ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING UNIT – 1 OBJECT:To develop the students fundamental knowledge on human welfare measures and
the role of a human being in eco system to maintain and save the clean environment for present and future generations. Environmental Engineering:It’s the application of engineering principles to the protection and enhancement of the quality of the environment components and to the enhancement and protection of public health and welfare Definition Environment is derived from the French word Environ which means to encircle or surround. Environment is sum total of water, air, and land, inter-relationships among themselves and also with the human beings, other living organisms and property. The above definition given in Environment Act, 1986 clearly indicates that environment includes all the physical and biological surroundings and their interactions
Environmental Science It’s the study of the environment, its biotic (ie., biological) and abiotic (ie., non biological) components and their interrelationship Environmental Engineering It’s the application of engineering principles to the protection and enhancement of the quality of the environment components and to the enhancement and protection of public health and welfare Environmental Studies (or) Environmental Education Environmental studies are the process of educating the people for preserving quality environment. Man-made environment It’s powerful environment agent Modifies the environment using modern technologies, according to his needs to a great extent Created by man
Examples House, road, schools, railway lines, parks, etc., SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES. Environmental study is an important tool to educate the people for preserving quality environment. The main scope of environmental studies include • To get an awareness and sensitivity to the total environment and its related problems. • To motivate the active participation in environmental protection and improvement. • To develop skills for identifying and solving environmental problems. • To know the necessity of conservation of natural resources. • To evaluate environmental programmes interms of social, economic, ecological, and aesthetic factors. IMPORTANCE (or) SIGNIFICANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES • The air we breathe, the water we drink, the food we consume and the land we live on are all contaminated by the industrial activities. • There is no zero pollution industry. Because of the lack of self discipline and not worrying about our, future generation, the valuable resources are polluted. • To solve the above problems, the knowledge of environmental studies is very important. • By environmental studies, people will understand the concept of "Need of development without destruction of environment". • Through environmental studies, people can gain ” the knowledge of different types of environment and the effects of different environmental hazards”. • Environmental studies inform the people about their effective role in protecting the environment by demanding changes in laws and enforcement systems. • Environmental studies have a direct relation to the quality of life we live. • Environmental studies develop a concern and respect for the environment. NEED FOR PUBLIC AWARENESS • Increasing population, urbanisation and poverty have generated pressure on the natural resources and lead to a degradation of the environment. • To protect or prevent the environment from the pollution, Supreme Court has ordered and initiated the environmental awareness to the public through Government and Non - government agencies to take part to protect our environment.
(ii) Watch dog: The public can act as "watch dog" to protect the interests of public against environmental hazardous activities. which is constituted to keep the environment suitable for living. (i) Pressure Group: The public "Pressure group" may be formed to influence the government on one hand and the industries on the other hand. The public participation is useful in law making process and controlling the pollution activities. Animals and Micro. An Ecosystem is a Natural unit. System = regularly interacting and interdependent components forming a unified whole. Definition A group of organisms interacting among them and with environment is known as ecosystem An ecosystem is a community of different species interacting with one another and with their non-living environment exchanging energy and matter Ecology : It's the study of ecosystem Structure of an Ecosystem: Ecosystem can be described according to its Trophic structure. If necessary the member of public should conduct public interest litigations.organisms in an area functioning together with all the physical & chemical (soil. The proper implementation and especially public participation are the important aspects.
TYPES OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION Types of Public participation in the decision making process can be at any stage and of various forms. G. Tansley in 1935. Eco = The Environment. What is an Ecosystem? Term proposed by British ecologist A. Thus the public participation plays a major role in the effective environmental management. (iii) Advisory council: The public can also act as advisory council and agencies. (iv) Enforcing the environmental laws: The services of public can be utilized to enforce the environmental laws. which should be given importance and stress. climate.
. Consisting of all Plants. water and light) factors of the environment. An ecosystem is formed by the interactions between all living and non-living things.Importance of Public (or) Community participation Environmental pollution cannot be removed by the laws alone.
which feed on consumers. 2) Carnivores: Also secondary/ tertiary consumers. they are known as “Producers” Autotrophs (Greek. They are also called “Predators”
.e. Autotrophs (Self feeders) produce organic food for themselves and all members of their community. Since these organisms produce food for all the other organisms.
The trophic structure constitutes the levels of feeding (tropic = food) and the feeding relationships of the components of the ecosystem. A Heterotrophs (Greek.
