 = (1) …… SF = 1 SF = 2 SF = 4 SF = 8 Page35 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.-1) Cch.-1.1. OVSF can be defined as the code tree illustrated in the following diagram.1.1.8.1.1.2 = (1.1 = (1.1.1.8.-1.WCDMA Channelization Code z OVSF Code (Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor) is used as channelization code Cch.-1) Cch.-1.-1.1.-1.1) Cch.1 = (1.-1.8. SF is the spreading factor of the code. 0≤k≤SF-1.4. z Orthogonal codes are easily generated by starting with a seed of 1.0 = (1.-1.1 = (1.0 = (1. Each level definition length of code tree is SF channelization code. z z .1) Cch.8.4.-1.1. repeating the 1 horizontally and vertically. k.8.-1.1.1.1. This process is to be continued with the newly generated block until the desired codes with the proper length are generated.1.-1.1.-1.1. -1) Cch.1.1.-1.-1.2 = (1.1.-1.-1.1. Sequences created in this way are referred as “Walsh” code.1) Cch.-1.-1) Cch.

A channelization sequence modulates one user’s bit. z z z z z z .2 DL Data 64 kbps DL Data 128 kbps DL Data 144 kbps DL Data 384 kbps DL SF 128 32 16 16 8 ‡ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.3 is not orthogonal with C1. Furthermore. SF in uplink is from 4 to 256.WCDMA Channelization Code z SF = chip rate / symbol rate ‡ High data rates → low SF code Low data rates → high SF code Radio bearer Speech 12. They are used to preserve orthogonality between different physical channels. SF in downlink is from 4 to 512. Low SFs are reserved for high rate services while high SFs are for low rate services.. but is orthogonal with C2.SF. Because the chip rate is constant.k. the channelization codes are individually described by Cch. The length of an OVSF code is an even number of chips and the number of codes (for one SF) is equal to the number of chips and to the SF value.0 and C2. where SF is the Spreading Factor of the code and k the code number. They also increase the clock rate to 3. The OVSF codes are defined using a code tree. For example C4.84 Mcps. The generated codes within the same layer constitute a set of orthogonal codes. any two codes of different layers are orthogonal except when one of the two codes is a mother code of the other.0. In the code tree. Ltd. Page36 z The channelization codes are Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) codes.2 UL Data 64 kbps UL Data 128 kbps UL Data 144 kbps UL Data 384 kbps UL SF 64 16 8 8 4 Radio bearer Speech 12. All rights reserved. the different lengths of codes enable to have different user data rates. 0 ≤ k ≤ SF-1.1.

Ltd.. For Video Phone (64k packet data) service. z . it means there are 128 voice services maximum can be supported in one WCDMA carrier. All rights reserved.Purpose of Channelization Code z Channelization code is used to distinguish different physical channels of one transmitter ‡ For downlink. downlink SF is 128. channelization code ( OVSF code ) is used to separate different physical channels of one UE Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. downlink SF is 32. it means there are 32 voice services maximum can be supported in one WCDMA carrier. Page37 z For voice service (AMR). channelization code ( OVSF code ) is used to separate different physical channels of one cell ‡ For uplink.

part of the process in the transmitter is the scrambling operation. Page38 z In addition to spreading..Purpose of Scrambling Code z Scrambling code is used to distinguish different transmitters ‡ For downlink. This is needed to separate terminals or base stations from each other. scrambling code is used to separate different cells in one carrier ‡ For uplink. . All rights reserved. scrambling code is used to separate different UEs in one carrier Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.

512 primary scrambling codes are used. Uplink scrambling codes are assigned by RNC.. There are 224 long uplink scrambling codes which are used for scrambling of the uplink signals. Gold codes are chosen for their very low peak cross-correlation. Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Different scrambling codes will be allocated to different UEs in uplink. z For downlink. Page39 z z z z Different scrambling codes will be planned to different cells in downlink. . In UMTS. The scrambling code is always applied to one 10 ms frame.Scrambling Code z z Scrambling code: GOLD sequence. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. . There are 8 primary scrambling codes in every group. Each cell is allocated with only one primary scrambling code.. They are further divided into 64 primary scrambling code groups. z There are totally 512 primary scrambling codes defined by 3GPP.Primary Scrambling Code Group Primary scrambling code 0 Group 0 Primary scrambling code 1 …… Primary scrambling code 8 Primary scrambling code 8*63 ………… Primary scrambling codes for downlink physical channels Group 1 … Group 63 …… Primary scrambling code 8*63 +7 512 primary scrambling codes 64 primary scrambling code groups Each group consists of 8 primary scrambling codes Page40 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.

Ltd.. All rights reserved.Code Multiplexing z Downlink Transmission on a Cell Level Scrambling code Channelization code 1 User 1 signal Channelization code 2 User 2 signal Channelization code 3 User 3 signal NodeB Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page41 .

Page42 . Ltd. All rights reserved.Code Multiplexing z Uplink Transmission on a Cell Level Scrambling code 1 Channelization code User 1 signal Scrambling code 2 Channelization code User 2 signal NodeB Scrambling code 3 Channelization code User 3 signal Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co..

Chip ‡ Bit : data after source coding Symbol: data after channel coding and interleaving Chip: data after spreading ‡ ‡ . Channel coding can make the transmission more reliable. Scrambling can make transmission in security. Page43 z z z z z Source coding can increase the transmitting efficiency.. Through the modulation. Spreading can increase the capability of overcoming interference. Ltd. the signals will transfer to radio signals from digital signals. All rights reserved.Processing Procedure of WCDMA System Source Coding Service Signal Channel Coding & Interleaving Spreading Modulation Transmission bit symbol chip modulated signal Radio Channel Service Signal Source Decoding Channel Decoding Despreading & Deinterleaving Demodulation Reception Receiver Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. z Bit. Symbol.

In ASK the amplitude of the carrier signal is modified by the digital signal. There are three basic ways to modulate a carrier signal in a digital sense: amplitude shift keying (ASK). and only a few of them are mentioned here.cos(2πFt+φ) Amplitude Shift Keying: A. All rights reserved.cos(2πFt+φ) Frequency Shift Keying: A. z z z .Modulation Overview Data to be transmitted: Digital Input 1 0 1 0 time Basic steady radio wave: carrier = A. Ltd. In FSK the frequency of the carrier signal is modified by the digital signal. There are many variants in this family. which is always a sine wave. Page44 z A data-modulation scheme defines how the data bits are mixed with the carrier signal.cos(2πFt+φ) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. The PSK family is the most widely used modulation scheme in modern cellular systems. and phase shift keying (PSK). frequency shift keying (FSK)..cos(2πFt+φ) Phase Shift Keying: A.

0 and π radians. The mapping rule is 1 −> + 1 and 0 − > − 1.BPSK 1 1 0 1 1 Digital Input 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Information signal t NRZ coding 1 t -1 High Frequency Carrier Carrier fo 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 BPSK Waveform φ=0 φ=π φ=0 Modulated BPSK signal BPSK Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. z . There are only two possible phase shifts in BPSK.Modulation Overview z Digital Modulation . NRZ means none return zero. Page45 z In binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation. Ltd. All rights reserved.. each data bit is transformed into a separate data symbol.

. and 3π/2 radians. Two data bits are transformed into one complex data symbol. All rights reserved. z The quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation has four phases: 0. A symbol is any change (keying) of the carrier. π.Modulation Overview z Digital Modulation .. Ltd. π/2.QPSK 1 NRZ Input I di-Bit Stream Q di-Bit Stream 1 1 1 2 1 3 -1 -1 1 4 1 5 -1 -1 1 6 1 7 1 1 -1 8 -1 9 -1 -1 -1 10 -1 I Component Q Component QPSK Waveform 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Page46 9 10 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

Modulation Overview ±A NRZ coding ±Acos(ωot) I(t) fo QPSK 90o NRZ coding ±A Q(t) ±Acos(ωot + π/2) QPSK 1 1 -1 -1 : A 2 cos( ω o + φ ) φ 1 -1 1 -1 π/4 7π/4 3π/4 5π/4 Page47 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. . All rights reserved..

1 1.1 -1.Demodulation z QPSK Constellation Diagram 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 QPSK Waveform 1.1 -1.-1 -1.-1 NRZ Output 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 -1 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page48 . Ltd. All rights reserved..

Ltd. a QPSK system with a chip rate of 3.84Mcps could theoretically transfer 2 × 3.WCDMA Modulation z Different modulation methods corresponding to different transmitting abilities in air interface R99/R4: QPSK HSDPA: QPSK or 16QAM Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. and a 16QAM system could transfer 4 × 3.36 Mbps. Thus.68 Mbps. with 16QAM also the amplitude of the signal matters. As explained.84 Mbps = 15. Page49 z The UTRAN air interface uses QPSK modulation in the downlink. in QPSK one symbol carries two data bits. As seen.. in 16QAM each symbol includes four bits. All rights reserved. although HSDPA may also employ 16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (16QAM).84 = 7. In 3GPP also the usage of 64QAM with HSDPA has been studied. z . 16QAM requires good radio conditions to work well.

Spreading can increase the capability of overcoming interference. Page50 z z z z z Source coding can increase the transmitting efficiency. Symbol. Channel coding can make the transmission more reliable. Scrambling can make transmission in security. All rights reserved.Processing Procedure of WCDMA System Transmitter Service Signal Source Coding Channel Coding Spreading Modulation Transmission bit symbol chip modulated signal Radio Channel Service Signal Source Decoding Channel Decoding Despreading Demodulation Reception Receiver Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. z Bit. Chip ‡ Bit : data after source coding Symbol: data after channel coding and interleaving Chip: data after spreading ‡ ‡ . Through the modulation.. the signals will transfer to radio signals from digital signals.

.Wireless Propagation Transmitted Signal Amplitude Transmission Loss: Path Loss + Multi-path Fading Received Signal Time Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. etc. Page51 z A mobile communication channel is a multi-path fading channel and any transmitted signal reaches a receive end by means of multiple transmission paths. reflection. Ltd.. such as direct transmission. All rights reserved. scatter.

Page52 Signal at Transmitter Signal at Receiver Fading . All rights reserved.Propagation of Radio Signal 20 15 10 5 dBm 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 0 -5 -10 -15 dB -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd..

Fast fading conforms to Rayleigh distribution. Page53 z Furthermore. delay and phase on various transmission paths vary with time and place. The mid-value field strength of fast fading has relatively gentle change and is called “slow fading”. . will lead to fast fading. All rights reserved.. Therefore. Slow fading conforms to lognormal distribution. with the moving of a mobile station. the signal amplitude. if overlaid. Ltd.Fading Categories z Fading Categories ‡ Slow Fading Fast Fading ‡ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. the levels of received signals are fluctuating and unstable and these multi-path signals.

Page54 z Diversity technology means that after receiving two or more input signals with mutually uncorrelated fading at the same time. the system demodulates these signals and adds them up. All rights reserved. Thus. .. the system can receive more useful signals and overcome fading.Diversity Technique z Diversity technique is used to obtain uncorrelated signals for combining ‡ Reduce the effects of fading „ Fast fading caused by multi-path Slow fading caused by shadowing „ ‡ ‡ Improve the reliability of communication Increase the coverage and capacity Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.

time and space. Block interleaving z Frequency diversity ‡ The user signal is distributed on the whole bandwidth frequency spectrum z z Space diversity Polarization diversity Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Space diversity: using two antennas z z z .Diversity z Time diversity ‡ Channel coding. Time diversity: Channel coding Frequency diversity: WCDMA is a kind of frequency diversity. Page55 z Diversity technology is an effective way to overcome overlaid fading. All rights reserved. Ltd. Because it can be selected in terms of frequency. The signal energy is distributed on the whole bandwidth.. diversity technology includes frequency diversity. time diversity and space diversity.

All rights reserved. So with RAKE receiver WCDMA system can use the multi-path characteristics of the channel to get signal with better quality. Ltd. the signals from different paths are uncorrelated with each other. When WCDMA system is designed for cellular system. Page56 z The RAKE receiver is a technique which uses several baseband correlators to individually process multipath signal components. The receiver can then combine them using some combining schemes. The outputs from the different correlators are combined to achieve improved reliability and performance. In WCDMA system. when the multi-path components are resolved in the receiver. Thus. z .Principle of RAKE Receiver Correlator 1 Correlator 2 Receive set Correlator 3 Searcher correlator s(t) s(t) Calculate the time delay and signal strength Combiner The combined signal t t RAKE receiver help to overcome on the multi-path fading and enhance the receive performance of the system Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. the inherent wide-bandwidth signals with their orthogonal Walsh functions were natural for implementing a RAKE receiver.. the bandwidth is wider than the coherence bandwidth of the cellular.

Summary z In this course.. Page57 . All rights reserved. Ltd. we have discussed basic concepts of WCDMA: ‡ Spreading / Despreading principle UTRAN Voice Coding UTRAN Channel Coding UTRAN Spreading Code UTRAN Scrambling Code UTRAN Modulation UTRAN Transmission/Receiving ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

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All rights reserved.WCDMA Radio Interface Physical Layer www. .huawei. Ltd.com Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co..

for example: spreading. Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. modulation and demodulation. Page1 .Foreword z z The physical layer offers data transport services to higher layers.. Inner-loop power control and etc. All rights reserved. The physical layer is expected to perform the following functions in order to provide the data transport service. despreading. Ltd.

Objectives z Upon completion of this course. Page2 . you will be able to: ‡ Outline radio interface protocol Architecture Describe structure and functions of different physical channels Describe UMTS physical layer procedures ‡ ‡ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Ltd..

Ltd. Physical Channels 3.Contents 1.. Page3 . Physical Layer Procedure Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Physical Layer Overview 2.

All rights reserved. Page4 . Ltd.Contents 1. Physical Channels 3.. Physical Layer Procedure Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Physical Layer Overview 2.

A NodeB is connected to the RNC through the Iub interface. .UTRAN Network Structure CN Core Network CS Iu-CS RNS Iur RNC RNC Iub NodeB Iub NodeB Iub NodeB PS Iu-PS CS Iu-CS RNS PS Iu-PS UTRAN Iub NodeB Uu UE Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. z Inside the UTRAN.. the RNCs of the RNS can be interconnected together through the Iur. All rights reserved. Page5 z z UTRAN: UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network. z A RNS consists of a Radio Network Controller and one or more NodeBs. The UTRAN consists of a set of Radio Network Subsystems connected to the Core Network through the Iu interface. Iu(s) and Iur are logical interfaces. Ltd. Iur can be conveyed over direct physical connection between RNCs or virtual networks using any suitable transport network.

ciphering. RLC (Radio Link Control). “duplication avoidance” terminates in the CN but is part of the Access Stratum. The higher layer signalling such as Mobility Management (MM) and Call Control (CC) is assumed to belong to the non-access stratum. interference power. Page6 L2/MAC transport channel L1 z The layer 1 supports all functions required for the transmission of bit streams on the physical medium. … It is basically composed of a “layer 1 management” entity. for example. The access stratum part is made of “RRC (Radio Resource Control)” entity and “duplication avoidance” entity. the interface between 'Duplication avoidance' and higher L3 sub-layers (CC. Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR). . It is also in charge of measurements function consisting in indicating to higher layers.. In the C-plane. BMC and L1). z Not shown on the figure are connections between RRC and all the other protocol layers (RLC. and a “physical channel” entity. a “transport channel” entity. and therefore not in the scope of 3GPP TSG RAN. MM) is defined by the General Control (GC). All rights reserved. z The protocol layers are located in the UE and the peer entities are in the NodeB or the RNC.Uu Interface Protocol Structure GC Nt DC Duplication avoidance GC C-plane signaling Nt DC U-plane information control UuS boundary control control RRC control control L3 radio bearer PDCP PDCP BMC RLC L2/PDCP L2/BMC L2/RLC logical channel RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC MAC PHY Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. transmit power. It is made of four sub-layers: MAC (Medium Access Control). Frame Error Rate (FER). PDCP (Packet Data Convergence Protocol) and BMC (Broadcast/Multicast Control). z The layer 3 is split into 2 parts: the access stratum and the non access stratum. z The layer 2 protocol is responsible for providing functions such as mapping. Ltd. which provide local inter-layer control services. MAC. retransmission and segmentation. Notification (Nt) and Dedicated Control (DC) SAPs. PDCP.

. This corresponds to “system information” regularly repeated. when and how to report. ‡ ‡ UE measurement reporting and control of the reporting: RRC indicates what to measure. an admission control. These bearers are configured depending on the requested QoS. maintenance and release of an RRC connection between the UE and UTRAN: it includes an optional cell reselection. and a layer 2 signaling link establishment. shared channels). re-establishment. ‡ Establishment. The RNC is also in charge of ensuring that the requested QoS can be met. ‡ z The RRC layer is defined in the 25. Control of ciphering: provides procedures for setting of ciphering.z Many functions are managed by the RRC layer. ‡ Paging/Notification: it broadcasts paging information from network to UEs. RRC communicates with the UE to indicate new resources allocation when handovers are managed. ‡ Assignment. it acts as the Serving RNC.g. Here is the list of the most important: ‡ Establishment. When a RNC is in charge of a specific connection towards a UE.331 specification from 3GPP. reconfiguration and release of radio resources for the RRC connection: it handles the assignment of radio resources (e. codes. ‡ Outer loop power control: controls setting of the target values. Broadcasting of information provided by the non-access stratum (Core Network) or access Stratum. reconfiguration and release of Radio Bearers: a number of Radio Bearers can be established for a UE at the same time.

ciphering: prevents unauthorized acquisition of data. performed in RLC layer for non-transparent RLC mode. acknowledged and unacknowledged modes). segmentation/reassembly: this function performs segmentation/reassembly of variable-length higher layer PDUs into/from smaller RLC Payload Units. ‡ ‡ ‡ error correction: done by retransmission (acknowledged data transfer mode only). The RLC size is adjustable to the actual set of transport formats (decided when service is established). 2 sub-modes are used: acknowledged or unacknowledged. QoS setting: the retransmission protocol (for AM only) shall be configurable by layer 3 to provide different QoS. Two different transfer modes are used: transparent and non-transparent. z The RLC functions are: ‡ mapping between higher layer PDUs and logical channels. Concatenation and padding may also be used.z The RLC’s main function is the transfer of data from either the user or the control plane over the Radio interface. In non-transparent mode. ‡ . ‡ ‡ notification of unrecoverable errors: RLC notifies the upper layers of errors that cannot be resolved by RLC. z RLC provides services to upper layers: ‡ data transfer (transparent. flow control: allows the RLC receiver to control the rate at which the peer RLC transmitting entity may send information.

Requested by the RRC layer. Access Service Class (ACS) selection for RACH transmission: the RACH resources are divided between different ACSs in order to provide different priorities on a random access procedure. Priority handling consists in setting the right transport format for a high bit rate service and for a low bit rate service. QoS parameters. Here’s a quick explanation for some of them: ‡ Priority handling between the data flows of one UE: since UMTS is multimedia.z MAC services include: ‡ Data transfer: service providing unacknowledged transfer of MAC SDUs between peer MAC entities.). having possibly different profiles (priority. z The functions accomplished by the MAC sub-layer are listed above. ‡ Reporting of measurements: local measurements such as traffic volume and quality indication are reported to the RRC layer... a user may activate several services at the same time. Performed in the MAC layer for transparent RLC mode. Ciphering: to prevent unauthorized acquisition of data. ‡ ‡ . ‡ Priority handling between UEs: use for efficient spectrum resources utilization for bursty transfers on common and shared channels. ‡ Reallocation of radio resources and MAC parameters: reconfiguration of MAC functions such as change of identity of UE.

This is done if lossless SRNS relocation is required.535. each PDCP-SDUs (UL and DL) is buffered and numbered. ‡ Algorithm types and their parameters are negotiated by RRC and indicated to PDCP. PDCP sequence number ranges from 0 to 65. ‡ ‡ . Then. ‡ Header compression and decompression are specific for each network layer protocol type. ‡ PDCP shall also be responsible for implementing different kinds of optimization methods. the PDCP layer has been introduced.z PDCP ‡ UMTS supports several network layer protocols providing protocol transparency for the users of the service. Numbering is done after header compression. The currently known methods are standardized IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) header compression algorithms. ‡ Using these protocols (and new ones) shall be possible without any changes to UTRAN protocols. Compression algorithms exist for TCP/IP. In order to perform this requirement. To accomplish this function. an identifier (PID: Packet Identifier) is inserted. functions related to transfer of packets from higher layers shall be carried out in a transparent way by the UTRAN network entities. ‡ In order to know which compression method is used. SDUs are kept until information of successful transmission of PDCP-PDU has been received from RLC. … Another function of PDCP is to provide numbering of PDUs. RTP/UDP/IP.

On the UE side .z BMC (broadcast/multicast control protocol) ‡ The main function of BMC protocol are: Storage of cell broadcast message. which are used by RRC to configure the lower layers for CBS discontinuous reception. the BMC calculates the required transmission rate for the cell broadcast service based on the messages received over the CBC-RNC interface. on the UTRAN side the BMC generates schedule message and schedules BMC message sequences accordingly. On the UTRAN side.CTCH/FACH resources from from RRC ‡ Scheduling of BMC message. ‡ ‡ Traffic volume monitoring and radio resource request for CBS. ‡ Transmission of BMC message to UE. and requests appropriate . the BMC in RNC stores the cell broadcast message received over the CBC-RNC interface for scheduled transmission.the BMC evaluates the schedule messages and indicates scheduling parameters to RRC. The function transmits the BMC messages according to the schedule Delivery of cell broadcast messages to the upper layer. Based on this scheduling information. This UE function delivers the received non-corrupted cell broadcast messages to the upper layer ‡ . The BMC receives scheduling information together with each cell broadcast message over the CBC-RNC interface.

. and one physical channel. One radio link is made of one or several transport channels. interleaving. which exchange information through the use of control channels. This information can be voice.) is done by the transport sub-layer in order to provide different services and their associated QoS. It is made of several units located in each equipment.z The layer 1 (physical layer) is used to transmit information under the form of electrical signals corresponding to bits. The access to these services is through the use of transport channels via the MAC sub-layer. etc. z These two parts of layer 1 are controlled by the layer 1 management (L1M) entity. and network signaling. The physical sub-layer is responsible for the modulation. which corresponds to the association of bits (coming from the transport sub-layer) to electrical signals that can be carried over the air interface. These links are managed by the layer 1 management entity. circuit or packet data. All the processing (channel coding. between the network and the mobile user. z z The UMTS layer 1 is divided into two sub-layers: the transport and the physical sublayers. z The UMTS layer 1 offers data transport services to higher layers. These services are provided by radio links which are established by signaling procedures. The spreading operation is also done by the physical sub-layer.

RB and RL RAB RB UE RL NodeB RNC CN UTRAN Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.. RB: The service provided by the layer 2 for transfer of user data between User Equipment and Serving RNC. z z . All rights reserved. RL: A "radio link" is a logical association between single User Equipment and a single UTRAN access point.RAB. Its physical realization comprises one or more radio bearer transmissions. Page13 z RAB: The service that the access stratum provides to the non-access stratum for transfer of user data between User Equipment and CN.

