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the number of bits in a ring counter

the number of ring counters
the maximal umber we wish to count
the total number of FlipFlips,
The number that yield smallest total number of F
N
K
M
T T NK
N



− =
Claim : lipFlops is ,
and it is independent of .
In order to count by ring counters with FlipFlips each, ther
exists: . Taking ln from both sides we obtain ln ln , namely
ln
. Theref
ln
K
e
M
M K N
N M K N M
M
K
N
(
(
= =
=
Proof :
2 2
ore, ln .
ln
Derivating with respect to and then comparing to zero will obtain the
1
ln
1 ln
minimum. ln ln 0, namely 1 ln 0,
ln ln
whose solution is .
N
T NK M
N
T N
N N
dT N
N
M M N
dN N N
N e
= =
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