They are dependant upon autotrophic organisms. It is the component in which utilization. where the sun provides the necessary energy. they have non.vegetarian diet. They have vegetarian diet. i. The members (organisms) of heterotrophic component are called “Consumers” The heterotrophs are further categorized as: Macro. The green plants (with chlorophyll) & certain bacteria produce food. Therefore these green plants are the autotrophic organisms or primary producers in most ecosystems. which in an order as they occur in a food chain are:
1) Herbivores: Also primary consumers.Consumers: Heterotrophs. Green plants & photosynthtic bacteria are able to do this by means of Photosynthesis. All ecosystems must be based upon “Autotrophs”. feed directly on living plants or plant residues. rearrangement & break down of complex organic substances predominate. Trophic structure is the pattern of movement of energy and matter through an ecosystem. auto = self & trophe = nutrition) take energy from the environment in the form of sunlight or inorganic chemicals and use it to create energy-rich molecules such as Carbohydrates. heteros = another & trophe = nutrition) are an organisms that uses organic substrates to get its chemical energy for its life cycle.
they have vegetarian as well as non. They are popularly known as decomposers. • Sulphur (S). • Chlorine (Cl). or elements used by all organisms for growth and reproduction. • Calcium (Ca) • Magnesium (Mg). making them available again to producers. Hydrogen (H). Micro-consumers: Also Saprotrophs/ Detritivores . Oxygen (O). i.3) Omnivores: Consumers. and include • Carbon (C). They feed on organic compounds of dead or living protoplasm of plants and animals for their food and energy They absorb some of the decomposition or breakdown products & release inorganic compounds (nutrients) in the ecosystem. • Sodium (Na).e. • Potassium (K).vegetarian diet. are termed essential elements or macronutrients. such as bacteria. Nitrogen (N). flagellates & actinomyctes.
MACRONUTRIENTS: The nutrients. which feed on producers as well as on primary consumers. fungi. Biogeochemical cycles:• Water • Carbon • Nitrogen • Phosphorous • Oxygen cycle
. • Phosphorus (P).
or peat is not readily accessible and may remain in storage for millions of years. • Inorganic carbon may also be taken out of circulation for millions of years by precipitation as calcium carbonate in aquatic systems. • Organic carbon stored in deposits of coal.
.Elements move among compartments at different rates:• Inorganic carbon released through respiration may be taken up quickly through photosynthesis. oil. The organic carbon fixed may be respired again quickly by plants.
nucleic acids. so nitrogen is a very important atom in biological organisms Ammonification:• • Plants assimilate inorganic nitrogen into proteins.After death of the plants and animals. Proteins. anaerobic soils. the nitrifying organisms involved are chemoautotrophic bacteria
Denitrification is the reduction of nitrate to nitric oxide (NO). and other organic chemicals contain nitrogen. which may be passed through various trophic levels. nitrites and nitrates.
Loss of nitrogen to atmosphere by denitrification is offset by nitrogen fixation: – fixation is carried out by:
. This process is brought about by denitrifying bacteria. releasing ammonia (NH3) Nitrification is oxidation of ammonia: – first step is oxidation of ammonia to nitrite (NO2-). and bottom waters in aquatic ecosystems – carried out by heterotrophic bacteria such as Pseudomonas denitrificans – further N-reductions may lead to production of nitrous oxide (N2O) and molecular nitrogen (N2). the organic nitrogen in dead tissues is decomposed by several micro organisms (ammonifying and nitrifying bacteria) into ammonia. carried out by Nitrosomonas in soil and Nitrosococcus in oceans – nitrite is then oxidized to nitrate (NO3-) by Nitrobacter in soil and Nitrococcus in oceans – nitrification is an aerobic process. oxygen-depleted sediments. which are again used by the plants. Ammonification (dissimilation of N) is carried out by all organisms: – initial step is breakdown of proteins into constituent amino acids by hydrolysis – carbon (not nitrogen) in amino acids is then oxidized. Some bacteria convert nitrates into molecular nitrogen which is again released back into atmosphere and the cycle goes on. both gases – denitrification may be one of the principal causes of low availability of nitrogen in marine systems Denitrification The conversion of nitrates into nitrogen (N2) is termed as denitrification. which escapes as a gas: – occurs in waterlogged.
and teeth. with energy supplied by oxidation of organic detritus (free-living bacteria). such as lava flows or areas left bare by receding glaciers Biological nitrogen fixation (by bacteria and cyanobacteria) is essential to counterbalancing N losses associated with denitrification. Nitrogen is often implicated as a limiting nutrient in terrestrial and aquatic systems. energy transfer systems. sugars supplied by plants (bacterial symbionts). bones. constituent of nucleic acids.
• • • •
The Phosphorus Cycle:• • Phosphorous is an essential element. sediments act as a phosphorus sink unless oxygendepleted – in soils. Nitrogen fixation is critical to ecosystem development in primary succession. Continued nitrogen input is essential for long-term health of natural ecosystems. living in root nodules of legumes and other plants • cyanobacteria N-fixation is an energy-requiring process. cell membranes. Phosphorus may limit productivity: – in aquatic systems. phosphorus is only readily available between pH of 6 and 7 Phosphorus undergoes relatively few transformations: – plants assimilate P as phosphate (PO43-) and incorporate this into organic compounds – animals and phosphatizing bacteria break down organic forms of phosphorus and release the phosphorus as phosphate – phosphorus does not: • undergo oxidation-reduction reactions in the ecosystem • circulate through the atmosphere. except as dust
. or photosynthesis (cyanobacteria)
Significance of Nitrogen Fixation:• Nitrogen fixation balances denitrification on a global basis: – these fluxes amount to about 2% of total cycling of nitrogen through ecosystems Nitrogen fixation is often very important on a local scale: – N-fixers dominate early colonizers on nitrogen-poor substrates.–
free-living bacteria such as Azotobacter symbiotic bacteria such as Rhizobium.