. Page14 . Ltd. Physical Channels 3. Physical Layer Overview 2. All rights reserved.Contents 1. Physical Layer Procedure Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

Contents 2.1 Physical Channel Structure and Functions 2. Ltd. All rights reserved.2 Channel Mapping Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Physical Channels 2. Page15 ..

transport channel and logical channel. the WCDMA radio interface has three types of channels: physical channel. According to whether the information transported is dedicated information for a user or common information for all users. . All rights reserved. it is divided into two types: control channel and service channel. z z Transport channel: It is the interface between radio interface layer 2 and layer 1. maybe a frequency . z Physical channel: It is the ultimate embodiment of all kinds of information when they are transmitted on radio interface. code (spreading code and scramble) and carrier phase (I or Q) can be regarded as a physical channel.. Logical channel: Carrying user services directly. it is divided into dedicated channel and common channel. and it is the service provided for MAC layer by the physical layer. Ltd. Page16 z In terms of protocol layer. According to the types of the carried services. a specific set of codes and phase Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Each channel which uses dedicated carrier frequency.WCDMA Radio Interface Channel Definition z Logical Channel = information container ‡ Defined by <What type of information> is transferred z Transport Channel = characteristics of transmission ‡ Described by <How> and with <What characteristics> data is transmitted over the radio interface z Physical Channel = specification of the information global content ‡ providing the real transmission resource.

The payload bits on this channel come from a higher layer application (the AMR codec for example). Common Traffic Channel (CTCH): a point-to-multipoint downlink channel for transfer of dedicated user information for all or a group of specified UEs. Cell broadcast messages are services offered by the operator. ‡ . traffic. UMTS uses the concept of logical channels. circuit switched data or packet switched data. These messages can either be cell broadcast data from higher layers or schedule messages for support of Discontinuous Reception (DRX) of cell broadcast data at the UE. This channel is used to broadcast BMC messages. like indication of weather. As in GSM.Logical Channel Dedicated traffic channel Common traffic channel (DTCH) (CTCH) Traffic channel Broadcast control channel Paging control channel Dedicate control channel Common control channel (BCCH) (PCCH) (DCCH) (CCCH) Control channel Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Control bits can be added by the RLC (protocol information) in case of a non transparent transfer. That information can be speech. Page17 z z z As in GSM. The traffic channels are: ‡ z Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH): a point-to-point bi-directional channel. All rights reserved. logical channels can be divided into two groups: control channels for control plane information and traffic channel for user plane information. that transmits dedicated user information between a UE and the network.. Ltd. location or rate information. A logical channel is characterized by the type of information that is transferred. The MAC sub-layer will also add a header to the RLC PDU.

In that case. they can decode system information type 10 on the FACH and other important signaling is sent on a DCCH. for dedicated paging. It is used to reach a UE (or several UEs) in idle mode or in connected mode (Cell_PCH or URA_PCH state). it is used to send the RRC connection request message. The network will respond on the same channel. Common Control Channel (CCCH): a bi-directional channel for transmitting control information between network and UEs. For example. Ltd. ‡ ‡ ‡ . When a UE receives a page on the PCCH in connected mode. All rights reserved. for the active set update procedure and for the control and report of measurements. which is the first message sent by the UE to get into connected mode. It is used to send messages related to RRC connection. and will send him its temporary identities (cell and UTRAN identities). cell update and URA update. it shall enter Cell_FACH state and make a cell update procedure. but will be used when the UE has not yet been identified by the network (or by the new cell). This channel is a bit like the DCCH. it is used for inter-frequency handover procedure. After these initial messages. For example. Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH): a point-to-point bi-directional channel that transmits dedicated control information between a UE and the network..Logical Channel Dedicated traffic channel Common traffic channel (DTCH) (CTCH) Traffic channel Broadcast control channel Paging control channel Dedicate control channel Common control channel (BCCH) (PCCH) (DCCH) (CCCH) Control channel Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. The paging type 1 message is sent on the PCCH. Paging Control Channel (PCCH): a downlink channel that transfers paging information. For example. UEs decode system information on the BCH except when in Cell_DCH mode. This channel is used for dedicated signaling after a RRC connection has been done. Page18 z The control channels are: ‡ Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH): a downlink channel that broadcasts all system information types (except type 14 that is only used in TDD). the DCCH will be used. system information type 3 gives the cell identity.

Random Access Channel (RACH): a contention based uplink channel used for initial access or for transmission of relatively small amounts of data (non real-time dedicated control or traffic data). such as paging. or for transmission of relatively small amounts of data. several transport channels are defined. Ltd. Paging Channel (PCH): a downlink channel used for broadcast of control information into the entire cell. They are: ‡ Broadcast Channel (BCH): a downlink channel used for broadcast of system information into the entire cell. All rights reserved. Dedicated Channel (DCH): a channel dedicated to one UE used in uplink or downlink.Transport Channel Dedicated transport channel Dedicated Channel (DCH) Broadcast channel Forward access channel Paging channel Random access channel (BCH) (FACH) (PCH) (RACH) Common transport channel High-speed downlink shared channel (HS-DSCH) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ . Forward Access Channel (FACH): a common downlink channel used for dedicated signaling (answer to a RACH typically). Page19 z In order to carry logical channels.

spreading code) and relative phase. Ltd. Most channels consist of radio frames and time slots. All rights reserved. z Most channels consist of radio frames and time slots. . the different code (scrambling code or spreading code) can distinguish the channels. Page20 z Now we will begin to discuss the physical channel. z In UMTS system. There are two types of physical channel: UL and DL. code (scrambling code.. and each radio frame consists of 15 time slots. Physical channel is the most important and complex channel.Physical Channel z A physical channel is defined by a specific carrier frequency. In CDMA system. Phase Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. code and relative phase. the different code (scrambling code or spreading code) can distinguish the channel. and a physical channel is defined by a specific carrier frequency. Code. z Two types of physical channel: UL and DL Physical Channel Frequency. and each radio frame consists of 15 time slots.

All rights reserved. ‡ Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH): used to carry dedicated control information generated in layer 1 (such as pilot.Downlink Physical Channel z Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (DL DPCH) Downlink Common Physical Channel ‡ z Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH) ‡ Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH) Synchronization Channel Paging Indicator Channel Acquisition Indicator Channel Common Pilot Channel (SCH) (PICH) (AICH) (CPICH) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ High-Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH) High-Speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH) Page21 ‡ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. ‡ Page Indicator Channel (PICH): carries indication to inform the UE that paging information is available on the S-CCPCH. There is the primary and the secondary SCHs. UE ID etc. ‡ Common Control Physical Channel (CCPCH): used to carry common control information such as the scrambling code used in DL (there is a primary CCPCH and additional secondary CCPCH). z The different physical channels are: ‡ Synchronization Channel (SCH): used for cell search procedure. They indicate the phase reference. ‡ Common Pilot Channels (P-CPICH and S-CPICH): used for coherent detection of common channels. ‡ High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH): it is used to carry subscribers BE service data (mapping on HSDPA) coming from layer 2.. ‡ Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH): used to carry dedicated data coming from layer 2 and above (coming from DCH). ‡ High Speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH): it is used to carry control message to HS-PDSCH such as modulation scheme. TPC and TFCI bits). ‡ Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH): it is used to inform a UE that the network has received its access request. . Ltd.

ACK/NACK. TPC and TFCI bits). ‡ ‡ ‡ . Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH): used to carry random access information when a UE wants to access the network. Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH): used to carry dedicated control information generated in layer 1 (such as pilot. Page22 z The different physical channels are: ‡ Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH): used to carry dedicated data coming from layer 2 and above (coming from DCH). Ltd. High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (HS-DPCCH): it is used to carry feedback message to HS-PDSCH such CQI.Uplink Physical Channel z Uplink Dedicated Physical Channel ‡ Uplink Dedicated Physical Data Channel (Uplink DPDCH) Uplink Dedicated Physical Control Channel (Uplink DPCCH) High-Speed Dedicated Physical Channel (HS-DPCCH) ‡ ‡ z Uplink Common Physical Channel ‡ Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved..

All rights reserved.. Ltd. Page23 .Function of Physical Channel Cell Search Channels P-CPICH--Primary P-CPICH--Primary Common Common Pilot Pilot Channel Channel SCH--Synchronisation SCH--Synchronisation Channel Channel P-CCPCH-Primary P-CCPCH-Primary Common Common Control Control Physical Physical Channel Channel Paging Channels PICH--Paging PICH--Paging Indicator Indicator Channel Channel SCCPCH--Secondary SCCPCH--Secondary Common Common Control Control Physical Physical Channel Channel Random Access Channels NodeB AICH--Acquisition AICH--Acquisition Indicator Indicator Channel Channel PRACH--Physical PRACH--Physical Random Random Access Access Channel Channel UE Dedicated Channels DPDCH--Dedicated DPDCH--Dedicated Physical Physical Data Data Channel Channel DPCCH--Dedicated DPCCH--Dedicated Physical Physical Control Control Channel Channel High Speed Downlink Share Channels HS-SCCH--High HS-SCCH--High Speed Speed Share Share Control Control Channel Channel HS-PDSCH--High HS-PDSCH--High Speed Speed Physical Physical Downlink Downlink Share Share Channel Channel HS-DPCCH--High HS-DPCCH--High Speed Speed Dedicated Dedicated Physical Physical Control Control Channel Channel Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

the first thing it does is to scan the UMTS spectrum and find a UMTS cell. P-SCH always transmits primary synchronization code.Synchronization Channels (P-SCH & SSCH) z z z Used for cell search Two sub channels: P-SCH and S-SCH SCH is transmitted at the first 256 chips of every time slot Slot #0 Slot #1 z Primary synchronization code is transmitted repeatedly in each time slot z Secondary synchronization code specifies the scrambling code groups of the cell Slot #14 Primary SCH Secondary SCH ac p ac si.. It is transmitted unscrambled during the first 256 chips of each time slot.1 ac p acsi. After that. Page24 z When a UE is turned on. as well as the radio frame and time slot synchronization. All rights reserved. The SCH consists of two sub-channels. The same code is used by all the cells and enables the mobiles to detect the existence of the UMTS cell and to synchronize itself on the time slot boundaries. The primary synchronization code is repeated at the beginning of each time slot. the primary and secondary SCH. These subchannels are sent in parallel using code division during the first 256 chips of each time slot. The SCH provides the primary scrambling code group (one out of 64 groups). It is the only channel that is not spread over the entire radio frame. Ltd. The slot timing of the cell is obtained by detecting peaks in the matched filter output. Each cell of a NodeB has its own SCH timing. it has to find the primary scrambling code used by that cell in order to be able to decode the BCCH (for system information). The SCH is a pure downlink physical channel broadcasted over the entire cell.0 256 chips 2560 chips ac p ac si. The second step is done using the secondary synchronization channel. z z z z z . This is the first step of the cell search procedure.14 One 10 ms SCH radio frame Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. This is normally done with a single matched filter or any similar device. S-SCH transmits secondary synchronization codes. in time multiplex with the P-CCPCH. This is done with the help of the Synchronization Channel. so that there is no overlapping.

Page25 z The S-SCH also consists of a code. z The S-SCH provides the information required to find the frame boundaries and the downlink scrambling code group (one out of 64 groups). The UE correlates the received signal with the 16 SSCs and identifies the maximum correlation value. and different from any rotated version of any sequence.Secondary Synchronization Channel (S-SCH) Scrambling Code Group Group 0 Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 … Group 61 Group 62 Group 63 #0 1 1 1 1 1 9 9 9 #1 1 1 2 2 2 10 11 12 #2 2 5 1 3 16 13 12 10 #3 8 16 15 1 6 10 15 15 #4 9 7 5 8 6 11 12 13 #5 10 3 5 6 11 15 9 14 slot number #6 #7 #8 15 14 12 5 15 15 13 9 8 16 16 2 5 9 13 14 10 3 6 5 12 16 11 15 #9 16 10 11 8 1 12 14 11 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 2 5 2 4 15 14 10 11 7 12 16 4 12 13 16 13 15 14 11 6 16 16 15 12 7 12 15 3 11 14 14 16 16 10 12 7 2 11 16 10 Slot # ? P-SCH S-SCH Slot #? Slot #? acp 16 256 chips acp 6 acp 11 z ……. giving us a sequence of 15 SSCs. the Secondary Synchronization Code (SSC) that indicates which of the 64 scrambling code groups the cell’s downlink scrambling code belongs to. 9 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. 16 different SSCs are defined.. . corresponding to the 64 primary scrambling code groups. There is a total of 64 different sequences of 15 SSCs. Group 2 Slot 7. 8. These 64 sequences are constructed so that one sequence is different from any other one. Each SSC is a 256 chip long sequence.. The scrambling code (one out of 8) can be determined afterwards by decoding the P-CPICH. All rights reserved. z There is one specific SSC transmitted in each time slot. Ltd. The mobile will then be able to decode the BCH.

20 bits ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot # i 1 radio frame: Tr = 10 ms Slot #14 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. the P-CPICH is a fixed rate channel. P-CCPCH. Finding the primary scrambling code is done during the cell search procedure through a symbol-by-symbol correlation with all the codes within the code group. Primary CCPCH. After the primary scrambling code has been identified. AICH. Thus. Also. z z z . The PCPICH is used by the mobile to determine which of the 8 possible primary scrambling codes is used by the cell. The P-CPICH is the phase reference for the SCH. It is not linked to any transport channel. 256. AICH and PICH. 0. it is always scrambled with the primary scrambling code of the cell.0 (all ones). Ltd. All rights reserved. PICH and downlink DPCH. The channelization code used to spread the PCPICH is always Cch.256. It consists of a sequence of known bits that are transmitted in parallel with the primary and secondary CCPCH. the UE can decode system information on the P-CCPCH. Fixed rate 30Kbps Scrambled by the primary scrambling code Broadcast over the entire cell A phase reference for SCH. It is broadcasted over the entire cell. Only one PCPICH per cell Pre-defined symbol sequence Tslot = 2560 chips .Primary Common Pilot Channel (PCPICH) z Primary PCPICH ‡ Carrying pre-defined sequence Fixed channel code: Cch.. Page26 z The Common Pilot Channel (CPICH) is a pure physical control channel broadcasted over the entire cell. and to provide the phase reference for common channels.

20 bits Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i 1 radio frame: T f = 10 ms Slot #14 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Page27 z The Primary Common Control Physical Channel (P-CCPCH) is a fixed rate (SF=256) downlink physical channel used to carry the BCH transport channel. the SCH and the P-CCPCH are time multiplexed on every time slot.256. The figure above shows the frame structure of the P-CCPCH. fixed OVSF code (30kbps,Cch. The P-CCPCH only has one fix predefined transport format combination. In fact.Primary Common Control Physical Channel (PCCPCH) z z z Carrying BCH transport channel Fixed rate. 256. another physical channel (SCH) is transmitted during that period of time. z z Channelization code Cch.. .1 is always used to spread the P-CCPCH. It is broadcasted continuously over the entire cell like the P-CPICH. and the only bits transmitted are data bits from the BCH transport channel. 1) The PCCPCH is not transmitted during the first 256 chips of each time slot 256 chips SCH T PCCPCH Data 18 bits slot = 2560 chips. The frame structure is special because it does not contain any layer 1 control bits. Ltd. It is important to note that the P-CCPCH is not transmitted during the first 256 chips of the slot. Thus.

In order not to waste radio resources.. Depending on the configuration of the cell. These bits are all identical. Thus. and always contains 300 bits (SF=256). SF = 256 N paging indicators {PI0. For example.Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) z z z Carrying Paging Indicators (PI) Fixed rate (30kbps). which are user specific and calculated by higher layers. PIN-1} in each PICH frame. SF=256) physical channel used by the NodeB to inform a UE (or a group of UEs) that a paging information will soon be transmitted on the PCH. If the PI in a certain frame is “1”. The frame structure of the PICH is illustrated above. Thus. while the remaining 12 are not formally part of the PICH and shall not be transmitted. 288 of these bits are used to carry paging indicators. 72 or 144 paging indicators can be multiplexed on one PICH radio frame. it is an indication that the UE associated with that PI should read the corresponding frame of the S-CCPCH. z z z . N=18. 18. …. Page28 z The Page Indicator Channel (PICH) is a fixed rate (30kbps. the number of bits reserved for each PI depends of the number of PIs per radio frame. All rights reserved. 36. This enables to do other processing and to save the mobiles’ battery. It is always associated with the S-CCPCH to which the PCH is mapped. the mobile only decodes the SCCPCH when it is informed to do so by the PICH. if there is 72 PIs in one radio frame. 36. there will be 4 (288/72) consecutive bits for each PI. several PIs are multiplexed in time on the PICH. Ltd. or 144 288 bits for paging indication b0 b1 12 bits (undefined) b 287 b 288 b 299 One radio frame (10 ms) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. That part of the frame (last 12 bits) is reserved for possible future use. It is 10 ms long. 72. The PICH carries Paging Indicators (PI).

TFCI bits have to be sent to support multiple transport formats The figure above shows the frame structure of the S-CCPCH. As said before. They are sent on the BCCH so that every UE can decode the channel. The difference with the dedicated channel is that it cannot use fast power control. The data bits correspond to the PCH and/or FACH bits coming from the transport sub-layer.Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (SCCPCH) z Carrying FACH and PCH. z z z z z . If they are mapped on the same S-CCPCH. it is not broadcasted continuously. used for describe data format ‡ TFCI N TFCI bits Data N Data bits T slot = 2560 chips. Unlike the P-CCPCH. It is only transmitted when there is a PCH or FACH information to transmit. The FACH and the PCH can be mapped on the same or on separate S-CCPCHs... There are 18 different slot formats determining the exact number of data. 20*2 k bits (k=0. FACH can be used to carry user data. All rights reserved. pilot and TFCI bits. the mobile only decodes the S-CCPCH when it expects a useful message on the PCH or FACH. nor soft handover. SF = 256 . Ltd. Page29 z The Secondary Common Control Physical Channel (S-CCPCH) is used to carry the FACH and PCH transport channels. and they are fixed during the communication. A UE will expect a message on the PCH after indication from the PICH (page indicator channel). and it will expect a message on the FACH after it has transmitted something on the RACH. The channelization code is assigned by the RRC layer as is the scrambling code. The SF ranges from 4 to 256. Pilot bit are typically used when beamforming techniques are used. At the mobile side.6) Pilot N Pilot bits Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i 1 radio frame: T f = 10 ms Slot #14 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. The advantage is that it is a fast access channel.4 ‡ Pilot: used for demodulation TFCI: Transport Format Control Indication.

Page30 z The Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) is used by the UE to access the network and to carry small data packets. That preamble is scrambled before being sent. The PRACH is an open loop power control channel.. Ltd. There are 16 possible signatures. That is a sign that the power level is high enough and that the UE is authorized to transmit. The preamble is an identifier which consists of 256 repetitions of a 16 chip long signature (total of 4096 chips). All rights reserved.Physical Random Access Channel (PRACH) z Carrying uplink signaling and data. which it will do after acknowledgment from the network. z The message part is 10 or 20 ms long (split into 15 or 30 time slots) and is made of the RACH data and the layer 1 control information. with contention resolution mechanisms (ALOHA approach) to enable a random access from several users. basically. It carries the RACH transport channel. . If the UE doesn’t get a response from the network. consist of two parts: ‡ One or several preambles: 16 kinds of available preambles 10 or 20ms message part ‡ Preamble 4096 chips Preamble Preamble Message part 10 ms (one radio frame) Message part 20 ms (two radio frames) Preamble 4096 chips Preamble Preamble Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. it has to select a new signature to transmit. z The PRACH is composed of two different parts: the preamble part and the message part that carries the RACH message. the UE randomly selects one of the 16 possible preambles and transmits it at increasing power until it gets a response from the network (on the AICH).

Ltd. 10*2 k bits (k=0. where m=16s + 15.PRACH Message Structure Data Data N data bits Control Pilot N Pilot bits T slot = 2560 chips. 128 or 256 while the SF of the control part is always 256.m.. for a total of 10 bits per slot..3) TFCI N TFCI bits Slot # 0 Slot # 1 Slot # i Slot # 14 Message part radio frame T = 10 ms Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.SF. The SF of the data part can be 32. OVSFdata= Cch. 64.m. z The OVSF codes to use (one for RACH data and one for control) depend on the signature that was used for the preamble (for signatures s=0 to s=15: OVSFcontrol= Cch. . Page31 z The data and control bits of the message part are processed in parallel. The control part consists of 8 pilot bits for channel estimation and 2 TFCI bits to indicate the transport format of the RACH (transport channel). All rights reserved.256. where m=SF*s/16.

. To avoid too many collisions and to limit interference. a UE must wait at least 3 or 4 access slots between two consecutive preambles.PRACH Access Timeslot Structure radio frame: 10 ms 5120 chips radio frame: 10 ms #1 Access slot #0 Access slot #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 Random Access Transmission Random Access Transmission Random Access Transmission Random Access Transmission Access slot #7 Access slot #8 Access slot #14 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Page32 z The PRACH transmission is based on the access frame structure. Ltd. The PRACH resources (access slots and preamble signatures) can be divided between different Access Service Classes (ASC) in order to provide different priorities of RACH usage. z z . The ASC number ranges from 0 (highest priority) to 7 (lowest priority). The access frame is access of 15 access slots and lasts 20 ms (2 radio frames).

it sends back the signature of the mobile to grant its access. The AICH consists of a burst of data transmitted regularly every access slot frame. SF = 256 ‡ There are 16 kinds of Signature to generate AI AI part a0 a1 a2 a30 a31 a32 a33 Unused part a38 a39 AS #14 AS #0 AS #1 AS #i 20 ms AS #14 AS #0 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. If the NodeB receives multiple signatures.. +1 and -1. A maximum of 16 AIs can be sent in each access slot. it can sent all these signatures back by adding the together. Page33 z The Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH) is a common downlink channel used to control the uplink random accesses. The user can multiply the received multi-level signal by the signature it used to know if its access was granted. When the NodeB receives the random access from a mobile. At reception. There are 16 sequences <bs. s (with values 0. Each access slot consists of two parts. All rights reserved. It carries the Acquisition Indicators (AI). an acquisition indicator part of 32 real-valued symbols and a long part during which nothing is transmitted to avoid overlapping due to propagation delays.j>. z z z . each corresponding to a signature on the PRACH (uplink).j> is given by a predefined table. Ltd. the UE can apply its signature to check if the NodeB sent an acknowledgement (taking advantage of the orthogonality of the signatures). each corresponding to one PRACH signatures.Acquisition Indicator Channel (AICH) z Carrying the Acquisition Indicators (AI). corresponding to the answer from the network to a specific user) and the 32 chip long sequence <bs. One access slot frame is formed of 15 access slots. and lasts 2 radio frames (20 ms). The SF used is always 256 and the OVSF code used by the cell is indicated in system information type 5.

The DPDCH is used to carry the DCH transport channel. z z z z z Each DPCCH time slot consists of Pilot. the Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH) and the Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH). where SF is from 256 to 4 z DPCCH carries control information generated at Layer 1. Page34 z There are two kinds of uplink dedicated physical channels.SF/4. . (feedback TX diversity) TPC: used to transport power control command.0 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. The DPCCH is used to carry the physical sub-layer control bits. Ltd.Uplink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPDCH&DPCCH) z Uplink DPDCH and DPCCH are I/Q code division multiplexed (CDM) within each radio frame z DPDCH carries data generated at Layer 2 and higher layer.SF. the OVSF code is Cch.256. TFCI,FBI,TPC Pilot is used to help demodulation TFCI: transport format control indicator FBI:used for the FBTD. the OVSF code is Cch. All rights reserved..

