Chapter 4&5 | Igneous Rock | Magma

CHAPTER 4 ● Igneous rocks form from the cooling and solidification of magma, molten rock.

If this takes place underground, crystalline plutonic rocks develop. If the magma erupts as lava or fragmental (pyroclastic) materials, then the resulting rocks show few if any crystals and are called volcanic. Granite and basalt are two common types of igneous rocks. Each igneous rock type has a plutonic and volcanic equivalent. For example, granite, which is a plutonic rock, is chemically identical to rhyolite, a volcanic rock, even though these two rocks have very different physical appearances. ● Magma forms under restricted conditions of high temperature and low pressure inside Earth. Although rock is hot throughout the planet’s interior, there are only a few zones where the pressure is low enough for the rock to melt. One is the outer core, and the other is the asthenosphere. Most of the molten rock produced at shallow levels in Earth originates where upwelling currents of hot mantle material rapidly rise into the lower-pressure environment of the asthenosphere. Magma transfers not only matter toward the surface but heat as well. Heat from mantle-derived magma contributes to melting continental sedimentary and metamorphic rocks at convergent plate margins to generate granitic magmas. The sedimentary and metamorphic rocks contain trapped water, which lowers the melting temperature of the rock in some cases by hundreds of degrees. ● Magma may be defined chemically as mafic, with high magnesium and iron contents, or felsic, with high silica, aluminum, sodium, potassium and water contents. Intermediate magmas have compositions between those of mafic and felsic. The terms mafic, felsic, and intermediate also apply to igneous rocks. ● Magma rises buoyantly because of the difference in density between the molten rock and the surrounding country rock. At the level of neutral buoyancy, where this density difference disappears, magma stagnates. Volatiles, including carbon dioxide, water vapor, sulfur gases, chlorine, fluorine, and other gases, build up in the magma reservoir and expand into bubbles whenever pressure drops. The force of expanding gases is the primary agent of volcanic eruptions. Viscosity, the resistance

to flow, greatly influences the way that magmas erupt. High-viscosity molten rock oozes across the surface slowly. Low-viscosity lava flows can travel rapidly for tens of kilometers. Some volcanic eruptions are triggered by the collision of two magma bodies. Different magmas can mingle, or they can mix to produce hybridized rocks of intermediate composition. ● Bowen’s reaction series describes the crystallization of magma. It consists of two branches. The discontinuous reaction series describes the reaction of minerals with the magma at specific temperatures, leading to the formation of new minerals that are stable at lower temperatures. The continuous reaction series describes minerals that are continuously adjusting their compositions as the magma cools. ● The specific arrangement, sizes, and shapes of mineral grains in a rock define the rock’s texture. Examples of igneous rock textures include aphanitic rocks, which are fine-grained, and phaneritic rocks, which are coarsegrained. Porphyritic rocks include large crystals set in a bed, or groundmass, of finer grains. Pyroclastic texture typifies explosively erupted igneous rocks. ● Mineral content and texture are both important features in classifying igneous rocks. Texture determines whether a rock is called plutonic or volcanic. Mineral content allows further classification. ● Ultramafic rocks are characterized by a high content of olivine and pyroxene. Most ultramafic rocks are plutonic; very few lavas are known in the young geologic record. ● Mafic rocks contain large amounts of plagioclase as well as olivine and pyroxene. Gabbro is the most abundant mafic plutonic rock; basalt is the lava equivalent. Most gabbro and basalt develop at mid-oceanic ridges.
● Diorite is an intermediate rock containing plagioclase, hornblende, biotite, and minor quartz formed at oceanic– continental convergent plate boundaries. Andesite is the volcanic equivalent of diorite, and it contains abundant plagioclase crystals with minor olivine, pyroxene, and hornblende. Partial melting in the mantle above subducting slabs and interaction with the lower crust contribute to the formation of these rocks.

