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Glossary Mitosis

HeLa cell Cancer cell of a lineage established for research; now used in many laboratories.
anaphase Of mitosis, stage when sister chromatids of each chromosome move to opposite spindle poles.
Of anaphase I (meiosis), each duplicated chromosomes and its homologue move to opposite
poles. Of anaphase II (meiosis), sister chromatids of each chromosome move to opposite poles.
cell cycle Events by which a cell increases in mass, roughly doubles its cytoplasmic components,
duplicates its DNA, then divides its nucleus and cytoplasm. Extends from the time a cell forms
until it completes division.
cell plate In a dividing plant cell, a disklike structure that becomes a crosswall with new plasma
membrane on both sides.
centriole Structure that gives rise to microtubules of cilia and flagella.
centromere A constricted area of a chromosome that has attachment sites for spindle microtubules during
nuclear division.
chromosome [Gk. chroma, color, + soma, body] Of eukaryotic cells, a DNA molecule, duplicated or
unduplicated, with many associated proteins. Of prokaryotic cells, a circular DNA molecule.
chromosome
All chromosomes in a given type of cell. See haploidy; diploidy.
number
cleavage
Ringlike depression defining cleavage plane for dividing animal cells.
furrow
cytoplasmic
Cytokinesis; splitting of a parent cell into daughter cells.
division
germ cell Animal cell of a lineage set aside for sexual reproduction; gives rise to gametes.
histone Type of protein intimately associated with eukaryotic DNA and largely responsible for
organization of eukaryotic chromosomes.
interphase Of a cell cycle, interval between nuclear divisions when a cell increases in mass and roughly
doubles the number of its cytoplasmic components. It also duplicates its chromosomes
(replicates its DNA) during interphase, but not between meiosis I and II.
meiosis [Gk. meioun, to diminish] Two-stage nuclear division process that halves the chromosome
number of a parental germ cell nucleus, to the haploid number. Basis of gamete formation (and
meiospore formation).
metaphase Of meiosis I, stage when all pairs of homologous chromosomes have become positioned at the
spindle equator. Of mitosis or meiosis II, all the duplicated chromosomes are positioned at the
spindle equator.
mitosis [Gk. mitos, thread] Type of nuclear division that maintains the parental chromosome number for
daughter cells. The basis of growth in size, tissue repair, and often asexual reproduction for
eukaryotes.
motor protein Type of protein (e.g., myosin) attached to microfilaments and microtubules; used in cell
movements (e.g., contraction).
nucleosome A stretch of eukaryotic DNA looped twice around a spool of histone molecules; one of many
units that give condensed chromosomes their structure.
prophase Of mitosis, a stage when duplicated chromosomes start to condense, microtubules form a
spindle, and the nuclear envelope starts to break up. Duplicated pairs of centrioles (if present)
are moved to opposite spindle poles.
reproduction Any process by which a parental cell or organism produces offspring. Among eukaryotes,
asexual modes (e.g., binary fission, budding, vegetative propagation) and sexual modes.
Bacteria use prokaryotic fission.
sister Of a duplicated chromosome, one of two DNA molecules (and associated proteins) attached at
chromatid the centromere until they are separated from each other at mitosis or meiosis; each is then a
separate chromosome.
somatic cell [Gk. soma-, body] Any body cell that is not a germ cell. (Germ cells are the forerunners of
gametes.)
spindle Dynamic, temporary array of microtubules that moves chromosomes in precise directions during
apparatus mitosis or meiosis.

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telophase Of meiosis I, a stage when one member of each pair of homologous chromosomes has arrived
at a spindle pole. Of mitosis and of meiosis II, the stage when chromosomes decondense into
threadlike structures and two daughter nuclei form.

Some good sites for study and review:

Molecular Expressions Photo Gallery: Mitosis
http://www.microscopy.fsu.edu/micro/gallery/mitosis/mitosis.html.

Use your browser to go to Online Onion Root Tips at
http://www.biology.arizona.edu/cell_bio/activities/cell_cycle/assignment.html.

Sample Test Questions for Populations, Communities and Species Interactions

1. Which of the following are correctly associated: (from text)
a. Batesian mimicry-Two unpalatable species evolve to look alike
b. Mullerian mimicry- Harmless species evolve characteristics that mimic poisonous species
c. Exponential growth- Growth as a percentage of the whole
d. Density – Independent Factors- abiotic conditions such as floods and landslides
e. Both c and d are true

2. Which of the following is least associated with the others for ” r” or “K “ strategies? (from text)

a. Long life
b. Early maturity
c. Low trophic level
d. Many small offspring
e. Rapid growth

3. A community that is composed of many organisms representing many species displays: (from text)
a. low abundance and low diversity
b. low abundance and high diversity
c. high abundance and low diversity
d. both abundance and diversity are high
e. nothing can be said concerning abundance and diversity

4. Which of the following interactions would be negative for both species?
a. predator – prey
b. host – parasite
c. mutualism
d. interspecific competition
e. commensalism

5. Parasitoids are:
a. microparasites such as Malarial organisms
b. parasites of the digestive tract such as tape worms
c. social parasites such as the cowbird
d. insects like wasps that lay their eggs in the tissue of a living host

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