.. Page35 z On the figure above. All rights reserved. which gives us 10 bits per slot. The exact number of pilot. It is related to the spreading factor (SF) of the DPDCH by this simple equation: SF=256/2k. TPC and FBI bits is configured by higher layers.Uplink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPDCH&DPCCH) z Frame Structure of Uplink DPDCH/DPCCH DPDCH DPCCH Pilot Npilot bits Data Ndata bits TFCI NTFCI bits FBI NFBI bits TPC NTPC bits Tslot = 2560 chips. we can see the DPDCH and DPCCH time slot constitution. This configuration is chosen from 12 possible slot formats. 10*2k bits (k=0.6) Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i 1 radio frame: Tf = 10 ms Slot #14 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. The SF for the uplink DPCCH is always 256. Ltd. The DPDCH SF ranges from 4 to 256. TFCI. The parameter k determines the number of symbols per slot. It is important to note that symbols are transmitted during all slots for the DPDCH .

Basically. TFCI bits are not used for fixed rate services or when the TFC doesn’t change.. This is main difference. Ltd. Page36 z The uplink DPDCH and DPCCH are I/Q code multiplexed. All rights reserved. z z z DPDCH carries data generated at Layer 2 and higher layer DPCCH carries control information generated at Layer 1 SF of downlink DPCH is from 512 to 4 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. They are distinguished by the use or non use of the TFCI field. But the downlink DPDCH and DPCCH is time multiplexed.Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPDCH+DPCCH) z Downlink DPDCH and DPCCH is time division multiplexing (TDM). z . there are two types of downlink DPCH.

Tf = 10 ms Slot #14 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. The chips of one slot is also 2560.Downlink Dedicated Physical Channel (DPDCH+DPCCH) z Frame Structure of Downlink DPCH (DPDCH+DPCCH) DPDCH Data1 Ndata1 bits DPCCH TPC NTPC bits TFCI NTFCI bits DPDCH Data2 Ndata2 bits DPCCH Pilot Npilot bits Tslot = 2560 chips. Ltd. This is main difference. which ranges from 4 to 512. . data or signaling. Like it was mentioned before. The parameter k in the figure above determines the total number of bits per time slot. 20*2k bits (k=-1.6) Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i One radio frame. z Downlink physical channels are used to carry user specific information like speech. There is only one DPCCH in downlink for one user. But the downlink DPDCH and DPCCH is time multiplexed. the payload from the DPDCH and the control bits from the DPCCH are time multiplexed on every time slot.. All rights reserved. It is related to the SF. Page37 z We have known that the uplink DPDCH and DPCCH are I/Q code multiplexed. The figure above shows how these two channels are multiplexed.. as well as layer 1 control bits.

Page38 z HS-PDSCH is a downlink physical channel that carries user data and layer 2 overhead bits mapped from the transport channel: HS-DSCH. Ltd. can be configured several channels to increase data service z Data Ndata1 bits Tslot = 2560 chips. The user data and layer 2 overhead bits from HS-DSCH is mapped onto one or several HS-PDSCH and transferred in 2ms subframe using one or several channelization code with fixed SF=16. M*10*2k bits (k=4) Slot #0 Slot#1 1 subframe: Tf = 2 ms Slot #2 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.High-Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH) z Bearing service data and layer 2 overhead bits mapped from the transport channel SF=16.. z . All rights reserved.

40 bits z Slot #0 Slot#1 1 subframe: Tf = 2 ms Slot #2 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. . The timing of HS-SCCH starts two slot prior to the start of the HS-PDSCH subframe.channelization code set (7 bit).i. i. new data indicator (1bit). multiplex HS-SCCH may be needed in a cell. The specification allows for up to four HS-SCCHs as seen from a UE point of view . The following information is carried on the HS-SCCH (7 items) ‡ z Modulation scheme(1bit) QPSK or 16QAM Channelization code set (7bits) Transport block size ( 6bits) HARQ process number (3bits) Redundancy version (3bits) New Data Indicator (1bit) UE identity (16 bits) ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ z In each 2 ms interval corresponding to one HS-DSCH TTI . Page39 z HS-SCCH uses a SF=128 and has q time structure based on a sub-frame of length 2 ms. Ltd.e.HARQ process number (3bit). All rights reserved. UE must be able to decode four HS-SCCH. the same length as the HS-DSCH TTI.e. As there should be a possibility for HS-DSCH transmission to multiple users in parallel (code multiplex). UE identity (16bit) HS-SCCH is a fixed rate (60 kbps. one HS-SCCH carries physical-layer signalling to a single UE.High-Speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH) z Carries physical layer signalling to a single UE .such as modulation scheme (1 bit) . SF=128) downlink physical channel used to carry downlink signalling related to HS-DSCH transmission Data Ndata1 bits Tslot = 2560 chips. redundancy version (3bit). transport block size (6bit).

All rights reserved. Uplink.. The HS-DPCCH information is divided in such a way that the HARQ acknowledgement is transmitted in the first slot of the subframe while the channel quality indication is transmitted in the rest slot. there are a total of 30 channel bits per 2 ms sub frame (3 time slot). SF=256 Tslot = 2560 chips ACK/NACK 2 × Tslot = 5120 chips CQI One HS-DPCCH subframe ( 2ms ) Subframe #0 Subframe #i 1 radio frame: Tf = 10 ms Subframe #n Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.High-Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (HS-DPCCH ) z Carrying information to acknowledge downlink transport blocks and feedback information to the system for scheduling and link adaptation of transport block ‡ CQI and ACK/NACK z Physical Channel. . Ltd. Page40 z The uplink HS-DPCCH consists of: ‡ Acknowledgements for HARQ Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) ‡ z As the HS-DPCCH uses SF=256.

Contents 2.1 Physical Channel Structure and Functions 2.. All rights reserved. Ltd.2 Channel Mapping Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Physical Channels 2. Page41 .

DTCH FACH DCH HS-DSCH RACH. to DCH and DSCH. to DCH and DSCH. ‡ z These connections depend on the type of information on the logical channels. to RACH and DSCH. The mapping between logical channels and transport channels is done by the MAC sub-layer. Page42 z This page indicates how the mapping can be done between logical. transport and physical channels. Ltd. CCCH is connected to RACH and FACH. . DCCH can be connected to either RACH and FACH. S-CCPCH Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. to RACH and DSCH. ‡ ‡ PCCH is connected to PCH. DTCH can be connected to either RACH and FACH.Mapping Between Channels Logical channels BCCH Transport channels BCH FACH PCCH CCCH PCH RACH FACH CTCH DCCH. Not all physical channels are represented because not all physical channels correspond to a transport channel. Different connections can be made between logical and transport channels: ‡ z z BCCH is connected to BCH and may also be connected to FACH. FACH Physical channels P-CCPCH S-CCPCH S-CCPCH PRACH S-CCPCH S-CCPCH DPDCH HS-PDSCH PRACH. All rights reserved. to a DCH or a CPCH. to a DCH or a CPCH.. ‡ ‡ CTCH is connected to FACH.

All rights reserved. Page43 . Physical Layer Overview 2. Physical Layer Procedure Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co..Contents 1. Physical Channels 3. Ltd.

C2. The primary synchronization code is used by the UE to detect the existence of a cell and to synchronize the mobile on the TS boundaries. After the primary scrambling code has been identified. Each suite of secondary codes is composed of 15 secondary codes (chosen in the set of 16). Ltd. ‡ ‡ . SSCH (Frame synchronization and code-group identification): The secondary synchronization codes provide the information required to find the frame boundaries and the group number. each of which will be transmitted in one time slot. ….C16. Page44 z The purpose of the Cell Search Procedure is to give the UE the possibility of finding a cell and of determining the downlink scrambling code and frame synchronization of that cell. This is typically done with a single filter (or any similar device) matched to the primary synchronization code which is common to all cells. The slot timing of the cell can be obtained by detecting peaks in the matched filter output.and cell specific BCH information can be read. When the received codes matches one of the possible suites. The frame boundary and the group number are provided indirectly by selecting a suite of 15 secondary codes. each suite corresponds to one of the 64 groups. All rights reserved.Synchronization Procedure .. the UE has both determined the frame boundary and the group number. 64 possible suites have been defined. 16 secondary codes have been defined C1.Cell Search Slot Synchronization UE uses PSC to acquire slot synchronization to a cell Frame synchronization & Code Group Identification UE uses SSC to find frame synchronization and identify the code group of the cell found in the first step Scrambling Code Identification UE determines the primary scrambling code through correlation over the PCPICH with all codes within the identified group. the Primary CCPCH can be detected and the system. The primary scrambling code is typically identified through symbol-by-symbol correlation over the PCPICH with all the codes within the code group identified in the second step. PCPICH (Scrambling-code identification): The UE determines the exact primary scrambling code used by the found cell. This is typically performed in 3 steps: ‡ PSCH (Slot synchronization): The UE uses the SCH’s primary synchronization code to acquire slot synchronization to a cell. and then detects the PCCPCH and reads BCH information。 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Each group number corresponds to a unique set of 8 primary scrambling codes.

for the set of available RACH sub-channels within the given ASC. Otherwise exit the physical random access procedure. ; 3. Randomly select one access slot among the ones previously determined. If the Preamble Retransmission Counter > 0 then repeat from step 6.Random Access Procedure START Choose a RACH sub channel from available ones Get available signatures Set Preamble Retrans Max Set Preamble_Initial_Power Send a preamble No AI Choose a access slot again Choose a signature and increase preamble transmit power The counter of preamble retransmit Subtract 1. Set the parameter Commanded Preamble Power to Preamble_Initial_Power 5. exit the physical random access procedure Signature „ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 8. Commanded preamble power increased by Power Ramp Step Y Counter> 0 & Preamble power < maximum allowed power N Set physical status to be Nack on AICH received Check the corresponding AI Get positive AI Increase message part power by p-m based on preamble power Send the corresponding message part Get negative AI Set physical status to be RACH message transmitted Report the physical status to MAC Set physical status to be Nack on AICH received END Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. If there is no access slot available in the selected set. Randomly select a signature from the set of available signatures within the given ASC. 6. and preamble transmission power. If a positive acquisition indicator corresponding to the selected signature is detected . in the next full access slot set. Derive the available uplink access slots. All rights reserved. „ C: Increase the Commanded Preamble Power. If a negative acquisition indicator corresponding to the selected signature is detected in the downlink access slot corresponding to the selected uplink access slot. „ B: select a signature. Transmit the random access message three or four uplink access slots after the uplink access slot of the last transmitted preamble 9. signature. exit the physical random access procedure ‡ . Transmit a preamble using the selected uplink access slot. Set the Preamble Retransmission Counter to Preamble_ Retrans_ Max 4.. Ltd. The random function shall be such that each of the allowed selections is chosen with equal probability ; 2. Page45 z Physical random access procedure ‡ 1. If no positive or negative acquisition indicator (AI ≠ +1 nor –1) corresponding to the selected signature is detected in the downlink access slot corresponding to the selected uplink access slot: A: Select the next available access slot in the set of available RACH sub-channels within the given ASC. „ D: Decrease the Preamble Retransmission Counter by one. randomly select one uplink access slot corresponding to the set of available RACH sub-channels within the given ASC from the next access slot set. 7.

. z Transmitter-antenna diversity can be used to generate multi-path diversity in places where it would not otherwise exist. especially if it can be controlled. Common channels are common for everyone. It can protect the UE against fading and shadowing. the NodeB cannot really optimize its common channel transmissions according to measurements made by one particular UE. Transmitter diversity needs two antennas. The closed-loop mode is used for dedicated physical channels. as they have an existing uplink channel for feedback information. Multi-path diversity is a useful phenomenon. and they also have a return channel in the uplink. z Thus it is quite natural that the open-loop mode is used for the common channels. Ltd. which would be an expensive solution for the UEs. All rights reserved. as they typically do not provide an uplink return channel for the feedback information. Even if there was a feedback channel.Transmit Diversity Mode z Application of Tx diversity modes on downlink physical channel Physical channel type Open loop mode TSTD P-CCPCH SCH S-CCPCH DPCH PICH HS-PDSCH HS-SCCH AICH – applied – – – – – – STTD applied – applied applied applied applied applied applied Closed loop mode Mode 1 – – – applied – applied – – Page46 Mode 2 – – – applied – – – – Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. as they are allocated for only one user at a time. Thus the UTRAN has to determine by itself the appropriate parameters for the TX diversity. z The UTRA specifications divide the transmitter diversity modes into two categories: (1) open-loop mode and (2) closed-loop mode. In the open-loop mode no feedback information from the UE to the NodeB is available. Note that shared channels can also employ closed loop power control. TX diversity is designed for downlink usage. In the closed-loop mode the UE sends feedback information up to the NodeB in order to optimize the transmissions from the diversity antennas. what is good for one UE may be bad for another. There are two specified methods to achieve the transmission diversity in the open-loop mode and two methods in closed-loop mode .

In addition to data signals. The physical separation of the antennas provides the space diversity. b2. . ‡ z In STTD the data to be transmitted is divided between two transmission antennas at the base station site and transmitted simultaneously. The bits are time reversed and complex conjugated.Transmit Diversity . Page47 z The TX diversity methods in the open-loop mode are ‡ space time-block coding-based transmit-antenna diversity (STTD) time-switched transmit diversity (TSTD). b3 using STTD coding b0 b1 b2 b3 b0 b1 b2 b3 -b2 b3 b0 -b1 Channel bits STTD encoded channel bits for antenna 1 and antenna 2. b1.STTD z Space time block coding based transmit antenna diversity (STTD) ‡ 4 consecutive bits b0. The channel-coded data is processed in blocks of four bits. All rights reserved.. and the time difference derived from the bit-reversing process provides the time diversity. z The two pilot sequences are orthogonal. z The STTD encoding is optional in the UTRAN. pilot signals are also transmitted via both antennas. Antenna 2 Antenna 1 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. in fact. as shown in above slide. provides two brands of diversity. z These features together make the decoding process in the receiver more reliable. The normal pilot is sent via the first antenna and the diversity pilot via the second antenna. which enables the receiving UE to extract the phase information for both antennas. Ltd. The STTD method. but its support is mandatory for the UE’s receiver.

Just like STTD.0 (Tx OFF) acp acs i. one-tenth of each slot). the support of TSTD is optional in the UTRAN. In even-numbered time slots the SCHs are transmitted via antenna 1. Page48 z Time-switched transmit diversity (TSTD) can be applied to the SCH.Transmit Diversity .2 acp aci. but mandatory in the UE.. . and in odd-numbered slots via antenna 2. This is depicted in above Figure. The principle of TSTD is to transmit the synchronization channels via the two base station antennas in turn.TSTD z Time switching transmit diversity (TSTD) is used only on SCH channel Slot #0 Slot #1 (Tx OFF) (Tx OFF) Slot #2 Slot #14 acp Antenna 1 acp acs i. Ltd. Note that SCH channels only use the first 256 chips of each time slot (i. All rights reserved.1 (Tx OFF) (Tx OFF) Antenna 2 (Tx OFF) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.14 s (Tx OFF) (Tx OFF) acs i.e..

Based on this estimation.. . Ltd. Thus this mode can only be used with dedicated channels. z This functions can be configured by LMT command ADD CELLSETUP. Page49 z The closed-loop-mode transmit diversity can only be applied to the downlink channel if there is an associated uplink channel. In mode 1 each bit forms a separate adjustment command. All rights reserved. but in mode 2 four bits are needed to compose a command. The chief operating principle of the closed loop mode is that the UE can control the transmit diversity in the base station by sending adjustment commands in FBI bits on the uplink DPCCH. The UE uses the base station’s common pilot channels to estimate the channels separately. in mode 2 the amplitude is adjustable as well as the phase.Closed Loop Mode z Used in DPCH and HS-PDSCH Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. In mode 1 only the phase can be adjusted. Each uplink time slot has one FBI bit for closed-loop-diversity control. it generates the adjustment information and sends it to the UTRAN to maximize the UE’s received power. z There are actually two modes in the closed-loop method.

Ltd. Page50 .214 Physical layer procedures (FDD) TS 25.858 Physical layer aspects of UTRA High Speed Downlink Packet Access z z z z z z Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.104 UTRA (BS) FDD Radio Transmission and Reception TS 25.211 Physical channels and mapping of transport channels onto physical channels (FDD) TS 25.. All rights reserved.213 Spreading and modulation (FDD) TS 25.201 Physical layer-general description TS 25.Iub/Iur Protocol Aspects TR 25.308 UTRA High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) TR 25.877 High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) .References z z z TS 25.212 Multiplexing and channel coding (FDD) TS 25.

Page51 .. z These knowledge is very important for understanding Uu interface and further study. key technology and procedures of WCDMA physical layer.Summary z This course mainly introduces the basic concept. Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. All rights reserved.

com .Thank you www.huawei.

huawei.WCDMA UTRAN Interface and Signaling Procedure www.com Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. . Ltd.. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.Objectives z Upon completion of this course. Page1 . you will be able to: ‡ Understand UTRAN interface and structure Understand the definitions about UTRAN network elements Understand UTRAN signaling procedure ‡ ‡ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd..

Basic Concepts about UTRAN 3. All rights reserved. UTRAN Signaling Procedure Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. UTRAN Network Overview 2. Ltd.Contents 1. Page2 .

All rights reserved..Contents 1. Page3 . UTRAN Signaling Procedure Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Basic Concepts about UTRAN 3. Ltd. UTRAN Network Overview 2.

‡ ‡ ‡ . Iub interface: the Iub interface connects the NodeB and the RNC. Page4 z UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access network) structure ‡ The UTRAN consists of one or several Radio Network Subsystem ( RNS ). Iur interface: the RNC-RNC interface was initially designed in order to provide inter RNC soft handover. Ltd. Uu interface: the Uu interface is the WCDMA radio interface with in UMTS. The Iu-CS is the interface between the RNC and the circuit switched domain of the CN. Contrarily to GSM. The Iu-PS interface is the interface between the RNC and the packet switched domain of the CN.UMTS Network Structure CN Core Network CS Iu-CS RNS Iur RNC RNC Iub NodeB Iub NodeB Iub NodeB PS Iu-PS CS Iu-CS RNS PS Iu-PS UTRAN Iub NodeB Uu UE Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. It is the interface through which the UE accesses the fixed part of the network. All rights reserved.. this interface is fully open in UMTS and thus more competition is expected. but more features were added during the development. each containing one RNC and one or several NodeB z Interface ‡ Iu interface: the Iu interface connects the UTRAN to the CN and is split in two parts.

The non access stratum part is made of CC. and a “physical channel” entity. Frame Error Rate (FER). PDCP. which provide local inter-layer control services. a “transport channel” entity.Uu Interface GC Nt DC Duplication avoidance GC C-plane signaling Nt DC U-plane information control UuS boundary control control RRC control control L3 radio bearer PDCP PDCP BMC RLC L2/PDCP L2/BMC L2/RLC logical channel RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC MAC PHY Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. BMC and L1). transmit power. Page5 L2/MAC transport channel L1 z The layer 1 supports all functions required for the transmission of bit streams on the physical medium. interference power. Ltd.. PDCP (Packet Data Convergence Protocol) and BMC (Broadcast/Multicast Control). Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR). The access stratum part is made of “RRC (Radio Resource Control)” entity and “duplication avoidance” entity. The layer 3 is split into 2 parts: the access stratum and the non access stratum. All rights reserved. … It is basically composed of a “layer 1 management” entity. Not shown on the figure are connections between RRC and all the other protocol layers (RLC. RLC (Radio Link Control). z z z z . for example. retransmission and segmentation. MM parts. The layer 2 protocol is responsible for providing functions such as mapping. The protocol layers are located in the UE and the peer entities are in the NodeB or the RNC. ciphering. It is also in charge of measurements function consisting in indicating to higher layers. It is made of four sublayers: MAC (Medium Access Control). MAC.

among other things.. Horizontal Layers ‡ z The protocol structure consists of two main layers. but rather are general bearer parameters. if needed. the Radio Access Bearer in Iu and subsequently the Radio Link in Iur and Iub). z Vertical Planes ‡ Control Plane The Control Plane is used for all UMTS-specific control signaling. the Radio Network Layer (RNL) and the Transport Network Layer (TNL). The Application Protocol is used. Radio Network Layer Control Plane Application Protocol Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Control Plane User Plane Data Stream(s) Transport Network Layer Transport Network User Plane ALCAP(s) Signaling Bearer(s) Signaling Bearer(s) Physical Layer Data Bearer(s) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. This model is shown in above slide. It is always set up by O&M actions. It includes the Application Protocol (i. and the Transport Network Layer represents standard transport technology that is selected to be used for UTRAN but without any UTRAN-specific changes. The structure is based on the principle that the layers and planes are logically independent of each other and.General Protocol Mode for UTRAN Terrestrial Interface z The structure is based on the principle that the layers and planes are logically independent of each other. Ltd.e. and the Signaling Bearer for transporting the Application Protocol messages. Page6 z Protocol structures in UTRAN terrestrial interfaces are designed according to the same general protocol model. for setting up bearers to the UE (i. All rights reserved. All UTRAN-related issues are visible only in the Radio Network Layer. RANAP in Iu. parts of the protocol structure may be changed in the future while other parts remain intact. In the three plane structure the bearer parameters in the Application Protocol are not directly tied to the User Plane technology. ‡ .e. RNSAP in Iur and NBAP in Iub). The Signaling Bearer for the Application Protocol may or may not be of the same type as the Signaling Bearer for the ALCAP.

The Iu interface uses two AALs: AAL2 and AAL5. It also includes the Signaling Bearer needed for the ALCAP. There are five different AALs (0. Transport Network Control Plane The Transport Network Control Plane is used for all control signaling within the Transport Layer. 3/4. It does not include any Radio Network Layer information. and the Data Bearer (s) for the Data Stream(s). Connection-oriented or connectionless data transfer. It includes the ALCAP protocol that is needed to set up the transport bearers (Data Bearer) for the User Plane. AAL2 is designed for the transmission of connection oriented. 1. AAL0 means that no adaptation is needed. The other adaptation layers have different properties based on three parameters: „ ‡ Real-time requirements. ‡ ‡ . real-time data streams with variable bit rates. This means segmenting the data into 48-byte chunks and reassembling the original data frames on the receiving side. „ „ ‡ The usage of ATM is promoted by the ATM Forum. The introduction of the Transport Network Control Plane makes it possible for the Application Protocol in the Radio Network Control Plane to be completely independent of the technology selected for the Data Bearer in the User Plane. ‡ ‡ ‡ z About AAl2 and AAL5 ‡ Above the ATM layer we usually find an ATM adaptation layer (AAL).‡ User Plane All information sent and received by the user. Its function is to process the data from higher layers for ATM transmission. The Transport Network Control Plane is a plane that acts between the Control Plane and the User Plane. and 5). AAL5 is designed for the transmission of connectionless data streams with variable bit rates. are transported via the User Plane. Constant or variable bit rate. The User Plane includes the Data Stream(s). such as the coded voice in a voice call or the packets in an Internet connection. 2. Each Data Stream is characterized by one or more frame protocols specified for that interface.

RRC is the signaling protocol in Uu that locate in the Uu interface layer 3.. z RANAP is the signaling protocol in Iu that contains all the control information specified for the Radio Network Layer. All rights reserved. z z z .RNL Control Plane Application Protocol CN RANAP RRC RNSAP UE RNC NBAP RNC NodeB NBAP RANAP RNSAP RRC Node B Application Part Radio Access Network Application Part Radio Network Subsystem Application Part Radio Resource Control Page8 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. RNSAP is the signaling protocol in Iur that contains all the control information specified for the Radio Network Layer. Ltd. NBAP is the signaling protocol in Iub that contains all the control information specified for the Radio Network Layer.