it is the first step in the production of energy for living things. The transformations of energy in an ecosystem begin first with the input of energy from the sun. it is called “Primary production”. like nitrogen.Chemical reaction where green plants use water & carbon dioxide to store the sun’s energy in glucose. has many oxidation states and follows complex chemical pathways. ENERGY is stored in glucose. Glucose is stored as starch in plants
. Because. • Sulfur reduction reactions include: – assimilatory sulfate reduction to organic forms and dissimilatory oxidation back to sulfate by many organisms – reduction of sulfate when used as an oxidizer for respiration by heterotrophic bacteria in anaerobic environments • Sulfur oxidation reactions include: – oxidation of reduced sulfur when used as an electron donor (in place of oxygen in water) by photosynthetic bacteria – oxidation of sulfur by chemoautotrophic bacteria that use the energy thus obtained for assimilation of CO2
Energy flow in Eco System: All organisms must obtain a supply of energy and nutrients from their environment in order to survive. Photosynthesis -.The Sulfur Cycle :• Sulfur is an essential element and.
Ecological Succession: Ecological succession is defined as. E. Only About 1% of energy from the sun is used by green plants & rest remains unutilized. first trophic level) to Heterotrophic including plant eaters or Herbivores (second trophic level) and so on.g. Conditions are favorable for as soil and nutrients are already present. More rapid than primary succession. deforestation etc. “Pioneer organisms” Simple plants first – no or shallow roots.g. after a volcanic eruption or a glacial retreat. Weathering & decomposition Humus and sand increase over time. Fire or wind.. The amount of energy decreases with successive trophic levels.e. provided there are no changes in abiotic influences. Ends with a “climax community” – ecosystem stays constant. Starts from autotrophic (the producer level. e. Energy flow cannot occur in reverse direction. “A change in the community in which new populations of organisms gradually replace existing ones”. Pioneer species.
. there is loss of energy in each trophic level. Seeds have suitable soil. There are two types of ecological succession: 1) Primary Succession: Occurs where there is no soil. Occurs after a disturbance. conditions. 2) Secondary Succession: Community development in the areas that were previously occupied by a other community. climax community Vs Soil already exists. Occurs much faster. Gradual influx of more complicated and larger plants as the habitat changes Unfavorable for life at first. loss of trees after disease. Primary Succession Vs Secondary Succession: End = No soil. Similarly.
Gums. 3) Pyramid of Energy: A pyramid of biomass represents the rate of energy flow and/or productivity at successive trophic levels. pyramids of numbers. Climax community. The pyramid of energy are always upright.
Energy flow in ecosystem: The transfer of food energy between the organisms in an ecosystem can be tracked by constructing food chains. Fruits. Interlocking pattern of several interlinked food chains is termed as FOOD WEB. Forest Ecosystem: Apart from environmental values. Food Chain: A food chain may be defined as. all the organisms are linked together with one another by food relationship. biomass and energy and energy flow diagrams. forest ecosystems have some traditional values as well. food webs. An ecological pyramid shows the relationship between consumers and producers at different trophic levels in an ecosystem There are three ecological pyramids recognized by ecologists: 1) Pyramid of Numbers: Shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level. Herbs & drugs. Each organism living or dead is potential food for some other organism Food web: Under natural conditions. An ”Ecological pyramid” is a graphical representation that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web. 2) Pyramid of Biomass: A pyramid of biomass represents the total dry mass (in grams per square metre of area) of all the organisms in each trophic level at a particular time. The various components of a Forest Ecosystem are:
. the linear arrangement of food chains hardly occurs & these remains connected interconnected with each other through different types of organisms. Examples are: Fire Wood & Timber. In an ecosystem. “ the transfer of energy and nutrients through a series of organisms with repeated process of eating and being eaten”.
nutrients are released for reuse.. the producers are mainly trees. Clostridium sp.) Actinomycetes (Streptomyces.) Fungi (Aspergillus sp.g. giraffe etc. Beetles. of a forest ecosystem are: 1) Producer Organisms: In a forest. Therefore. Bacteria (Bacillus Sp. The dominant animal species include
. feeding on tree leaves. Acer. 3) Decomposers: These include wide variety of saprotrophic micro. These include Birds. representatives from the three functional groups. etc. Fusarium. spiders etc. Larger animals such as Elephants. Deer. Grasslands occur in regions too dry for forests and too moist for deserts The annual rainfall ranges between 25. Pine. climbers.. etc). pseudomonas. etc. In addition dead organic debris is also found littered in forests.. c) Tertiary Consumers: These are secondary carnivores and feed on secondary consumers These include top carnivores like Lion. Foxes. Frogs.75 cm. Betula. Snakes. epiphytes.. Ganoderma sp. etc. Usually seasonal The highest abundance & greatest diversity of large mammals are found in these ecosystems. a) Primary Consumers: These are Herbivores which feed directly on producers. Bugs. Ants. Grasslands occupy about 24% of the earth’s surface. Dominant species of trees in major types of forest ecosystems are: Tectona grandis. b) Secondary Consumers: These are carnivores and feed on primary consumers. Grassland Ecosystem: Grasslands (also called Greenswards) are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses and other herbaceous (non-woody) plants. Apart from trees. Lizards. Tiger. They attract the dead or decayed bodies of organisms & thus decomposition takes place. E. shrubs and ground vegetation. grazing on shoots and/or fruits of trees. Trees are of different kinds depending upon the type of forest developed in that climate. Picea. consumers are of three main types. Cedrus.organism like. Abiotic components: These include basic inorganic & organic compounds present in the soil & atmosphere. Biotic components: The various biotic components. 2) Consumers: In a forest. etc.
