Periodicity - Suggested Solutions

Topic 9.1: Periodicity
AJC/2009/P2/Q1a,b 1

CJC/2009/P2/Q1a-d 2(a)(i) Mg+(g) → Mg2+(g) + e(ii) The second ionisation involves removal of an electron from the 3p subshell from Si+, and the 3s subshell from Al+. Since the 3p subshell is on average further from the nucleus / at a higher energy level / experiences more shielding than the 3s subshell, the electron removed from Si+ is less tightly held and requires less energy to remove. Neon, being already in the gaseous state, is ionised first and emits light, whereas sodium is in the solid state and takes time to vaporise before it can be ionised. OR Neon has a higher first ionisation energy than sodium. The initial power surge when the light is turned on is able to ionize neon, giving rise to the red light, after which the power drops and is only enough to ionise sodium, giving rise to the orange light.


(c)(i) Al2O3 has a giant ionic lattice structure with strong ionic bonds / high lattice energy / partial covalent character, hence it is insoluble.

hence it is insoluble.Suggested Solutions SiO2 has a giant molecular structure with strong covalent bonds requiring large amounts of energy to break.1% DHS/2009/P2/Q1a 3 (i) pH of chloride Na (ii) Mg Al Si P The pH is 3. Silicon chloride: (iii) 140 .0)] = 61. a strong acid / H+ is produced: SiCl4 + 2H2O → SiO2 + 4HCl OR SiCl4 + 4H2O → Si(OH)4 + 4HCl (d)(i) Solubility of Li2O is lower than that of BaO.0 + 3(16. Therefore.0)] × 100 % [2(6. Aluminium chloride undergoes hydrolysis to give an acidic solution due to the high polarising power of Al3+.9) + 2(16.9) + 2(16.0)] − [2(6. (ii) AlCl3 dissolves to give [Al(H2O)6]3+(aq) which undergoes hydrolysis due to the high charge density on Al3+: [Al(H2O)6]3+ → [Al(H2O)5(OH)]2+ + H+ OR 2AlCl3 + 6H2O Al2O3 + 6HCl OR AlCl3 + 3H2O Al(OH)3 + 3HCl SiCl4 hydrolyses in water to give HCl. (ii) Percentage change in mass = [2(6.9) + 12. the basicity of Li2O is also lower than that of BaO.Periodicity .

consisting of discrete molecules with weak dispersions forces between the molecules.Periodicity . Very high melting point for Si as it exists as a giant covalent structure with an extensive network of strong covalent bonds.p. (i) 141 . silicon tetrachloride and carbon monoxide are formed. such that dispersion forces are weaker. IJC/2009/P2/Q2a 5 When a mixture of silicon dioxide and carbon is heated in a stream of chlorine. These strong bonds require a lot of energy to break before melting can occur. /oC Na Mg Al Si P S Si Cl Ar High melting point from Na to Al as they exist as giant metallic structures with strong metallic bonds of increasing strengths due to smaller cationic radius and increased number of delocalized electrons. Low melting point from P to Ar as they exist as simple molecular structures. Melting point decreases from S8 > P4 > Cl2 > Ar because the size of the electron clouds decreases from S8 > P4 > Cl2 > Ar.Suggested Solutions SiCl4 (l) + 2H2O (l) SiO2 (s) + 4HCl (aq) Phosphorus pentachloride: PCl5 (l) + 4H2O (l) HCI/2009/P3/Q3a 4 Melting point /oC H3PO4 (aq) + 5HCl (aq) M.

b 7 (a) (i) X is Na/ Mg W is Si (ii) [1] [1] [1] SiCl4 + 2H2O → SiO2 + 4HCl 142 . Silicon dioxide and silicon tetrachloride each behaves differently when added to water. 2.Periodicity .Suggested Solutions (ii) (iii) 1. IJC/2009/P3/Q4b 6 JJC/2009/P2/Q5a.

0m if either one of the observations are missing. MI/2009/P2/Q3c 8 Firstly. If the powder dissolves in both dilute HCl and dilute NaOH to form colourless solution. Na Mg Al Si P S Cl 143 . Only Al2O3 will dissolve. it is Al2O3.) NJC/2009/P2/Q3a-c 2Al3+ + 3H2O 9(a) (i) Al2O3 + 6H+  2[Al(OH)4] Al2O3 + 2OH + 3H2O (b) (i) Ionic Radius . add HCl to the remaining solids separately. . (1m for description of behaviour of the solids when reagents are added. If the powder dissolves only in dilute HCl to form colourless solution. If the powder does not dissolve in both dilute HCl and dilute NaOH. MgO + 2HCl → MgCl2 + H2O SiO2 remains as a solid.Suggested Solutions (b) To 2 separate samples of the powder. Only MgO will dissolve. it is MgO.Periodicity . add NaOH to the solids separately. Al2O3 + 2NaOH + 3H2O → 2Na[Al(OH)4] Next. it is SiO2. add in dilute HCl and dilute NaOH respectively.