Sheetlike intrusions include dikes. results from this process. cutting across preexisting layering. Volcanic sheet intrusions radiate from volcanic pipes. iron (Fe). Dikes are discordant. Many are bulbous and kilometers wide.● Granite and rhyolite are felsic rocks formed by melting entirely within Earth’s crust. expanding water vapor is a major agent in explosive volcanic eruptions. and granite is chemically equivalent to rhyolite. Laccoliths are sill-like bodies that inflate into arching mounds. Plutons have diverse. but measured temperatures of lavas suggest that typical mafic magma is somewhat hotter than 1200ºC. Al and H2O is “felsic. For example. Sills are concordant. The rock rises so quickly that it cannot release heat fast enough to keep from melting with the reduction of pressure during ascent. K. Granites contain abundant quartz.” Gabbros and basalts are products of mafic magmas. it can produce plutonic (deep-seated) or volcanic (eruptive) rocks. Veins are thin versions of dikes and sills and often are very irregular in geometry. . Magma carries heat up faster than the other main processes of heat release: conduction and solid-state convection. Gabbro and granite are plutonic rocks. hornblende. Increasing volatile pressure in a shallow magma chamber can help wedge open fractures in the chamber roof and drive the magma to the surface.” and magma rich in Na. If the area of exposure is larger than 100 km2. which erosion can expose. magma? Granitic magma forms in continental crust. Bonded mineral and pore water play an important role in generating granitic magma by enabling the melting of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks that might remain solid if they were “dry. ● The largest igneous intrusions are batholiths _ What special conditions are required to make magma? The temperature must be high enough and the pressure low enough for rock to melt.” _ Why and how does magma rise? Molten rock is less dense than solid rock. each plutonic rock has its volcanic compositional equivalent. granites and rhyolites are products of felsic magmas. and felsic magma is somewhat hotter than 900ºC. Obsidian is a glassy form of rhyolite. A large body of magma can push aside the overlying crust and stope and thus assimilate blocks of crust on its way toward the surface. The most common lava in the world. Mg-Fe–rich magma is called “mafic. basalt and rhyolite are volcanic rocks. and aluminum (Al). and biotite. sodium (Na). Later the magma may stall out and crystallize at a level of neutral buoyancy. such as magnesium (Mg). It is best to learn the different kinds of igneous rocks as pairs of equivalent plutonic and volcanic compositions. 4. basalt. In particular. It is a stock otherwise. Also important is the convective upwelling of hot mantle rock beneath mid-oceanic ridges. Rhyolite may contain minor amounts of each of these minerals as phenocrysts. which may create hills and even mountains at Earth’s surface. irregular geometry inside the crust. and it is a secondary product of heat introduced by deeper-seated mantle magmas into the lower crust. potassium (K). and granite/rhyolite are pairs of common rock types that represent two ends of the compositional range of most igneous rocks at Earth’s surface. that is. It is a very efficient way for heat to escape Earth. _ What is the chemical composition of magma? Most magma. _ How hot is magma? No one knows for sure. _ How are plutonic and volcanic rocks related? Depending on whether magma erupts. like most minerals. Sheetlike intrusions are common around volcanoes and in the roof crust overlying magma chambers. plagioclase.2 The Properties and Behavior of Magma and Lava _ What role does magma play in helping heat important? Volatiles are dissolved substances in magma that emerge as gases at low pressures. and so it is buoyant. and veins.1 Introduction _ What are common plutonic and volcanic rocks? Gabbro/basalt. sills. potassium feldspar. then the body is a batholith. developing along the contacts between pre-existing layers. consists of silicon and oxygen with lesser amounts of other elements. mostly at convergent plate boundaries. These are the surface expressions of eroded plutons. escape Earth? Magma transfers heat from Earth’s deep interior as it rises. _ What is unique about the origin of granitic and stocks. the rate of magma ascent is related to the difference in density between the melt and the surrounding country rock. Initially. _ What are volatiles and why are they ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS SUMMARY 4. and vica versa. gabbro is chemically equivalent to basalt.