c) Tertiary Consumers: These include hawks etc. a few herbs & shrubs also contribute to primary production of biomass. Birds. Goats. asses & antelope of Eurasia. consumers are of three main types. Cynodon sp. Therefore. Sheep.. termites. Wild horses. sulphates. The essential elements like C. and The antelope & other large herbivores of Africa The various components of a grassland Ecosystem are: Biotic components: Three functional groups which are: 1) Producer Organisms: In grassland. Foxes. H. etc are also present. Digitaria sp. Desmodium sp. are supplied by water.
Desert Ecosystem: A desert is a landscape or region that receives almost no precipitation
. b) Secondary Consumers: These are carnivores that feed on primary consumers (Herbivores) These include. S etc. O. P. a) Primary Consumers: The primary consumers are herbivores feeding directly on grasses.. Herds of Bison of America. Actinomycetes They attract the dead or decayed bodies of organisms & thus decomposition takes place. 2) Consumers: In a grassland. Snakes. N. Deer. Buffaloes. though. Jackals etc. nitrates. nitrogen. Rabbits etc. Abiotic components: These include basic inorganic & organic compounds present in the soil & aerial environment. Some of the most common species of grasses are: Brachiaria sp. phosphates present in soil & atmosphere. 3) Decomposers: These include wide variety of saprotrophic micro. producers are mainly grasses. Lizards.. Frogs. Besides them. Fungi. nutrients are released for reuse by producers. numerous species of insects. These are grazing animals such as Cows. which feed on secondary consumers.organism like: Bacteria.
Dominant plant species include: Succulents (water . 2) Consumer Organisms: These include animals such as insects. decomposers are poor in desert ecosystem. Abiotic components: Due to high temperature & very low rainfall. Depending upon the quality and nature of water. these are available in dissolved state. birds & some mammalians like camel etc are also found. Deserts are characterized by scanty flora & fauna. Soils of deserts often have abundant nutrients but little or no organic matter. Freshwater ecosystems contain 41% of the world's known fish species. Besides some lower plants such as lichens & xerophytic mosses are also present.western United States.retaining plants adapted to arid climate or soil conditions ) & hardy grasses.009% of its total water. carbon dioxide & oxygen are present in gaseous form whereas in aquatic ecosystem. The deserts of the world are mainly located in the South.
Aquatic Ecosystems: Aquatic ecosystems deal with biotic community present in water bodies. Deserts are defined as areas with an average annual precipitation of less than 250 millimeters per year. the aquatic ecosystem are categorized into: Freshwater Ecosystem and Marine Ecosystem. Freshwater Ecosystems: Freshwater ecosystems cover 0. producers are mainly shrubs/bushes. some grasses & a few trees.8% of the Earth's surface and contain 0. the organic substances are poorly present in the soil. Mexico. most of which are thermophillic. 3) Decomposers: Due to poor vegetation with very low amount of dead organic matter. Tibet ) & west Asia. Gobi. The various components of a Desert Ecosystem are: Biotic components: 1) Producer Organisms: In a desert.
. North America. Asia (Thar. The common decomposers are some bacteria & fungi. It occupy about 17% of the earth’s surface. In terrestrial ecosystem. Deserts are characterized by hot days & cold nights. reptiles which are capable of living in xeric conditions Besides some nocturnal rodents.
Aquatic ecosystems are also used for human recreation. and Lakes. an open water zone where effective penetration of solar light takes place. For example: They recycle nutrients. fungi and actinomyctes. Azolla. flagellates. Marine or Ocean Ecosystem: Marine ecosystems are among the Earth's aquatic ecosystems. There are three basic types of freshwater ecosystems: Lentic: slow-moving water. small crustaceans) and benthos. attenuate floods. Lotic: rapidly-moving water. free floating and amphibious macrophytes (like. including Pools. Wolfia. They have a shallow water zone called Littoral zone. Ulothrix. to the minerals. b) Secondary consumers: These are carnivores like insects and fishes feeding on herbivores c) Tertiary consumers: These are the large fishes feeding on small fishes. especially in coastal region. Hydrilla. called Profoundal zone.) 2) Consumer Organisms: a) Primary consumers: These are zooplanktons (ciliates. Ponds are often exposed to tremendous anthropogenic pressure which significantly affects the system. Aquatic ecosystems perform many important environmental functions. other protozoan. Mangroves and Coral reefs. called Limnetic zone and a deep water zone where light penetration is negligible. for example Streams and Rivers.
