This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Topic 3 : Chemical Bonding
x x xx x I xx
AJC/P2/Q1b(i) 2. Al2O3 has a giant ionic lattice structure with strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged Al3+ and O2- ions. SO2 and SO3 have simple molecular structures with weak van der Waals forces between the molecules. ACJC/P2/Q2d(i) 3. • • • Br2 has a smaller electron cloud size than I2. electron cloud of Br2 is less polarisable weaker van der Waals’ forces between the molecules less energy is required to overcome the interaction between Br2 molecules, leading to a lower boiling point.
AJC/P3/Q5b,c 4(a) More energy is needed to overcome the strong hydrogen bonds between HF molecules, as compared to the weaker permanent dipole permanent dipole interactions between HCl molecules, hence HF has a higher boiling point than HCl. HI has a higher boiling point compared to HCl, as it has a larger electron cloud, which is more polarisable, leading to stronger and more extensive van der Waals forces that require more energy to overcome. (b) BrF3 has 2 lone pairs and 3 bond pairs around the central Br atom, which leads to a Tshape geometry. In BrF2+, there are 2 lone pairs and 2 bond pairs around the central Br atom which leads to a bent (V-shape) geometry.
DHS/P3/Q4b.Suggested Solutions SbF5 has 5 bond pairs around the central Sb atom. (b) A large amount of energy is required to overcome the strong electrostatic forces of attraction between the cations and sea of delocalised electrons. Shape with respect to each P: Trigonal pyramidal. 19 . there are 6 bond pairs around the central Sb atom. In the solid state. PbO2 has a giant ionic structure. which leads to a trigonal bipyramidal geometry.Chemical Bonding . Both Cl2 and I2 have simple molecular structures. and exist as diatomic molecules with weak van der Waals forces existing between molecules. In SbF6-. HCI/P3/Q1a(ii) 7. Bond angle: 107o HCI/P3/Q1d(i) 8. the ions can only vibrate about fixed positions.c 6(a) SiO2 has a giant molecular structure with extensive covalent bonding in a giant three-dimensional structure. which leads to an octahedral geometry. DHS/P2/Q2c 5.
Melting point decreases from S8 > P4 > Cl2 > Ar because the size of the electron clouds decreases from S8 > P4 > Cl2 > Ar.Suggested Solutions I2 has a bigger electron cloud than Cl2 and hence. Very high melting point for Si as it exists as a giant covalent structure with an extensive network of strong covalent bonds. Low melting point from P to Ar as they exist as simple molecular structures. not covalent bonds within tetrachloromethane molecules. stronger and more extensive van der Waals forces between the molecules.Chemical Bonding . Therefore I2 is less volatile than Cl2.p. it is weak van der Waals forces between tetrachloromethane molecules that are broken during boiling. such that weak van der Waals forces are weaker. HCI/P3/Q3a 9(a) Melting point /oC M. /oC Na Mg Al Si P Si S Cl Ar High melting point from Na to Al as they exist as giant metallic structures with strong metallic bonds of increasing strengths due to smaller cationic radius and increased number of delocalized electrons. Although ionic bonds between K+ and Cl. 20 . No.ions are broken in the boiling of KCl. consisting of discrete molecules with weak van der Waals forces between the molecules. IJC/P2/Q1b 10. These strong bonds require a lot of energy to break before melting can occur.
. (ii) x x x x x x x x 5- O x O xx x x x x x x x x x x O x x x I x x x x O O x x x x x x x x x x x O xx 21 .ii) 15(i) Iodine has a large enough atomic size to accommodate the number of O atoms surrounding it in IO53.Suggested Solutions IJC/P2/Q2a(ii) 11. JJC/P2/Q1a(i) 13.5o MJC/P3/Q2c(I.Chemical Bonding . H O O H Shape is bent. O S O S O O O Bent/ angular/ v-shape trigonal planar MI/P3/Q4b 14. hence bond angle = 104. hence SiO2 has a very high melting point.and IO65. IJC/P2/Q2b(i) 12. These strong bonds require a lot of energy to break before melting can occur. SiO2 exists as a giant covalent structure with an extensive network of strong covalent bonds.
Effective nuclear charge of O atom is greater than that of N atom.b(i) 16 (a) Electronegativity is defined as the ability of an atom to attract bonding pair of electrons to itself in a covalent bond. Bond angle is 180o. (b) (i) x x N Nx x xx xx xx x x x N xx xxN x O xx Shape of N2O is linear.Chemical Bonding . H2O has 2 lone pair hydrogen units while CH3NH2 has 1 thus H2O has higher boiling point. NaF and MgO have ionic structures consisting of oppositely charged ions held together by strong electrostatic forces.Suggested Solutions NJC/P3/Q1a. • • • Oxygen has a greater nuclear charge than Nitrogen atom. CH3NH2 and H2O have simple molecular structures consisting of CH3NH2 and H2O molecules held together by stronger hydrogen bonds. NJC/P3/Q4a 17. MgO > NaF > H2O > CH3NH2 > CO2 CO2 have simple molecular structure consisting of CO2 molecules held together by van der Waals forces. The oxygen atom is more electronegative than the nitrogen atom. 22 . 2+ O 2 x x xx x O I O xx o Ca NYJC/P3/Q1c 18. They have similar shielding/screening effect. MgO has higher boiling point because it has higher ionic charges than NaF. it will attract the bonding electrons more strongly.
ions AlCl3 – simple covalent/molecular structure – weak temporary induced dipole-induce dipole attraction between molecules. PJC/P2/Q1b 20.p.permanent dipole attractions of PCl5. AlCl3 exist as dimers. 23 . of AlCl3 is higher than PCl5.Suggested Solutions NYJC/P3/Q5a 19. BCl3 has no overall dipole moment thus the molecules are held together by van der Waals forces due to induced dipoles and therefore require less energy to break the bonds. PCl5 – simple covalent/molecular structure – permanent dipole . with stronger instantaneous dipole-induced dipole (due to greater no. PJC/P2/Q2b(ii) 21. of electrons) than permanent dipole . Hence m. NaCl – giant ionic lattice structure with strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged Na+ and Cl. x x x N Cl x Cl B x x Cl x x Cl Cl 3 bp 1 lp Trigonal pyramidal Cl 3 bp 0 lp Trigonal plannar NCl3 and BCl3 have simple molecular structure but NCl3 has a net overall dipole moment thus the molecules are held together by van der Waals forces due to permanent dipoles.permanent dipole attractions between molecules.Chemical Bonding .