and porphyritic. silica content. and pyroxene. Characteristically. crystallinity.describes the sequence of mineral crystallization in a cooling magma. Laccoliths are sill-like bodies with inflated cores. cylindrical feeder channels beneath volcanoes. _ What happens when two magmas come together? Two different magmas can blend together (mix) if their viscosities are very similar. Dikes. they cut across preexisting rock layers. and shear stress during movement. The viscosity of magma is controlled by temperature. mafic magmas are less viscous than felsic magmas. meaning very fine-grained. The higher the viscosity._ What is viscosity and what controls it? Viscosity is a measure of a substance’s resistance to flow. bubble content. loss of volatiles. _ Why is mineral content important for classifying igneous rocks? After geologists identify a rock as plutonic or volcanic. _ How does magma change as crystallization coarse-grained.3 Igneous Rocks—Their Characteristics and Classification _ What does the term texture mean with respect intrusions? Dikes and sills are the most common sheetlike igneous intrusions.are exposed plutons that have at least 100 km2 of surface area. . 4. and what are some examples of igneous textures? Texture refers to the size. zoned plutons have multiple igneous rock compositions.individual minerals are too small to be seen without the aid of a microscope. phaneritic. whereas sills are concordant. meaning scattered large crystals set in a finer-grained groundmass. and rhyolite. that is. Dikes are discordant features (meaning they cut across layering in the country rock). Assimilation . gabbro. diorite. Minerals that form by the reaction of other minerals with the magma at certain specific temperatures belong to thediscontinuous series. ranging from mafic to felsic. in which quartz (SiO2) is the last mineral to crystallize from a cooling magma. The reverse of Bowen’s reaction series describes the melting of rock. the remaining melt becomes progressively more silica-enriched. the stiffer and thicker the flow. _ What is Bowen’s reaction series? Bowen’s reaction series describes the sequence of mineral crystallization in a cooling magma. Large plutons tend to have discordant contacts. Stocks are somewhat smaller plutonic bodies. andesite.rock layering that parallels the to rocks. Tar and glacial ice are good examples of highly viscous substances. granite. Bowen’s reaction series . or they can mingle without blending if their viscosities are very different. the name it is given depends on the relative percentages of certain key minerals. Concordant . olivine.4 Plutons—Their Characteristics and Origins _ What are the largest igneous intrusions and what do their contacts look like? Batholiths are plutons that have more than 100 km2 in area of exposure. Examples of igneous textures include aphanitic. Layered volcanic ash and pumice deposits display pyroclastic texture. primarily because they are hotter and have less silica. This is shown by Bowen’s reaction series. There are two branches in the reaction series. _ What are the major types of sheetlike igneous occurs? During crystallization. Pegmatite is a rock type closely related to granite that contains many minerals not ordinarily found in other igneous rocks. basalt. meaning very contact with the intrusion. Volcanic pipes are magmafilled. Pipes can become volcanic necks with deep erosion. For example. plagioclase. with another type in the interior and near the base. whereas minerals that react continuously with the magma to adjust their compositions during cooling belong to the discontinuous series. _ What are zoned plutons? Characteristically. Mingling of magmas beneath a volcano can trigger a volcanic eruption. ESSENTIAL TERMS TO KNOW Aphanitic texture . and arrangement of mineral grains composing a rock. The most common igneous rocks are peridotite. Many zoned plutons show evidence of partial blending of different magmas to produce hybrid igneous rocks. orthoclase. sills. 4. one rock type may predominate near the top and on the sides of a pluton. Water and syrup have low viscosities and flow readily. such as the digestion of stoped blocks and surrounding country rock by magma. and laccoliths radiate from many volcanic pipes and necks. The different compositions in the pluton are not randomly distributed. shape. Batholith .