. Typha etc. Oedogonium etc. Utricularia. Biotic components: 1) Producer Organisms: It includes submerged. and are very important to the tourism industry. They include: Oceans. Spirogyra. recharge ground water and provide habitats for wildlife. Wetlands: areas where the soil is saturated with water or inundated for at least part of the time Lakes & pond Ecosystem: A pond is a place where living organisms not only live but interact with biotic & abiotic components. some dead organic matter is also present. In addition. 3) Decomposers: Micro – organisms like bacteria. Lakes are usually big standing freshwater bodies. Ponds.) and minute floating and suspended lower phytoplanktons (like. Estuaries and Lagoons. the Deep sea and the Sea floor. Abiotic component: These are the inorganic as well as organic substances present in the bottom soil or dissolved in water. purify water.
) 2) Consumers: a) Primary consumers: These are herbivores and feed directly on producers (Crustaceans. Sahd and Mackerel) c) Tertiary consumers: These are top carnivorous fishes (Cod. variable dissolved oxygen content.) 3) Decomposers: These are micro – organisms like bacteria. fungi Abiotic components: High Na. Gujarat Rajwara province India is classified into 10 biogeographic zones. North east india with 2 provinces 10. The Deccan peninsula with 5 provinces 7. The islands with 2 provinces
. Mollusks. further divided into 26 biotic provinces. dinoflagillates). The western gats The Biotic Province – particular community The Land Region – ex . The western Ghats with 2 provinces 6. Zostera. The salt concentration in an open sea is usually 3. phaeophyceae & rhodophyceae. angiosperms like Ruppia. The Indian desert with 2 provinces 4. 1. and mangrove vegetation (like Rhizophora. light & temperature make a unique physiochemical conditions in marine water. Carapa etc. Trans-Himalaya with 2 provinces 2. Ca. The Himalaya with 4 provinces 3. devoid of light.5% (35 parts per thousand (ppt) ). Average temperature of Marine ecosystem is 2-3 degree centigrade. Dominant ions are sodium & chloride.Aravalli mountains. fish etc. The coasts with 3 provinces 9. Biotic components: 1) Producers: It includes phytoplanktons (diatoms. etc. Mg and K salt concentration. These ecosystem is different from freshwater ecosystem mainly because of its salty water. The semi Arid zone with 2 provinces 5. Haddock.). BIOGEOGRAPHICAL CLASSIFICATION OF INDIA The Biographic zone –The Himalaya. large seaweeds (mainly algae like chlorophyceae.) b) Secondary consumers: These are carnivorous fishes(Herring. The gang etic plain with 2 provinces 8. posidonia etc. These are the gigantic reservoirs of water covering approximately 71% of the Earth's surface (an area of some 361 million square kilometers).
Species diversity is an index that incorporates the number of species in an area and also their relative abundance. 2) Species diversity: It refers to the variety of species within a region. 3) Community and Ecosystem diversity: Ecosystem diversity refers to the diversity of a place at the level of ecosystems. which is the product of nearly 3.000 edible plants and about 90% of present day food crops have been domesticated from wild. It is distinguished from genetic variability. which describes the tendency of genetic characteristics to vary.5 billion years of evolution. The biodiversity found on Earth today consists of many millions of distinct biological species. including terrestrial. Levels of Biodiversity: 1) Genetic diversity: It is a level of biodiversity that refers to the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species.
. Alpha diversity refers to the diversity of organisms sharing the same Community/Habitat. marine. It refers to the diversity of organisms sharing two habitat. Beta Diversity: Between community diversity.Biodiversity: Biodiversity is the variety and differences among living organisms from all sources. and ecosystems of a region". Gamma Diversity : Diversity of the habitat over the total landscape or geographical area is called gamma diversity
Values of Biodiversity: Food: About 80. This has 3 perspective: Alpha Diversity: Within community diversity. It is virtually synonymous with “Life on earth”. It is generally a much more useful value than species richness. Biologists most often define "biological diversity" or "biodiversity" as the "totality of genes. species. and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are a part.
Fossil fuels are also products of Biodiversity. which depends on rich variety of various biological resources available in nature 4. sponges. According to UNEP estimate. It is also important for forestry. etc. approximately 9. clean water and productive land 3. Desert. about 15% are plants. worms.1 million species are known till date and given scientific names • Most of the world’s bio-rich nations are in the south – developing nations. Terrestrial biodiversity (or) Biomass It’s the largest ecological unit present in different geographic areas Ex: Tropical rain forest.0 – 52 million of species exist on Earth SIGNIFICANCE OF BIODIVERSITY 1. etc. About 2. • Tropical deforestation alone reducing the biodiversity – 0. medicinal plants: More than one-fourth of the world’s prescription drugs are extracted from plants growing in tropical forests. while.1 million species have been identified till date. Peepal etc are considered holy and sacred. Tundra. Tropical rain forest Largest storehouse of biodiversity About 50 to 80% of global biodiversity lies in these rainforests 1. Tropical forest – medicine use GLOBAL BIODIVERSITY • Total no. Lotus. Social Value: Many of the plants like Tulsi. Drugs & Medicines: About 75% of world’s population depend on plants or plant extracts. medical plant extinct 3. fisheries and agriculture. of living species in the world-about 20 millions. while many more species are believed to exist. flowering plants 1. Pdn of drugs. Fuel: Forests have been used since ages for fuel wood. Loss of biodiversity has serious economic and social costs for any country Loss of biodiversity 1. It’s very important for human life 2. It protects the fresh air. 2.5% every year • About 70% of all known species are invertebrates (animals without backbones such as insects. • But Roughly 2..000 = flowering plants species are available Till we know only 1-3% of these plant species
. 30. The farmers prefer hybrid seeds. as a result.wild life. Savannas. many plant species become extinct 2.).