The applicable layers are the Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP). Page9 z Protocol Structure for Iu CS ‡ The Iu CS overall protocol structure is depicted in above slide.2150. All rights reserved. or E1. the Message Transfer Part (MTP3-b) and SAAL-NNI (Signaling ATM Adaptation Layer for Network to Network Interfaces). z Iu CS Control Plane Protocol Stack ‡ The Control Plane protocol stack consists of RANAP. z Iu CS Transport Network Control Plane Protocol Stack ‡ The Transport Network Control Plane protocol stack consists of the Signaling Protocol for setting up AAL2 connections (Q. STM1. The physical layer is the interface to the physical medium: optical fiber. on top of BB SS7 protocols.Iu-CS Interface Radio Network Layer Control Plane RANAP User plane Iu UP Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Control Plane Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Layer ALCAP ALCAP SCCP A MTP3-B SAAL NNI B MTP3-B SAAL NNI AAL2 PATH ATM Physical Layer Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.2630. The three planes in the Iu interface share a common ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) transport which is used for all planes.1 and adaptation layer Q. The physical layer implementation can be selected from a variety of standard off-the-shelf transmission technologies. z Iu CS User Plane Protocol Stack ‡ A dedicated AAL2 connection is reserved for each individual CS service.1).. radio link or copper cable. Ltd. . on top of Broadband (BB) SS7 (Signaling System #7) protocols. such as SONET. The applicable BB SS7 are those described above without the SCCP layer.

. and the IP addresses for both directions. multiple packet data flows are multiplexed on one or several AAL5 PVCs. z Iu PS User Plane Protocol Stack ‡ In the Iu PS User Plane.Iu-PS Interface Radio Network Layer Control Plane RANAP User plane Iu UP Transport Network Layer Transport Network User Plane SCCP MTP3-B Transport Network User Plane GTP-U C UDP IP AAL Type 5 SAAL NNI ATM Physical Layer Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. on top of Broadband (BB) SS7 (Signaling System #7) protocols. The setting up of the GTP tunnel requires only an identifier for the tunnel. the Message Transfer Part (MTP3-b) and SAAL-NNI (Signaling ATM Adaptation Layer for Network to Network Interfaces). All rights reserved. Again. Page10 z Protocol Structure for Iu PS ‡ The Iu PS protocol structure is represented in above slide. Ltd. a common ATM transport is applied for both User and Control Plane.. The applicable layers are the Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP). and these are already included in the RANAP RAB Assignment messages. The GTP-U (User Plane part of the GPRS Tunneling Protocol) is the multiplexing layer that provides identities for individual packet data flow. Each flow uses UDP connectionless transport and IP addressing. Also the physical layer is as specified for Iu CS. z Iu PS Transport Network Control Plane Protocol Stack ‡ The Transport Network Control Plane is not applied to Iu PS. z Iu PS Control Plane Protocol Stack ‡ The Control Plane protocol stack consists of RANAP.

It is divided into two essential components. RACH-FP. CCP and NCP. HS-DSCH FP and PCH FP. The Transport Network Layer defines procedures for establishing physical connections between the NodeB and the RNC. defined the structure of the frames and the basic in band control procedure for every type of transport channel. The user plane Iub Frame Protocol ( FP ). The Radio Network Layer defines procedures related to the operation of the NodeB.Iub Interface Radio Network Layer Control Plane NBAP NCP CCP Transport Network Control Plane Transport Network Layer Transport Network User Plane ALCAP ALCAP Transport Network User Plane User plane Iub FP SAAL UNI SAAL UNI AAL2 PATH ATM Physical Layer Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. FACH-FP.. All rights reserved. SAAL is an ATM Adaptation Layer that supports communication between signaling entities over an ATM link. z z . z NCP is used for signaling that initiates a UE context for a dedicated UE or signals that is not related to specific UE. Page11 z The Iub interface is the terrestrial interface between NodeB and RNC. There are DCH-FP. NodeB application part ( NBAP ) initiates the establishment of a signaling connection over Iub . handling of common channels and radio link setup z CCP is used for signaling relating to a specific UE context. Example of NBAP-C procedure are cell configuration . z The Iub application protocol. Ltd.

The protocol stack for the Iur is shown in above slide.. All rights reserved.Iur Interface Radio Network Layer Control Plane RANAP User plane Iur Data Stream Transport Network Control Plane Transport Network User Plane Transport Network User Plane Transport Network Layer ALCAP ALCAP SCCP A MTP3-B SAAL NNI B MTP3-B SAAL NNI AAL2 PATH ATM Physical Layer Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page12 z z Iur interface connects two RNCs. . Ltd. The RNSAP protocol is the signaling protocol defined for the Iur interface.

UTRAN Network Overview 2. Basic Concepts about UTRAN 3.. Page13 .Contents 1. UTRAN Signaling Procedure Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Ltd.

. All rights reserved. One RNC is the Serving RNC. Drift RNCs support the Serving RNC by providing radio resources. For each connection between User Equipment and the UTRAN.SRNC / DRNC CN Iu Iur SRNC DRNC z z SRNC and DRNC are concepts for a connected UE. The SRNC handles the connection to one UE. z . Drift RNCs support the Serving RNC by providing radio resources A UE in connection state has at least one and only one SRNC. z Inside the UTRAN. the RNCs of the Radio Network Subsystems can be interconnected together through the Iur. but can has 0 or multiple DRNCs Page14 z z Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. The role of an RNC (Serving or Drift) is on a per connection basis between a UE and the UTRAN. Iur can be conveyed over direct physical connection between RNCs or virtual networks using any suitable transport network . When required. Iu(s) and Iur are logical interfaces. and may borrow radio resources of a certain cell from the DRNC. Ltd.

RB: The service provided by the layer2 for transfer of user data between User Equipment and Serving RNC. All rights reserved. Ltd. RB and RL RAB RB UE RL NodeB RNC CN UTRAN Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. RL: A "radio link" is a logical association between single User Equipment and a single UTRAN access point. Its physical realization comprises one or more radio bearer transmissions.RAB. z z . Page15 z RAB: The service that the access stratum provides to the non-access stratum for transfer of user data between User Equipment and CN.

Ltd. then the UE is in idle mode. then the UE is in connected mode. All rights reserved. CELL_FACH.. Based on UE mobility and activity UE in connected mode may be allocated to four different states: CELL_DCH. Page16 z z z If RRC connection does not exit between UE and RNC. CELL_PCH and URA_PCH. If RRC connection exits between UE and RNC. z .UE Working Modes and States z z Idle Mode Connected Mode ‡ CELL_DCH CELL_FACH CELL_PCH URA_PCH ‡ ‡ ‡ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. The UE leaves the connected mode and returns to idle mode when the RRC connection is released or at RRC connection failure.

a public land mobile network (PLMN) is selected and the UE searches for a suitable cell of this PLMN to camp on. location registration is performed. For data transfer. The UE searches for a suitable cell of the chosen PLMN and chooses that cell to provide available services. by means of a NAS registration procedure. If the new cell is in a different registration area. then register its presence. If the UE finds a more suitable cell.Idle Mode z The UE has no relation to UTRAN. in the registration area of the chosen cell. This choosing is known as "camping on the cell". The UE will. All rights reserved. and tunes to its control channel. Page17 z When a UE is switched on. z z . it reselects onto that cell and camps on it. if necessary. only to CN. a signaling connection has to be established. z UE camps on a cell ‡ It enables the UE to receive system information from the PLMN UE can monitor PICH of a cell for paging ‡ z The idle mode tasks can be divided into three processes: ‡ PLMN selection and reselection Cell selection and reselection Location registration ‡ ‡ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd..

Handover is a family of procedures that adds or removes one or several radio links between one UE and UTRAN when an RRC connection exists and the position of the UE is known on cell level in the UTRAN. Different families of RRC connection mobility procedures are used in different levels of UE connection (cell level and URA level): ‡ URA updating is a family of procedures that updates the UTRAN registration area of a UE when an RRC connection exists and the position of the UE is known on URA level in the UTRAN. URA updating and handover. Page18 z Assuming that there exists an RRC connection. ‡ z Which type of transport channel is used by UE in connected mode is decided by RNC according to the UE activity. All rights reserved. Ltd..Connected Mode z When UE is in connected mode ‡ The UE position can be known on different levels: „ Cell level (CELL_DCH/CELL_FACH/CELL_PCH) UTRAN Registration Area (URA) level (URA_PCH) „ ‡ The UE can use different types of channels in connected mode „ Dedicated transport channels (CELL_DCH) Common transport channels (CELL_FACH) „ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. . there are two basic families of RRC connection mobility procedures.

. Page19 z If there is huge data to be transmitted. Thus UE will be in Cell-DCH. All rights reserved.Connected Mode z Cell-DCH ‡ In active state Communicating via its dedicated channels UTRAN knows which cell UE stays in ‡ ‡ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. it must allocate dedicated channel. UE in Cell-DCH state is communicating via DCH (downlink and uplink) with UTRAN. Ltd. .

Connected Mode z Cell-FACH ‡ In active state Few data to be transmitted both in uplink and in downlink. there is no need to allocate dedicated channel. Thus UE will be in Cell-FACH. . Page20 z If there is only few data to be transmitted.. UE in Cell-FACH state is communicating via FACH (downlink) and RACH (uplink) with UTRAN. There is no need to allocate dedicated channel for this UE ‡ ‡ Downlink uses FACH and uplink uses RACH UE needs to monitor the FACH for its information UTRAN knows which cell the UE stays in ‡ ‡ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. UE need to monitor the FACH for its relative information because FACH is shared for all users in the cell. All rights reserved. Ltd.

UTRAN knows which cell or URA UE is now in. UTRAN have to update cell information of UE when UE roams to another cell. UE will be in Cell-PCH or URA-PCH.to receive its paging.Connected Mode z Cell-PCH ‡ No data to be transmitted or received Monitor PICH. UE needs to monitor PICH. The difference between Cell-PCH and URA-PCH is that UTRAN update UE information only after UE which is in URA-PCH state has roamed to other URA. If the cell update times in a fixed time reach a preset value. z . UE migrates to cell-FACH state to complete the cell update. URA is an area of several cells. UE is back to CELL-PCH state after cell update. If there is also no data to be transmitted or received. Page21 z If UE has no data to be transmitted or received. All rights reserved. to receive its paging UTRAN knows which cell the UE stays in UTRAN has to update cell information of UE when UE roams to another cell ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Lower the power consumption of UE Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. UTRAN will let UE migrate to URAPCH. In these two states. Ltd.

Page22 z It is the same as the CELL-PCH state.Connected Mode z URA-PCH ‡ No data to be transmitted or received Monitor PICH.. to receive its paging UTRAN only knows which URA (which consists of multiple cells) that UE stays ‡ ‡ ‡ UTRAN updates UE information only after UE has roamed to other URA ‡ A better way to reduce the resource occupancy and signaling transmission Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. UE should migrate to CELL-FACH state to complete the URA update. Ltd. All rights reserved. .

such as voice CELL_FACH . All rights reserved. Ltd. These states are significant only for UTRAN and UE.Monitor paging channel . DTX.Common service. and save power URA_PCH CELL_PCH CELL_DCH .Camp on a cell Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.Avoid unnecessary signaling RRC Connection .Dedicated channel .PS service with few data to transmit IDLE .UE Working Modes and States .Reduce activity. Page23 z This is the UE states figure.Cell re-selection DEAD .Common channel .Reduce activity further .Scan networks (PLMN) . They are transparent to CN. . Let’s focus on the switch between the states..

Contents 1. All rights reserved. UTRAN Network Overview 2. UTRAN Signaling Procedure Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Basic Concepts about UTRAN 3. Page24 . Ltd..

All rights reserved. Page25 .2 Paging 3. Ltd.4 Handover Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.1 System Information Broadcast 3.. UTRAN Signaling Procedure 3.3 Call Process 3.Contents 3.

System Information Update Response RNC NBAP NBAP RRC 3.System Information Broadcast Flow UE Node B NBAP 1. Ltd.. System Information Update Request NBAP 2. BCCH: System Information RRC RRC 4. All rights reserved. BCCH: System Information RRC Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page26 . BCCH: System Information RRC RRC 5.

Introduction of System Information z MIB: ‡ PLMN tag Scheduling information for SB (Scheduling Block) Scheduling information for SIB (System Information Block) ‡ ‡ z z SB1: scheduling information for SIB SB2: scheduling information for SIB (extended) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. Page27 . All rights reserved. Ltd.

.Introduction of System Information z SIB1: System information for NAS and the timer/counter for UE z z z SIB2: URA information SIB3: Parameters for cell selection and cell re-selection SIB4: Parameters for cell selection and cell re-selection while UE is in connected mode z SIB5: Parameters for the common physical channels of the cell z SIB6: Parameters for the common physical channels of the cell while UE is in connected mode Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page28 . Ltd. All rights reserved.

.Introduction of System Information z z z z SIB7: uplink interference level and the refreshing timer SIB8: the CPCH static information SIB9: the CPCH dynamic information SIB10: information to be used by UEs having their DCH controlled by a DRAC procedure z z SIB11: measurement controlling information SIB12: measurement controlling information in connected mode Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page29 . Ltd. All rights reserved.

Introduction of System Information z z z z SIB13: ANSI-41 system information SIB14: the information in TDD mode SIB15: the position service information SIB16: the needed pre-configuration information for handover from other RAT to UTRAN z z SIB17: the configuration information for TDD SIB18: the PLMN identities of the neighboring cells to be used in shared networks to help with the cell reselection process Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Ltd. Page30 ..

then DRX period is 2^k=2^6=64TTI =640 ms Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved..System Information Block Type 1 z System information type 1 ‡ The NAS system information CS domain DRX: K=6. then DRX period is 2^k= 2^6= 64TTI=640 ms ‡ ‡ PS domain DRX: K=6. Page31 . Ltd.

All rights reserved.System Information Block Type 2 z System info type 2 ‡ URA information Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. Page32 ..

System Information Block Type 3 z The references for cell selection and re-selection ‡ Qhyst2s Sintrasearch Sintersearch Sinterratsearch Qqualmin Qrxlemin T reselection Max Allowed UE TX power ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. Page33 . All rights reserved. Ltd.

System Information Block Type 5 z The configuration information for the following physical channels and the counterpart transport channels ‡ PCCPCH SCCPCH PICH AICH PRACH ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. All rights reserved. Page34 . Ltd.

Page35 . Ltd.System Information Block Type 7 and 11 z System info type 7 ‡ Including the UL interference level which is used for open loop power control ‡ Including the Expiration Time Factor which is used for refreshing the SIB7 periodically z System info type 11 ‡ The neighbor cell information for cell re-selection in IDLE mode Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. All rights reserved.

Contents
3. UTRAN Signaling Procedure
3.1 System Information Broadcast 3.2 Paging 3.3 Call Process 3.4 Handover

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page36

Paging Initiation
z

CN initiated paging
z

Establish a signaling connection

z

UTRAN initiated paging
z z

Trigger the cell update procedure Trigger reading of updated system information

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page37

z

For CN originated paging:
‡

In order to request UTRAN connect to UE, CN initiates the paging procedure, transmits paging message to the UTRAN through Iu interface, and UTRAN transmits the paging message from CN to UE through the paging procedure on Uu interface, which will make the UE initiate a signaling connection setup process with the CN.

z

For UTRAN originated paging:
‡

UE state transition: In order to trigger UE in the CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state to carry out state transition (for example, transition to the CELL_FACH state), the UTRAN will perform a paging process. Meanwhile, the UE will initiate a cell update or URA update process, as a reply to the paging.

‡

When the cell system message is updated: When system messages change, the UTRAN will trigger paging process in order to inform UE in the idle, CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state to carry out the system message update, so that the UE can read the updated system message.

Paging Type 1
z

If UE is in CELL_PCH,URA_PCH or IDLE state,the paging message will be transmitted on PCCH with paging type 1
CN PAGING RANAP RANAP RNC1 RNC2 NODEB1.1 NODEB2.1 UE

RANAP

PAGING

RANAP

PCCH: PAGING TYPE 1

PCCH: PAGING TYPE 1

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page38

z

Paging type 1:
‡

The message is transmitted in one LA or RA according to LAI or RAI. After calculating the paging time, the paging message will be transmitted at that time If UE is in CELL_PCH or URA_PCH state, the UTRAN transmits the paging information in PAGING TYPE 1 message to UE. After received paging message, UE performs a cell update procedure to transit state to CELL_FACH.

‡

‡

z

As shown in the above figure, the CN initiates paging in a location area (LA), which is covered by two RNCs. After receiving a paging message, the RNC searches all the cells corresponding to the LAI, and then calculates the paging time, at which it will send the PAGING TYPE 1 message to these cells through the PCCH.

Paging Type 2
z

If UE is in CELL_DCH or CELL_FACH state,the paging message will be transmitted on DCCH with paging type 2
CN SRNC UE

PAGING RANAP RANAP

DCCH: PAGING TYPE 2 RRC RRC

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page39

z

Paging type 2:
‡

If UE is in CELL_DCH or CELL_FACH state,the paging message will be transmitted on DCCH with paging type 2 The message will be only transmitted in a cell

‡

z

As shown in the above figure, if the UE is in the CELL_-DCH or CELL_FACH state, the UTRAN will immediately transmit PAGING TYPE 2 message to the paged UE on DCCH channel.

Contents
3. UTRAN Signaling Procedure
3.1 System Information Broadcast 3.2 Paging 3.3 Call Process 3.4 Handover

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page40

Introduction of Call Process z In WCDMA system. Ltd. Page41 . All rights reserved. a call process includes the following basic signaling flows: ‡ RRC connection flow Direct transfer message flow Authentication flow (optional) Security flow (optional) RAB establish flow Call proceeding NAS signaling before correlative bearer release Correlative bearer release ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co..

RRC Connection Establishment Flow (CCCH)
UE Serving RNC

RRC

1. CCCH: RRC Connection Request

RRC

RRC

2. CCCH: RRC Connection Set up

RRC

RRC

3. DCCH: RRC Connection Setup Complete

RRC

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page42

z

In the idle mode, when the non-access layer of the UE requests to establish a signaling connection, the UE will initiate the RRC connection procedure. Each UE has up to one RRC connection only. When the SRNC receives an RRC CONNECTION REQUEST message from the UE, the Radio Resource Management (RRM) module of the RNC determines whether to accept or reject the RRC connection request according to a specific algorithm. If accepting the request, the RRM module determines whether to set up the RRC connection on a Dedicated Channel (DCH) or on a Common Channel (CCH) according to a specific RRM algorithm.

z

z

Description:
‡

The UE sends an RRC CONNECTION REQUEST message to the SRNC through the uplink CCCH, requesting the establishment of an RRC connection. Based on the RRC connection request cause and the system resource state, the SRNC decides to establish the connection on the common channel.

‡

‡

The SRNC sends an RRC CONNECTION SETUP message to the UE through the downlink CCCH. The message contains the information about the CCH.

‡

The UE sends an RRC CONNECTION SETUP COMPLETE message to the SRNC through the uplink CCCH.

RRC Connection Establishment Flow (DCCH)
UE
RRC

Node B
1. CCCH: RRC Connection Request

Serving RNC
RRC Allocate RNTI Select L1 and L2 parameters

NBAP

2. Radio Link Setup Request

NBAP

Start RX
NBAP

3. Radio Link Setup Response

NBAP

4. ALCAP Iub Data Transport Bearer Setup
DCH - FP DCH - FP

5. Downlink Synchronization 6. Uplink Synchronization

DCH - FP DCH - FP

Start TX

RRC

7. CCCH: RRC Connection Set up
NBAP

RRC NBAP RRC

8. Radio Link Restore Indication

RRC

9. DCCH: RRC Connection Setup Complete

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page43

z z

Typically, an RRC connection is set up on the DCH. Description:
‡

The UE sends an RRC Connection Request message via the uplink CCCH to request to establish an RRC connection. Based on the RRC connection request cause and the system resource state, the SRNC decides to establish the connection on the dedicated channel, and allocates the RNTI and L1 and L2 resources. The SRNC sends a Radio Link Setup Request message to Node B, requesting the Node B to allocate specific radio link resources required by the RRC connection. After successfully preparing the resources, the Node B responds to the SRNC with the Radio Link Setup Response message. The SRNC initiates the establishment of Iub user plane transport bearer with the ALCAP protocol and completes the synchronization between the RNC and the Node B. The SRNC sends an RRC Connection Setup message to the UE in the downlink CCCH. The UE sends an RRC Connection Setup Complete message to the SRNC in the uplink DCCH.

‡

‡

‡

‡

‡

‡

ID ORIGCONVCALLEST ORIGSTREAMCALLEST ORIGINTERCALLEST ORIGBKGCALLEST ORIGSUBSTRAFFCALLEST TERMCONVCALLEST TERMSTREAMCALLEST TERMINTERCALLEST TERMBKGCALLEST EMERGCALLEST INTERRATCELLRESELEST INTERRATCELLCHGORDERE ST REGISTEST DETACHEST ORIGHIGHPRIORSIGEST ORIGLOWPRIORSIGEST CALLREEST TERMHIGHPRIORSIGEST TERMLOWPRIORSIGEST TERMCAUSEUNKNOWN DEFAULTEST

Name Originating Conversational Call Originating Streaming Call Originating Interactive Call Originating Background Call Originating Subscribed traffic Call Terminating Conversational Call Terminating Streaming Call Terminating Interactive Call Terminating Background Call Emergency Call RRC establish type Inter-RAT cell re-selection Inter-RAT cell change order Registration Detach Originating High Priority Signaling Originating Low Priority Signaling Call re-establishment Terminating High Priority Signaling Terminating Low Priority Signaling Terminating cause unknown Spare RRC establish

Recommended value DCH_13.6K_SIGNALLING DCH_13.6K_SIGNALLING DCH_13.6K_SIGNALLING DCH_13.6K_SIGNALLING DCH_13.6K_SIGNALLING DCH_13.6K_SIGNALLING DCH_13.6K_SIGNALLING DCH_13.6K_SIGNALLING DCH_13.6K_SIGNALLING DCH_13.6K_SIGNALLING DCH_3.4K_SIGNALLING DCH_3.4K_SIGNALLING DCH_13.6K_SIGNALLING FACH DCH_13.6K_SIGNALLING FACH DCH_3.4K_SIGNALLING DCH_13.6K_SIGNALLING FACH FACH DCH_3.4K_SIGNALLING

Direct Transfer Message Flow
UE
RRC

NodeB
Initial DT

RNC
RRC SCCP SCCP RANAP RANAP Connect Request Connect Confirm Initial UE Message Common ID

CN

SCCP SCCP RANAP RANAP

z

In Iu interface, radio network layer reports the RANAP information and NAS information. NAS information is taken as directed message in RANAP information.

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page45

z

After the RRC connection between the UE and the UTRAN is successfully set up, the UE sets up a signaling connection with the CN via the RNC for NAS information exchange between the UE and the CN, such as authentication, service request and connection setup. This is also called the NAS signaling setup procedure.

z

For the RNC, the signaling exchanged between the UE and the CN is a direct transfer message. After receiving the first direct transfer message, that is, the Initial Direct Transfer message, the RNC sets up a signaling connection with the CN on the SCCP. The procedure is shown in the above figure:

z

The specific procedure is given as follows:
‡

After the RRC connection is established, the UE sends the Initial Direct Transfer message to the RNC via the RRC connection. This message carries the NAS information content sent to the CN by the UE.