potassium. Pyroclastic materials . Pluton . Lava .an igneous different composition. Intrusive . Magma chamber (reservoir) . Laccolith – a concordant pluton with a mushroom like geometry.a fluid’s resistance to flow. Pyroclastic Sill . Intermediate magma .igneous rock texture in which rock formed when magma is extruded onto Earth’s surface where it cools and crystallizes. Volcanic – a term referring to igneous rocks that silica and proportionately more calcium.igneous rock dense than the surrounding solid irregular. minerals are easily visible without magnification. Stock .any rock formed by cooling and a discordant intrusion that appears as a band of igneous rock slicing across strata. Volcanic neck . Viscosity . Igneous rock . Vein . sheetlike intrusion no more than within Earth’s crust. Extrusive – refers to magma and rocks formed such as ash. . Stoping – a process in which rising magma between 53% and 65% and an overall composition intermediate between felsic and mafic magmas. and magnesium than intermediate and felsic magmas. many veins are composed of quartz or quartz and potassium intrusive igneous body that forms when magma cools and crystallizes within the crust (such as a batholith).a tabular or sheetlike concordant igneous from magma that reaches Earth’s surface. thereby producing a modified version of the parent magmas. (fragmental) texture . Porphyritic texture . and magnesium.fragmental texture characteristic of igneous rocks composed of pyroclastic materials. Felsic – magma containing more than 65% silica and considerable sodium.magma at Earth’s surface.a reservoir of magma formed from magma that reached the surface as lava or pyroclastic materials.refers to magma and rocks that formed detaches and engulfs pieces of the surrounding country igneous texture with minerals of markedly different sizes.magma containing between 45% and 52% a few centimeters thick that may be concordant or discordant. Magma mingling . or when pyroclastic materials become consolidated.fragmental substances.molten rock material generated within Earth. Dike . Discordant .an irregularly shaped discordant pluton with crystallization of magma or by the accumulation and consolidation of pyroclastic materials. iron. and aluminum but little erosional remnant of the within the upper mantle or lower crust. explosively ejected from a volcano. Volcanic pipe .Country rock . Mafic .the intrusions cut across pre- that crystallizes from magma intruded into or formed in place within Earth’s crust.the process of mixing magmas of a volcano with an underlying magma chamber. Phaneritic texture . existing rock layers. Vesicle – a small hole or cavity formed by gas trapped in cooling lava.the conduit connecting the crater of that come together do not mix and there is a destabilizing exchange of heat that results in explosive eruptions.magma with a silica content a surface area of less than 100 magma mingling. Volcanic (extrusive igneous) rock . magmas material that solidified in a volcanic pipe.all magma rises because it is less Plutonic (intrusive igneous) rock . Magma . iron. Magma mixing .

● The Cascade Range includes volcanoes in is the process whereby magma contained gases rise to the surface. especially nuée ardentes. Especially important for anticipating eruptions is detecting volcanic tremor and determining the eruptive history of a volcano. in Alaska and the mostly composite shield volcanoes are have many cinder ● Most of the magma that is emplaced as plutons or that rises to the surface as lava at divergent plate boundaries is mafic. ● blocks. another 20% are in the Mediterranean belt. . ● All volcanoes. cinder cones are small. and columnar joints are found in some lava flows . ● About 60% of all active volcanoes are in the Volcano monitoring involves evaluating physical and chemical aspects of volcanoes. fatalities and property damage are not considered. atmosphere. even where divergence takes place on land. and biosphere. and composite volcanoes consist of lava flows. pyroclastic layers. and British Columbia. ● Pyroclastic materials are particulate matter ejected from volcanoes during explosive eruptions. whereas volcanism ● Since 1760 more than 40 volcanoes have erupted in Alaska. which are dangerous because they erupt explosively. circum-Pacific belt. a large oval to circular structure formed when a volcanic peak collapses into a partially drained magma chamber. ● form where lava and pyroclastic materials are erupted. and the remaining 20% are mostly at or near midoceanic ridges or their extensions onto land. but several others. the most dangerous manifestations of volcanoes are eruptions of pyroclastic materials. Washington. VEI values depend on the volume of material erupted and the height of an eruption plume. ● Fluid mafic lava erupted from fissures spreads over large areas to form a basalt plateau. Only three eruptions have occurred since 1914. angular northern California. one at Lassen Peak in California (1914–1917) and two at Mount St. pillow lava. ● Pyroclastic sheet deposits result when huge eruptions of ash and other pyroclastic materials take