MEDICINAL VALUE More than 2000 plants are cultivated . India possesses 2.000 = vertebrates • 2. sponges(5. plants. we have roughly • 1. Indian tobacco. fungai (mushrooms) – 45. (Total. • Wetter areas hold more species than the drier ones.1. snails. • Indian is also one of the 12 mega-biodiversity countries in the world. Globally. • India ranks 6th place among the centres of diversity and origin of agricultural crops.000. • Out of a total of 25 biodiversity hot-spots in the world. • It is estimated that India ranks 10th among the plant rich countries of the world. one in the northeast region and second one in the western Ghats. higher plants (2.000. bacteria(5. which can cure many disease Ex: Neem and Tulsi and turmeric
COMMERCIAL VALUE: sandal. jelly fish.000 = flowering plants • 30. fruits and micro organisms
. insects (7.worms(36. 50. non-wild edible mushrooms.000). • India ranks 11th in terms of number of endemic species of higher vertebrates. algae(27. corals etc.000). • Areas of varied climate and topography hold more species than the areas of uniform climate and topography.000). • Less seasonal areas hold more species than the highly seasonal areas.50.000). • The total number of living species identified in our country is 150. • Areas at lower altitude (elevation) hold more species than the high altitude areas. 70.Temperate forests It have much less biodiversity.000).400. • India has a rich biological diversity of flora and fauna.000) The species richness depends on the following environmental conditions: • Warmer areas hold more species than the colder areas.000). • Overall 6% of the global species are found in India.000).000 = other groups of species Marine diversity Much higher than terrestrial biodiversity Less known and described Ex: protozoan's (31.50. flower. • BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY AT NATIONAL LEVEL INDIAN BIODIVERSITY: • Every country is characterized by its own biodiversity depending mainly on its climate. (10. fish birds.000).
but India contributes 8. India ranks 10th in the world in terms of number of mammalian species India ranks 11th in the world in terms of endemic species of higher vertebrates In terms of number of species contributed to agriculture and animal husbandry. The World has 482 biosphere reserves in 102 countries. preserves. the tropical dry deciduous forests and the warm desert/semi-deserts.it includes National Parks.
Endemism: The species which are restricted only to a particular area are known as endemic. Out of 25 hotspots in the world. India has three biomes. namely the tropical humid forests.MEGA DIVERSITY Contain 70% our planet’s biodiversity India is one of the 12 mega diversity countries in the world. Australia China Ecuador India Madagascar Peru Brazil Columbia The United States Indonesia Mexico The democratic Republic of Congo
• • • • • •
India occupies 2. About 62% of amphibians and 50% of lizards are endemic to India.4% of the total land area of the world. India can be divided into 10 biogeographic zones and 26 biotic provinces which represent the major ecosystems of the world. along buffer zones that are open to some economic uses.
. India has two ’hotspots’. it ranks 7th in the world. Biosphere reserves: Which protect larger areas of natural habitat . the Western Ghats and the Eastern Himalayas. Western Ghats are the site of maximum endemism.22% of the known global biodiversity. India is in the 10th position in the world and fourth in the Asia in terms of plant diversity. India has 26 recognized endemic centres.
No single species can dominate – many species to coexist
. probably occur in only 18 hotspots in the world. namely the Eastern Himalayas and Western Ghats. etc. Warm temp and high humidity – provide favorable conditions 3.000 to 50.. There are over 45 species of mangrove plants. Over 30 species of marine algae and 14 species of sea grass have been reported. two are present in India. More stable climate 2.317 species of fauna and 45. mango.364 species of flora representing about 7. • Hotspots are the main areas of focus for biodiversity conservation. which comprise 20% of global plant life.5000 species • Cultivated crop plants . ginger. • These are the areas that are extremely rich in biodiversity.000 varieties of rice.
PLANT DIVERSITY: India has been the center of origin for • Flowering plants .
Reason for rich biodiversity in the tropics 1.166 species India has been the center of origin for 30. Nearly 70% of the bird species in this hotspot are endemic. • About 40% of terrestrial plants and 25% of vertebrate species are endemic and found in these hotspots. turmeric. AGRO BIODIVERSITY: Cultivated crop plants . sugarcane. • It has been estimated that 50.166 species • Wild crops .88% the world flora described so far. Over 342 species of corals have been reported and about 50% of the world’s reef building corals are found in India. • Myers et al (2000) recognized 25 hot spots ay global level. have high level of endemism. Out of 25.. and are under constant threat of species extinctions and habitat destruction.
