Taking readers on an entertaining journey through economic history, from the stone-age to the modern economy, Beinhocker

explores how "complexity economics" provides provocative insights on issues ranging from creating adaptive organizations, to the evolutionary workings of stock markets, to new perspectives on government policies. A landmark book that shatters conventional economic theory, The Origin of Wealth will rewire our thinking about how we came to be here—and where we are going.

ifford Lectures delivered at the University of Edinburgh during the session 1927-28. Corrected Edition edited by David Ray Griffin and Donald W. Sherburne. 1.`Actual entity' is the central concept in Whitehead's system. This system is atomistic- i.e., like Democritus, Whitehead conceives of the world as composed of a vast number of microcosmic entities. But while Democritus is a materialist and views atoms as bits of stuff, Whitehead presents an organic philosophy- each of his atoms, termed `actual entities' or `actual occasions', is an organism that grows, matures and perishes. The whole of Process and Reality is concerned with the characteristics of, and the inter-relationships between, actual entities- their being and becoming. They are the final real things of which the world is made up. There is no going behind actual entities to find something more real. They differ among themselves - God is an actual entity, and so is the most trivial staff of existence ie far-off empty space. In the philosophy of organism, as developed by Whitehead, God's existence is not generically different of other actual entities, except that he is `primordial.' 2. `Concrescence' is the name for the process in which the universe of many things acquires an individual unity. An actual .occasion is nothing but the unity to be ascribed to a particular instance of concrescence. This concrescence is thus nothing else than the `real internal constitution of the actual occasion in question'. The process itself is the constitution of the actual entity. This is a theory of monads; but it differs from Leibnitz's in that Whitehead's monads change. In the organic theory they merely become. Each monadic creature is a mode of the process of `feeling' the world, of housing the world in one unit of complex `feeling', in every way determinate. Such a unit is an `actual occasion'; it is the ultimate creature derivative from the creative process. Each actual entity is conceived as an act of experience arising out of data. The objectification of other actual occasions form the given data from which an actual occasion originates. Each actual entity is a throb of experience including the actual world within its scope. It is a process of `feeling' the many data, so as to absorb them into the unity of one individual satisfaction. 3. `Feeling' is a mere technical term, but it has been chosen to suggest that functioning through which concrescent actuality appropriates the datum as to make it its own. A feeling appropriates elements of the universe, which in themselves are other than the subject, and absorbs these elements into the real internal constitution of its subject by synthesising them in the unity of an emotional pattern expressive of its own subjectivity. Feelings are `vectors', for they feel what is there and transform it into what is here. We could say that an actual occasion is a concrescence effected by a process of feeling. 4.'Prehension' The philosophy of organism is a cell- theory of actuality. The cell is exhibited as appropriating, for the foundation of its own existence, the various elements of the universe out of which it arises. Each process of appropriation of a particular element is termed a `prehension'. Whitehead adopted the term prehension to express the activity whereby an actual entity effects its own concretion of other things. There are two species of prehensions, the positive species and the negative species. A `feeling' belongs to the positive species of prehensions A negative prehension is the definite exclusion of an item from positive contribution to the subjects internal constitution. A positive prehension is the definite inclusion of an item into positive contribution to the subject's own real internal constitution. This positive inclusion is called its `feeling' of that item. All actual entities in the actual world relative to a given actual entity as `subject' are