‡

After receiving the Initial Direct Transfer message from the UE, the RNC sends the SCCP Connection Request (CR) message to the CN via the Iu interface. The message content is the Initial UE Message sent from the RNC to the CN, and carries the message content sent from the UE to the CN.

‡

If the CN is ready to accept the connection request, then it returns the SCCP Connection Confirm (CC) message to the RNC. The SCCP connection is successfully set up. The RNC receives the message and confirms the signaling connection setup success.

‡

If the CN cannot accept the connection request, then it returns the SCCP Connection Reject (CJ) message to the RNC. The SCCP connection setup fails. The RNC receives the message and confirms the signaling connection setup failure. Then it initiates the RRC release procedure.

z

After the signaling connection is successfully set up, the message sent by the UE to the CN is forwarded to the RNC via the Uplink Direct Transfer message, and the RNC converts it into the Direct Transfer message to send to the CN. The message sent by the CN to the UE is forwarded to the RNC via the Direct Transfer message, and the RNC converts it into the Downlink Direct Transfer to send to the UE.

All rights reserved.Common ID Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. Ltd. Page47 .

Authentication and Security Flow UE RRC Connection Setup Initial DT RNC Initial UE Message (CM Service Request) Common ID DL DT (Authentication Request) DL DT (Authentication Response) DL DT (Authentication Response) Security Mode Command Security Mode Command DL DT (Authentication Request) CN Security Mode Command Complete Security Mode Command Complete UL Direct Transfer (Setup) Direct Transfer (Setup) Direct Transfer (Call Proceeding) DL Direct Transfer (Call Proceeding) RAB Assignment Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page48 z z Authentication is used for the validity of CN and UE. Ltd. All rights reserved. .. Security flow includes the encrypt process and integrity protection.

The UE needs to complete the RRC connection establishment before setting up the RAB. RAB is the carrier in user plane.AAL2 RL Recfg Prep RL Recfg Ready AAL2 Setup Req AAL2 Setup Rsp DL Sync UL Sync RB Setup RL Recfg Commit RB Setup Complete NBAP NBAP Q. z When the RAB is successfully established. The SRNC responds to the CN with the RAB assignment response message and the RAB setup procedure ends. The SRNC sends the RB setup request to the UE. a basic call is set up and the UE enters the conversation process.AAL2 NBAP NBAP Q.AAL2 Q. z z z First the CN sends the RAB assignment request message to the UTRAN. RAB establishment flow mainly includes the AAL2 PATH establishment of Iu and Iub interface. data service or multiple media service between UE and CN. the UE responds to the SRNC with the RB setup complete message. After completing the RB establishment. 4.RAB Establishment Flow UE NodeB RNC RANAP Q. requesting the UTRAN to establish the RAB. which is for transferring the voice service.AAL2 Q. The SRNC in the UTRAN initiates the establishment of the data transport bearer between the Iu interface and the Iub interface (Iur interface). The RAB refers to the user plane bearer that is used to transfer voice. also includes the reconfiguration process of radio resource. Page49 z z RAB is the carrier which is provided by AS for NAS. 5. 3. 2. The RAB setup is initiated by the CN and executed by the UTRAN. data and multimedia services between the UE and the CN..AAL2 FP FP RRC NBAP RRC CN RAB Ass Req AAL2 Setup Req AAL2 Setup Rsp RANAP Q.AAL2 FP FP RRC NBAP RRC RANAP RAB Ass Rsp RANAP Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. .AAL2 Q. The basic procedure is as follows: 1. All rights reserved.AAL2 Q. Ltd.

UE Terminating Call Page50 z z Authentication and security flow are optional. . Ltd. CN does not need to the CM Service Response if the security mode is used..NAS Signaling (CS) UE MSC MSC Paging RRC and NAS signaling Connection Setup CM Service Request Authentication Request Authentication Response Security Mode Command Security Mode Command Complete Setup Call Proceeding RAB Assignment Alerting Connect Connect ACK Disconnect Release Release Complete RRC and NAS signaling Connection Setup Paging Response Authentication Request Authentication Response Security Mode Command Security Mode Command Complete Setup Call Confirmed RAB Assignment Alerting Connect Connect ACK Disconnect Release Release Complete UE UE Outgoing Call Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved.

. All rights reserved. Page51 .NAS Signaling (PS) UE SGSN SGSN Paging RRC and NAS signaling Connection Setup Service Request Authenticate and Ciphering Req Authenticate and Ciphering Rsp Security Mode Command Security Mode Command Complete Request PDP Context Activation Activate PDP Context Req RAB Assignment Activate PDP Context Accept Deactivate PDP Context Req Deactivate PDP Context Accept UE RRC and NAS signaling Connection Setup Service Request Authenticate and Ciphering Req Authenticate and Ciphering Rsp Security Mode Command Security Mode Command Complete Service Accept Activate PDP Context Req RAB Assignment Activate PDP Context Accept Deactivate PDP Context Req Deactivate PDP Context Accept UE Outgoing Call UE Terminating Call Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.

Page52 . All rights reserved.UE to UE CS Call Process (1) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. Ltd.

All rights reserved.. Ltd. Page53 .UE to UE CS Call Process (2) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

Ltd. All rights reserved.UE to UE CS Call Process (3) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. Page54 .

UE to UE CS Call Process (4) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Page55 .. Ltd.

Ltd. All rights reserved. Page56 ..UE to UE CS Call Process (5) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

Ltd.UE to UE CS Call Process (6) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. All rights reserved. Page57 .

All rights reserved. Page58 ..UE to UE CS Call Process (7) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.

Page59 . All rights reserved. Ltd.Activate PDP Context from UE (1) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co..

. All rights reserved. Ltd.Activate PDP Context from UE (2) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page60 .

All rights reserved.. Ltd.Activate PDP Context from Network (1) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page61 .

. Page62 .Activate PDP Context from Network (2) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. All rights reserved.

2 Paging 3.4 Handover Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.Contents 3.1 System Information Broadcast 3. All rights reserved. UTRAN Signaling Procedure 3. Page63 . Ltd.3 Call Process 3..

and can select one with good signal quality by comparison when these radio links are merged..Concepts about Soft Handover z Soft handover: the signals from different NodeBs are merged in RNC z Softer handover: the signals from different cells. Soft handover: ‡ z z Selection combination in uplink Maximum combination in downlink ‡ z Softer handover ‡ Maximum combination in uplink and downlink . the radio links can be merged within the Node B or the SRNC. The second case is the soft handover among different Node Bs within the same RNC and among different RNCs. that is. since the intra-frequency exists among neighboring cells. All rights reserved. In this case. The soft handover can be conducted only in the FDD mode. Page64 z In the WCDMA system. If they are merged within the Node B. but from the same NodeB are merged in NodeB Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. An important issue during the soft handover is the merge of multiple radio links. the MACRO DIVERSITY technology is adopted for the merge of the radio links. the system compares the data from different radio links based on certain standards (such as BER). the UE can communicate with the network via multiple radio links. In the WCDMA system. Ltd. The first case is the soft handover among difference cells of the Node B. and selects the data with better quality to send to the upper layer. it is called softer handover. thus optimizing the communication quality. The soft handover falls into the following cases according to the locations of the cells.

The execution result of the soft handover indicates the increase or decrease of the cells in the active set. The UE measures the cells in the observation set. The following are some key concepts about the neighboring cell in the soft handover: ‡ z Active set: The set of cells currently used by the UE.Soft Handover Flow (Intra-RNC) CN CN CN SRNC SRNC SRNC NodeB NodeB NodeB NodeB NodeB NodeB Before Handover During Handover After Handover Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. the cells may be added to the active set. Ltd. ‡ ‡ . Page65 z During the soft handover. the observation set sometimes is also called the candidate set. Monitor set: The set of cells that are not in the active set but are being observed by the UE based on the neighboring cell information from the UTRAN. Detected set: The set of cells that have been detected by the UE but do not belong to the active set or the observation set. Since the cells in the detected set are not listed in the neighboring cell list. The UTRAN can request the UE to report the measurement result of the detected set. All rights reserved. and data in each RL are same.. When the measurement results satisfy certain conditions. Therefore. this set is also called the unlisted set. two or more radio links are connected with UE.

. only one radio links is connected with UE. All rights reserved.. Page66 z It is no handover in this slide.Soft Handover Flow Core Network RNC (SRNC) Node B AirBridge AirBridge AirBridge Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.

Ltd. . During the handover. the cells in active set belong to one NodeB. and the UE also combines the data in RAKE receiver. Page67 z It is softer handover.Soft Handover Flow Core Network RNC (SRNC) Node B AirBridge AirBridge AirBridge Merged in NodeB Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. The NodeB uses the RAKE receiver to combine the data. All rights reserved.

But in uplink. During the handover. the cells in active set belong to one RNC. . but different NodeBs. So the UE can combine the data in RAKE receiver. All rights reserved..Soft Handover Flow Core Network RNC (SRNC) Node B AirBridge AirBridge AirBridge Merged in RNC Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page68 z It is soft handover. the data are combined with selection combination in RNC. Ltd.

. Ltd. All rights reserved.Soft Handover Flow (SRNC-DRNC) Core Network Serving RNC Drift RNC Node B AirBridge AirBridge AirBridge Merged in SRNC Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. So the UE can combine the data in RAKE receiver. Page69 z It is soft handover. the data are combined with selection combination in SRNC. During the handover. the cells in active set belong to different RNCs. But in uplink..

Soft Handover Flow (SRNC Relocation) Core Network RNC Serving RNC Node B AirBridge AirBridge AirBridge Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page70 z There is no handover.. . All rights reserved. Ltd. but the SRNC has been changed.

. the Node B will be notified to release the corresponding resources. ) After the soft handover. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ z The original communication is not affected during the soft handover procedure so that smooth handover from a cell to another can be successfully completed. perhaps the measurement control information changes.Typical Soft Handover Flow (L3 Signaling) z Soft handover is triggered by 1A/1B/1C or 1D event UE RRC Connection Setup Procedure Measurement Control Measurement Report (1A/1B/1C or 1D) Active Set Update Active Set Update Complete Measurement Control RNC Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. (If some cells are to be added. . The RNC compares the reported measurement result with the set threshold to decide the cells to be added and deleted. the RNC notifies the Node B to get ready. (if the cells are deleted. if it is. All rights reserved. After the UE successfully update the active set. the UE measures the intra-frequency neighboring cells. and reports the measurement result to the RNC via Measurement Report. RNC will send new Measurement Control to UE. Page71 z The soft handover procedure comprises the following steps: ‡ Based on the Measurement Control information from the RNC. UE will send Active Set Update Complete to inform RNC. Ltd. ) The RNC notifies the UE to add and/or delete cells via the Active Set Update message.

. All rights reserved. Page72 z For adding a cell into Active Set. Ltd..Soft Handover Flow (Add Branch in AS) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. RNC will notify NodeB to prepare the new RL before sending Active Set Update.

RNC sends Active Set Update to UE first.Soft Handover Flow (Del Branch from AS) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. All rights reserved. . RNC will inform NodeB to delete the RL.. Page73 z For deleting a cell from Active Set. After UE deleting the RL successfully.

It happens in intra-frequency. Ltd.Hard Handover CN CN SRNC SRNC NodeB NodeB NodeB NodeB Before Handover After Handover Radio Link can not exist simultaneously Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. The UE disconnects the original radio link. .. inter-frequency and inter-RAT. Page74 z It is hard handover. then connects to the target cell.

Ltd. Page75 .Intra-Frequency Hard Handover z Intra-Frequency hard handover is triggered by 1D event UE RRC Connection Setup Procedure Measurement Control (Intra-freq) Measurement Report (1D) Decision to setup new RL Physical Channel Reconfiguration Physical Channel Reconfiguration Complete Measurement Control (Intra-Freq) RNC Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved..

and then responds to the SRNC with the Radio Link Deletion Response message. The Node B where the source cell is deletes the radio link resources. Ltd. indicating the radio link failure.. After the UE hands over from the source cell to the target cell. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ . After successfully handing over to the target cell.Inter-frequency Handover UE RRC Connection Setup Procedure Measurement Control (Intra-freq) Measurement Control (2D & 2F) Measurement Report(2D) Decision to enter compress mode Physical Channel Reconfiguration Physical Channel Reconfiguration Complete Measurement Control (Inter-Freq) Measurement Report Decision to setup new RL Physical Channel Reconfiguration Physical Channel Reconfiguration Complete Measurement Control (Intra-freq) RNC Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. The SRNC adopts the ALCAP protocol to release the Iub interface transport bearer of the SRNC and the Node B where the source cell is. the differences are: The SRNC sends the Physical Channel Reconfiguration message carrying the target cell information to the UE via the downlink DCCH. All rights reserved. the Node B of the source cell detects the radio link communication failure and then sends the Radio Link Failure Indication message to the SRNC. Page76 z Description: ‡ Step 1 to step 5 is similar with soft handover. notifying the SRNC that the physical cannel reconfiguration is complete. the UE sends the Physical Channel Reconfiguration Complete message to the SRNC via the DCCH.

.Inter-RAT Handover Flow (UMTS->GSM) UE RRC Connection Setup Procedure Measurement Control (Intra-freq) Measurement Control (2D & 2F) Measurement Report(2D) Decision to enter compress mode Physical Channel Reconfiguration Physical Channel Reconfiguration Complete Measurement Control (Inter-RAT) Measurement Report (GSM) Decision to handover to GSM Relocation Required Prepare Handover Handover Request Handover Request ACK Relocation Command Inter-System Handover Command Handover Complete Handover Compltet Send END Signal Request Iu Release Command Iu Release Complete Prepare Handover Response RNC 3G MSC 3G MSC BSC Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page77 . All rights reserved. Ltd.

Inter-RAT Handover Flow (GSM->UMTS) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Ltd. Page78 ..

Thank you www.com .huawei.

.WCDMA HSDPA Principles www. Ltd.huawei. .com Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.Course Learning Objectives z z z z z z z Review WCDMA and HSDPA evolution and standards Define HSDPA protocol stack Describe new channels for HSDPA Explain the physical channel processing HSDPA impact on protocol stack Identify HSDPA UE categories Define HSDPA protocols of Mac sub-layer Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. Ltd. Page1 .

References z 3GPP Release 6 Specification References ‡ ‡ TS 25.306 UE radio access capabilities TS 25. Ltd.331 Radio Resource Control (RRC) protocol specification ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.213 Spreading and modulation (FDD) TS 25.212 Multiplexing and channel coding (FDD) TS 25. All rights reserved.214 Physical layer procedure (FDD) TS 25..308 HSDPA overall description stage2 TS 25.322 Radio Link Control (RLC) protocol specification TS 25.321 Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol specification TS 25.211 Physical channel and mapping of transport channels onto physical channel (FDD) TS 25. Page2 .

HSDPA Physical Layer Channels 4.. Page3 . All rights reserved. HSDPA Physical Layer Processing 5.Contents 1. HSDPA Key Techniques 3. HSDPA Introduction 2. HSDPA Layer2 Protocol Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.

WCDMA Evolution GSM GPRS WCDMA R99 HSDPA R5 HSUPA R6 EDGE Downlink Peak Data Rate (Typical Deployment) GSM GPRS EDGE R99 WCDMA HSDPA 9. HSUPA) that will provide faster data services for the Uplink.e. HSDPA was introduced in WCDMA Release 5 to offer higher speed Downlink data services. Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) is another system in the GSM/GPRS family that some operators have deployed as an intermediate step before deploying WCDMA.. inheriting much of the upper layer functionality directly from those systems.4Mbps Page4 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Release 6 introduces the Enhanced Uplink (i.0Mbps 14.6kbps 171kbps 473kbps 2. . WCDMA Evolution WCDMA evolved from GSM/GPRS. Ltd. The first commercial deployments of WCDMA are based on a version of the standards called Release 99.6kbps 40kbps 120kbps 384kbps 10. All rights reserved.0Mbps Downlink Peak Data Rate (Theoretical Maximum) 9.

. implying an increasing demand for high-data-rate. low-delay feature referred to as High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA). Current 2. Ltd. This is achieved through the implementation of a fast channel control and allocation mechanism that employs such features as Adaptive Modulation and Coding and fast Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ).interactive. HSDPA provides significant enhancements to the Downlink compared to WCDMA Release 99 in terms of peak data rate. content-rich multimedia services. All rights reserved.. the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) have included in Release 5 of the specifications a new high-speed. Page5 Data Services and High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) Data Services are expected to grow significantly within the next few years. background applications Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.5G and 3G operators are already reporting that a significant proportion of usage is now due to data. and round trip delay. Although current Release 99 WCDMA systems offer a maximum practical data rate of 384 kbps. Shorter Physical Layer frames are also employed.High Speed Downlink Packet Access z z What are the benefits of HSDPA Higher Data Rates ‡ Peak data rate up to 14Mbps per user z Higher Capacity ‡ More subscribers and throughput Further reduces the cost per megabyte ‡ z Richer Application ‡ Low latency – improvement for streaming . cell throughput.

Ltd. The DCH is the primary means of supporting packet data services. All rights reserved. This common channel employs a fixed OVSF code. Macro Diversity is supported using soft handover. Each data block contains a unique UE identifier that allows a given UE to keep itsown data and discard that belonging to other UEs. Most commonly. As it needs to be received by all UEs. Data transfer can also be supported on the FACH.. Macro Diversity is also not supported and the channel operates with a fixed (or slow changing) power allocation. . higher data rates are generally not supported. data transmission is supported using either the Dedicated Channel (DCH) or the Forward Access Channel (FACH).Release 99 Packet Data z How is Packet Data handled in Release 99 (FDD) ? ‡ DCH ( Dedicated Channel ) „ Spreading codes assigned per user Closed loop power control Node B „ „ Soft handover ‡ FACH ( Common Channel ) „ Common Spreading code No closed loop power control Node B „ „ No soft handover Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Fast closed loop Power Control is employed to ensure that a target Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR) is maintained in order to control the block error rate (BLER). Page6 Release 99 Packet Data There are different techniques defined in the Release 99 specification to enable Downlink packet data. Each user is assigned a unique Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF) code dependent on the required data rate.

but it has not been widely implemented in commercial systems and will likely be removed from future versions of the specification. Each dedicated channel uses an OVSF code. This limits the number of simultaneous high speed data users in a given cell. In dedicated mode. This data rate is achieved by allocating a dedicated channel to each user. Ltd. . The use of dedicated resources can be a limitation. Although WCDMA Release 99 standard allows for maximum data rates of up to 2. When an OVSF of a particular length is used. The data rate of a dedicated channel can be adjusted to accommodate varying requirements of a data service application. All rights reserved. which eases this limitation. but the procedure for doing so is slow and thus inefficient. Page7 Release 99 Downlink Limitations 1. fast power control is used so that a target Eb/No is achieved on the Downlink.0 Mbps. it has only been widely implemented with a maximum data rate of 384 kbps.. all longer OVSF codes derived from that code become unavailable. The Release 99 standards provide support for a Secondary Scrambling Code. This can result in wasted resources whereby a better than required Eb/No is achieved for the required BLER. Shorter codes are used for higher data rates and longer codes for lower data rates. especially for data applications with bursty characteristics. Capacity is controlled both by the maximum amount of PA power that is available and by the power requirement of each data service.Release 99 Downlink Limitation z Dedicated Channel Features ( DCH ) ‡ Maximum implemented downlink of 384kbps OVSF code limitation for high data rate users Rate change according to burst throughput is slow Outer loop power control responds slowly to channel ‡ ‡ ‡ z Common Channel Features ( FACH ) ‡ Good for burst data application Only low data rates supported Fixed transmit power ‡ ‡ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. However. the required Eb/No set point changes at a much slower rate.

The rapid scheduling of HSDPA is well-suited to the bursty nature of packet data. while it gets little or no bandwidth during periods of low activity. . All rights reserved. All or part of the channels may be assigned to a given user during any 2 ms period. During periods of high activity.High Speed Downlink Packet Access z The differences between HSDPA and R99 ‡ Set of high data rate channel Channels are shared by multiple users Each user may be assigned all or part of the resource every 2ms “Big shared pipe” Code multiplexing for HSDPA ‡ ‡ Node B HSDPA user#1 HSDPA user#2 HSDPA user#3 HSDPA user#4 2ms a set of HS-PDSCHs Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. a given user may get a larger percentage of the channel bandwidth.. Page8 High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) In HSDPA. Ltd. These channels are assigned to a user using a fast scheduling algorithm that allocates the channels every 2 ms. the NodeB allocates a set of high speed channels.

Users are separated in both the time and code domains. . Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) replaces the role of power control so that the modulation and coding rate are changed depending on the channel condition. All rights reserved. Page9 HSDPA Basic Concepts In HSDPA a common channel with fixed power is employed for data transfer. A fixed spreading factor is employed but multi codes operation is possible for increased data rates.High Speed Downlink Packet Access z How will HSDPA figure out the limitations of R99 ‡ Adaptive modulation and coding „ Fast feedback of Channel condition QPSK and16QAM Channel coding rate from 1/3 to 1 „ „ ‡ Multi-code operation „ Multiple codes allocated per user Fixed spreading factor „ ‡ NodeB fast Scheduling „ Physical Layer HARQ ( Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest ) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. This is accomplished by locating the scheduling algorithm for channel allocation at the NodeB instead of the RNC in Release 99.. Ltd.

All rights reserved. though we will see that the absence of soft handover makes it more suitable for stationary or lowmobility users than for highly mobile users. due in part to the typical timer values used to detect inactivity HSDPA is suitable to high date rates for a bursty application. Whereas DCH is suited for medium high data rates (with a maximum rate of 384 kbps). rate switching is slow. This makes it unsuitable for higher data rates. Ltd. By contrast. FACH provides good support for bursty data but is a common channel without power control or other mechanism to account for channel conditions. Page10 Comparison Summary DCH and FACH are the two Release 99 channels typically used for packet switched data in practice. Link adaptation is used to adjust data rate. coding. and modulation to quickly respond to changing channel conditions. Switching from DCH to FACH is slow and inefficient. but feedback from the UE can instruct the NodeB to use lower power when the UE is in good channel conditions.High Speed Downlink Packet Access z Comparison Summary Mode Channel Type DCH Dedicated Closed Inner Loop at 1500Hz & Closed Outer Loop Supported Poor Medium FACH Shared HSDPA Shared Fixed Power with link adaptation Not Supported Good High Power Control No Soft Handover Suitability for Bursty Data Rate Not Supported Good Low Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. HSDPA typically operates at a fixed power. making it unsuitable and inefficient for bursty data such as a Web browsing application. . The advantages and disadvantages of each approach are apparent..

Page11 .Contents 1. HSDPA Physical Layer Channels 4. HSDPA Layer2 Protocol Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. HSDPA Introduction 2. All rights reserved. HSDPA Key Techniques 3.. HSDPA Physical Layer Processing 5.

Ltd.. 2ms and CDM/TDM Dynamic shared in Time and code domain 16QAM 16QAM in complement to QPSK for higher peak bit rates 3 New Physical Channels Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.HSDPA Key Techniques Block 1 Block 1 Block 2 Block 1? Block 1 + Block 1? AMC (Adaptive Modulation & Coding) Data rate adapted to radio condition on 2ms HARQ(Hybrid ARQ)with Soft combing Reduce round trip time Fast Scheduling based on CQI and fairness Scheduling of user on 2ms SF16. Page12 . All rights reserved.