HOT SPOTS OF BIO-DIVERSITY: • Areas which exhibit high species richness as well as high species endemism are termed as hot spots of biodiversity.31% of the world fauna and 10. endemism and are also threatened by human activities.000 species. • Countries which have a relatively large proportion of these biodiversity hotspots are referred to as mega-diversity nations.320 species MARINE DIVERSITY: The number of zooplankton recorded is about 16.000 endemic plants.•
The Ministry of Forests and Environment (MOEF) reports that India has at present 89. These are the areas of high diversity.
they can be considered tropical forests. Bhutan. • The Eastern Himalayas display an varied topography. The process of extinction has become particularly fast in the recent years of human civilization One of the estimates by E O. THREATS TO BIO-DIVERSITY Extinction or elimination of a species is a natural process of evolution. and neighbouring states of northern India. in an area of 7298 km2 . • In India’s sector of the area. • In Nepal. • Bhutan possesses an estimated 5000 species. rate of out-crossing appear to be higher in tropics HOTSPOTS IN INDIA: Indo. of the 4250 plant species . However. and even Yunnan. the rate of loss of species in geologic past has been a slow process.4. and some of them are at attitudes of 1780 -3500 m. of which as many as 750 (15%) are considered to be endemic to the Eastern Himalayas Western Ghats: • Out of India 49219 plant species . along with some place of the Yunnan province in Southwest china. Among plants. many of which overlap with those of India. are mostly evergreen.Burma (earlier The Eastern Himalayas) and The western Ghats & Sri Lanka EASTERN HIMALAYAS: • The area comprises Nepal. while those in 5001500 m range are semi. Wilson puts the figure of extinction at 10. 2550 (60%) are endemic. • One fifth of the entire forest expanse. 1600 endemics(40% of the total number of endemics) are found in an 17000km2 along the sea side of the Western Ghats • The area comprises Maharashtra. The forest cover in Western Ghats has reduced 34 % from 1972.evergreen. • Many deep and semi-isolated valleys are exceptionally rich in endemic plant species. • In Sikkim. Kerala Forest track up to 500 in elevation. • All Himalayan forests lie north of the Tropic of Cancer. Bhutan. the Agasthyamalai Hills and the Silent Valley/New Amambalam Reserve Basin. TamilNadu.
. • There are two main centres of diversity.1989.000 species per year. OF these species atleast 500(8%) are believed to be endemic to Nepal. a factor that fosters species diversity and endemism. there are about 5800 plant species of which roughly 2000(36%) are endemic. there are around 7000 plant species. Karnataka.
furs. Causes of Man. • Several instances of killing of elephants in the border regions of KoteChamarajanagar belt in Mysore because of the massive damage done by the elephants to the farmer’s cotton and sugarcane crops. fishing. 240 Km South-west of Kathmandu. a man-eating tiger was reported to kill 16 Nepalese people and one 4. filling and pollution) • Habitat fragmentation • Harvesting or extraction (including mining. In retaliation the villagers killed 98 elephants and badly injured 30 elephants. POACHING: • Poaching is another threat to living species. antlers and horns. logging. ( killing of animal) • Wildlife is sold for live specimens. Orissa 195 humans were killed in the last 5 years by elephants. Industry and Associated infrastructure. skin (or leather) and other products such as ivory. The elephants get injured. ENDANGERED AND ENDEMIC SPECIES: According to The International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). • Recently. the species are classified into various types
.MAJOR CAUSES FOR LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY Habitat Loss The major proximate causes of species extinction. folk medicines. Subsistence poaching – provide enough food 2. suffer in pain and turn violent.Wild life conflicts • due to shrinking forest cover compels them to move outside the forest • Usually the ill. in early 2004.year old child inside the Royal Chitwan National Park. Ex: • In Sambalpur. • Very often the villagers put electric wiring around their ripe crop fields. etc. weak and injured animals have a tendency to attack man. 83% of mammals and 91% of all threatened plants assessed globally The main causes( factor) of habitat loss are • Agricultural activities ( deforestation) • Raw material and production of drugs • Destruction of wetlands ( draining. hides. 1. Commercial poaching – sell their products Factors: Human population Commercial activities Man-Wild Life Conflicts When wildlife starts causing immense damage and danger to man and under such conditions it becomes very difficult for the forest department to pacify the affected villagers and gain local support for wild-life conservation.) and • Development of human settlements. affecting 89% of all threatened birds.
no longer found in the world Endangered species To be endangered. threatened or rare. when its number has been reduced to a critical level Vulnerable species When it’s population is facing continuous decline due to habitat destruction or over exploitation Rare species When its localised within restricted area. Reptiles: Gharial. golden cat. lion-tailed macaque. Nilgiri langur. desert cat Primates: Hoolock gibbon. Sloth bear. Cycas beddonei
ANIMALS • Critically endangered = 10 • Endangered animals= 54 • Vulnerable animals= 143
. tortoise. Great indian hornbill. leopard. golden monkey Plants: A large number of species of orchids. green sea turtle. medicinal plants like Rauvolfia serpentina. Capped monkey. python Birds: Great indian bustard. • 150 mammals and 150 species of birds is estimated to be threatened while an unknown number of species of insects are endangered. Peacock. Red fox. nearly 450 plant species have been identified in the categories of endangered. Rhododendrons. striped hyena. Pelican.Extinct species To be extinct. the sandal wood tree Santalum. Mammals tiger. Red panda. Indian lion. ENDANGERED AND ENDEMIC SPECIES IN INDIA • In India. Siberian white crane Carnivorous: Indian wolf.