It is possible to see two sides throughout all Whitehead's work: an interest in formal schemes of logical relations. This means that energy to Whitehead is a real constituent of nature. there is ambiguity here. A `feeling' cannot be abstracted from the actual entity entertaining it. If Whitehead's interest into the many sidedness of experience of actual experience.what he calls its unfathomable complexity. since there is the suggestion that the process itself should aim at `Value'.' Primordial Entity. and an interest in the concrete many sidedness of experience. since he holds that energy is the name for the physical manifestation.made him attack `The Fallacy of Misplaced Concreteness'. This actual entity is termed the `subject' of the feeling.in organic life . according to Whitehead. which is part of his `justification of induction' and it is linked with what he holds to be a persistent religious intuition of `permanence amid change. On the other hand.. Perhaps the latter is Value with capital V. and therefore is the reason as to why certain things exist rather than others. so that the search for a reason is to search for one or more actual entities. Objective immortality. but that there should be a general formal pattern. This is the ontological principle. or in the character of the subject which is in the process of concrescence. 6.necessarily `felt' by that subject. he is able to say that what is transferred from one actuality to another is a `throb of emotion' -with a certain qualitative tone. has its reason either in the character of some actual entity in the actual world of that concrescence. however much he is telling us not to read `consciousness' into such `feelings'. of the tendency to reify any scheme of abstract relations as it could replace the richness and variety of the concrete flow of experience. `The Ontological Principle' The importance of the concept of an actual entity is emphasised by what Whitehead terms the ontological principal. The general scheme describes the logic of a primordial entity. The second. God makes the realm of possibility coherent with that of actuality. Then. Values are then empirically discoverable fillings supplied to the variables of the scheme in the actual process of events (on analogy with the supplying of values to a propositional function).e. It is dependent of his attempt to bring man. Whitehead endeavours to assimilate the formal characterisation of God with every other actual entity and calls God `non-temporal' in contrast to the temporal world. in the sense of working toward some intensification of the `importance of experience'. The process of the world is then described as the supplying of empirical values to the general scheme. This is one side of his view of `uniform relatedness'. The quantum of energy is transferred from one process to another. In other words. is it possible to think of sentient experience purely . defining the logical structure of all possible experience and all possible worlds. This ontological principle means that actual entities are the only reasons. rather then a term meaning work done. of what known from the inside. that they organise data). by making psycho-physiological concepts universal. Value. But what is the place of the formal scheme? Formal schemes. made him a critic of the `Fallacy of Misplaced Concreteness'. but also that there can be a general scheme of formal relationships defining the logical structure of all that exists. 5. built on the scheme of mathematical postulates.God. that there should be not only formal patterns relevant to particular types of experience. Every condition to which the process of becoming conforms in any particular instance. life and nature. The Fallacy of Mis-placed Concreteness.as emotional intensity. his interest in the formal schemes made him hold to the belief that such schemes had more than a pragmatic significance (i. But.which unites it with an aim towards the intensification of experience in the general conditions which the logical framework allows. is the word I use for the intrinsic reality of an event. Whitehead says that he's got the notion of `objective immortality' from the physical notions of the transference of energy with its vector property. and that in the end it should be possible to show not only that certain types of event can be related under certain types of abstraction. In Process and Reality.

and therefore the concept of an arena where this evolution could take place is being taken on board by some cosmologists today. but their capacity for reproduction. He is then interested in the structures formed by the overlapping of these fields. his interest in history. Whitehead is trying to express a view of nature in which we are all ubiquitous. Maxwell's equations of the electro-magnetic field hold sway by reason of throngs of electrons and protons. described in terms of different dominant characteristics. and so of different laws of nature.a bifurcation.such principles are general but are not the results of evolution. The protomentality of all actual entities. But there is disorder in the sense that the laws are not perfectly obeyed. and all on top of each other. Aesthetics. The characteristics which describe laws of nature are then relatively dominant and permanent ones for that epoch. and thereby new electrons and new protons come into being. the suggestion of the rise of different cosmic epochs. Owing to the way he tries to find unifying experiences by using terms from physiology and from psychological experience. Also each electron is a society of electronic occasions. . He then goes to describe the superposition of these fields in terms of his theory of prehensions. There is accordingly a transition to new types of order.the view that nature is made up of entities each of which has the whole of nature as its field. a theatre governed by general principles which are applicable without exception. which was not in the mainstream at the time. One important consideration in Process and Reality is Whitehead's view of aesthetic experience according to which appreciation of formal pattern can be a vehicle of emotion. The suggestion of the possibility of evolution of cosmological systems and the evolution of the laws of nature. Second. and that the reproduction is mingled with instances of failure. the desire to find some basis for a theory of laws of nature and for inductive inquiry. this supperposition of fields becomes the `mutual immanence' whereby the feelings of one thing are re-enacted in others. But the boundaries of these regions are never fixed. but we create focal regions of disturbance which where generally speaking we are held to be. the integration of innumerable ingredients of their experience. their prehension of predecessors. These occasions are the reasons for the electromagnetic laws.the patterning of one thing in others. their innovations. He describes the laws of nature as statistical generalisations from dominant large scale characteristic of events in a wide enough epoch or region. and each proton is a society of protonic occasions. Third. does the arising of sentient experience in nature make more of a break. is itself due to the same laws." From this passage one sees that Whitehead regards the fundamental laws of physics as a product of evolution.then Whitehead allows? Whitehead was led to his view of objective immortality by three genuine considerations: First. it has its stage of endurance. and passes out of existence with the decay of the society from which it emanates. According to Whitehead "A system of `laws' determining reproduction in some portion of the universe gradually rises to dominance. their `objective immortality' as ingredients in the experience of subsequent entities.divorced from consciousness? In other words. There is here. The concept of evolution of natural laws. In this he holds a similar view with Croce: "all history is contemporary history". the denial of `simple location'. but it is an evolution that takes place in an infinitely vast theatre of potentiality. and the way in which the past is said to be inherited in the present. whereby each electron and each proton has a long life. held more promise than the quest for a uniform logical framework.

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