A TERM PAPER ON THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE CHANGE ON POULTRY PRODUCTION IN OFFA, KWARA STATE.

SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF METEOROLOGY FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY,AKURE ONDO STATE

2006) is situated at a strategic point between the densely populated south-western and the sparsely populated middle belt area of Nigeria. Kwara State. Ilorin is known to be one of the best commercial producers of poultry products with the help or aid of suitable temperature. It is unmitigatedly obvious that temperature has influence on poultry farming. This rise has also been felt in Offa and its poultry production.1. . Offa. This influence has amplified as there is a global climatical change across the globe. 1992) and the total population of about 200. (Encarta dictionary). Nigeria and the critical analysis of problems faced by the effect of temperature and solutions to the problems. Poultry production has been affected by change in temperature in recent time in Offa. Offa. Temperature change is the rise or fall in the degree of hotness and coldness of a place over a period of time which is not in line with the regular temperature of the area.0 INTRODUCTION Poultry production is an important practice in food production across the country which has economically empowered the poultry farmers. The town which occupies an area of about 80km square (Oyegun.152 people (Nigeria population census. a town in kwara state which is located on latitude 80 30`` and longitude 40 35``. Kwara state. This paper will consider the effect of temperature change on poultry production in Offa.

2. 2008) 2. and the temperature can drop to near freezing. Because of a lack of moisture in the soil and low humidity in the atmosphere. (Encarta students. and. a high average temperature. 1979). most of sunlight penetrates to the ground. 3.2 EXCESSIVE USE OF FOSSIL FUELS: This causes global warming which is responsible for the cracking of the ozone layer of the atmosphere thereby allowing the escape of excessive sunlight to the earth surface and increasing the average temperature in the day. At night the desert floor radiates heat back to the atmosphere.0 2. so most of them are likely to die in temperatures below 34c (Lawrence. This is the reason why chicks brood under their mother till they are able to stand the temperature of their . Daytime temperatures can reach 55° C (131° F) in the shade. the chicks have little covering against cold. an evaporation rate that exceeds precipitation. in most cases.0 EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE CHANGE ON POULTRY PRODUCTION POSITIVE EFFECTS When eggs are just hatched.1 CAUSES OF TEMPERATURE CHANGE DESERTIFICATION: The term applied to regions of the earth that is characterized by less than 254 mm (10 in) of annual rainfall.

Here. though. Brooders provide heat lamps for their brooding houses till the chicks are at least five weeks old. interestingly. 1979).H. In recent times. 1992). but the chicks feel better under the warmth of their mother’s plumage. Another positive effect is linked to the free range system of keeping poultry. These poultry farmers were found to have been indoctrinated with this custome. There the increasing temperature due to climate change is helping issues in this regard. the temperature at night as risen by 2-3c. it is necessary to leave most parts of the poultry house unbuilded. the temperature may just be a little bit below 34c for chicks and yet some of the birds still die. A light temperature may fall to as low as 13c and this is very fatal for the chicks that has to roost in the cold night. a health condition due to low temperature the birds can’t endure is prevented.orientation as conditions are changing. But most poultry farmers are unaware of this advantage so they still use heat lamp which makes chicks uncomfortable. in conditions of high temperature. Interestingly. therefore. freeman) Hypothermia. they therefore need re. this is true because. resources are conserved because nets which are cheaper are preferred to bricks for the building of the poultry. the change is not much. (Lawrence. .environment. The rise in temperature has also reduced the cost of setting up poultry. Experts know from experience that chickens and poultry animals in general die young mostly of low temperatures. therefore such high temperature that has come with climate change has increased the rate of survival for the chicks in Offa (Oyegun. (W. ventilation is needed more.

Bronchitis is among the few that are transmitted via . 10). fowl pox and infections. This is economically crippling to a poultry farmer. 2006. hemorrhagic syndrome. Disease outbreak becomes inevitable when the relative humidity gets high and this is caused by the rise in temperature evaporating more water into the air.9% of climatic effect on egg production (elija and adedapo. eicoli. Excessive heat (heat beyond that which a bird adapts to) causes muscular strain and this diverts the metabolisms of the body. These microbes cause diseases like coccidiosis. small sizes and a general low output. 1998). 112) Temperature contributes 1. In Offa. 30 25 Rate of evaporation 20 15 10 5 0 Environm ental tem perature CWL(cutaneo us waterloss) RWL(respirato ry waterloss (Richards. (Gueye. This causes a shortage in supply to the ovary and these results in eggs of thin shells. these effects are already setting in though still in its primary stage. 1976.NEGATIVE EFFECTS The effect of temperature rise on egg production is a reduction in the production. The rise in temperature causes a proportional rise in humidity that provides a medium for fungal and bacterial growth.

but. And to say. we can see that there is enough for poultry farmers to gain. the climate of the area. it is sure to get worse with the current rising of temperature.moist air breathed by the birds. from the positive effects of this rise in temperature. as seen is an important part of poultry farming that must be thought to the poultry farmers. This occurrence is not new to the poultry farmers. As said earlier. Offa is a suitable location for the raising of poultry animals especially chicken because of its location and most importantly. 5.0 CONCLUSION Effect of temperature change on poultry in Offa. 4. The only reason why the influence is not felt in Offa is because of the availability of effective medication.1 ROOFING OF POULTRY HOUSES: To reduce heat in the poultry house. yet the negative effect has to be dealt with maybe by the use of heat lamps in times of cool temperatures and air coolants in times of extremely hot temperatures to regulate temperatures to suit the birds. metal roofing sheets should be avoided and replaced with concrete made roofing slabs. there are easy and low cost solutions to this negative effects and such would be put in place if a vibrant poultry production would continue in Offa.0 RECOMENDATION 5. These .

as discussed in the negative effects. temperature is liable to increase due to the damage these gases must have caused the ozone layer of the atmosphere. the more environmental hazards which would be dangerous to the health of the birds. because the more congested the birds are. rise in temperature causes a rise in relative humidity which also causes a relative rise in disease causing pathogens.concrete roofing slabs though more costly. Also.3 MANAGEMENT PRACTICE: There should be good management practice which would consist of ways to space out the birds in their respective cages to avoid congestion. These pathogens would be reduced in concentration as there is a free flow of air which prevents their build-up in the poultry house 5.4 REDUCTION IN THE USE OF FOSSIL FUELS: There should be limited use of fossil fuels. would not only reduce heat in the poultry house but would also stand a test of time. 5. .2 VENTILATION IN POULTRY HOUSES: The poultry houses should be well ventilated. the more internal heat generated by each bird and within the birds. 5. the more discomfort they feel. because the more the rate at which these fuels are used.

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