All rights reserved.. QPSK Page13 „ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. 16QAM Bad channel condition – low order modulation scheme e. Ltd.Adaptive Modulation and Coding z AMC ( Adaptive Modulation and Coding ) in accordance with CQI ( Channel Quality Indicator ) ‡ Adjust data rate to compensation channel condition „ Good channel condition – higher data rate Bad channel condition – lower data rate „ ‡ Adjust channel coding rate to compensation channel condition „ Good channel condition – channel coding rate is higher e.g.g. 3/4 Bad channel condition –channel coding rate is higher e. . 1/3 „ ‡ Adjust the modulation scheme to compensation channel condition „ Good channel condition – high order modulation scheme e.g.g.

All rights reserved. Page14 .data block size based on CQI Power Control Rate Adaptation Bad channel condition → More power Good channel condition → less power Bad channel condition Node B → low data rate Good channel condition → high data rate Node B Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.Adaptive Modulation and Coding z AMC ( Adaptive Modulation and Coding ) based on CQI ( Channel Quality Indicator ) ‡ CQI ( channel quality indicator ) „ UE measures the channel quality and reports to NodeB every 2ms or more cycle „ NodeB selects modulation scheme .. Ltd.

modulation scheme. Page15 CQI Mapping Table The CQI table consists of 30 entries. Along with TFRC. where each entry indicates a different TFRC. All rights reserved.CQI mapping table for UE category 10 CQI value 0 1 2 …… 13 14 15 16 17 18 …… 28 29 30 Transport Block Size N/A 137 173 …… 2279 2583 3319 3565 4189 4664 …… 23370 24222 25558 Number of HSHS-PDSCH Modulation Out of range Reference power adjustment Δ 1 1 …… 4 4 5 5 5 5 …… 15 15 15 QPSK QPSK …… QPSK QPSK QPSK 1616-QAM 1616-QAM 1616-QAM …… 1616-QAM 1616-QAM 1616-QAM 0 0 …… 0 0 0 0 0 0 …… 0 0 0 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. CQI may also indicate a power offset relative to the current HS-PDSCH power. The TFRC combinations are different for UEs with different HS-DSCH UE categories because of the differences in the UE capabilities. The 5-bit CQI reported by a UE is an index into this table containing all possible TFRC combinations for that UE category. The CQI table shown in the slide is for UE categories supporting up to 15 HS-PDSCH codes (HSDPA terminal category 10) . Transport Format Resource Combination (TFRC) points to the combination of number of HS-PDSCH channelization codes. Ltd.. and the HS-DSCH transport block size.

only a category 10 UE can achieve the maximum HSDPA throughput of 14 Mbps when using all 15 HS-PDSCHs simultaneously.HSDPA UE Categories UE Category Maximum Number of HSDSCH Codes Received 5 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 15 15 5 5 Minimum Inter-TTI Interval 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 Maximum Number of Bits of an HS-DSCH Transport Block Received Within an HS-DSCH TTI 7298 7298 7298 7298 7298 7298 14411 14411 20251 27952 3630 3630 Total Number of Soft Channel Bits 19200 28800 28800 38400 57600 67200 115200 134400 172800 172800 14400 28800 Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Category 5 Category 6 Category 7 Category 8 Category 9 Category 10 Category 11 Category 12 z HSDPA RF performance depends on UE capability Page16 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. . Ltd. It is dependent on the number of HS-PDSCH codes and the modulation scheme. Transport Block size – Determines the maximum size of transport block that can be sent on HS-DSCH in a TTI. All rights reserved. the shorter the inter-TTI interval. Factors that decide the UE’s HS-DSCH category are: HS-PDSCH codes – Determines the number of simultaneous HS-PDSCH channels that can be decoded by a UE. The more HARQ processes a UE supports. the actual HS-DSCH peak data rate depends on the UE’s HS-DSCH category.. As shown in the table. Inter-TTI interval – Determines the minimum interval (in terms of HS-DSCH TTI) between two successive HS-PDSCH assignments. UE Categories HSDPA is advertised with data rates up to 14 Mbps. IR buffer size – Determines the maximum number of soft bits that can be buffered by a UE across all simultaneously running HARQ processes. A minimum inter-TTI of 1 requires at least 6 simultaneous HARQ processes. However.

. Ltd. received data blocks that can not be correctly decoded are not discarded. Decoding is then applied to the combined signal Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Instead the corresponding received signal is buffered and soft combined with later received retransmission of information bits. Page17 . All rights reserved.Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest z Conventional ARQ ‡ In a conventional ARQ scheme. received data blocks that can not be correctly decoded are discarded and retransmitted data blocks are separately decoded z Hybrid ARQ ( HARQ ) ‡ In case of Hybrid ARQ with soft combining.

compare to conventional ARQ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.. All rights reserved. (NodeB LMT) . Page18 The maximum retransmission amount of HARQ procedure can be set.Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest z Example for HARQ z The use of HARQ with soft combining increases the effective received Eb/Io for each retransmission and thus increases the probability for correct decoding of retransmissions.

Page19 HARQ is a technique that transmitter sends new set of parity bits if the previous transmission failed (NACK) and receiver buffer the failed decodes for soft combining with later retransmission.Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest z There are many different schemes for HARQ with soft combining z These schemes differ in the structure of retransmissions and in the way by which the soft combining is carried out at the receiver ‡ In case of Chase combining ( CC ) each retransmission is an identical copy of the original transmission ‡ In case of Incremental Redundancy ( IR ) each retransmission may add new redundancy Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. All rights reserved. Ltd. Example for Chase Combining ( CC ) Scheme .

Example for Incremental Redundancy ( IR ) Scheme .

it also assigns a HARQ process to handle the data transfer.Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest z Each HSDPA assignment is handled by a HARQ process ‡ HARQ processes run in NodeB and UE z The UE HARQ process is responsible for: ‡ Attempting to decode the data Deciding whether to send ACK or NACK Soft combining of retransmitted data ‡ ‡ z The NodeB HARQ process is responsible for: ‡ Selecting the corrected bits to send according to the selected retransmission scheme and UE capability Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. HSDPA defines a Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ) protocol. Ltd.. and consists of procedures implemented in both the MAC-hs sublayer and the Physical Layer. Page21 Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ) To support consecutive assignments. All rights reserved. This protocol is implemented in both the NodeB and the UE. . which corresponds to a UE that uses an inter-TTI interval of 3. When the NodeB assigns an HSDPA subframe to a UE. The minimum number of HARQ processes supported by any UE is 2. The UE HARQ process is responsible for ‡ Decoding the initial transmission Sending an ACK or NACK Soft-combining retransmissions of the data packet until it is successfully decoded or until NodeB aborts the packet ‡ ‡ The maximum number of HARQ processes that a UE supports is a function of its HSDPA category.

Ltd.. scheduling algorithm and HARQ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page22 . All rights reserved.Short TTI (2ms) z Shorter TTI ( Transmission Time Interval ) is to reduce RTT ( round trip time ) z Shorter TTI is necessary to benefit from other functionalities such as AMC.

Shared Channel Transmission z In HSDPA. Ltd. a new DL transport channel is introduced call HSDSCH. Page23 Shared channel transmission implies that a certain amount of radio resource of a cell (code and power) is seem as a common resource that is dynamically shared between users.. The idea is that a part of the total downlink code resource is dynamically shared between HSDPA and Release 99 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. .

Shared Channel Transmission z In HSDPA. Remaining power is distributed among common channels and power controlled dedicated channels. Dynamic – HSDAP( i. . Page24 Shared channel transmission implies that a certain amount of radio resource of a cell (code and power) is seem as a common resource that is dynamically shared between users. due to the peak-toaverage ratio of transmit power. Ltd. the HS-PDSCHs and HS-SCCHs). The Node Bpower doesn’t really remain constant.e. All rights reserved. The overall transmit power of the cell remains constant..HS-PDSCH and HS-SCCH ) power is allocated dynamically as a function of the remaining available power. which fluctuates due to the power controlled dedicated channels. The idea is that a part of the total downlink power resource is dynamically shared between HSDPA and Release 99 Power margin for DCH power control Time Higher power utility efficiency Allowed power for HSDPA Total Power DPCH Power for CCH Time Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. but two possible schemes are likely: Static – A fixed amount of power is allocated to HSDPA channels (i. The above diagram does not consider the Node B’s power margin.e. a new DL transport channel is introduced call HSDSCH. The NodeB transmit power allocation algorithm is not specified by the standard. The overall transmit power fluctuates as a function of the power controlled channels. whereby the Node B’s power fluctuates.

which enables use of both time division and code division multiple access methods. which leads to efficient code and power utilization z In HSDPA.. Page25 There can be multiple (up to 15) HS-PDSCHs in a serving cell. the idea is that a part of the total downlink code resource is dynamically shared between a set of HSDPA users Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.Shared Channel Transmission z The codes are assigned to HSDPA user only when they are actually to be used for transmission. All rights reserved. Ltd. .

Higher-Order Modulation Scheme z HSDPA modulation scheme ‡ QPSK 16QAM ‡ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Compared to QPSK modulation. higher order data modulation. can carry more bits per Hertz . Page26 WCDMA R99 uses QPSK data modulation for downlink transmission. higher order modulation is more bandwidth efficient i.e. such as 16QAM can be used. Ltd. To support higher data rate..

guarantee bit rate requirement. All rights reserved. Max C/I: for maximum cell throughput . Enhanced Proportional Fair (EPF): allocates the channel to the user according to relatively best channel quality.the radio resource should be as much as possible be allocated to communication links with the best instantaneous channel condition. There are a number of scheduling algorithms that take into consideration the trade-off between throughput and fairness: Round Robin (RR): radio resource are allocated to communication links on a sequential basis. But this might lead to large variations in data rate of the users. Proportional Fair (PF): allocates the channel to the user with relatively best channel quality.Fast Scheduling z Fast scheduling is about to decided to which terminal the shared channel transmission should be directed at any given moment Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. . fairness. Page27 The basic idea of fast scheduling is to transmit at the fading peaks of the channel in order to increase the throughput and to use resource more efficiently. The trade-off is between the cell throughput and fairness against users. Ltd.. not taking into account the instantaneous radio channel conditions experienced by each link.

Ltd. Page28 . All rights reserved.HSDPA New Physical Channels Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co..

HSDPA Physical Layer Channels 4. HSDPA Physical Layer Processing 5. HSDPA Layer2 Protocol Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page29 .. Ltd.Contents 1. HSDPA Introduction 2. HSDPA Key Techniques 3. All rights reserved.

..R99 Physical Channels Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. SCH. DCH is mapped to a Dedicated Physical Data Channel (DPDCH). PICH). Some channels exist only in Physical Layer (CPICH. Also carries dedicated Uplink signaling and user information to a UE operating in Cell_FACH state. Ltd. A Paging Indicator Channel (PICH) is associated with a PCH to allow a UE to quickly determine whether it needs to read the PCH during its assigned paging occasion. An associated Dedicated Physical Control Channel (DPCCH) carries Physical Layer control information. Page30 Release 99 Channels This diagram shows possible mappings of logical. Also carries dedicated Downlink signaling and user information to a UE operating in Cell_FACH state. and physical channels in the control and user planes for UMTS Release 99. These channels carry no upper layer signaling or user data. such as power control commands. Random Access Channel (RACH) – Common Uplink signaling messages. DPCCH. Transport channels carry the following types of information: Broadcast Control Channel (BCH) – Broadcast information that defines overall system configuration. Paging Channel (PCH) – Paging notification messages. transport. AICH. Dedicated Channel (DCH) – Dedicated signaling and user information for a UE operating in the Cell_DCH state. Forward Access Channel (FACH) – Common Downlink signaling messages.

Page31 HSDPA introduces three new Downlink channels and one new Uplink channel: High Speed Downlink Shared Channel (HS-DSCH) – A Downlink transport channel shared by several UEs. . The HS-DSCH is associated with one or several Shared Control Channels (HS-SCCH). It operates on a 2 ms Transmission Time Interval (TTI). High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (HS-DPCCH) – An Uplink physical channel that carries feedback from the UE to assist the Node B’s scheduling algorithm. and the modulation scheme used on the assigned physical channel. Ltd. It is allocated to a user at 2 ms intervals.HSDPA Physical Layer Channels z New HSDPA Channels ‡ High Speed Downlink shared Channel ( HS-DSCH ) „ Downlink Transport Channel ‡ High Speed Shared Control Channel ( HS-SCCH ) „ Downlink Control Channel ‡ High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel ( HS-PDSCH ) „ Downlink Physical Channel ‡ High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel ( HS-DPCCH ) „ Uplink Control Channel Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. The feedback includes a Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) and a positive or negative acknowledgement (ACK/NACK) of a previous HSDSCH transmission. High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS-PDSCH) – A Downlink physical channel shared by several UEs. High Speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH) – A Downlink physical channel used to carry Downlink control information related to HS-DSCH transmission. The UE monitors this channel continuously to determine when to read its data from the HS-DSCH.. It supports Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) and 16-Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (16-QAM) and multicode transmission. All rights reserved.

even if the UE is not able to receive the high speed channels. Page32 HSDPA Channels (continued) Only dedicated logical user data channels may be mapped to HS-DSCH. All rights reserved. A UE operating in HSDPA mode also has at least one Release 99 dedicated channel (DCH/DPDCH) allocated. Ltd. to ensure that RRC and NAS signaling can always be sent.. only Unacknowledged Mode (UM) and Acknowledged Mode (AM) channels may be used. It carries no upper layer information. When DTCH is mapped to HS-DSCH. The HS-DPCCH is a Physical Layer control channel. . and therefore has no logical or transport channel mapping.HSDPA Physical Channels Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

Page33 Physical Layer Frame Timing A basic WCDMA radio frame is 10 ms long and has 15 slots. HS-SCCH. HSDPA introduces the notion of sub-frames within a WCDMA radio frame. 128. The number of symbols in a slot depends on the spreading factor used for that channel. An HSDPA sub-frame is 2 ms (3 slots) long and all the HS-channels use this sub-frame timing. A QPSK symbol consists of two consecutive bits..67ms ‡ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. and 10 (HS-DPCCH). Each HS-DSCH transport block is mapped to an HS-PDSCH sub-frame. HS-SCCH and HSDPCCH also use the 2ms sub-frame to transmit control and feedback respectively.Physical layer Frame Duration z Frame Duration ‡ 10ms radio frame. A 16-QAM symbol. one bit each mapped onto the I and Q branch. 20 (HS-SCCH). HS-DSCH has a fixed TTI of 2 ms. As the HSDPA sub-frame is only 2ms long. A symbol is made up of 1 or more bits and each bit is spread using SF to an equivalent number of chips. Each HSDPA sub-frame has 3 slots and each slot is comprised of symbols. on the other hand. and 256 respectively. Shorter TTI mechanism can better trace the variation of wireless environment . The sub-frame allows fast user switching where the shared channel can potentially be assigned to a different user every sub-frame.and HS-DPCCH use SF 16. HS-PDSCH. Ltd. Shorter TTI mechanism can reduce the latency .and then increase fast schedule times. 3 slots „ ‡ 1 HS-DSCH Transport Time interval (TTI) R99 radio frame 10ms z Slot Duration ‡ 2560chips per slot ‡ 7680 chips per HSDPA sub-frame HSDPA sub-frame 2ms z Symbol Timing ‡ QPSK: 2bits / symbol 16QAM: 4bits / symbol Time slot 0. HSDPA use 2ms TTI. has four consecutive bits with two bits on each branch. 15 slots 2ms HSDPA sub-frame. All rights reserved. it alleviates the need for power control. giving number of symbols per slot as 160 (HS-PDSCH).

M=2 for QPSK. M is the number of bits per modulation symbols i. A UE is a member of one of 12 categories. An HS-PDSCH may use QPSK. All rights reserved.HS-PDSCH sub-frame Structure z HS-PDSCH sub-frame structure ‡ 3 time slots constituted one TTI (2ms) . . The High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HS. Ltd. or 15) Maximum transport block size Inter-TTI interval – minimum time between consecutive assignments. Incremental redundancy buffer size – used to soft-combine symbols from retransmissions. 16QAM or 64QAM modulation symbols. number of codes it supports ‡ All HS-PDSCH used to carry user’s data UE can be assigned multiple OVSF code ( SF=16 ) based on UE Categories ‡ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.PDSCH) is used to carry the High Speed Downlink Shared Channel (HS-DSCH). as a function of its hardware capabilities.e. 10. If multiple HS-PDSCHs are assigned simultaneously to one UE. it decodes the assigned HS-PDSCHs.. The HS-SCCH indicates the first OVSF code and the number of codes for each assignment. only one TB will be sent during one TTI Fixed spreading factor ( SF=16 ) May use QPSK or 16QAM modulation scheme Up to 15 HS-PDSCH may be assigned simultaneously „ ‡ ‡ ‡ UE capability indicated max. Each category represents different values of the following parameters: Number of simultaneous HS-PDSCH codes (5. M=4 for 16QAM and M=6 for 64QAM. Each HS-PDSCH uses an OVSF of length 16. In above figure. they must use consecutive OVSF codes. Page34 HS-PDSCH When the UE decodes the HS-SCCH and determines that there is an HS-DSCH assignment in the next TTI.

Xrv. Xhap and Xnd ‡ ‡ ‡ UE demodulates HS-SCCH sub-frame and find out the received data addressed to the UE with Xue. All rights reserved. QPSK only. These parameters allow the UE to differentiate new transmissions from retransmissions. Xccs. Xms. Xms. The HARQ protocol supports retransmissions and incremental redundancy. HS-PDSCH uses either QPSK or 16-QAM modulation. Xrv. Ltd. Xtbs [6bits]:transport block size. Xccs [7bits]:channelization code set. The HS-SCCH indicates how much data will be sent during the next assignment Xhap [3bits]:HARQ process number Xnd [1bit]:new data indicator . This can change from one assignment to the next. Multiple UEs may be monitoring the same set of HS-SCCHs. Each UE has an assigned identity called the H-RNTI. Xhap.HS-SCCH sub-frame Structure z HS-SCCH sub. The HS-SCCH indicates which of the OVSF codes allocated to the HS-PDSCHs will be used.. which means that multiple OVSF codes may be assigned to one UE at the same time Xms [1bit]:modulation scheme. Xtbs and Xnd are used for HARQ Process ‡ UE may need to simultaneous monitor up to four HS-SCCHs Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Then UE demodulates HS-PDSCH sub-frame with Xccs. HS-PDSCH uses multi-code transmission. Xtbs. and HS-SCCH indicates which method will be used. Fixed rate of 60kbps HS-SCCH carries the following control messages: Xue. Xrv[3bits]:redundancy version. Page35 Xue [16bits]:UE identity.frame structure ‡ 3 time slots constitutes one TTI ( 2ms ) HS-SCCH SF=128.

it uses the HS-DPCCH to give feedback to the serving Node B. SF=256. Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) – The UE measures the channel quality of the Downlink CPICH and computes a CQI value. Fixed rate of 15kbps. and corresponds to the maximum data rate that the UE can decode with an error rate of less than 10%. Usually the period is 2ms ( one TTI ) ‡ ACK/NACK and CQI having different function may be controlled independently by different parameters. including ACK/NACK CQI ‡ ACK and NACK notifies NodeB that UE has received correct downlink data or not. Page36 HS-DPCCH Whenever the UE is operating in HSDPA mode. Ltd. .. UTRAN may configure the UE to repeat the CQI. ranging from 2 ms to 160 ms. The first ACK/NACK for a given HS-DSCH assignment is sent 5 ms (7.5 slots) after the end of the HS-DSCH transmission. This feedback consist of two parts: ACK/NACK – The UE sends a positive or negative acknowledgement for each HSDSCH assignment. UTRAN may configure the UE to repeat the ACK/NACK. assuming the channel conditions don’t change. UTRAN may also configure the periodicity of CQI reporting. The value is an index into a table. up to a maximum of 4 transmissions. up to a maximum of 4 transmissions.HS-DPCCH sub-frame Structure z HS-DPCCH sub-frame structure ‡ TTI=2ms ( 3 time slots ). All rights reserved. and reported by period range from 0 to 160ms ( 0 means no transmission ). carry 2 types of HSDPA uplink physical layer control message. The field defines like this: 1-NACK. 0-ACK ‡ CQI reflects physical channel quality indicator based on CPICH strength. Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.

Position is the 1st slot in HS-DPCCH sub-frame. whether the data is received by UE is judged based on ACK/NACK. Accordingly. UL interference to be reduced Problem of Pre/Postamble More decoding complexity is introduced More power is consumed by UE to send Pre/Postamble . All rights reserved. same as ACK/NACK. Advantage of Pre/Postamble More coding gain is introduced. since Node B could judge whether the data is received by UE on the basis of more correlative slots If ensuring the same demodulation performance of ACK/NACK. which allows HS-DPCCH to operate at lower power The general rule of when N_acknack_transmit > 1 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Pre/Postamble is introduced since R6. Page37 In R5. Ltd..Uplink HS-DPCCH preamble and postamble z z z Transmit Preamble and Postamble on HS-DPCCH around ACK / NACK Eases the decoding. PO (ACK/NACK) could be reduced.

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the HS-DSCH data can be transmitted only in the HSDPA serving cell while the DCH data can be transmitted in all the cells in the active set. Ltd. To maintain closed loop power control functionality without the DCH (i.e. ﹡ F-DPCH ( Fractional Dedicated Physical Channel ) is a new downlink physical channel in release 6.e. Page39 When a DL RAB is mapped onto the HS-DSCH.e. UL RLC acknowledgement message and possible UL service data. When the UE is in soft handover or softer handover. DPCH is also called associated channel used for signalling transmission and power control z ﹡ DPCH does not carry service generally. which is a dedicated channel . Release 6 supports mapping the SRB to the HS channels on both the Downlink and the Uplink (provided that HS channels are activated). UL DCH transmits the UL signaling. associated DPCH) UE Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. These DCHs are called associated DCHs. DL DCH is set up to transmit the DL signaling. . associated DCHs) is not reserved for signaling. sometimes carry real time (RT) service such as AMR service HSDPA Serving Cell HS_SCCH Downlink DPDCH&DPCCH (i. a new physical channel is introduced: the F-DPCH (Fractional DPCH). associated DPCH) HS_DPCCH HS_PDSCH Uplink DPDCH&DPCCH (i. associated DCH).e.Associated physical channel –A -DPCH z ﹡Besides 3 physical channels on top. the DCH (i. This results in faster signaling and. All rights reserved. UL DCH is set up regardless of the existence of UL data.. for PS-only calls. There is another physical channel named DPCH.

It has only TPC bits information. no Pilot or data fields are carried. Huawei RAN10 product support this physical channel The F-DPCH is a special case of the Downlink DPCCH.. Ltd. It has only TPC bits information The Downlink A-DPCH occupies one code per user in the cell Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.Fractional Dedicated Physical Channel (F-DPCH) z z The F-DPCH is a new physical channel in Release 6 Purpose of F-DPCH introduction is to keep the closed loop power control working for HSDPA users without an assigned DPCH (A-DPCH) z The difference of HSDPA physical channels between Release5 and Release6 The F-DPCH is a shared physical channel. It multiplexes the TCP bits for a maximum of 10 UEs with different frame offsets. Page40 The F-DPCH is a new physical channel in release 6. All rights reserved. The TPC bits forwarded on the F-DPCH are needed to control the power of the HS-DPCCH (Uplink channel) .