Out of about 47. crocodiles etc. Indian subcontinent has about 62% endemic flora. 1992 stressed the need of the conservation of Biodiversity for sustainable development and perpetuation of human beings on earth. toads etc. Himalayan brown beer • Red panda. Khasi Hills and Western Ghats A large number out of a total of 81. Indian wild ass The endemism of Indian biodiversity is quite high. or restoration of wildlife and of natural resources such as forests. Indian fox • Wild dog.).000 species of animals in our country is endemic. Conservation of Biodiversity The convention on Biological Diversity held in June. • Indian wolf. • •
.) and Reptiles (lizards.•
Near threatened= 99
PLANTS • Critically endangered plants= 44 • Endangered plants= 113 • Vulnerable plants= 87 • Near threatened=38 Some of the animal species that have been identified as endangered or threatened mammals are listed below: • Golden monkey. Leopard Cat • Golden Cat. Jackal • Red fox. Definition : The act or process of conserving. preservation. soil.000 species of plants in our country 7000 are endemic. About 33% of the country’s flora are endemic to the country and are concentrated mainly in the North-East. Leopard. Western Ghats. and water. About 62% amphibians and 50% lizards are endemic to Western Ghats. The Western Ghats are particularly rich in Amphibians (frogs. restricted mainly to Himalayas. Desert Cat • Jungle Cat. Thus. Tiger • Indian Lion. management. North-West Himalaya and The Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The protection.
culture collections etc.SITU CONSERVATION: It simply means conservation of species in its natural ecosystem or even in man made ecosystems. 80 National parks. Ex situ conservation (outside habitats) This is done by establishment of gene banks. Examples of Biosphere reserves of India: 1. At present we have 11 major biosphere reserves. seed banks. Reserve Forests etc.
The two basic approaches to wildlife conservation in protected habitats are: 1) In. The JIM CORBETT National Park was 1st national park established in India.km 2.situ conservation In situ conservation (within habitat): This is achieved by protection of wild flora and fauna in nature itself. Protected Areas: an area of land and/or sea specially dedicated to the protection and maintenance of biological diversity and managed through legal effective means. This strategy emphasizes protection of total ecosystem through a network of “protected area”. Conservation is defined as “ The management of human use of the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest sustainable benefit to the present generation while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of the future generations”. km
. and To ensure sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems which support millions of rural communities as well as the major industries all over the world. Conservation of our natural resources has the following three specific objectives: (i) (ii) To maintain essential ecological processes and life-supporting systems To preserve the diversity of species or the range of genetic material found in the organisms on the planet.g.5.5. There are different categories of protected areas which are managed with different objectives. Sanctuaries. Biosphere Reserves. zoos.860. National parks. Nilgiri. Biosphere reserves. National Parks.520 sq. 420 wildlife sanctuaries in our country covering 4% of the geographic area. IN. botanical gardens.situ conservation and 2) Ex. Wild Life Sanctuaries etc. These include.69 sq. e. Nanda Devi.
Abohar wild life sanctuaries 4.
. Seed bank. km Great Nicobar – 885 sq.Assam.500 sq. we have many gene bank.000 species of mammals. Aquaria.situ conservation: It is defined as “the conservation of component of biological diversity (Sample of genetic diversity. 5.000 species. Gir National Park. Sariska – Rajasthan Examples of some Wild Life Sanctuaries of India: 1. birds. National Facility for Plant Tissue Culture Repository (NFPTCR) at NBPGR Campus New Delhi: It has been set up for the development of a facility of conservation of varieties of crop plants/ trees by tissue culture. In India. Zoos. New Delhi: Agricultural and horticultural crops and their wild varieties are preserved by cryopreservation of seeds (at -196º C in Liquid Nitrogen). reptiles and amphibians. Periyar – Kerala.g.926.Gujarat. 4. Nurseries. Gene bank etc. Hazaribagh sanctuaries 3. It involves maintenance and breeding of endangered plant and animal species under partially or wholly controlled conditions. The important ones are: National Bureau of Plant genetic Resources (NBPGR).
Manas – 2837 sq. E. 6. particularly of endangered species) outside their natural habitats”. pollen etc. DNA bank. Jaldapara wild life sanctuaries 5.3.28 Sq Km
Examples of some National park in India 1. Ghana Bird sanctuaries 2. There are more than 1500 Botanical gardens in the world containing more than 80. There are more than 800 zoos around the world with about 3. Kaziranga. km Panchmarhi – 4. Botanical Gardens. km Gulf of Mannar – 10. Mudamalai wild life sanctuaries