place. and lahars. whereas pahoehoe flows have a taffylike texture. and its ● Water vapor is the most common volcanic gas. including the Aleutian Islands. steep-sided volcanoes composed of pyroclastic materials. regardless of size or shape. as well as mudflows and debris flows. ● impressive. are lava domes. Huge plutons such as batholiths as well as composite volcanoes are common in this geologic setting. especially when calderas form. ● Aa lava flows are made up of jagged. ● A volcano is a landform. Most have one or more craters or a caldera. rounded profiles Igneous activity at convergent plate boundaries involves mostly intermediate and felsic magma and lava. some of them many times. ● Viscous bulbous masses of lava.CHAPTER 5 ● Interactions among systems are demonstrated by large volcanic eruptions because they have an impact on the hydrosphere. Canada. Lava tubes. including carbon dioxide and sulfur gases. ● Shield volcanoes have low. as in East Africa. although some present and both areas cones. which may take place even when a volcano is not erupting. ● Although lava flows and lava fountains are felsic composition. generally of Geologists have devised a volcanic explosivity index (VEI) to indicate the size of an eruption. Oregon. are also emitted. Helens in Washington (1980 and 2004–2006). The large volcanoes Cascade Range are volcanoes. ● and are made mostly of fluid lava flows. The largest volcanic outburst since the late 1800s took place at Novarupta in Alaska in 1912.

lapilli.7 Plate Tectonics. sulfur dioxide. _ What are cinder cones and what are they for the origin of the Hawaiian Islands? As the Pacific plate moved over a hot spot. but there are also two huge shield volcanoes and numerous cinder cones. hydrogen. nitrogen. that are explosively ejected by volcanoes. Ash is dangerous to aircraft because it fouls jet engines. 5. Most of the large volcanoes in the range are composite volcanoes. whereas pahoehoe has a smooth surface much like taffy. especially ash. _ What are pyroclastic materials. 5. so the oldest in the chain is far to the northwest and active volcanism now occurs only on the island of Hawaii and at Loihi. whereas vertical dikes and pillow lava.8 Volcanic Hazards. and very small amounts of carbon monoxide. including ash. blocks. with lesser amounts of carbon dioxide. Volcanoes. 5. from fissures that form during the . and how are oceanic crust? The oceanic crust is made up of mafic igneous rocks. 5. 5. _ What are lava domes and why are they so volcanoes? Lava dome eruptions during which huge amounts of pyroclastic materials and gases are ejected are the most dangerous volcanic eruptions. dangerous? Lava domes are bulbous masses of viscous magma that commonly erupt explosively. and Forecasting Eruptions _ What are the most dangerous manifestations of composed of? Cinder cones are small. 5.6 North America’s Active Volcanoes _ Where is the Cascade Range and what types of volcanoes are found there? The Cascade Range stretches from Lassen Peak in California north through Oregon and Washington to Meager Mountain in British Columbia. both composed of basalt. but it is also constructive because it is responsible for the origin of many oceanic islands as well as the oceanic crust.2 Volcanism and Volcanoes _ What gases do volcanoes commonly emit? Most volcanic gases are water vapor. _ How and why do aa and pahoehoe lava flows of Earth’s volcanoes? About 60% of all active volcanoes are in the circum-Pacific belt.1 Introduction _ How can volcanism be both constructive and origin of calderas are responsible for pyroclastic sheet deposits. 5.5 The Distribution of Volcanoes _ Where are the three zones or belts with most destructive? Volcanism may destroy houses and farmland and cause injuries and fatalities so it is destructive. Lahars are also dangerous and they may take place long after an eruption.4 Other Volcanic Landforms _ How do basalt plateaus form? Basalt plateaus are made up of numerous overlapping basalt lava flows that erupt from fissures rather than from a central vent. and Plutons _ What kinds of igneous rocks make up the differ? Aa is made up of angular blocks and fragments. another 20% are in the Mediterranean belt.ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS SUMMARY 5. and bombs. steep-sided volcanoes made up of pyroclastic materials that resemble cinders. Gabbro is found in the lower part of the oceanic crust. _ What are pyroclastic sheet deposits? Huge eruptions of pyroclastic materials. Canada. and chlorine. Volcano Monitoring. The flows differ mostly because aa is viscous enough to fragment. _ How do plate tectonics and volcanism account they dangerous to air traffic? Pyroclastic materials are solids. and hydrogen sulfide. make up the upper part. a chain of volcanoes formed in succession.3 Types of Volcanoes _ What are calderas and how do they form? A caldera is a large oval to circular volcanic depression that forms when the summit of a volcano collapses into its magma chamber following voluminous eruptions. and most of the remaining 20% are at or near mid-oceanic ridges or their extensions onto land.