Fractional Dedicated Physical Channel (F-DPCH) z The F-DPCH carries control information generated at layer 1 (TPC commands). Ltd. SF=256 ‡ Each user occupy one Symbol in one slot to bear TPC command. each of length Tslot = 2560 chips. Pilot and TFCI is not needed Up to 10 users can be multiplexed on one F-DPCH (Tx OFF) NOFF1 bits TPC NTPC bits (Tx OFF) NOFF2 bits ‡ Tslot = 2560 chips Slot #0 Slot #1 Slot #i 1 radio frame: Tf = 10 ms Slot #14 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. All rights reserved. It is a special case of downlink DPCCH Following figure shows the frame structure of the F-DPCH ‡ z Each frame of length 10ms is split into 15 slots. especially used for large number of VoIP users Problem of F-DPCH introduction Code utilization efficiency could be downgraded in SHO due to the timing restrictions on when TPC bits can be transmitted to UE’s in SHO zones . Page41 10 users can be multiplexed on one F-DPCH P-CCPCH frame TPC TPC TPC TPC TPC TPC TPC TPC TPC TPC TPC TPC TPC offset(256chip) UE1 0 UE2 UE3 UE4 UE5 UE6 UE7 UE8 UE9 UE10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Advantage of F-DPCH introduction Code utilization efficiency is improved up to 90%. corresponding to one power-control period.

5 slo ts 3 slo ts = 2 m s Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. 3. The UE measures the Downlink channel quality and sends a CQI report on the HSDPCCH. During the next 2ms HS-DSCH transmission time. Ltd. it will send information on the HS-SCCH to assign the physical channel and give the UE information about how the data was encoded. or 3 slots 1. An ACK or NACK from a previously received block may also be included in this transmission 2. it sends an ACK or NACK on the HS-DPCCH. 7. All rights reserved. Page42 HSPDA Channel Timing HSDPA channel timing is based on a time interval of 2 ms. The UE must send the ACK or NACK 5ms(i. or may choose not to retransmit the data.HSDPA Physical Channels Timing z z Start of HS-SCCH is aligned with the start of PCCPCH HS-PDSCH. one or more HS-PDSCHs carry the UE’s data. After the UE decodes the data.5 slots) after the end of the HS-DSCH transmission. The earliest that this assignment can be made is in the sub-frame following the end of CQI report.. If the UE sends a NACK. the NodeBmay send the data again during a later time slot.e. A CQI report may also be included in this transmission . subframe is transmitted two slots after the associated HS-SCCH subframe 10 ms P -C C P C H 3 slo ts = 2 m s R ad io fram e w ith (S F N m o d u lo 2 ) = 0 R a d io fram e w ith (S F N m o d u lo 2 )= 1 H S -S C C H S u b fram e # 0 S u b fram e # 1 S u b fram e # 2 S u b fram e # 3 S u b fra m e # 4 3 slo ts = 2 m s H S -P D S C H 2 slo ts S u b fram e # 0 S u b fram e # 1 S u b fram e # 2 S u b fram e # 3 S u b fram e # 4 1 5 slo ts = 1 0 m s DPCH S lo t S lo t S lo t S lo t S lo t S lo t S lo t S lo t S lo t S lo t S lo t S lo t S lo t S lo t S lo t τ D PC H H S -D P C C H ~ 7 . If the NodeB decides to send data to the UE. The HS-SCCH transmission overlaps the HS-PDSCH transmission 4.

Theoretical HSDPA Maximum Data Rate The theoretical maximum data rate is 14.. All rights reserved. 16-QAM – This modulation scheme increases the data rate over QPSK by a factor of 2. . Lower Coding Gain –Higher data rates can be achieved by puncturing more bits for a higher effective code rate (and thus lower coding gain).Theoretical HSDPA Maximum Data Rate z z Theoretical HSDPA Maximum data rate is 14. Consecutive assignments – The HARQ procedure allows the NodeB to send backto-back assignments at 2 ms intervals. The following techniques are used to achieve this data rate: Multi-code transmission – Up to 15 HS-PDSCH channels may be assigned to a single UE during one 2 ms TTI.4Mbps ? ‡ Multi-code transmission „ NodeB must allocate all 15 OVSF codes ( SF =16 ) to one UE ‡ Consecutive assignments using multiple HARQ process „ NodeB must allocate all time slots to one UE UE must decode all transmission correctly on the first transmission „ ‡ Low channel coding gain „ „ Effective code rate = 1 Requires very good channel conditions to decode ‡ 16QAM „ Requires very good channel condition Page43 Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd.4Mbps How do we get to 14.4 Mbps.

All rights reserved. If the UE supports an inter-TTI interval of 1. Ltd. The retransmission may consist of identical symbols that were sent previously. Page44 Other factors that influence the maximum data rate are: Inter-TTI Interval – The interval between consecutive assignments is called the inter-TTI interval. Allowed values of the inter-TTI interval are 1. then it is capable of receiving a new HSDPA assignment every 2 ms.More Data Rate Factors z More factors that affect HSDPA data rate ‡ Inter. or may be a different redundancy version of the turbo coded output symbols ACK/NACK Repetition – The NodeB may configure the UE to send the ACK/NACK transmission up to four times . 2. the NodeB may retransmit that data in a subsequent assignment.TTI interval Retransmission ACK / NACK Repetition ‡ ‡ z Assuming ‡ 5 OVSF code for HS-PDSCH Consecutive assignment QPSK Turbo code rate =1/3 Retransmission „ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ 75% of data block decoded on first transmission 25% of data block decoded on second transmission „ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. and 3 Retransmissions – If the UE NACKs a transmission..

All rights reserved.8Mbps 0.8 = 640 kbps z Retransmission ‡ 1 2 3 4 5 Decoded on 1st transmit Decoded on 2nd transmit Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.4Mbps / 3 = 4.More Data Rate Factors z 5 OVSF code for HS-PDSCH ‡ 14.4Mbps z Turbo code rate =1/3 ‡ 2. Ltd..8Mbps z QPSK ‡ 4.8Mbps × 0.4Mbps / 3 = 0. Page45 .8Mbps / 2 = 2.

. HSDPA Physical Layer Channels 4. All rights reserved. Page46 . HSDPA Layer2 Protocol Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. HSDPA Key Techniques 3. HSDPA Physical Layer Processing 5. HSDPA Introduction 2. Ltd.Contents 1.

two new Downlink physical channels have been introduced to enable HSDPA. All rights reserved. Ltd. There can be multiple (up to 15) HS-PDSCHs in a serving cell.HSDPA Physical Layer ModelDownlink NodeB PHY UE PHY HS-PDSCH – carries actual information payload from HS-DSCH HS-SCCH – carries Physical Layer control information including HARQ parameters. which enables use of both time division and code division multiple access methods. The mask allows a UE to identify if there is HS-DSCH data for it in the upcoming HS-PDSCH sub-frame and the control information tells how to decode that data. HS-SCCH – Transmitted by NodeB to signal control information to the users in the HSDPA serving cell. HS-PDSCH carries user data and has a transport channel HSDSCH mapped on it. OVSF codes. This channel is shared by multiple users and the control information sent on it is masked with a UE ID. Unlike a dedicated channel. . Page47 HSDPA Physical Layer Model – Downlink In 3GPP Release 5.. the existing R99 channels are also required for HSDPA operation. this shared channel is assigned to a user for a 2ms period and may be assigned to another user in the next 2ms period. HS-PDSCH – Transmitted by NodeB to send HS-DSCH data to UEs in the HSDPA serving cell. In addition. and UE ID Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. HS-SCCH does not have a transport channel mapped on it. This fast scheduling rate is well suited for the bursty packet data and helps increase the capacity of a cell.

All rights reserved.HSDPA Physical Layer ModelUplink NodeB PHY UE PHY HS-DPCCH – carries feedback signaling consisting of HARQ acknowledgement and channel quality indicator (CQI) Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. The existing R99 channels are required for the HSDPA operation.. HS-DPCCH – Transmitted by the UE to signal feedback information to Node B. HS-DPCCH doesn’t carry any higher layer control or traffic and doesn’t have a transport channel mapped on it. . Page48 HSDPA Physical Layer Model – Uplink In 3GPP Release 5. Ltd. NodeB uses this feedback information to send retransmissions and to schedule HSPDSCH transmissions to UEs. acknowledgement of data received by the UE on HS-PDSCH Downlink channel quality indicator (CQI) 2. there is one new Uplink physical channel. The feedback information consists of: 1.

Page49 DL HS-PDSCH – High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel An HS-PDSCH channel carries the actual user payload to the UE. code division or a combination of the two multiple access methods. An HS-DSCH serving cell can have as many as 15 channelization codes assigned to HSPDCH. The phase reference used for demodulating HS-PDSCH is the same as for the associated DL DPCH. . All rights reserved. One HS-PDSCH subframe contains one TTI (2 ms) of HS-DSCH transport channel payload.. The HS-PDSCH channels are shared among different users by using time division. By default. There is no transport channel multiplexing in HSDPA so the information contained in HS-PDSCH subframe is from a single HS-DSCH transport channel. P-CPICH is used as the phase reference.Downlink HS-PDSCH z High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel (HSPDSCH) ‡ Fixed SF 16 with 3 slots format Uo to 15 HS-PDSCH under one cell May use QPSK or 16QAM modulation scheme ‡ ‡ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. The number of HS-PDSCHs that can be simultaneously decoded by a UE depends on the HS-DSCH UE Category. Ltd.

HS-DSCH coding chain does not require: 1. Comparing the coding chain for the Release 99 channel with the Release 5 HS-DSCH channel. Ltd. varies from 137 bits to 27952 bits. 3. because HS-DSCH has a fixed TTI of 2 ms. First DTX insertion. . Radio frame segmentation. The main reason for this additional processing is the dynamic size of the transport block transmitted in an HS-DSCH TTI. In case of retransmission. however. because there is just one transport channel mapped on to HS-PDSCH. the transport block size remains the same as of the original transmission. 2. because there is always only one transport block per HS-DSCH TTI.Downlink HS-PDSCH z z HS-DSCH Processing chain New Physical Layer Procedures in Release 5 ‡ Bit Scrambling Physical Layer HARQ functionality HS-DSCH interleaving Constellation re-arrangement for 16QAM ‡ ‡ ‡ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. The transport block size. Page50 The HS-DSCH channel coding involves a number of other functions performed by the NodeB’s Physical Layer.. because HS-DSCH doesn’t support fixed position transport channel and thus Blind Transport Format Detection (BTFD). which is equal to the HS-PDSCH sub-frame duration. Concatenation. 5. Transport channel multiplexing. Second DTX insertion. some blocks have been removed and some new blocks have been added. Other reasons include large HS-DSCH payload size and the possible use of 16-QAM modulation for HSPDSCH. All rights reserved. because there is just one transport channel mapped on to HSPDSCH. 4.

need to segment into equal code blocks Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. The filler bits are all 0s and are transmitted along with data.g. . The estimated performance loss due to the non-uniform distribution in such very unlikely cases is between Code Block Segmentation – It is done if the number of bits output from the bit scrambler is more than the maximum input code block size of the FEC encoder. CRC Attachment – A fixed 24-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) is attached to HSDSCH TTI data. due to the possibility of transmitting turbocodewords comprised predominantly of systematic bits.QAM symbols at receiver z Code Block Segmentation ‡ Turbo encoder has a fixed max. If segmentation is performed. This is true regardless of the use of turbo-encoding on the HS-DSCH. all the resulting segments are of equal size and may require adding some filler bits to the beginning of 1st code block. A uniform symbol distribution helps the UE efficiently decode the received HS-DSCH bits. All rights reserved. The Physical Layer then performs a number of functions on the HS-DSCH TTI data before the data is finally mapped to one or more HS-PDSCH physical channels. The maximum encoder code block size in case of HS-DSCH is 5114 bits. Bit Scrambling – Done to avoid non-uniform symbol distribution over 16-QAM constellation at the receiver. However. There is only one transport block per HS-DSCH TTI. the all-ones or all-zeroes sequences) could violate this condition. certain degenerate HS-DSCH bit sequences (e. the received symbols are uniformly distributed over the entire constellation. Typically. Ltd. Page51 HS-DSCH Channel Coding NodeB’s MAC-hs delivers the HS-DSCH transport channel data to the Physical Layer in NodeB..HS-DSCH Channel Coding z Mac delivers one HS-DSCH TB per TTI to Physical Layer z CRC Attachment ‡ 24 bits CRC added per TB z Bit Scrambling ‡ Facilitates uniform distribution of 16. leading to an asymmetric HS-DSCH bit distribution (over {0..1}) and hence a nonuniform 16-QAM symbol distribution at the receiver input. code block size of 5114 bits ‡ If bit scrambled data is more than 5114 bits.

Ltd. The output from turbo coder consists of Systematic bits (original input data bits) and Parity bits.p1 bit collection Ndata W Parity2 bits RM_P2_1 Np2 RM_P2_2 Nt. Page52 HS-DSCH Channel Coding (continued) FEC Coding – Rate 1/3 turbo coder is used for encoding HS-DSCH bits. First Rate Matching Virtual IR Buffer Second Rate Matching Systematic bits Nsys RM_S Nt. where code blocks are formed by segmenting bit scrambled HS-DSCH data (if more than 5114 bits). The code rate after turbo encoding is 1/3 but the effective coder rate after HARQ rate matching may be different. are serially concatenated and fed to the HARQ block. An effective code rate of close to 1 is required to achieve peak throughput of 14. when more than one. The encoded blocks. All rights reserved.HS-DSCH Channel Coding z Channel Coding ‡ Rate 1/3 Turbo coder used for Channel coding ‡ Effective code rate changes after HARQ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.sys C NTTI bit separation Parity 1 bits RM_P1_1 Np1 RM_P1_2 Nt.4 kbps. For each input bit..p2 Twelve tail bits are added per block after encoding for the trellis termination. FEC coding is done on one or more code blocks. . there is 1 Systematic bit and 2 Parity bits.

Both HARQ combining schemes soft combine bits from the previous failed decodes with the currently received retransmission. indicate to the UE the HARQ scheme used for the current transmission.HS-DSCH Channel Coding z Hybrid ARQ (HARQ) ‡ Combines ARQ with adaptive channel coding ‡ NodeB sends new set of parity bits if previous transmission failed (NACK) ‡ UE buffers the failed decodes for soft combining with future retransmission ‡ Soft Combining is done before each channel decoding attempt Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. .. Chase Combine and IR. For a retransmission. There are two different HARQ schemes. Page53 HS-DSCH Channel Coding (continued) Hybrid ARQ (HARQ) – HARQ is a technique combining FEC and ARQ methods that save information from previous failed decode attempts to be used in the future decoding. Ltd. Soft combining helps minimize the number of retransmissions. HARQ uses the same transport block size and consequently the same number of HS-DSCH bits that were used in the initial transmission. The redundancy version (RV) parameters. depending on which bits are chosen to be sent over the air to UE. r and s.

Using the same RV parameter r in each retransmission Retransmission with a different r value implies different set of punctured bits Receiver attempts to decode by soft combining multiple copies Incremental Redundancy (IR) Retransmissions are not self decodable.sys C NTTI bit separation Parity 1 bits RM_P1_1 Np1 RM_P1_2 Nt. RV parameter s = 0. Parity bits are prioritized Redundant information is incrementally transmitted if initial decoding fails Each retransmission provides additional redundant bits to the receiver RV parameter r is different for different set of redundancy bits Receiver attempts to decode based on accumulated bits . RV parameters s = 1 Chase Combining Each retransmission is self decodable.HS-DSCH Channel Coding – Physical Layer HARQ Functionality z Physical Layer HARQ consists of two rate matching stages and a virtual buffer ‡ 1st stage: matches number of input bits to the virtual IR buffer size „ IR buffer size is determined by UE’s soft memory capability Puncturing is done if inputs bits exceed the virtual IR buffer size „ ‡ 2nd stage: matches numbers of bits to the number of HS-PDSCH bits in the given TTI „ Redundancy Version (RV) parameters control the output from 2nd stage Repetition or puncturing is done to perform 2nd stage rate matching „ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved.p2 First Transmission Always self-decodable.. Page54 First Rate Matching Virtual IR Buffer Second Rate Matching Systematic bits Nsys RM_S Nt. RV parameter s = 1.p1 bit collection Ndata W Parity2 bits RM_P2_1 Np2 RM_P2_2 Nt. Systematic bits are prioritized Same coded data packet may be sent in each retransmission. Ltd.

which helps the UE to successfully decode the sub-frame. The transmitter may retransmit the same coded data packet in which case the decoder at the receiver combines multiple copies of the same transmitted packet weighted by the received SNR. allowing the UE to use the same scheme for HARQ combining. they may have a very low proportion (or none) of the systematic bits. a different set of puncture bits can be used in each retransmission. Using a different redundancy version parameter r. The RV parameter signaled to the UE indicates the HARQ scheme used. Incremental Redundancy (IR) is another implementation of the HARQ technique where retransmissions are not self decodable.. is incrementally transmitted if the decoding fails on the prior attempt.HS-DSCH Channel Coding – HARQ Combining Schemes HARQ combining refers to the combining of the HS-DSCH soft bits in the receiver (UE). RV parameters mapping list (3GPP TS25.e. If an HS-DSCH sub-frame transmission is not correctly decoded (CRC failure) by the UE’s Physical Layer the soft bits from this failed decode are buffered in the IR buffer to be combined with the future retransmissions. i. This type of combining changes the effective received code rate with each retransmission and helps in minimizing the number of retransmissions. Additional redundant information. prioritizing the parity bits. Time diversity gain is thus obtained. Retransmitted sub-frames are soft combined with the buffered soft bits to achieve additional coding gain.212) . There are different types of HARQ combining schemes: Chase combining requires each retransmission to be self-decodable.

Ltd. All rights reserved. read out columns ‡ Done separately on each HS-PDSCH Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.HS-DSCH Channel Coding – Segmentation and interleaving z Physical Channel Segmentation ‡ Segments data equally into P segments P is number of HS-PDSCHs allocated to UE „ ‡ Up to 15 ‡ Total HS-PDSCH bits per TTI: P * ( Number of bits per HS-PDSCH channel ) z HS-DSCH interleaving ‡ Block interleaving using 32*30 matrix „ Write in rows.. Page56 .

HS-DSCH Channel Coding-16QAM Constellation Re-arrangement

z

Bit Reliability
‡

change with bit position within a symbol is different for 0 and 1 in case of i2 and q2
Page57

‡

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

HS-DSCH Channel Coding – 16-QAM Constellation Rearrangement An optional 16-QAM modulation scheme has been introduced for HS-PDSCH to achieve high data rates. Constellation rearrangement is required in the case of 16-QAM modulation because two of the four bits in a 16-QAM symbol have a higher probability of error than the other two bits. The rearrangement occurs during retransmission and disperses the error probability equally among all the bits when averaged over retransmissions. The reliabilities of the bits mapped to the 16-QAM symbols vary from the most significant bits (i1, q1) to the least significant bits (i2, q2). These variations reduce the performance of the turbo decoder with respect to having equal bit reliabilities. By rearranging the signal constellation during retransmissions, the same bit gets placed at different positions within a symbol across different retransmissions and the bit reliabilities are averaged out over the retransmissions. For both Chase combining and IR, the decoder performance increases with the constellation rearrangement due to a more homogeneous input of log-likelihood values to the turbo decoder. The bits output from the HS-DSCH interleaver are taken in groups of four consecutive bits (i1q1i2q2) and then rearranged based on the value of constellation version parameter b. NodeB signals this parameter to the UE on HS-SCCH channel so that the UE can undo this bit rearrangement. In case of QPSK modulation, the constellation rearrangement block is transparent.

Constellation re-arrangement for 16QAM [TS25.212]
constellation version parameter b 0 1 2 3 Output bit sequence Operation

v p ,k v p ,k +1v p ,k + 2 v p ,k +3

None Swapping MSBs with LSBs Inversion of the logical values of LSBs Swapping MSBs with LSBs and inversion of logical values of LSBs

v p ,k + 2 v p ,k +3v p ,k v p ,k +1
v p ,k v p ,k +1 v p ,k + 2 v p ,k + 3

v p ,k + 2 v p ,k +3 v p ,k v p ,k +1

HS-DSCH Physical Channel Mapping
z z

Bits are mapped to one or more HS-PDSCH Same number of bits/sub-frame on each HS-PDSCH

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page59

HS-DSCH Physical Channel Mapping After constellation rearrangement (only for 16-QAM) or HS-DSCH interleaving (for QPSK), the HS-DSCH bits are finally mapped to one or more HS-PDSCH channels. This is called Physical Channel Mapping. A UE may be assigned one or more HS-PDSCH codes depending on the UE capability, QoS requirement, and the NodeB’s radio resource availability. In case of more than one HS-PDSCH channel assigned to a UE, the number of bits in the given sub-frame on each assigned HS-PDSCH channel is the same.

Physical Layer Process Case for HSDSCH

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page60

Downlink HS-SCCH
z

High Speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH)
‡

Fixed rate 60kbps (SF 128) channel with one slot format UE may need to simultaneously monitor up to four HS-SCCHs More than four HS-SCCHs possible under one cell QPSK only

‡

‡

‡

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page61

DL HS-SCCH – High Speed Shared Control Channel The NodeB transmits control information required for detecting and decoding HS-PDSCH sub-frames to UEs on HS-SCCH channel. UEs are signaled to monitor a set of HSSCCH channels containing up to a maximum of four HS-SCCHs. At any time, only one of the four HS-SCCHs contains information for a given UE. There may be more than four active HS-SCCHs under a cell. Multiple users are assigned to the same HS-SCCH (or set of HS-SCCHs) and thus a UE can successfully decode the information on this channel only when the information is intended for that UE. The HS-SCCH information is scrambled with the UE ID, which enables the desired UE to successfully decode HS-SCCH. The reason for having multiple HS-SCCHs is to enable NodeB to address multiple UEs in the same subframe.

There may be one to eight simultaneous HARQ processes running in a UE. New Data Indicator – Contains 1-bit indicator that toggles every time the NodeB sends new HSDSCH data. Part 2 consists of the following information: Transport Block Size – The transport block size used for the corresponding HS-PDSCH sub-frame is signaled as a 6-bit Transport Format Resource Indicator (TFRI). Part 1 and Part 2 of an HS-SCCH sub-frame are individually coded and mapped to the allocated slots in a sub-frame. The actual transport block size in bits is derived from TFRI and depends on the modulation scheme and the number of HSPDSCH channelization codes signaled on HS-SCCH. . Redundancy & Constellation Version – Contains RV parameters r and s that are used by the Physical Layer HARQ functionality. Page62 HS-SCCH Channel Coding Convolutional coding and CRC coding are used as the main channel coding schemes by NodeBfor the HS-SCCH channel. If 16-QAM modulation is used. All rights reserved.. Modulation Scheme – HS-PDSCH modulation scheme where 0 = QPSK and 1 = 16-QAM. Both Part 1 and Part 2 are scrambled with the UE ID. HARQ Process ID – Contains the HARQ process ID for the corresponding HS-PDSCH sub-frame.Downlink HS-SCCH z HS-SCCH Processing chain Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Part 1 consists of the following information: Channelization Code Set – Contains the number of in-sequence HS-PDSCH codes assigned to a UE and the offset of the first code. this field also contains the constellation version parameter b that indicates the rearranged version of 16-QAM constellation used for the corresponding HS-PDSCH sub-frame transmission. The indicator is not toggled in case of retransmissions. The UE ID used for scrambling HS-SCCH is a 16-bit HS-DSCH Radio Network Temporary Identity (H-RNTI). Ltd.