an increasing number of protons results in increasingly stronger nuclear attraction experienced by the valence electrons. Within each series. experience weaker nuclear attraction and are less tightly held.very strong ionic bonds. chloride is acidic – hydrolysis occurs [2] 144 . (c) (i) [Mg(H2O)6]2+ + H2O NYJC/2009/P2/Q3a. leading to a decreasing trend in ionic radius. Al2O3 and SiO2 are insoluble in water ∴pH of solution is that of water.b 10 (a) [Mg(H2O)5(OH)]+ + H3O+ Aluminium(III) oxide and phosphorous(V) chloride differ in their behaviour with water.Periodicity . high LE – no reaction with water PCl5 .simple molecular structure. pH: Na2O and MgO are ionic oxides that dissolve completely in water to form basic solution. Al2O3 + H2O → No reaction PCl5 + 4 H2O → H3PO4 + 5 HCl [2] (i) (ii) Al2O3 . P4O10 and SO3 are covalent oxides that hydrolyse in water to give acidic solution. Anionic series has a larger size than cationic series as the valence electrons are in a higher principal quantum shell.Suggested Solutions pH 7 Na2O MgO Al2O3 SiO2 P4O10 SO3 (ii) Ionic Radius: There are two isoelectronic series in period 3. Valence electrons are pulled closer to nucleus.

Periodicity . But given reaction is with an alkali. (ii) BeO : Gp II (metallic) oxide.] [3] PJC/2009/P2/Q1 11 145 .Suggested Solutions (iii) (b) For PCl5 . [Acceptable answer]: due to high charge density of Be2+ion.pH is 2-3 [1] (i) SiO2 : Gp IV (non-metallic) oxide. BeO also shows acidic properties and would react with alkali NaOH to give a salt. and is amphoteric like Al2O3). Na2BeO2 and water. Hence. expected to form acidic oxide and to react with base. given reaction is expected. expected to form basic oxide and to react with acid. given reaction is not expected. Beo shows a high degree of covalency. Hence. Hence.

Suggested Solutions SAJC/2009/P3/Q1c 12 (c) Since the oxide of Y can react with both NaOH and HCl. it is an amphoteric oxide. Al2O3 (s) + 6HCl (aq) 2AlCl3 (aq) + 3H2O (l) → 2NaAl (OH)4 (aq) [5] → [Al(H2O)6]3+ (aq) + 3Cl− (aq) [Al(H2O)5(OH)]2+ (aq ) + H3O+ (aq) → Al2O3 (s) + 2NaOH (aq) + 3H2O (l) which reacts with the NaOH. Phosphorus chloride and phosphorus oxide will react with water but silicon PCl3(l) +3H2O(l) →H3PO3 (aq)+3HCl (aq) or PCl5 (s)+ 4H2O(l) → H3PO4(aq) + 4HCl (aq) P4O6 (s) + 6H2O (l) → 4H3PO3 (aq) P4O10 (s) + 6H2O (l) → 4H3PO4 (aq) or 146 . In the presence of water. AlCl3 (s) + aq [Al(H2O)6]3+ (aq) + H2O (l) oxide is insoluble in water. Compound Z is P. AlCl3 undergoes hydrolysis to form an acidic solution.Periodicity . only the oxide of aluminium is amphoteric in nature: Compound Y is Al. Among the possible elements.

18000. but increase in shielding effect is negligible as electron is added to the same quantum shell. 2800 10500.Suggested Solutions SRJC/2009/P2/Q1a-d 13(a) (i) • • • Across the period from Na to Cl. The nuclear charge increases across the period with negligible increase in shielding effect resulting in the corresponding increase in the effective nuclear charge OR electrostatic forces of attraction between the nucleus and the valence electrons.Largest energy difference between the 2nd and 3rd IE. [1M] The electrostatic forces of attraction between the nucleus and the remaining electrons are greater for Na+. [1M] Across the period from P3–. resulting in greater interelectronic repulsions between the valence electrons.Element A belongs to Group II [1M] . [1M] (c)(i) 1s22s22p63s23p4 or [Ne] 3s23p4 [1M] (ii) Sulphur is in Period 3 and hence has the availability of 3d orbitals to expand beyond its octet structure while oxygen cannot expand its octet due to the absence of dorbitals. [1M] Therefore. [1/2M] . [1/2M] Formula: ACl2 [1M] 147 . S2– and Cl– are larger than their respective atoms. the effective nuclear charge increases OR the electrostatic forces of attraction between the nucleus and the outermost/ valence electrons increases across the period. 6200 7700. nuclear charge increases [1/2M].Removal of the 3rd electron is from an inner quantum shell which requires more energy. Nuclear charge remains the same. This is due to electrons are being added to the same valence shell. 21700 4400 3700 (difference in IE) . S2– and Cl–. [1/2M] Hence.Periodicity . the anionic radii decrease. 3100 13600. [1M] 740. [1M] • (ii) (b)(ii) The anionic radii of P3–. 760 (d) 1500. the atomic radius decreases across the period from Na to Cl. Na+ has one electron less than Na or Na+ has one quantum shell less than Na.

Periodicity .Suggested Solutions TPJC/2009/P2/Q1 14 148 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.