Ash .bulbous masses of basalt.a zone of seismic and volcanic activity that nearly encircles the Pacific Ocean basin. Made up of about a dozen large composite volcanoes and thousands of smaller volcanic vents. Volcano . Fissure eruption .a large area built up by numerous volcanic activity extending westerly from Indonesia through the Himalayas. Pahoehoe . sheet deposits . sheetlike deposits of felsic pyroclastic materials erupted from fissures. Mediterranean belt . steep-sided structure formed by viscous magma moving upward through a volcanic conduit.a type of lava flow with a smooth. pyroclastic materials. Pillow lava . Circum-Pacific belt . Also. angular Lava tube . Basalt plateau . across Iran and Turkey.a mobile dense cloud of hot flat-lying lava flows erupted from fissures. connected by a conduit to a magma chamber below Earth’s surface. such as ash.a dome-shaped volcano with a composed of pyroclastic materials that accumulate around a vent. the hollow space left when the lava within the tube drains away. Lahar . resembling from northern California through Oregon and Washington and into southern British Columbia. Volcanism .ground motion lasting from minutes to hours resulting from magma moving below the surface.the process whereby magma and its of a volcano resulting from the extrusion of gases. Pyroclastic Shield volcano . Composite volcano (stratovolcano) . Lava dome . Cinder cone .a mountain formed around a vent as a pyroclastic material is emitted from a long. narrow fissure or group of fissures. Caldera . formed when lava is rapidly chilled under water.joints in some igneous rocks low.pyroclastic material measuring less than 2 of a lava flow through which a molten flow continues to move.a mudflow composed of volcanic materials result of the eruption of lava and pyroclastic materials.a small. rounded profile built up mostly of overlapping basalt lava flows. Cascade Range – a mountain range stretching pyroclastic materials and gases ejected from a volcano.a large. lava flows typically of intermediate composition. Nuée ardente .a volcano composed of pyroclastic layers. and lava.ESSENTIAL TERMS TO KNOW Aa – a lava flow with a surface of rough.a circular or oval depression at the summit eruption based on evaluation of such criteria as volume of material explosively ejected and height of eruption cloud. explosively ejected from a volcano. Volcanic tremor .A tunnel beneath the solidified surface blocks and fragments. Pyroclastic materials . steep-sided volcano pillows. Columnar joint . ropy or billowy surface.a zone of seismic and mm.fragmental substances.vast.a bulbous. . also called a stratovolcano. as opposed to the sudden jolts produced by most earthquakes. such as eruption in which lava or associated gases rise through the crust and are extruded onto the surface or into the atmosphere. Canada. and mudflows. Volcanic explosivity index (VEI) – a semiquantitative scale for the size of a volcanic consisting of six sided columns that form as a result of shrinkage during cooling. Crater . and through the Mediterranean region of Europe. steep-sided circular to oval volcanic depression usually formed by summit collapse resulting from partial draining of the underlying magma chamber.

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