∂∂+ O CH3C ∂+ H–O CCH3 ∂- Hydrogen bond O–H :O SAJC/P3/Q1b 25. Compound A is held by hydrogen bonding.Suggested Solutions PJC/P3/Q2b 22.Chemical Bonding . 24 . Compound B is held by weak induced dipole-induced dipole interactions (id-id)/weak VDW. Hence its Mr is twice that of CH3CO2H and becomes 120. Hence its Mr is 60. the id-id interactions between ethanoic acid and hexane is weaker so ethanoic acid molecules dimerise by forming stronger intermolecular hydrogen bonds with ethanoic acid molecules. hexane. ethanoic acid molecules form intermolecular hydrogen bonds with water molecules and exist as CH3CO2H. SAJC/P2/Q2b Carbon 23(ii) C1 C2 Shape Trigonal planar tetrahedral Bond angle 120° 109° SAJC/P2/Q3a 24(a) (i) In water. In a non-aqueous solvent. Less energy is needed to overcome the weaker id-id interactions in B.
25 . has a high boiling point P4O6 has a simple molecular structure small amount of energy is needed to overcome the weak intermolecular van der Waals’ forces of attraction has a low boiling point TJC/P2/Q1b 27(i) O Cl Cl P Cl Cl POCl3 Tetrahedral Cl Cl P Cl Cl PCl5 Trigonal bipyramidal (ii) ● POCl3 and PCl5 both are simple discrete molecules with weak van der Waals’ forces of attraction between the molecules (or POCl3 has permanent-dipole-permanent-dipole interactions while PCl5 has induced-dipole-induced-dipole interactions between molecules). Hence more energy is required to overcome the intermolecular forces of attraction in C. PCl5 has a much larger Mr than POCl3. and therefore a larger electron cloud that is more easily distorted. resulting in stronger van der Waals’ forces.Suggested Solutions Although Compound C does not have H-bonding. MgO has a giant ionic lattice structure large amount of energy is needed to overcome the strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions. SRJC/P3/Q2a(i) 26. but not pd-pd) which compensates for the absence of H-bonding.Chemical Bonding . having more electrons causes stronger id-id (or VDW. giving rise to larger partial charges.
c(i) 32(a)(i) NaCl is an ionic compound with giant ionic structure held by strong electrostatic forces of attraction between the oppositely charged Na+ and Cl. 26 . The molecules are nonpolar and held by weak induced dipole-induced dipole attractions which can be easily broken during melting. Phosphorus.ions. sulphur and chlorine all have simple molecular structure with weak instantaneous dipole-induced dipole forces between the molecules. AlCl3 has a simple molecular structure with weak van der Waals forces between its molecules.Chemical Bonding . NaCl melts at a much higher temperature. VJC/P2/Q3a(i). AlF3 has a giant ionic lattice structure with strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged Al3+ and F. Hence. TPJC/P3/Q2d 31. TPJC/P2/Q1b(iii) 30. More energy is needed to overcome the strong ionic bonds in AlF3 than the weak intermolecular forces in AlCl3 hence AlF3 has a much higher melting point.ions. sulphur has the strongest intermolecular instantaneous dipole-induced dipole forces as its molecules have the biggest electron cloud which makes them more polarisable. Sulfur exists as S8 molecules.Suggested Solutions TJC/P2/Q1a 28. Since ionic bonds are much stronger than id-id. TJC/P3/Q1a 29. Silicon tetrachloride has a simple molecular structure. while phosphorus exists as P4 molecules and chlorine exists as Cl2 molecules.
Chemical Bonding . (ii) O O H S O O O O S O O 105 O 109O H VJC/P3/Q3e 35(i) As Mg is less electronegative than S. the electronegativity difference between Mg and F is larger compared to that between S and F. Hence the extent of hydrogen bonding is less between chlorosulfonic acid molecules which explains its lower boiling point. Formulae of ions: [ClO2]+ and [ClO4]- VJC/P3/Q3b 34(i) The molecular formulae suggest that the structure of chlorosulfonic acid is derived from that of sulfuric acid. Hence MgF is ionic whereas SF2 is covalent.Suggested Solutions (c)(i) Cl Al Cl Cl Al Cl Cl Cl VJC/P2/Q3d 33. with 1 –OH group being replaced by –Cl. 27 . (ii) MgF2 has a much higher melting point that SF2.
Suggested Solutions OR MgF2 conducts electricity in the molten state but SF2 does not conduct electricity in any state.Chemical Bonding . Mg2+ has to lose two more electrons from the penultimate shell which results in a prohibitively high amount of energy required. YJC/P2/Q1b(ii) 36. 28 . Hydrogen bonding exists between HF molecules YJC/P2/Q2a 37. (iii) To form MgF4. This cannot be compensated by the energy evolved from the formation of the ionic lattice of MgF4.
Chemical Bonding .Suggested Solutions YJC/P3/Q5a 38. 29 .