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Glossary Meiosis

allele One of two or more molecular forms of a gene that arise by mutation and code for different
versions of the same trait.
asexual Any reproductive mode by which offspring arise from a single parent and inherit the genes of that
reproduction parent only.
crossing over At prophase I of meiosis, an interaction in which nonsister chromatids of a pair of homologous
chromosomes break at corresponding sites and exchange segments; genetic recombination is
the result.
diploidy Presence of two of each type of chromosome (i.e., pairs of homologous chromosomes) in a cell
nucleus at interphase. Compare haploidy.
egg Mature female gamete; an ovum.
fertilization [L. fertilis, to carry, to bear] The fusion of a sperm nucleus with the nucleus of an egg, thus
forming a zygote.
gamete [Gk. gametes, husband, and gamete, wife] Haploid cell, formed by meiotic cell division of a germ
cell; required for sexual reproduction. Eggs and sperm are examples.

gene [German pangan, after Gk. pan, all; genes, to be born] Unit of information for a heritable trait,
passed from parents to offspring.
germ cell Animal cell of a lineage set aside for sexual reproduction; gives rise to gametes.

haploidy Presence of only half of the parental number of chromosomes in a spore or gamete, as brought
about by meiosis.
homologous One of a pair of chromosomes that are identical in size, shape, and the genes they carry, and that
chromosome line up with each other at meiosis I. The X and Y chromosomes differ in these respects but still
function as homologues.
life cycle A recurring pattern of genetically programmed events from the time individuals are produced until
they themselves reproduce.
oocyte Type of immature egg.
oogenesis Process by which a germ cell develops into a mature oocyte.
prophase I
First stage of meoisis I. Each duplicated chromosome starts to condense. It pairs with its
homologue; nonsister chromatids usually undergo crossing over and are attached to spindle. One
pair of duplicated centrioles (if present) is moved to the opposite spindle pole.

prophase II First stage of meiosis II. Spindle microtubules attach to each chromosome and move them to
spindle's equator. A centriole pair (if present) is already at each spindle pole.

sexual reproduction Production of offspring by meiosis, gamete formation, and fertilization.

sister chromatid Of a duplicated chromosome, one of two DNA molecules (and associated proteins) attached at
the centromere until they are separated from each other at mitosis or meiosis; each is then a
separate chromosome.
sperm [Gk. sperma, seed] Mature male gamete.
spermatogenesis Formation of mature sperm from a germ cell.

Internet Site: Choose "Review--Microsporocyte in Lily Anther." http://biog-101-104.bio.cornell.edu/BioG101_104/tutorials/cell_division.html.