. All such channels use QPSK modulation except HS-PDSCH. In the case of QPSK modulation. i2= nk+2) on the I branch and two consecutive binary symbols (q1= nk+1. The modulation mapper converts the binary symbols into the real-valued symbols. scrambled with same code as HS-PDSCH z Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. nk+1. nk+2. The Downlink physical channels HS-SCCH and HS-PDSCH consist of a sequence of binary symbols. Page63 The Downlink physical channels (except SCH) are spread to the chip rate with individual channelization codes and then scrambled with the same scrambling code. scrambled with Primary Scramble Code HS-SCCH is spread with SF 128. In the case of 16-QAM modulation. each pair of two consecutive symbols is first serial-to-parallel converted and then mapped to the I and Q branches.HS-PDSCH and HS-SCCH Spreading and Modulation z HS-PDSCH is spread with SF 16. All rights reserved. nk+3 (with k mod 4 = 0) is serial-to-parallel converted to two consecutive binary symbols (i1= nk. a set of four consecutive binary symbols nk. which can use either QPSK or 16QAM. . The QPSK modulation mapper maps the even and odd numbered symbols to the I and Q branch respectively. q2= nk+3) on the Q branch and then mapped to 16-QAM constellation by the modulation mapper.

the UE reports CQI in every other subframe.. no data received on HS-PDSCH or CRC error on HS-SCCH. if the CQI feedback cycle is 4 ms.64 Fixed power offset ( ΔACK. UTRAN configures CQI reporting by signaling CQI feedback cycle parameter to UE. i. OVSF code – Cch. Those subframes not scheduled to report CQI have DTX bits in place of CQI. ending 1 slots before CQI is sent Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.e reference period in above figure) .e. Each subframe (2 ms) of HS-DPCCH has one slot for HARQ ACK/NACK and two slots for Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) field. SF 256. Ltd. UE transmits HS-DPCCH at a fixed power offset relative to UL DPCCH but the offset is different for ACK. These power offsets are signaled to UE by UTRAN and are used by UE’s Physical Layer to calculate the HS-DPCCH gain factor (βhs). and CQI fields. the Uplink power control is indirectly adjusting the HS-DPCCH power. As the HS-DPCCH power is adjusted relative to UL DPCCH. NACK. then DTX bits are sent in the ACK/NACK field. ΔNACK. Based on the feedback cycle parameter. ΔCQI ) relative to Uplink associated DPCCH ‡ ‡ CQI measurement reference period is 3 slots. CQI value reflect wireless environment quality of previous sub-frame (i. UE may be asked to not send CQI at all or send CQI at periodic intervals ranging from 2 ms to 160 ms. UTRAN may configure the UE to repeat each ACK/NACK and/or CQI report up to three more times in the consecutive subframes. The UE uses UL DPCCH as reference for adjusting the HSDPCCH channel power. Page64 UL HS-DPCCH – High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel Each UE operating in the HSDPA mode has an active Uplink HS-DPCCH along with the dedicated UL DPCCH.. If there is nothing to acknowledge.Uplink HS-DPCCH z High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (HSDPCCH) ‡ 3 slots format.256. For example. All rights reserved.

. Reed-Muller (RM) coding. convolutional coding. . there are different methods of doing channel coding such as repetition. The 5-bit CQI information is coded into 20 bits by using RM coding. Ltd. This redundancy helps the receiver correctly decode the original bits which may have been impaired due to bad RF channel conditions. In general. turbo coding. but the basic strategy is to add some redundant bits to the original bit(s). All rights reserved. etc. The 1-bit ACK/NACK information is coded into 10 bits by repeating the original bit.HS-DPCCH Channel Coding z z z 1 bit ACK/NACK is coded as 10 bits 5 bits CQI is coded as 20 bits Sub-frame repetition of ACK/NACK and CQI add more reliability Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page65 HS-DPCCH Channel Coding Channel coding is done by UE’s Physical Layer to add redundant bits to the HS-DPCCH information..

64 when there is only one active UL DPDCH. HS-DPCCH is mapped on to I or Q branch. and ΔCQI are signaled to UE by UTRAN through higher layer signaling. All rights reserved. ΔNACK . respectively..64 Gain factor βhs is derived from power offsets (ΔACK . The power offsets ΔACK . The SF used for HS-DPCCH is 256 with OVSF code number Cch. ΔNACK .HS-DPCCH Spreading and Modulation z z Unique OVSF code Cch. ΔCQI) z z Multiplexed on Q branch Same scrambling code as on UL DPCH z QPSK modulation Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page66 HS-DPCCH Spreading and Modulation The HS-DPCCH channel is I/Q code multiplexed with UL DPCH. Depending on whether the number of active UL DPDCHs is even or odd. Ltd. .256. 256.

All rights reserved.Contents 1. HSDPA Physical Layer Channels 4. Ltd. HSDPA Introduction 2. HSDPA Layer2 Protocol Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Page67 . HSDPA Key Techniques 3. HSDPA Physical Layer Processing 5..

release. The Non-Access Stratum architecture evolved from the GSM/GPRS upper layers and is divided into Circuit Switched (CS) and Packet Switched (PS) protocols. 2. Ltd. 3. Page68 UMTS Protocol Stack The UMTS signaling protocol stack is divided into Access Stratum (AS) and Non-Access Stratum (NAS). All rights reserved. Layer 3 – The Radio Resource Control (RRC) layer handles establishment.UMTS Protocol Stack Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. The Radio Link Control (RLC) sub-layer provides segmentation. The Access Stratum consists of three layers: 1. re-assembly and other traditional Layer 2 functions. The Medium Access Control (MAC) sub-layer multiplexes data and signaling onto the appropriate channels and controls access to the Physical Layer. Layer 2 – Consists of two sub-layers. . and configuration of radio resources.. Layer 1 – The Physical Layer transfers data over the radio link.

301 GC Nt DC Duplication avoidance GC C-plane signalling Nt DC UuS boundary U-plane information RRC control L3 Radio Bearers PDCP PDCP control control control control L2/PDCP BMC L2/BMC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC L2/RLC Logical Channels MAC L2/MAC Transport Channels PHY L1 .UTRAN protocol structure to be found in 25.

The Release 5 specifications define a new sublayer of MAC called MAC-hs. 2.and MAC protocols are terminated at the RNC. 3. Which modulation scheme to use. 4. In a Release 99 PS network. Ltd. UTRAN MAC-hs is responsible for fast scheduling of the HS-PDSCHs. This sublayer operates at the NodeBand the UE. the NAS layer protocols are terminated at the SGSN. The scheduler determines: 1. Whether to send new data or retransmitted data. RLC. Which redundancy version to send. 4. 3. Page70 1. . Sending ACK or NACK after decoding a block. Re-ordering data blocks before submitting to upper layers. if retransmissions caused data to be received out of order. The Physical Layer protocol is terminated at the Node B. HSDPA Protocol Stack 1.. 2. 5. UE MAC-hs is responsible for: 1.HSDPA Protocol Stack Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. 2. which implements the MAC protocols and procedures for HSDPA. All rights reserved. RRC. How much data to send. To which UEs the channels are assigned.

MAC-c/sh – Responsible for common and shared logical (PCCH. When a UE operates in HSDPA mode. MAC-c/sh maps user data and signaling from its DCCH and DTCH onto the common FACH and RACH transport channels. and there is one MAC-d entity for each UE to which dedicated logical channels have been assigned. Page71 1. FACH) channels. MAC-c/sh resides in the RNC. MAC-d – Responsible for mapping data from dedicated logical channels (DCCH and DTCH) onto dedicated transport channels (DCH). and CTCH) and transport (PCH. CCCH. 4. UTRAN MAC Architecture 1. BCH. Ltd. When a UE operates in Cell_FACH state.. . MAC-hs maps user data and signaling from DCCH and DTCH onto the shared HS-DSCH transport channels. BCCH. All rights reserved.UTRAN Mac Architecture Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. The UTRAN MAC protocol consists of three entities: MAC-hs – Responsible for the high speed HSDPA channels and the only entity of MAC that resides in the Node B. 2. 3. RACH. and there is one MAC-c/sh entity per RNC. MAC-d resides in the RNC.

The HARQ process tracks the ACK/NACK signaling for the data block and determines when retransmission is necessary. 2. All rights reserved.UTRAN MAC-hs Architecture Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. When data is removed from a priority queue for transmission. Up to 8 priority queues and 8 MAC-d flows are allowed per UE. The queue distribution entity maps each MAC-d flow onto one or more priority queues. To which UEs the HSDPA channels will be assigned. it is assigned to a HARQ process. 5. 2. 6. The data is routed to a set of priority queues with the following properties: 1. 4. There are a minimum of 6 and a maximum of 8 HARQ processes per UE. 3. 3. In response to CQI and ACK/NACK signaling on HS-DPCCH. Ltd.The mapping is configured when the HSDPA operation begins. For each scheduled UE. 2. Page72 1. . UTRAN MAC-hs Architecture Data enters the UTRAN MAC-hs from a set of MAC-d flows. Signaling on HS-SCCH indicates the scheduling decision to the UEs operating in HSDPA mode. the scheduler decides: 1. Each priority queue is mapped to only one MAC-d flow. whether to send new data from a priority queue or a retransmission from a HARQ process..

Mac-hs functions
z

Flow Control
‡

The flow control entity controls the HSDPA data flow between RNC and NodeB

‡

Purpose: to reduce the transmission time of HSDPA data on the UTRAN side and to reduce the data discarded and retransmitted when the Iub interface or Uu interface is congested

‡

The transmission capabilities of the Uu interface and Iub interface are taken into account in a dynamic manner in the flow control

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page73

Mac-hs functions
z

Scheduling
‡

The scheduling entity handles the priority of the queues and schedules the priority queues or NACK HARQ processes of the HS-DSCH UEs in a cell to be transmitted on the HS-DSCH related physical channels in each TTI

‡

Purpose: to achieve considerable cell throughput capability and to satisfy user experience

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page74

Mac-hs functions
z

HARQ
‡

The HARQ entity handles the HARQ protocol for each HSDSCH UE

‡

Each HS-DSCH UE has one HARQ entity on the MAC-hs of the UTRAN side to handle the HARQ functionality

‡

One HARQ entity can support multiple instances (i.e.HARQ processes) of stop and wait HARQ protocols

‡

Based on the status reports from HS-DPCCH, a new transmission or retransmission is determined

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page75

The round trip time at the physical layer is 12 ms. Therefore, it is necessary for one UE to have multiple parallel instances (HARQ processes) of the stop and wait HARQ protocol to increase the Uu interface throughput One problem in the receiver caused by multiple HARQ processes is that, in a specific time window, the TBs may arrive out of sequence. Therefore, it is necessary to have reordering functionality on the receiver side

Mac-hs functions
z

TFRC selection
‡

The TFRC selection entity selects an appropriate transport format and resource for the data to be transmitted on HSDSCH

‡

The transport format includes the transport block size and modulation scheme. The resource includes the power resource and code resource of HS-PDSCH

‡

Transport Format and Resource Combination (TFRC) for each UE is channel quality based, where AMC is the key technique

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page76

UE MAC-hs Architecture

Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

Page77

1.

UE MAC-hs Architecture
1.

When the UE Physical Layer decodes a data block addressed to it, the associated HARQ process determines whether to ACK or NACK the block. If an ACK is sent, the data block is passed to the assigned re-ordering queue.

2.

Re-ordering of MAC-hs PDUs is necessary because up to 8 HARQ processes can be operating on sequentially transmitted data. MAC-hs PDUs can be received out of order when a HARQ process sends a NACK.

3.

The re-ordering queue passes the block up to the disassembly entity when it receives consecutive data blocks. The disassembly entity takes apart the MAChs PDU into its constituent MAC-d PDUs and passes them up to the appropriate MAC-d flow for processing by the MAC-d layer.

Ltd.Data Flow Example z Data Flow ‡ Transmitter (NodeB) „ RNC RLC PDU to NodeB priority queue NodeB Mac-hs PDU assembly NodeB HARQ Process „ „ ‡ Receiver (UE) „ UE HARQ process UE re-ordering queue UE Mac-hs PDU disassembly „ „ Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co.. Page78 . All rights reserved.

All rights reserved. preserving the order of the PDUs as sent across the Iub interface. The RNC transfers the data across the Iub interface to the Node B. and then all the PDUs from DTCH 2. Ltd. The priority DTCH 1 is higher than DTCH 2. Page79 Data Flow Example – RNC MAC-d PDU to NodeBPriority Queue In this example. The MAC-d entity in the RNC constructs MAC-d PDUs by prepending a header to each RLC PDU. are mapped to one MAC-d flow.Data Flow Example RNC Mac-d PDU to NodeB Priority Queue Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. where the MAC-hs entity stores the MAC-d PDUs in the priority queue. two logical channels. DTCH 1 and DTCH 2. so MAC-d selects all the PDUs from DTCH1.. . The MAC-d header contains a C/T field that identifies the DTCH from which the data came. The MAC-d flow is mapped to a MAC-hs priority queue.

Transmission Sequence Number (TSN) – Used by the re-ordering protocol to ensure inorder delivery of MAC-d PDUs when retransmissions occur. Page80 Data Flow Example – NodeBMAC-hs PDU Assembly When the scheduler in the NodeB MAC-hs decides to send data from a given priority queue. Number (N) – Indicates the number of consecutive MAC-d PDUs of the size given by the previous SID. . Flag (F) – One-bit flag field to indicate the end of the MAC-hs header. it constructs a MAC-hs PDU. The MAC-hs PDU header consists of the following fields: Version Flag (VF) – Always set to 0 for this release. available transmit power. and other proprietary parameters. number of HS-PDSCHs. The MAC-hs PDU is then sent to the Physical Layer as the HS-DSCH transport block. the RNC sends a signaling message to the UE that maps valid MAC-d PDU sizes to a set of up to 7 SIDs.Data Flow Example NodeB Mac-hs PDU Assembly z Mac-hs PDU structure Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. MAC-d PDUs are packed into the MAC-hs PDU sequentially.. and the re-ordering queue in the UE to which the data is being sent. Size Index Identifier (SID) – When HSDPA operations begin. All rights reserved. Queue Identifier (QID) – Identifies the priority queue in the NodeB from which the data came. The scheduler determines the size of the MAC-hs PDU as a function of the UE’s CQI report. Padding – MAC-hs adds padding as needed to fill the MAC-hs PDU size (transport block size) chosen by the scheduler. The maximum number of MAC-d PDUs in a MAC-hs PDU is 70.

ignoring those that don’t match and processing those that do.. Page81 Data Flow Example – NodeB HARQ Process The scheduler chooses a HARQ process from which to send the PDU. Synchronous ACK/NACK – The UE transmits an ACK or NACK for a given block at a fixed time following reception of the data. Ltd. The Physical Layer uses the UE’s H-RNTI to scramble the HS-SCCH. in the second part of HS-SCCH is toggled whenever a new PDU is transmitted. The NodeB transmits the HARQ process ID in the second part of the HS-SCCH. . The earliest this can occur is 10 ms after the previous transmission. The HARQ protocol supports the following features: Soft combining – If the UE NACKs a data block. A one-bit indicator. The NodeB sends the MAC-hs PDU to the Physical Layer on the HS-DSCH transport channel. the New Data Indicator (NDI).Data Flow Example NodeB HARQ Process Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. up to a maximum of 8. Stop and Wait (SAW) – Each HARQ process. it looks for subframes scrambled with its H-RNTI. The NodeB supports up to 8 HARQ processes for each UE. When the UE monitors the HS-SCCH. All rights reserved. due to internal delays in the Node B scheduling algorithm. The Physical Layer performs soft combining of the retransmitted symbols with those previously received. the NodeB may retransmit the data. Asynchronous retransmission – The NodeB sends a retransmission any time after an NACK is received. The Physical Layer processes the data and maps it onto one or more HS-PDSCHs. A more typical value is expected to be 12 ms. A retransmission could occur later than 12 ms depending on channel quality reported by the UE and other internal scheduling decisions. operates independently on one data block until that block is correctly decoded or transmission is aborted by the NodeB.

New Data Indicator (NDI) – A 1-bit value that is toggled whenever new data is sent to a given HARQ process. The first slot of the HS-SCCH is scrambled with the UE’s H-RNTI. For 16QAM. . and how many channels.HARQ Protocol signaling on HS-SCCH HARQ Protocol HS-SCCH Information The Node B sends control Information for the HARQ protocol on the HS-SCCH. Redundancy and Constellation Version – The redundancy version indicates to the Turbo decoder which combination of systematic and parity bits will be sent. to allow it to distinguish a retransmission from a new transmission. the constellation version indicates how the symbols were mapped to the constellation. which identifies the UE to which this HSDPA assignment belongs. A 16-bit CRC masked with the UE’s H-RNTI is computed over both parts. The information on HS-SCCH includes: Channelization Code Set – Which HS-PDSCH codes to use. Transport Format Resource Indicator (TFRI) – A 6-bit value that maps to the Transport Block size of the data. Modulation Scheme – QPSK or 16-QAM HARQ Process ID – Which HARQ process should decode the next HSDPA assignment.

MAC-hs Layer HARQ Process Operations The MAC-hs HARQ process generates either an ACK or a NACK to be sent in the subframe numbered 5 in the diagram above. If the data is decoded correctly. If the UE sends an ACK and the NodeB decodes the ACK correctly. the data is routed to the MAC-hs part of the HARQ process. they must be assigned to other HARQ processes.Data Flow Example UE HARQ Process Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. The HS-SCCH includes a HARQ process ID. In the Physical Layer. Physical Layer HARQ Process Operations When the UE decodes its H-RNTI on the HS-SCCH. Page83 Data Flow Example – UE HARQ Process Each UE HARQ process performs operations within the Physical Layer and within the MAC-hs layer. it prepares to decode the next HSDSCH TTI.. If other data blocks are sent to the UE during the intervening subframes. All rights reserved. the HARQ process decodes the associated HS-PDSCHs. Ltd. the earliest that HARQ process 1 can be used for a new data block is the subframe numbered 8 above. .

compare the New Data Indicator (NDI) bit with the value received in the previous block. deliver the data to the re-ordering queue. keep the data in the buffer and send a NACK. and send an ACK. This can happen if the Node B interprets an ACK as a NACK. ‡ ‡ If NDI is the same and the buffer is not empty.UE HARQ Process flowchart UE HARQ Process Flowchart The control flow for a HARQ process in the UE is as follows: 1. ‡ If NDI is different. Attempt to decode the data in the buffer. so discard it and send an ACK. 2. this data has already been decoded correctly. . ‡ If correctly decoded. soft combine the new data with data already in the buffer. When a data block is received. flush the buffer. and retransmits the data block. ‡ If incorrectly decoded. flush data in the buffer and store new data If NDI is the same and the buffer is empty.

e. RLC) „ „ . sending the ACK or NACK accordingly. it treats it as a NACK „ If the Node B interprets an ACK as a NACK. a packet may be retransmitted when it was not necessary to do The UE HARQ process detects this condition by the fact that the New Data Indicator bit is the same value as the previous transmission. This is a worse error than mistaking an ACK. so it discards the data and sends another ACK „ „ Another type of protocol error occurs if the Node B misinterprets a NACK as an ACK. so it sends a new data block to the same HARQ process The HARQ process in UE side must discard the previous transmission and attempt to decode the new block. the Node B assumes the UE correctly decoded the data. „ If the Node B receives nothing in the HS-DPCCH slot in which it expects an ACK or NACK. In this case. because data is lost and must be recovered by higher layer protocols (i.z HARQ Protocol Errors ‡ Errors can occur in the HARQ protocol if the Node B misinterprets the UE’s ACK/NACK..

data from multiple priority queues can be interleaved according to the NodeB MAC-hs scheduling decisions.. . Page86 Data Flow Example – UE Re-ordering Queue When the UE’s HARQ process ACKs the data block. If a HARQ process sends a NACK. The re-ordering queue uses the TSN in the MAC-hs header to put the PDUs in the correct order. timer-based and window-based. The re-ordering queue routes consecutively received PDUs to the disassembly entity. In a more complicated example. it routes the MAC-hs PDU to a reordering queue. Two mechanisms. This example illustrates a simple case in which consecutive assignments originate from the same NodeB priority queue and thus are all routed to the same re-ordering queue. this can create a hole in the re-ordering queue. or the reordering protocol stops waiting for that PDU. according to the QID given in the MAC-hs header.Data Flow Example UE re-ordering Queue Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. are used for stall avoidance. Ltd. The reordering queue buffers subsequent PDUs until either the missing PDU is successfully received. These are examined in detail in later slides.

. which then delivers the PDUs to the DTCH logical channels. .Data Flow Example UE Mac-hs PDU Disassembly Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. using the C/T field to differentiate channels. using the information in the MAChs header to separate the PDUs. It passes the MAC-d PDUs to the MAC-d entity. Page87 Data Flow Example – UE MAC-hs PDU Disassembly The UE MAC-hs entity disassembles the MAC-hs PDU. All rights reserved. Ltd.

6 bits ‡ In-sequence delivery of MAC-d PDUs to RLC „ „ HARQ protocol may deliver data out of sequence RLC requires in-sequence delivery Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. Ltd. the RNC sends a signaling message to the UE that maps valid MAC-d PDU sizes to a set of up to 7 SIDs. Queue Identifier (QID) – Identifies the priority queue in the Node B from which the data came. and the re-ordering queue in the UE to which the data is being sent. Page88 Re-ordering Protocol – MAC-hs Header The MAC-hs PDU header consists of the following fields: Version Flag (VF) – Always set to 0 for this release. . The maximum number of MAC-d PDUs in a MAC-hs PDU is 70. Padding – Padding as needed to fill the scheduled MAC-hs size.Re-ordering Protocol z Features of the MAC-hs Re-ordering Protocol ‡ Each reordering queue operates independently Control information in MAC-hs header „ „ ‡ Queue ID (QID). Flag (F) – One-bit flag field to indicate the end of the MAC-hs header. 3 bits Transmission Sequence Number (TSN). Transmission Sequence Number (TSN) – Used by the re-ordering protocol to ensure in-order delivery of MAC-d PDUs when retransmissions occur. Number (N) – Indicates the number of consecutive MAC-d PDUs of the size given by the previous SID. Size Index Identifier (SID) – When HSDPA operations begin..

When the missing PDU is received correctly. the re-ordering queue buffers those PDUs to prevent them from being delivered out of order to the RLC layer above MAC-hs.Re-ordering Protocol In-sequence Delivery of Mac-hs PDUs Copyright © 2008 Huawei Technologies Co. All rights reserved. . a hole is created in the re-ordering queue for which that PDU was intended. As subsequent PDUs are received. Page89 Re-ordering Protocol – In-sequence Delivery of MAC-hs PDUs When a HARQ process sends a NACK. the re-ordering queue inserts it into the correct position in the buffer and delivers it and all subsequent consecutive PDUs that are awaiting delivery. Ltd..

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